src/HOL/Multivariate_Analysis/Convex_Euclidean_Space.thy
author wenzelm
Sat, 07 Apr 2012 16:41:59 +0200
changeset 47389 e8552cba702d
parent 47108 2a1953f0d20d
child 47444 d21c95af2df7
permissions -rw-r--r--
explicit checks stable_finished_theory/stable_command allow parallel asynchronous command transactions; tuned;
Ignore whitespace changes - Everywhere: Within whitespace: At end of lines:
41959
b460124855b8 tuned headers;
wenzelm
parents: 41413
diff changeset
     1
(*  Title:      HOL/Multivariate_Analysis/Convex_Euclidean_Space.thy
33175
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
     2
    Author:     Robert Himmelmann, TU Muenchen
40887
ee8d0548c148 Prove rel_interior_convex_hull_union (by Grechuck Bogdan).
hoelzl
parents: 40719
diff changeset
     3
    Author:     Bogdan Grechuk, University of Edinburgh
33175
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
     4
*)
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
     5
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
     6
header {* Convex sets, functions and related things. *}
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
     7
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
     8
theory Convex_Euclidean_Space
44132
0f35a870ecf1 full import paths
huffman
parents: 44125
diff changeset
     9
imports
0f35a870ecf1 full import paths
huffman
parents: 44125
diff changeset
    10
  Topology_Euclidean_Space
0f35a870ecf1 full import paths
huffman
parents: 44125
diff changeset
    11
  "~~/src/HOL/Library/Convex"
0f35a870ecf1 full import paths
huffman
parents: 44125
diff changeset
    12
  "~~/src/HOL/Library/Set_Algebras"
33175
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
    13
begin
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
    14
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
    15
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
    16
(* ------------------------------------------------------------------------- *)
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
    17
(* To be moved elsewhere                                                     *)
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
    18
(* ------------------------------------------------------------------------- *)
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
    19
44361
75ec83d45303 remove unnecessary euclidean_space class constraints
huffman
parents: 44349
diff changeset
    20
lemma linear_scaleR: "linear (\<lambda>x. scaleR c x)"
75ec83d45303 remove unnecessary euclidean_space class constraints
huffman
parents: 44349
diff changeset
    21
  by (simp add: linear_def scaleR_add_right)
75ec83d45303 remove unnecessary euclidean_space class constraints
huffman
parents: 44349
diff changeset
    22
75ec83d45303 remove unnecessary euclidean_space class constraints
huffman
parents: 44349
diff changeset
    23
lemma injective_scaleR: "c \<noteq> 0 \<Longrightarrow> inj (\<lambda>(x::'a::real_vector). scaleR c x)"
75ec83d45303 remove unnecessary euclidean_space class constraints
huffman
parents: 44349
diff changeset
    24
  by (simp add: inj_on_def)
40377
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    25
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    26
lemma linear_add_cmul:
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    27
assumes "linear f"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    28
shows "f(a *\<^sub>R x + b *\<^sub>R y) = a *\<^sub>R f x +  b *\<^sub>R f y"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    29
using linear_add[of f] linear_cmul[of f] assms by (simp) 
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    30
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    31
lemma mem_convex_2:
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    32
  assumes "convex S" "x : S" "y : S" "u>=0" "v>=0" "u+v=1"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    33
  shows "(u *\<^sub>R x + v *\<^sub>R y) : S"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    34
  using assms convex_def[of S] by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    35
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    36
lemma mem_convex_alt:
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    37
  assumes "convex S" "x : S" "y : S" "u>=0" "v>=0" "u+v>0"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    38
  shows "((u/(u+v)) *\<^sub>R x + (v/(u+v)) *\<^sub>R y) : S"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    39
apply (subst mem_convex_2) 
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    40
using assms apply (auto simp add: algebra_simps zero_le_divide_iff)
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    41
using add_divide_distrib[of u v "u+v"] by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    42
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    43
lemma inj_on_image_mem_iff: "inj_on f B ==> (A <= B) ==> (f a : f`A) ==> (a : B) ==> (a : A)" 
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    44
by (blast dest: inj_onD)
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    45
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    46
lemma independent_injective_on_span_image:
44361
75ec83d45303 remove unnecessary euclidean_space class constraints
huffman
parents: 44349
diff changeset
    47
  assumes iS: "independent S" 
40377
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    48
     and lf: "linear f" and fi: "inj_on f (span S)"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    49
  shows "independent (f ` S)"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    50
proof-
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    51
  {fix a assume a: "a : S" "f a : span (f ` S - {f a})"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    52
    have eq: "f ` S - {f a} = f ` (S - {a})" using fi a span_inc
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    53
      by (auto simp add: inj_on_def)
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    54
    from a have "f a : f ` span (S -{a})"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    55
      unfolding eq span_linear_image[OF lf, of "S - {a}"]  by blast
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    56
    moreover have "span (S -{a}) <= span S" using span_mono[of "S-{a}" S] by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    57
    ultimately have "a : span (S -{a})" using fi a span_inc by (auto simp add: inj_on_def)
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    58
    with a(1) iS  have False by (simp add: dependent_def) }
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    59
  then show ?thesis unfolding dependent_def by blast
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    60
qed
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    61
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    62
lemma dim_image_eq:
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    63
fixes f :: "'n::euclidean_space => 'm::euclidean_space"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    64
assumes lf: "linear f" and fi: "inj_on f (span S)" 
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    65
shows "dim (f ` S) = dim (S:: ('n::euclidean_space) set)"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    66
proof-
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    67
obtain B where B_def: "B<=S & independent B & S <= span B & card B = dim S" 
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    68
  using basis_exists[of S] by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    69
hence "span S = span B" using span_mono[of B S] span_mono[of S "span B"] span_span[of B] by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    70
hence "independent (f ` B)" using independent_injective_on_span_image[of B f] B_def assms by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    71
moreover have "card (f ` B) = card B" using assms card_image[of f B] subset_inj_on[of f "span S" B] 
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    72
   B_def span_inc by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    73
moreover have "(f ` B) <= (f ` S)" using B_def by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    74
ultimately have "dim (f ` S) >= dim S" 
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    75
  using independent_card_le_dim[of "f ` B" "f ` S"] B_def by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    76
from this show ?thesis using dim_image_le[of f S] assms by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    77
qed
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    78
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    79
lemma linear_injective_on_subspace_0:
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    80
assumes lf: "linear f" and "subspace S"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    81
  shows "inj_on f S <-> (!x : S. f x = 0 --> x = 0)"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    82
proof-
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    83
  have "inj_on f S <-> (!x : S. !y : S. f x = f y --> x = y)" by (simp add: inj_on_def)
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    84
  also have "... <-> (!x : S. !y : S. f x - f y = 0 --> x - y = 0)" by simp
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    85
  also have "... <-> (!x : S. !y : S. f (x - y) = 0 --> x - y = 0)"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    86
    by (simp add: linear_sub[OF lf])
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    87
  also have "... <-> (! x : S. f x = 0 --> x = 0)" 
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    88
    using `subspace S` subspace_def[of S] subspace_sub[of S] by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    89
  finally show ?thesis .
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    90
qed
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    91
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    92
lemma subspace_Inter: "(!s : f. subspace s) ==> subspace (Inter f)"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    93
  unfolding subspace_def by auto 
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    94
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    95
lemma span_eq[simp]: "(span s = s) <-> subspace s"
44457
d366fa5551ef declare euclidean_simps [simp] at the point they are proved;
huffman
parents: 44365
diff changeset
    96
  unfolding span_def by (rule hull_eq, rule subspace_Inter)
40377
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    97
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    98
lemma basis_inj_on: "d \<subseteq> {..<DIM('n)} \<Longrightarrow> inj_on (basis :: nat => 'n::euclidean_space) d"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
    99
  by(auto simp add: inj_on_def euclidean_eq[where 'a='n])
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   100
  
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   101
lemma finite_substdbasis: "finite {basis i ::'n::euclidean_space |i. i : (d:: nat set)}" (is "finite ?S")
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   102
proof-
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   103
  have eq: "?S = basis ` d" by blast
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   104
  show ?thesis unfolding eq apply(rule finite_subset[OF _ range_basis_finite]) by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   105
qed
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   106
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   107
lemma card_substdbasis: assumes "d \<subseteq> {..<DIM('n::euclidean_space)}"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   108
  shows "card {basis i ::'n::euclidean_space | i. i : d} = card d" (is "card ?S = _")
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   109
proof-
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   110
  have eq: "?S = basis ` d" by blast
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   111
  show ?thesis unfolding eq using card_image[OF basis_inj_on[of d]] assms by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   112
qed
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   113
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   114
lemma substdbasis_expansion_unique: assumes "d\<subseteq>{..<DIM('a::euclidean_space)}"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   115
  shows "setsum (%i. f i *\<^sub>R basis i) d = (x::'a::euclidean_space)
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   116
      <-> (!i<DIM('a). (i:d --> f i = x$$i) & (i ~: d --> x $$ i = 0))"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   117
proof- have *:"\<And>x a b P. x * (if P then a else b) = (if P then x*a else x*b)" by auto
44890
22f665a2e91c new fastforce replacing fastsimp - less confusing name
nipkow
parents: 44821
diff changeset
   118
  have **:"finite d" apply(rule finite_subset[OF assms]) by fastforce
40377
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   119
  have ***:"\<And>i. (setsum (%i. f i *\<^sub>R ((basis i)::'a)) d) $$ i = (\<Sum>x\<in>d. if x = i then f x else 0)"
44282
f0de18b62d63 remove bounded_(bi)linear locale interpretations, to avoid duplicating so many lemmas
huffman
parents: 44170
diff changeset
   120
    unfolding euclidean_component_setsum euclidean_component_scaleR basis_component *
40377
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   121
    apply(rule setsum_cong2) using assms by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   122
  show ?thesis unfolding euclidean_eq[where 'a='a] *** setsum_delta[OF **] using assms by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   123
qed
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   124
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   125
lemma independent_substdbasis: assumes "d\<subseteq>{..<DIM('a::euclidean_space)}"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   126
  shows "independent {basis i ::'a::euclidean_space |i. i : (d :: nat set)}" (is "independent ?A")
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   127
proof -
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   128
  have *: "{basis i |i. i < DIM('a)} = basis ` {..<DIM('a)}" by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   129
  show ?thesis
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   130
    apply(intro independent_mono[of "{basis i ::'a |i. i : {..<DIM('a::euclidean_space)}}" "?A"] )
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   131
    using independent_basis[where 'a='a] assms by (auto simp: *)
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   132
qed
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   133
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   134
lemma dim_cball: 
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   135
assumes "0<e"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   136
shows "dim (cball (0 :: 'n::euclidean_space) e) = DIM('n)"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   137
proof-
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   138
{ fix x :: "'n::euclidean_space" def y == "(e/norm x) *\<^sub>R x"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   139
  hence "y : cball 0 e" using cball_def dist_norm[of 0 y] assms by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   140
  moreover have "x = (norm x/e) *\<^sub>R y" using y_def assms by simp
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   141
  moreover hence "x = (norm x/e) *\<^sub>R y"  by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   142
  ultimately have "x : span (cball 0 e)"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   143
     using span_mul[of y "cball 0 e" "norm x/e"] span_inc[of "cball 0 e"] by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   144
} hence "span (cball 0 e) = (UNIV :: ('n::euclidean_space) set)" by auto 
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   145
from this show ?thesis using dim_span[of "cball (0 :: 'n::euclidean_space) e"] by (auto simp add: dim_UNIV)
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   146
qed
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   147
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   148
lemma indep_card_eq_dim_span:
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   149
fixes B :: "('n::euclidean_space) set"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   150
assumes "independent B"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   151
shows "finite B & card B = dim (span B)" 
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   152
  using assms basis_card_eq_dim[of B "span B"] span_inc by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   153
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   154
lemma setsum_not_0: "setsum f A ~= 0 ==> EX a:A. f a ~= 0"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   155
  apply(rule ccontr) by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   156
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   157
lemma translate_inj_on: 
44361
75ec83d45303 remove unnecessary euclidean_space class constraints
huffman
parents: 44349
diff changeset
   158
fixes A :: "('a::ab_group_add) set"
40377
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   159
shows "inj_on (%x. a+x) A" unfolding inj_on_def by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   160
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   161
lemma translation_assoc:
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   162
  fixes a b :: "'a::ab_group_add"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   163
  shows "(\<lambda>x. b+x) ` ((\<lambda>x. a+x) ` S) = (\<lambda>x. (a+b)+x) ` S" by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   164
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   165
lemma translation_invert:
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   166
  fixes a :: "'a::ab_group_add"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   167
  assumes "(\<lambda>x. a+x) ` A = (\<lambda>x. a+x) ` B"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   168
  shows "A=B"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   169
proof-
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   170
  have "(%x. -a+x) ` ((%x. a+x) ` A) = (%x. -a+x) ` ((%x. a+x) ` B)" using assms by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   171
  from this show ?thesis using translation_assoc[of "-a" a A] translation_assoc[of "-a" a B] by auto 
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   172
qed
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   173
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   174
lemma translation_galois:
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   175
  fixes a :: "'a::ab_group_add"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   176
  shows "T=((\<lambda>x. a+x) ` S) <-> S=((\<lambda>x. (-a)+x) ` T)"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   177
  using translation_assoc[of "-a" a S] apply auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   178
  using translation_assoc[of a "-a" T] by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   179
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   180
lemma translation_inverse_subset:
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   181
  assumes "((%x. -a+x) ` V) <= (S :: 'n::ab_group_add set)" 
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   182
  shows "V <= ((%x. a+x) ` S)"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   183
proof-
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   184
{ fix x assume "x:V" hence "x-a : S" using assms by auto 
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   185
  hence "x : {a + v |v. v : S}" apply auto apply (rule exI[of _ "x-a"]) apply simp done 
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   186
  hence "x : ((%x. a+x) ` S)" by auto }
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   187
  from this show ?thesis by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   188
qed
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   189
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   190
lemma basis_to_basis_subspace_isomorphism:
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   191
  assumes s: "subspace (S:: ('n::euclidean_space) set)"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   192
  and t: "subspace (T :: ('m::euclidean_space) set)"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   193
  and d: "dim S = dim T"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   194
  and B: "B <= S" "independent B" "S <= span B" "card B = dim S"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   195
  and C: "C <= T" "independent C" "T <= span C" "card C = dim T"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   196
  shows "EX f. linear f & f ` B = C & f ` S = T & inj_on f S"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   197
proof-
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   198
(* Proof is a modified copy of the proof of similar lemma subspace_isomorphism
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   199
*)
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   200
  from B independent_bound have fB: "finite B" by blast
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   201
  from C independent_bound have fC: "finite C" by blast
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   202
  from B(4) C(4) card_le_inj[of B C] d obtain f where
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   203
    f: "f ` B \<subseteq> C" "inj_on f B" using `finite B` `finite C` by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   204
  from linear_independent_extend[OF B(2)] obtain g where
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   205
    g: "linear g" "\<forall>x\<in> B. g x = f x" by blast
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   206
  from inj_on_iff_eq_card[OF fB, of f] f(2)
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   207
  have "card (f ` B) = card B" by simp
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   208
  with B(4) C(4) have ceq: "card (f ` B) = card C" using d
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   209
    by simp
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   210
  have "g ` B = f ` B" using g(2)
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   211
    by (auto simp add: image_iff)
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   212
  also have "\<dots> = C" using card_subset_eq[OF fC f(1) ceq] .
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   213
  finally have gBC: "g ` B = C" .
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   214
  have gi: "inj_on g B" using f(2) g(2)
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   215
    by (auto simp add: inj_on_def)
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   216
  note g0 = linear_indep_image_lemma[OF g(1) fB, unfolded gBC, OF C(2) gi]
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   217
  {fix x y assume x: "x \<in> S" and y: "y \<in> S" and gxy:"g x = g y"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   218
    from B(3) x y have x': "x \<in> span B" and y': "y \<in> span B" by blast+
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   219
    from gxy have th0: "g (x - y) = 0" by (simp add: linear_sub[OF g(1)])
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   220
    have th1: "x - y \<in> span B" using x' y' by (metis span_sub)
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   221
    have "x=y" using g0[OF th1 th0] by simp }
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   222
  then have giS: "inj_on g S"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   223
    unfolding inj_on_def by blast
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   224
  from span_subspace[OF B(1,3) s]
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   225
  have "g ` S = span (g ` B)" by (simp add: span_linear_image[OF g(1)])
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   226
  also have "\<dots> = span C" unfolding gBC ..
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   227
  also have "\<dots> = T" using span_subspace[OF C(1,3) t] .
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   228
  finally have gS: "g ` S = T" .
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   229
  from g(1) gS giS gBC show ?thesis by blast
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   230
qed
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   231
44524
04ad69081646 generalize some lemmas
huffman
parents: 44523
diff changeset
   232
lemma closure_bounded_linear_image:
04ad69081646 generalize some lemmas
huffman
parents: 44523
diff changeset
   233
  assumes f: "bounded_linear f"
04ad69081646 generalize some lemmas
huffman
parents: 44523
diff changeset
   234
  shows "f ` (closure S) \<subseteq> closure (f ` S)"
04ad69081646 generalize some lemmas
huffman
parents: 44523
diff changeset
   235
  using linear_continuous_on [OF f] closed_closure closure_subset
04ad69081646 generalize some lemmas
huffman
parents: 44523
diff changeset
   236
  by (rule image_closure_subset)
04ad69081646 generalize some lemmas
huffman
parents: 44523
diff changeset
   237
40377
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   238
lemma closure_linear_image:
44361
75ec83d45303 remove unnecessary euclidean_space class constraints
huffman
parents: 44349
diff changeset
   239
fixes f :: "('m::euclidean_space) => ('n::real_normed_vector)"
40377
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   240
assumes "linear f"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   241
shows "f ` (closure S) <= closure (f ` S)"
44524
04ad69081646 generalize some lemmas
huffman
parents: 44523
diff changeset
   242
  using assms unfolding linear_conv_bounded_linear
04ad69081646 generalize some lemmas
huffman
parents: 44523
diff changeset
   243
  by (rule closure_bounded_linear_image)
40377
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   244
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   245
lemma closure_injective_linear_image:
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   246
fixes f :: "('n::euclidean_space) => ('n::euclidean_space)"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   247
assumes "linear f" "inj f"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   248
shows "f ` (closure S) = closure (f ` S)"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   249
proof-
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   250
obtain f' where f'_def: "linear f' & f o f' = id & f' o f = id" 
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   251
   using assms linear_injective_isomorphism[of f] isomorphism_expand by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   252
hence "f' ` closure (f ` S) <= closure (S)"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   253
   using closure_linear_image[of f' "f ` S"] image_compose[of f' f] by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   254
hence "f ` f' ` closure (f ` S) <= f ` closure (S)" by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   255
hence "closure (f ` S) <= f ` closure (S)" using image_compose[of f f' "closure (f ` S)"] f'_def by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   256
from this show ?thesis using closure_linear_image[of f S] assms by auto 
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   257
qed
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   258
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   259
lemma closure_direct_sum:
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   260
shows "closure (S <*> T) = closure S <*> closure T"
44365
5daa55003649 add lemmas interior_Times and closure_Times
huffman
parents: 44361
diff changeset
   261
  by (rule closure_Times)
40377
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   262
44524
04ad69081646 generalize some lemmas
huffman
parents: 44523
diff changeset
   263
lemma closure_scaleR:
04ad69081646 generalize some lemmas
huffman
parents: 44523
diff changeset
   264
  fixes S :: "('a::real_normed_vector) set"
04ad69081646 generalize some lemmas
huffman
parents: 44523
diff changeset
   265
  shows "(op *\<^sub>R c) ` (closure S) = closure ((op *\<^sub>R c) ` S)"
04ad69081646 generalize some lemmas
huffman
parents: 44523
diff changeset
   266
proof
04ad69081646 generalize some lemmas
huffman
parents: 44523
diff changeset
   267
  show "(op *\<^sub>R c) ` (closure S) \<subseteq> closure ((op *\<^sub>R c) ` S)"
04ad69081646 generalize some lemmas
huffman
parents: 44523
diff changeset
   268
    using bounded_linear_scaleR_right
04ad69081646 generalize some lemmas
huffman
parents: 44523
diff changeset
   269
    by (rule closure_bounded_linear_image)
04ad69081646 generalize some lemmas
huffman
parents: 44523
diff changeset
   270
  show "closure ((op *\<^sub>R c) ` S) \<subseteq> (op *\<^sub>R c) ` (closure S)"
04ad69081646 generalize some lemmas
huffman
parents: 44523
diff changeset
   271
    by (intro closure_minimal image_mono closure_subset
04ad69081646 generalize some lemmas
huffman
parents: 44523
diff changeset
   272
      closed_scaling closed_closure)
40377
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   273
qed
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   274
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   275
lemma fst_linear: "linear fst" unfolding linear_def by (simp add: algebra_simps)
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   276
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   277
lemma snd_linear: "linear snd" unfolding linear_def by (simp add: algebra_simps)
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   278
40897
1eb1b2f9d062 adapt proofs to changed set_plus_image (cf. ee8d0548c148);
hoelzl
parents: 40887
diff changeset
   279
lemma fst_snd_linear: "linear (%(x,y). x + y)" unfolding linear_def by (simp add: algebra_simps)
40377
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   280
37489
44e42d392c6e Introduce a type class for euclidean spaces, port most lemmas from real^'n to this type class.
hoelzl
parents: 36844
diff changeset
   281
lemma scaleR_2:
44e42d392c6e Introduce a type class for euclidean spaces, port most lemmas from real^'n to this type class.
hoelzl
parents: 36844
diff changeset
   282
  fixes x :: "'a::real_vector"
44e42d392c6e Introduce a type class for euclidean spaces, port most lemmas from real^'n to this type class.
hoelzl
parents: 36844
diff changeset
   283
  shows "scaleR 2 x = x + x"
47108
2a1953f0d20d merged fork with new numeral representation (see NEWS)
huffman
parents: 45498
diff changeset
   284
unfolding one_add_one [symmetric] scaleR_left_distrib by simp
34964
4e8be3c04d37 Replaced vec1 and dest_vec1 by abbreviation.
hoelzl
parents: 34915
diff changeset
   285
37489
44e42d392c6e Introduce a type class for euclidean spaces, port most lemmas from real^'n to this type class.
hoelzl
parents: 36844
diff changeset
   286
lemma vector_choose_size: "0 <= c ==> \<exists>(x::'a::euclidean_space). norm x = c"
44e42d392c6e Introduce a type class for euclidean spaces, port most lemmas from real^'n to this type class.
hoelzl
parents: 36844
diff changeset
   287
  apply (rule exI[where x="c *\<^sub>R basis 0 ::'a"]) using DIM_positive[where 'a='a] by auto
33175
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   288
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   289
lemma setsum_delta_notmem: assumes "x\<notin>s"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   290
  shows "setsum (\<lambda>y. if (y = x) then P x else Q y) s = setsum Q s"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   291
        "setsum (\<lambda>y. if (x = y) then P x else Q y) s = setsum Q s"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   292
        "setsum (\<lambda>y. if (y = x) then P y else Q y) s = setsum Q s"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   293
        "setsum (\<lambda>y. if (x = y) then P y else Q y) s = setsum Q s"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   294
  apply(rule_tac [!] setsum_cong2) using assms by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   295
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   296
lemma setsum_delta'':
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   297
  fixes s::"'a::real_vector set" assumes "finite s"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   298
  shows "(\<Sum>x\<in>s. (if y = x then f x else 0) *\<^sub>R x) = (if y\<in>s then (f y) *\<^sub>R y else 0)"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   299
proof-
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   300
  have *:"\<And>x y. (if y = x then f x else (0::real)) *\<^sub>R x = (if x=y then (f x) *\<^sub>R x else 0)" by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   301
  show ?thesis unfolding * using setsum_delta[OF assms, of y "\<lambda>x. f x *\<^sub>R x"] by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   302
qed
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   303
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   304
lemma if_smult:"(if P then x else (y::real)) *\<^sub>R v = (if P then x *\<^sub>R v else y *\<^sub>R v)" by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   305
37489
44e42d392c6e Introduce a type class for euclidean spaces, port most lemmas from real^'n to this type class.
hoelzl
parents: 36844
diff changeset
   306
lemma image_smult_interval:"(\<lambda>x. m *\<^sub>R (x::'a::ordered_euclidean_space)) ` {a..b} =
33175
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   307
  (if {a..b} = {} then {} else if 0 \<le> m then {m *\<^sub>R a..m *\<^sub>R b} else {m *\<^sub>R b..m *\<^sub>R a})"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   308
  using image_affinity_interval[of m 0 a b] by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   309
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   310
lemma dist_triangle_eq:
44361
75ec83d45303 remove unnecessary euclidean_space class constraints
huffman
parents: 44349
diff changeset
   311
  fixes x y z :: "'a::real_inner"
33175
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   312
  shows "dist x z = dist x y + dist y z \<longleftrightarrow> norm (x - y) *\<^sub>R (y - z) = norm (y - z) *\<^sub>R (x - y)"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   313
proof- have *:"x - y + (y - z) = x - z" by auto
37489
44e42d392c6e Introduce a type class for euclidean spaces, port most lemmas from real^'n to this type class.
hoelzl
parents: 36844
diff changeset
   314
  show ?thesis unfolding dist_norm norm_triangle_eq[of "x - y" "y - z", unfolded *]
33175
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   315
    by(auto simp add:norm_minus_commute) qed
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   316
37489
44e42d392c6e Introduce a type class for euclidean spaces, port most lemmas from real^'n to this type class.
hoelzl
parents: 36844
diff changeset
   317
lemma norm_minus_eqI:"x = - y \<Longrightarrow> norm x = norm y" by auto
33175
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   318
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   319
lemma Min_grI: assumes "finite A" "A \<noteq> {}" "\<forall>a\<in>A. x < a" shows "x < Min A"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   320
  unfolding Min_gr_iff[OF assms(1,2)] using assms(3) by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   321
37489
44e42d392c6e Introduce a type class for euclidean spaces, port most lemmas from real^'n to this type class.
hoelzl
parents: 36844
diff changeset
   322
lemma norm_lt: "norm x < norm y \<longleftrightarrow> inner x x < inner y y"
44e42d392c6e Introduce a type class for euclidean spaces, port most lemmas from real^'n to this type class.
hoelzl
parents: 36844
diff changeset
   323
  unfolding norm_eq_sqrt_inner by simp
33175
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   324
37489
44e42d392c6e Introduce a type class for euclidean spaces, port most lemmas from real^'n to this type class.
hoelzl
parents: 36844
diff changeset
   325
lemma norm_le: "norm x \<le> norm y \<longleftrightarrow> inner x x \<le> inner y y"
44e42d392c6e Introduce a type class for euclidean spaces, port most lemmas from real^'n to this type class.
hoelzl
parents: 36844
diff changeset
   326
  unfolding norm_eq_sqrt_inner by simp
44e42d392c6e Introduce a type class for euclidean spaces, port most lemmas from real^'n to this type class.
hoelzl
parents: 36844
diff changeset
   327
44e42d392c6e Introduce a type class for euclidean spaces, port most lemmas from real^'n to this type class.
hoelzl
parents: 36844
diff changeset
   328
44467
13e72da170fc change some subsection headings to subsubsection
huffman
parents: 44466
diff changeset
   329
subsection {* Affine set and affine hull *}
33175
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   330
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   331
definition
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   332
  affine :: "'a::real_vector set \<Rightarrow> bool" where
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   333
  "affine s \<longleftrightarrow> (\<forall>x\<in>s. \<forall>y\<in>s. \<forall>u v. u + v = 1 \<longrightarrow> u *\<^sub>R x + v *\<^sub>R y \<in> s)"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   334
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   335
lemma affine_alt: "affine s \<longleftrightarrow> (\<forall>x\<in>s. \<forall>y\<in>s. \<forall>u::real. (1 - u) *\<^sub>R x + u *\<^sub>R y \<in> s)"
36071
c8ae8e56d42e tuned many proofs a bit
nipkow
parents: 35577
diff changeset
   336
unfolding affine_def by(metis eq_diff_eq')
33175
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   337
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   338
lemma affine_empty[intro]: "affine {}"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   339
  unfolding affine_def by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   340
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   341
lemma affine_sing[intro]: "affine {x}"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   342
  unfolding affine_alt by (auto simp add: scaleR_left_distrib [symmetric])
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   343
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   344
lemma affine_UNIV[intro]: "affine UNIV"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   345
  unfolding affine_def by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   346
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   347
lemma affine_Inter: "(\<forall>s\<in>f. affine s) \<Longrightarrow> affine (\<Inter> f)"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   348
  unfolding affine_def by auto 
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   349
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   350
lemma affine_Int: "affine s \<Longrightarrow> affine t \<Longrightarrow> affine (s \<inter> t)"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   351
  unfolding affine_def by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   352
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   353
lemma affine_affine_hull: "affine(affine hull s)"
44170
510ac30f44c0 make Multivariate_Analysis work with separate set type
huffman
parents: 44142
diff changeset
   354
  unfolding hull_def using affine_Inter[of "{t. affine t \<and> s \<subseteq> t}"]
510ac30f44c0 make Multivariate_Analysis work with separate set type
huffman
parents: 44142
diff changeset
   355
  by auto
33175
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   356
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   357
lemma affine_hull_eq[simp]: "(affine hull s = s) \<longleftrightarrow> affine s"
44170
510ac30f44c0 make Multivariate_Analysis work with separate set type
huffman
parents: 44142
diff changeset
   358
by (metis affine_affine_hull hull_same)
33175
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   359
44467
13e72da170fc change some subsection headings to subsubsection
huffman
parents: 44466
diff changeset
   360
subsubsection {* Some explicit formulations (from Lars Schewe) *}
33175
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   361
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   362
lemma affine: fixes V::"'a::real_vector set"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   363
  shows "affine V \<longleftrightarrow> (\<forall>s u. finite s \<and> s \<noteq> {} \<and> s \<subseteq> V \<and> setsum u s = 1 \<longrightarrow> (setsum (\<lambda>x. (u x) *\<^sub>R x)) s \<in> V)"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   364
unfolding affine_def apply rule apply(rule, rule, rule) apply(erule conjE)+ 
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   365
defer apply(rule, rule, rule, rule, rule) proof-
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   366
  fix x y u v assume as:"x \<in> V" "y \<in> V" "u + v = (1::real)"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   367
    "\<forall>s u. finite s \<and> s \<noteq> {} \<and> s \<subseteq> V \<and> setsum u s = 1 \<longrightarrow> (\<Sum>x\<in>s. u x *\<^sub>R x) \<in> V"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   368
  thus "u *\<^sub>R x + v *\<^sub>R y \<in> V" apply(cases "x=y")
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   369
    using as(4)[THEN spec[where x="{x,y}"], THEN spec[where x="\<lambda>w. if w = x then u else v"]] and as(1-3) 
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   370
    by(auto simp add: scaleR_left_distrib[THEN sym])
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   371
next
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   372
  fix s u assume as:"\<forall>x\<in>V. \<forall>y\<in>V. \<forall>u v. u + v = 1 \<longrightarrow> u *\<^sub>R x + v *\<^sub>R y \<in> V"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   373
    "finite s" "s \<noteq> {}" "s \<subseteq> V" "setsum u s = (1::real)"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   374
  def n \<equiv> "card s"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   375
  have "card s = 0 \<or> card s = 1 \<or> card s = 2 \<or> card s > 2" by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   376
  thus "(\<Sum>x\<in>s. u x *\<^sub>R x) \<in> V" proof(auto simp only: disjE)
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   377
    assume "card s = 2" hence "card s = Suc (Suc 0)" by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   378
    then obtain a b where "s = {a, b}" unfolding card_Suc_eq by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   379
    thus ?thesis using as(1)[THEN bspec[where x=a], THEN bspec[where x=b]] using as(4,5)
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   380
      by(auto simp add: setsum_clauses(2))
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   381
  next assume "card s > 2" thus ?thesis using as and n_def proof(induct n arbitrary: u s)
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   382
      case (Suc n) fix s::"'a set" and u::"'a \<Rightarrow> real"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   383
      assume IA:"\<And>u s.  \<lbrakk>2 < card s; \<forall>x\<in>V. \<forall>y\<in>V. \<forall>u v. u + v = 1 \<longrightarrow> u *\<^sub>R x + v *\<^sub>R y \<in> V; finite s;
34915
7894c7dab132 Adapted to changes in induct method.
berghofe
parents: 34291
diff changeset
   384
               s \<noteq> {}; s \<subseteq> V; setsum u s = 1; n = card s \<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> (\<Sum>x\<in>s. u x *\<^sub>R x) \<in> V" and
7894c7dab132 Adapted to changes in induct method.
berghofe
parents: 34291
diff changeset
   385
        as:"Suc n = card s" "2 < card s" "\<forall>x\<in>V. \<forall>y\<in>V. \<forall>u v. u + v = 1 \<longrightarrow> u *\<^sub>R x + v *\<^sub>R y \<in> V"
33175
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   386
           "finite s" "s \<noteq> {}" "s \<subseteq> V" "setsum u s = 1"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   387
      have "\<exists>x\<in>s. u x \<noteq> 1" proof(rule_tac ccontr)
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   388
        assume " \<not> (\<exists>x\<in>s. u x \<noteq> 1)" hence "setsum u s = real_of_nat (card s)" unfolding card_eq_setsum by auto
45498
2dc373f1867a avoid numeral-representation-specific rules in metis proof
huffman
parents: 45051
diff changeset
   389
        thus False using as(7) and `card s > 2` by (metis One_nat_def
2dc373f1867a avoid numeral-representation-specific rules in metis proof
huffman
parents: 45051
diff changeset
   390
          less_Suc0 Zero_not_Suc of_nat_1 of_nat_eq_iff numeral_2_eq_2)
2dc373f1867a avoid numeral-representation-specific rules in metis proof
huffman
parents: 45051
diff changeset
   391
      qed
33175
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   392
      then obtain x where x:"x\<in>s" "u x \<noteq> 1" by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   393
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   394
      have c:"card (s - {x}) = card s - 1" apply(rule card_Diff_singleton) using `x\<in>s` as(4) by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   395
      have *:"s = insert x (s - {x})" "finite (s - {x})" using `x\<in>s` and as(4) by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   396
      have **:"setsum u (s - {x}) = 1 - u x"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   397
        using setsum_clauses(2)[OF *(2), of u x, unfolded *(1)[THEN sym] as(7)] by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   398
      have ***:"inverse (1 - u x) * setsum u (s - {x}) = 1" unfolding ** using `u x \<noteq> 1` by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   399
      have "(\<Sum>xa\<in>s - {x}. (inverse (1 - u x) * u xa) *\<^sub>R xa) \<in> V" proof(cases "card (s - {x}) > 2")
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   400
        case True hence "s - {x} \<noteq> {}" "card (s - {x}) = n" unfolding c and as(1)[symmetric] proof(rule_tac ccontr) 
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   401
          assume "\<not> s - {x} \<noteq> {}" hence "card (s - {x}) = 0" unfolding card_0_eq[OF *(2)] by simp 
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   402
          thus False using True by auto qed auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   403
        thus ?thesis apply(rule_tac IA[of "s - {x}" "\<lambda>y. (inverse (1 - u x) * u y)"])
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   404
        unfolding setsum_right_distrib[THEN sym] using as and *** and True by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   405
      next case False hence "card (s - {x}) = Suc (Suc 0)" using as(2) and c by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   406
        then obtain a b where "(s - {x}) = {a, b}" "a\<noteq>b" unfolding card_Suc_eq by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   407
        thus ?thesis using as(3)[THEN bspec[where x=a], THEN bspec[where x=b]]
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   408
          using *** *(2) and `s \<subseteq> V` unfolding setsum_right_distrib by(auto simp add: setsum_clauses(2)) qed
37489
44e42d392c6e Introduce a type class for euclidean spaces, port most lemmas from real^'n to this type class.
hoelzl
parents: 36844
diff changeset
   409
      hence "u x + (1 - u x) = 1 \<Longrightarrow> u x *\<^sub>R x + (1 - u x) *\<^sub>R ((\<Sum>xa\<in>s - {x}. u xa *\<^sub>R xa) /\<^sub>R (1 - u x)) \<in> V"
44e42d392c6e Introduce a type class for euclidean spaces, port most lemmas from real^'n to this type class.
hoelzl
parents: 36844
diff changeset
   410
        apply-apply(rule as(3)[rule_format]) 
44e42d392c6e Introduce a type class for euclidean spaces, port most lemmas from real^'n to this type class.
hoelzl
parents: 36844
diff changeset
   411
        unfolding  RealVector.scaleR_right.setsum using x(1) as(6) by auto
33175
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   412
      thus "(\<Sum>x\<in>s. u x *\<^sub>R x) \<in> V" unfolding scaleR_scaleR[THEN sym] and scaleR_right.setsum [symmetric]
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   413
         apply(subst *) unfolding setsum_clauses(2)[OF *(2)]
37489
44e42d392c6e Introduce a type class for euclidean spaces, port most lemmas from real^'n to this type class.
hoelzl
parents: 36844
diff changeset
   414
         using `u x \<noteq> 1` by auto 
33175
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   415
    qed auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   416
  next assume "card s = 1" then obtain a where "s={a}" by(auto simp add: card_Suc_eq)
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   417
    thus ?thesis using as(4,5) by simp
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   418
  qed(insert `s\<noteq>{}` `finite s`, auto)
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   419
qed
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   420
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   421
lemma affine_hull_explicit:
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   422
  "affine hull p = {y. \<exists>s u. finite s \<and> s \<noteq> {} \<and> s \<subseteq> p \<and> setsum u s = 1 \<and> setsum (\<lambda>v. (u v) *\<^sub>R v) s = y}"
44170
510ac30f44c0 make Multivariate_Analysis work with separate set type
huffman
parents: 44142
diff changeset
   423
  apply(rule hull_unique) apply(subst subset_eq) prefer 3 apply rule unfolding mem_Collect_eq
33175
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   424
  apply (erule exE)+ apply(erule conjE)+ prefer 2 apply rule proof-
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   425
  fix x assume "x\<in>p" thus "\<exists>s u. finite s \<and> s \<noteq> {} \<and> s \<subseteq> p \<and> setsum u s = 1 \<and> (\<Sum>v\<in>s. u v *\<^sub>R v) = x"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   426
    apply(rule_tac x="{x}" in exI, rule_tac x="\<lambda>x. 1" in exI) by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   427
next
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   428
  fix t x s u assume as:"p \<subseteq> t" "affine t" "finite s" "s \<noteq> {}" "s \<subseteq> p" "setsum u s = 1" "(\<Sum>v\<in>s. u v *\<^sub>R v) = x" 
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   429
  thus "x \<in> t" using as(2)[unfolded affine, THEN spec[where x=s], THEN spec[where x=u]] by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   430
next
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   431
  show "affine {y. \<exists>s u. finite s \<and> s \<noteq> {} \<and> s \<subseteq> p \<and> setsum u s = 1 \<and> (\<Sum>v\<in>s. u v *\<^sub>R v) = y}" unfolding affine_def
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   432
    apply(rule,rule,rule,rule,rule) unfolding mem_Collect_eq proof-
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   433
    fix u v ::real assume uv:"u + v = 1"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   434
    fix x assume "\<exists>s u. finite s \<and> s \<noteq> {} \<and> s \<subseteq> p \<and> setsum u s = 1 \<and> (\<Sum>v\<in>s. u v *\<^sub>R v) = x"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   435
    then obtain sx ux where x:"finite sx" "sx \<noteq> {}" "sx \<subseteq> p" "setsum ux sx = 1" "(\<Sum>v\<in>sx. ux v *\<^sub>R v) = x" by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   436
    fix y assume "\<exists>s u. finite s \<and> s \<noteq> {} \<and> s \<subseteq> p \<and> setsum u s = 1 \<and> (\<Sum>v\<in>s. u v *\<^sub>R v) = y"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   437
    then obtain sy uy where y:"finite sy" "sy \<noteq> {}" "sy \<subseteq> p" "setsum uy sy = 1" "(\<Sum>v\<in>sy. uy v *\<^sub>R v) = y" by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   438
    have xy:"finite (sx \<union> sy)" using x(1) y(1) by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   439
    have **:"(sx \<union> sy) \<inter> sx = sx" "(sx \<union> sy) \<inter> sy = sy" by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   440
    show "\<exists>s ua. finite s \<and> s \<noteq> {} \<and> s \<subseteq> p \<and> setsum ua s = 1 \<and> (\<Sum>v\<in>s. ua v *\<^sub>R v) = u *\<^sub>R x + v *\<^sub>R y"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   441
      apply(rule_tac x="sx \<union> sy" in exI)
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   442
      apply(rule_tac x="\<lambda>a. (if a\<in>sx then u * ux a else 0) + (if a\<in>sy then v * uy a else 0)" in exI)
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   443
      unfolding scaleR_left_distrib setsum_addf if_smult scaleR_zero_left  ** setsum_restrict_set[OF xy, THEN sym]
37489
44e42d392c6e Introduce a type class for euclidean spaces, port most lemmas from real^'n to this type class.
hoelzl
parents: 36844
diff changeset
   444
      unfolding scaleR_scaleR[THEN sym] RealVector.scaleR_right.setsum [symmetric] and setsum_right_distrib[THEN sym]
33175
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   445
      unfolding x y using x(1-3) y(1-3) uv by simp qed qed
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   446
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   447
lemma affine_hull_finite:
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   448
  assumes "finite s"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   449
  shows "affine hull s = {y. \<exists>u. setsum u s = 1 \<and> setsum (\<lambda>v. u v *\<^sub>R v) s = y}"
39302
d7728f65b353 renamed lemmas: ext_iff -> fun_eq_iff, set_ext_iff -> set_eq_iff, set_ext -> set_eqI
nipkow
parents: 39198
diff changeset
   450
  unfolding affine_hull_explicit and set_eq_iff and mem_Collect_eq apply (rule,rule)
33175
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   451
  apply(erule exE)+ apply(erule conjE)+ defer apply(erule exE) apply(erule conjE) proof-
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   452
  fix x u assume "setsum u s = 1" "(\<Sum>v\<in>s. u v *\<^sub>R v) = x"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   453
  thus "\<exists>sa u. finite sa \<and> \<not> (\<forall>x. (x \<in> sa) = (x \<in> {})) \<and> sa \<subseteq> s \<and> setsum u sa = 1 \<and> (\<Sum>v\<in>sa. u v *\<^sub>R v) = x"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   454
    apply(rule_tac x=s in exI, rule_tac x=u in exI) using assms by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   455
next
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   456
  fix x t u assume "t \<subseteq> s" hence *:"s \<inter> t = t" by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   457
  assume "finite t" "\<not> (\<forall>x. (x \<in> t) = (x \<in> {}))" "setsum u t = 1" "(\<Sum>v\<in>t. u v *\<^sub>R v) = x"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   458
  thus "\<exists>u. setsum u s = 1 \<and> (\<Sum>v\<in>s. u v *\<^sub>R v) = x" apply(rule_tac x="\<lambda>x. if x\<in>t then u x else 0" in exI)
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   459
    unfolding if_smult scaleR_zero_left and setsum_restrict_set[OF assms, THEN sym] and * by auto qed
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   460
44467
13e72da170fc change some subsection headings to subsubsection
huffman
parents: 44466
diff changeset
   461
subsubsection {* Stepping theorems and hence small special cases *}
33175
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   462
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   463
lemma affine_hull_empty[simp]: "affine hull {} = {}"
44170
510ac30f44c0 make Multivariate_Analysis work with separate set type
huffman
parents: 44142
diff changeset
   464
  apply(rule hull_unique) by auto
33175
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   465
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   466
lemma affine_hull_finite_step:
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   467
  fixes y :: "'a::real_vector"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   468
  shows "(\<exists>u. setsum u {} = w \<and> setsum (\<lambda>x. u x *\<^sub>R x) {} = y) \<longleftrightarrow> w = 0 \<and> y = 0" (is ?th1)
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   469
  "finite s \<Longrightarrow> (\<exists>u. setsum u (insert a s) = w \<and> setsum (\<lambda>x. u x *\<^sub>R x) (insert a s) = y) \<longleftrightarrow>
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   470
                (\<exists>v u. setsum u s = w - v \<and> setsum (\<lambda>x. u x *\<^sub>R x) s = y - v *\<^sub>R a)" (is "?as \<Longrightarrow> (?lhs = ?rhs)")
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   471
proof-
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   472
  show ?th1 by simp
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   473
  assume ?as 
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   474
  { assume ?lhs
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   475
    then obtain u where u:"setsum u (insert a s) = w \<and> (\<Sum>x\<in>insert a s. u x *\<^sub>R x) = y" by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   476
    have ?rhs proof(cases "a\<in>s")
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   477
      case True hence *:"insert a s = s" by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   478
      show ?thesis using u[unfolded *] apply(rule_tac x=0 in exI) by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   479
    next
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   480
      case False thus ?thesis apply(rule_tac x="u a" in exI) using u and `?as` by auto 
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   481
    qed  } moreover
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   482
  { assume ?rhs
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   483
    then obtain v u where vu:"setsum u s = w - v"  "(\<Sum>x\<in>s. u x *\<^sub>R x) = y - v *\<^sub>R a" by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   484
    have *:"\<And>x M. (if x = a then v else M) *\<^sub>R x = (if x = a then v *\<^sub>R x else M *\<^sub>R x)" by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   485
    have ?lhs proof(cases "a\<in>s")
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   486
      case True thus ?thesis
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   487
        apply(rule_tac x="\<lambda>x. (if x=a then v else 0) + u x" in exI)
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   488
        unfolding setsum_clauses(2)[OF `?as`]  apply simp
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   489
        unfolding scaleR_left_distrib and setsum_addf 
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   490
        unfolding vu and * and scaleR_zero_left
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   491
        by (auto simp add: setsum_delta[OF `?as`])
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   492
    next
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   493
      case False 
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   494
      hence **:"\<And>x. x \<in> s \<Longrightarrow> u x = (if x = a then v else u x)"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   495
               "\<And>x. x \<in> s \<Longrightarrow> u x *\<^sub>R x = (if x = a then v *\<^sub>R x else u x *\<^sub>R x)" by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   496
      from False show ?thesis
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   497
        apply(rule_tac x="\<lambda>x. if x=a then v else u x" in exI)
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   498
        unfolding setsum_clauses(2)[OF `?as`] and * using vu
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   499
        using setsum_cong2[of s "\<lambda>x. u x *\<^sub>R x" "\<lambda>x. if x = a then v *\<^sub>R x else u x *\<^sub>R x", OF **(2)]
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   500
        using setsum_cong2[of s u "\<lambda>x. if x = a then v else u x", OF **(1)] by auto  
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   501
    qed }
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   502
  ultimately show "?lhs = ?rhs" by blast
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   503
qed
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   504
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   505
lemma affine_hull_2:
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   506
  fixes a b :: "'a::real_vector"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   507
  shows "affine hull {a,b} = {u *\<^sub>R a + v *\<^sub>R b| u v. (u + v = 1)}" (is "?lhs = ?rhs")
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   508
proof-
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   509
  have *:"\<And>x y z. z = x - y \<longleftrightarrow> y + z = (x::real)" 
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   510
         "\<And>x y z. z = x - y \<longleftrightarrow> y + z = (x::'a)" by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   511
  have "?lhs = {y. \<exists>u. setsum u {a, b} = 1 \<and> (\<Sum>v\<in>{a, b}. u v *\<^sub>R v) = y}"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   512
    using affine_hull_finite[of "{a,b}"] by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   513
  also have "\<dots> = {y. \<exists>v u. u b = 1 - v \<and> u b *\<^sub>R b = y - v *\<^sub>R a}"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   514
    by(simp add: affine_hull_finite_step(2)[of "{b}" a]) 
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   515
  also have "\<dots> = ?rhs" unfolding * by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   516
  finally show ?thesis by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   517
qed
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   518
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   519
lemma affine_hull_3:
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   520
  fixes a b c :: "'a::real_vector"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   521
  shows "affine hull {a,b,c} = { u *\<^sub>R a + v *\<^sub>R b + w *\<^sub>R c| u v w. u + v + w = 1}" (is "?lhs = ?rhs")
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   522
proof-
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   523
  have *:"\<And>x y z. z = x - y \<longleftrightarrow> y + z = (x::real)" 
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   524
         "\<And>x y z. z = x - y \<longleftrightarrow> y + z = (x::'a)" by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   525
  show ?thesis apply(simp add: affine_hull_finite affine_hull_finite_step)
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   526
    unfolding * apply auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   527
    apply(rule_tac x=v in exI) apply(rule_tac x=va in exI) apply auto
44629
1cd782f3458b remove redundant lemma card_enum
huffman
parents: 44531
diff changeset
   528
    apply(rule_tac x=u in exI) by force
33175
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   529
qed
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   530
40377
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   531
lemma mem_affine:
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   532
  assumes "affine S" "x : S" "y : S" "u+v=1"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   533
  shows "(u *\<^sub>R x + v *\<^sub>R y) : S"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   534
  using assms affine_def[of S] by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   535
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   536
lemma mem_affine_3:
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   537
  assumes "affine S" "x : S" "y : S" "z : S" "u+v+w=1"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   538
  shows "(u *\<^sub>R x + v *\<^sub>R y + w *\<^sub>R z) : S"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   539
proof-
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   540
have "(u *\<^sub>R x + v *\<^sub>R y + w *\<^sub>R z) : affine hull {x, y, z}"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   541
  using affine_hull_3[of x y z] assms by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   542
moreover have " affine hull {x, y, z} <= affine hull S" 
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   543
  using hull_mono[of "{x, y, z}" "S"] assms by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   544
moreover have "affine hull S = S" 
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   545
  using assms affine_hull_eq[of S] by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   546
ultimately show ?thesis by auto 
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   547
qed
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   548
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   549
lemma mem_affine_3_minus:
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   550
  assumes "affine S" "x : S" "y : S" "z : S"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   551
  shows "x + v *\<^sub>R (y-z) : S"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   552
using mem_affine_3[of S x y z 1 v "-v"] assms by (simp add: algebra_simps)
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   553
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   554
44467
13e72da170fc change some subsection headings to subsubsection
huffman
parents: 44466
diff changeset
   555
subsubsection {* Some relations between affine hull and subspaces *}
33175
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   556
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   557
lemma affine_hull_insert_subset_span:
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   558
  shows "affine hull (insert a s) \<subseteq> {a + v| v . v \<in> span {x - a | x . x \<in> s}}"
37489
44e42d392c6e Introduce a type class for euclidean spaces, port most lemmas from real^'n to this type class.
hoelzl
parents: 36844
diff changeset
   559
  unfolding subset_eq Ball_def unfolding affine_hull_explicit span_explicit mem_Collect_eq
33175
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   560
  apply(rule,rule) apply(erule exE)+ apply(erule conjE)+ proof-
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   561
  fix x t u assume as:"finite t" "t \<noteq> {}" "t \<subseteq> insert a s" "setsum u t = 1" "(\<Sum>v\<in>t. u v *\<^sub>R v) = x"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   562
  have "(\<lambda>x. x - a) ` (t - {a}) \<subseteq> {x - a |x. x \<in> s}" using as(3) by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   563
  thus "\<exists>v. x = a + v \<and> (\<exists>S u. finite S \<and> S \<subseteq> {x - a |x. x \<in> s} \<and> (\<Sum>v\<in>S. u v *\<^sub>R v) = v)"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   564
    apply(rule_tac x="x - a" in exI)
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   565
    apply (rule conjI, simp)
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   566
    apply(rule_tac x="(\<lambda>x. x - a) ` (t - {a})" in exI)
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   567
    apply(rule_tac x="\<lambda>x. u (x + a)" in exI)
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   568
    apply (rule conjI) using as(1) apply simp
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   569
    apply (erule conjI)
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   570
    using as(1)
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   571
    apply (simp add: setsum_reindex[unfolded inj_on_def] scaleR_right_diff_distrib setsum_subtractf scaleR_left.setsum[THEN sym] setsum_diff1 scaleR_left_diff_distrib)
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   572
    unfolding as by simp qed
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   573
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   574
lemma affine_hull_insert_span:
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   575
  assumes "a \<notin> s"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   576
  shows "affine hull (insert a s) =
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   577
            {a + v | v . v \<in> span {x - a | x.  x \<in> s}}"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   578
  apply(rule, rule affine_hull_insert_subset_span) unfolding subset_eq Ball_def
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   579
  unfolding affine_hull_explicit and mem_Collect_eq proof(rule,rule,erule exE,erule conjE)
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   580
  fix y v assume "y = a + v" "v \<in> span {x - a |x. x \<in> s}"
37489
44e42d392c6e Introduce a type class for euclidean spaces, port most lemmas from real^'n to this type class.
hoelzl
parents: 36844
diff changeset
   581
  then obtain t u where obt:"finite t" "t \<subseteq> {x - a |x. x \<in> s}" "a + (\<Sum>v\<in>t. u v *\<^sub>R v) = y" unfolding span_explicit by auto
33175
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   582
  def f \<equiv> "(\<lambda>x. x + a) ` t"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   583
  have f:"finite f" "f \<subseteq> s" "(\<Sum>v\<in>f. u (v - a) *\<^sub>R (v - a)) = y - a" unfolding f_def using obt 
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   584
    by(auto simp add: setsum_reindex[unfolded inj_on_def])
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   585
  have *:"f \<inter> {a} = {}" "f \<inter> - {a} = f" using f(2) assms by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   586
  show "\<exists>sa u. finite sa \<and> sa \<noteq> {} \<and> sa \<subseteq> insert a s \<and> setsum u sa = 1 \<and> (\<Sum>v\<in>sa. u v *\<^sub>R v) = y"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   587
    apply(rule_tac x="insert a f" in exI)
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   588
    apply(rule_tac x="\<lambda>x. if x=a then 1 - setsum (\<lambda>x. u (x - a)) f else u (x - a)" in exI)
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   589
    using assms and f unfolding setsum_clauses(2)[OF f(1)] and if_smult
35577
43b93e294522 Generalized setsum_cases
hoelzl
parents: 35542
diff changeset
   590
    unfolding setsum_cases[OF f(1), of "\<lambda>x. x = a"]
43b93e294522 Generalized setsum_cases
hoelzl
parents: 35542
diff changeset
   591
    by (auto simp add: setsum_subtractf scaleR_left.setsum algebra_simps *) qed
33175
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   592
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   593
lemma affine_hull_span:
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   594
  assumes "a \<in> s"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   595
  shows "affine hull s = {a + v | v. v \<in> span {x - a | x. x \<in> s - {a}}}"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   596
  using affine_hull_insert_span[of a "s - {a}", unfolded insert_Diff[OF assms]] by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   597
44467
13e72da170fc change some subsection headings to subsubsection
huffman
parents: 44466
diff changeset
   598
subsubsection {* Parallel affine sets *}
40377
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   599
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   600
definition affine_parallel :: "'a::real_vector set => 'a::real_vector set => bool"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   601
where "affine_parallel S T = (? a. T = ((%x. a + x) ` S))"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   602
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   603
lemma affine_parallel_expl_aux:
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   604
   fixes S T :: "'a::real_vector set"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   605
   assumes "!x. (x : S <-> (a+x) : T)" 
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   606
   shows "T = ((%x. a + x) ` S)"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   607
proof-
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   608
{ fix x assume "x : T" hence "(-a)+x : S" using assms by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   609
  hence " x : ((%x. a + x) ` S)" using imageI[of "-a+x" S "(%x. a+x)"] by auto}
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   610
moreover have "T >= ((%x. a + x) ` S)" using assms by auto 
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   611
ultimately show ?thesis by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   612
qed
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   613
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   614
lemma affine_parallel_expl: 
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   615
   "affine_parallel S T = (? a. !x. (x : S <-> (a+x) : T))" 
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   616
   unfolding affine_parallel_def using affine_parallel_expl_aux[of S _ T] by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   617
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   618
lemma affine_parallel_reflex: "affine_parallel S S" unfolding affine_parallel_def apply (rule exI[of _ "0"]) by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   619
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   620
lemma affine_parallel_commut:
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   621
assumes "affine_parallel A B" shows "affine_parallel B A" 
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   622
proof-
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   623
from assms obtain a where "B=((%x. a + x) ` A)" unfolding affine_parallel_def by auto 
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   624
from this show ?thesis using translation_galois[of B a A] unfolding affine_parallel_def by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   625
qed
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   626
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   627
lemma affine_parallel_assoc:
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   628
assumes "affine_parallel A B" "affine_parallel B C"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   629
shows "affine_parallel A C" 
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   630
proof-
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   631
from assms obtain ab where "B=((%x. ab + x) ` A)" unfolding affine_parallel_def by auto 
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   632
moreover 
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   633
from assms obtain bc where "C=((%x. bc + x) ` B)" unfolding affine_parallel_def by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   634
ultimately show ?thesis using translation_assoc[of bc ab A] unfolding affine_parallel_def by auto 
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   635
qed
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   636
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   637
lemma affine_translation_aux:
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   638
  fixes a :: "'a::real_vector"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   639
  assumes "affine ((%x. a + x) ` S)" shows "affine S"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   640
proof-
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   641
{ fix x y u v
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   642
  assume xy: "x : S" "y : S" "(u :: real)+v=1"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   643
  hence "(a+x):((%x. a + x) ` S)" "(a+y):((%x. a + x) ` S)" by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   644
  hence h1: "u *\<^sub>R  (a+x) + v *\<^sub>R (a+y) : ((%x. a + x) ` S)" using xy assms unfolding affine_def by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   645
  have "u *\<^sub>R (a+x) + v *\<^sub>R (a+y) = (u+v) *\<^sub>R a + (u *\<^sub>R x + v *\<^sub>R y)" by (simp add:algebra_simps)
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   646
  also have "...= a + (u *\<^sub>R x + v *\<^sub>R y)" using `u+v=1` by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   647
  ultimately have "a + (u *\<^sub>R x + v *\<^sub>R y) : ((%x. a + x) ` S)" using h1 by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   648
  hence "u *\<^sub>R x + v *\<^sub>R y : S" by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   649
} from this show ?thesis unfolding affine_def by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   650
qed
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   651
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   652
lemma affine_translation:
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   653
  fixes a :: "'a::real_vector"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   654
  shows "affine S <-> affine ((%x. a + x) ` S)"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   655
proof-
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   656
have "affine S ==> affine ((%x. a + x) ` S)" using affine_translation_aux[of "-a" "((%x. a + x) ` S)"]  using translation_assoc[of "-a" a S] by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   657
from this show ?thesis using affine_translation_aux by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   658
qed
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   659
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   660
lemma parallel_is_affine:
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   661
fixes S T :: "'a::real_vector set"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   662
assumes "affine S" "affine_parallel S T"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   663
shows "affine T"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   664
proof-
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   665
  from assms obtain a where "T=((%x. a + x) ` S)" unfolding affine_parallel_def by auto 
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   666
  from this show ?thesis using affine_translation assms by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   667
qed
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   668
44361
75ec83d45303 remove unnecessary euclidean_space class constraints
huffman
parents: 44349
diff changeset
   669
lemma subspace_imp_affine: "subspace s \<Longrightarrow> affine s"
40377
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   670
  unfolding subspace_def affine_def by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   671
44467
13e72da170fc change some subsection headings to subsubsection
huffman
parents: 44466
diff changeset
   672
subsubsection {* Subspace parallel to an affine set *}
40377
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   673
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   674
lemma subspace_affine:
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   675
  shows "subspace S <-> (affine S & 0 : S)"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   676
proof-
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   677
have h0: "subspace S ==> (affine S & 0 : S)" using subspace_imp_affine[of S] subspace_0 by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   678
{ assume assm: "affine S & 0 : S"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   679
  { fix c :: real 
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   680
    fix x assume x_def: "x : S"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   681
    have "c *\<^sub>R x = (1-c) *\<^sub>R 0 + c *\<^sub>R x" by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   682
    moreover have "(1-c) *\<^sub>R 0 + c *\<^sub>R x : S" using affine_alt[of S] assm x_def by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   683
    ultimately have "c *\<^sub>R x : S" by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   684
  } hence h1: "!c. !x : S. c *\<^sub>R x : S" by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   685
  { fix x y assume xy_def: "x : S" "y : S"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   686
    def u == "(1 :: real)/2"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   687
    have "(1/2) *\<^sub>R (x+y) = (1/2) *\<^sub>R (x+y)" by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   688
    moreover have "(1/2) *\<^sub>R (x+y)=(1/2) *\<^sub>R x + (1-(1/2)) *\<^sub>R y" by (simp add: algebra_simps)
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   689
    moreover have "(1-u) *\<^sub>R x + u *\<^sub>R y : S" using affine_alt[of S] assm xy_def by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   690
    ultimately have "(1/2) *\<^sub>R (x+y) : S" using u_def by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   691
    moreover have "(x+y) = 2 *\<^sub>R ((1/2) *\<^sub>R (x+y))" by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   692
    ultimately have "(x+y) : S" using h1[rule_format, of "(1/2) *\<^sub>R (x+y)" "2"] by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   693
  } hence "!x : S. !y : S. (x+y) : S" by auto 
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   694
  hence "subspace S" using h1 assm unfolding subspace_def by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   695
} from this show ?thesis using h0 by metis
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   696
qed
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   697
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   698
lemma affine_diffs_subspace:
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   699
  assumes "affine S" "a : S"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   700
  shows "subspace ((%x. (-a)+x) ` S)"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   701
proof-
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   702
have "affine ((%x. (-a)+x) ` S)" using  affine_translation assms by auto  
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   703
moreover have "0 : ((%x. (-a)+x) ` S)" using assms exI[of "(%x. x:S & -a+x=0)" a] by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   704
ultimately show ?thesis using subspace_affine by auto 
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   705
qed
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   706
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   707
lemma parallel_subspace_explicit:
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   708
assumes "affine S" "a : S"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   709
assumes "L == {y. ? x : S. (-a)+x=y}" 
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   710
shows "subspace L & affine_parallel S L" 
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   711
proof-
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   712
have par: "affine_parallel S L" unfolding affine_parallel_def using assms by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   713
hence "affine L" using assms parallel_is_affine by auto  
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   714
moreover have "0 : L" using assms apply auto using exI[of "(%x. x:S & -a+x=0)" a] by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   715
ultimately show ?thesis using subspace_affine par by auto 
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   716
qed
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   717
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   718
lemma parallel_subspace_aux:
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   719
assumes "subspace A" "subspace B" "affine_parallel A B"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   720
shows "A>=B"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   721
proof-
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   722
from assms obtain a where a_def: "!x. (x : A <-> (a+x) : B)" using affine_parallel_expl[of A B] by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   723
hence "-a : A" using assms subspace_0[of B] by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   724
hence "a : A" using assms subspace_neg[of A "-a"] by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   725
from this show ?thesis using assms a_def unfolding subspace_def by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   726
qed
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   727
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   728
lemma parallel_subspace:
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   729
assumes "subspace A" "subspace B" "affine_parallel A B"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   730
shows "A=B"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   731
proof-
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   732
have "A>=B" using assms parallel_subspace_aux by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   733
moreover have "A<=B" using assms parallel_subspace_aux[of B A] affine_parallel_commut by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   734
ultimately show ?thesis by auto  
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   735
qed
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   736
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   737
lemma affine_parallel_subspace:
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   738
assumes "affine S" "S ~= {}"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   739
shows "?!L. subspace L & affine_parallel S L" 
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   740
proof-
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   741
have ex: "? L. subspace L & affine_parallel S L" using assms  parallel_subspace_explicit by auto 
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   742
{ fix L1 L2 assume ass: "subspace L1 & affine_parallel S L1" "subspace L2 & affine_parallel S L2"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   743
  hence "affine_parallel L1 L2" using affine_parallel_commut[of S L1] affine_parallel_assoc[of L1 S L2] by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   744
  hence "L1=L2" using ass parallel_subspace by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   745
} from this show ?thesis using ex by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   746
qed
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   747
44467
13e72da170fc change some subsection headings to subsubsection
huffman
parents: 44466
diff changeset
   748
subsection {* Cones *}
33175
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   749
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   750
definition
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   751
  cone :: "'a::real_vector set \<Rightarrow> bool" where
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   752
  "cone s \<longleftrightarrow> (\<forall>x\<in>s. \<forall>c\<ge>0. (c *\<^sub>R x) \<in> s)"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   753
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   754
lemma cone_empty[intro, simp]: "cone {}"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   755
  unfolding cone_def by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   756
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   757
lemma cone_univ[intro, simp]: "cone UNIV"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   758
  unfolding cone_def by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   759
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   760
lemma cone_Inter[intro]: "(\<forall>s\<in>f. cone s) \<Longrightarrow> cone(\<Inter> f)"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   761
  unfolding cone_def by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   762
44467
13e72da170fc change some subsection headings to subsubsection
huffman
parents: 44466
diff changeset
   763
subsubsection {* Conic hull *}
33175
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   764
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   765
lemma cone_cone_hull: "cone (cone hull s)"
44170
510ac30f44c0 make Multivariate_Analysis work with separate set type
huffman
parents: 44142
diff changeset
   766
  unfolding hull_def by auto
33175
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   767
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   768
lemma cone_hull_eq: "(cone hull s = s) \<longleftrightarrow> cone s"
44170
510ac30f44c0 make Multivariate_Analysis work with separate set type
huffman
parents: 44142
diff changeset
   769
  apply(rule hull_eq)
510ac30f44c0 make Multivariate_Analysis work with separate set type
huffman
parents: 44142
diff changeset
   770
  using cone_Inter unfolding subset_eq by auto
33175
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   771
40377
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   772
lemma mem_cone:
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   773
  assumes "cone S" "x : S" "c>=0"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   774
  shows "c *\<^sub>R x : S"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   775
  using assms cone_def[of S] by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   776
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   777
lemma cone_contains_0:
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   778
assumes "cone S"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   779
shows "(S ~= {}) <-> (0 : S)"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   780
proof-
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   781
{ assume "S ~= {}" from this obtain a where "a:S" by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   782
  hence "0 : S" using assms mem_cone[of S a 0] by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   783
} from this show ?thesis by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   784
qed
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   785
44361
75ec83d45303 remove unnecessary euclidean_space class constraints
huffman
parents: 44349
diff changeset
   786
lemma cone_0: "cone {0}"
40377
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   787
unfolding cone_def by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   788
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   789
lemma cone_Union[intro]: "(!s:f. cone s) --> (cone (Union f))"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   790
  unfolding cone_def by blast
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   791
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   792
lemma cone_iff:
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   793
assumes "S ~= {}"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   794
shows "cone S <-> 0:S & (!c. c>0 --> ((op *\<^sub>R c) ` S) = S)"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   795
proof-
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   796
{ assume "cone S"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   797
  { fix c assume "(c :: real)>0"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   798
    { fix x assume "x : S" hence "x : (op *\<^sub>R c) ` S" unfolding image_def
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   799
        using `cone S` `c>0` mem_cone[of S x "1/c"]
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   800
        exI[of "(%t. t:S & x = c *\<^sub>R t)" "(1 / c) *\<^sub>R x"] by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   801
    }
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   802
    moreover
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   803
    { fix x assume "x : (op *\<^sub>R c) ` S"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   804
      (*from this obtain t where "t:S & x = c *\<^sub>R t" by auto*)
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   805
      hence "x:S" using `cone S` `c>0` unfolding cone_def image_def `c>0` by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   806
    }
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   807
    ultimately have "((op *\<^sub>R c) ` S) = S" by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   808
  } hence "0:S & (!c. c>0 --> ((op *\<^sub>R c) ` S) = S)" using `cone S` cone_contains_0[of S] assms by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   809
}
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   810
moreover
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   811
{ assume a: "0:S & (!c. c>0 --> ((op *\<^sub>R c) ` S) = S)"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   812
  { fix x assume "x:S"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   813
    fix c1 assume "(c1 :: real)>=0"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   814
    hence "(c1=0) | (c1>0)" by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   815
    hence "c1 *\<^sub>R x : S" using a `x:S` by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   816
  }
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   817
 hence "cone S" unfolding cone_def by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   818
} ultimately show ?thesis by blast
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   819
qed
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   820
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   821
lemma cone_hull_empty:
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   822
"cone hull {} = {}"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   823
by (metis cone_empty cone_hull_eq)
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   824
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   825
lemma cone_hull_empty_iff:
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   826
shows "(S = {}) <-> (cone hull S = {})"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   827
by (metis bot_least cone_hull_empty hull_subset xtrans(5))
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   828
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   829
lemma cone_hull_contains_0: 
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   830
shows "(S ~= {}) <-> (0 : cone hull S)"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   831
using cone_cone_hull[of S] cone_contains_0[of "cone hull S"] cone_hull_empty_iff[of S] by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   832
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   833
lemma mem_cone_hull:
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   834
  assumes "x : S" "c>=0"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   835
  shows "c *\<^sub>R x : cone hull S"
44170
510ac30f44c0 make Multivariate_Analysis work with separate set type
huffman
parents: 44142
diff changeset
   836
by (metis assms cone_cone_hull hull_inc mem_cone)
40377
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   837
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   838
lemma cone_hull_expl:
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   839
shows "cone hull S = {c *\<^sub>R x | c x. c>=0 & x : S}" (is "?lhs = ?rhs")
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   840
proof-
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   841
{ fix x assume "x : ?rhs"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   842
  from this obtain cx xx where x_def: "x= cx *\<^sub>R xx & (cx :: real)>=0 & xx : S" by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   843
  fix c assume c_def: "(c :: real)>=0"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   844
  hence "c *\<^sub>R x = (c*cx) *\<^sub>R xx" using x_def by (simp add: algebra_simps)
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   845
  moreover have "(c*cx) >= 0" using c_def x_def using mult_nonneg_nonneg by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   846
  ultimately have "c *\<^sub>R x : ?rhs" using x_def by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   847
} hence "cone ?rhs" unfolding cone_def by auto
44170
510ac30f44c0 make Multivariate_Analysis work with separate set type
huffman
parents: 44142
diff changeset
   848
  hence "?rhs : Collect cone" unfolding mem_Collect_eq by auto
40377
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   849
{ fix x assume "x : S" hence "1 *\<^sub>R x : ?rhs" apply auto apply(rule_tac x="1" in exI) by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   850
  hence "x : ?rhs" by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   851
} hence "S <= ?rhs" by auto
44170
510ac30f44c0 make Multivariate_Analysis work with separate set type
huffman
parents: 44142
diff changeset
   852
hence "?lhs <= ?rhs" using `?rhs : Collect cone` hull_minimal[of S "?rhs" "cone"] by auto
40377
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   853
moreover
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   854
{ fix x assume "x : ?rhs"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   855
  from this obtain cx xx where x_def: "x= cx *\<^sub>R xx & (cx :: real)>=0 & xx : S" by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   856
  hence "xx : cone hull S" using hull_subset[of S] by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   857
  hence "x : ?lhs" using x_def cone_cone_hull[of S] cone_def[of "cone hull S"] by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   858
} ultimately show ?thesis by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   859
qed
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   860
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   861
lemma cone_closure:
44524
04ad69081646 generalize some lemmas
huffman
parents: 44523
diff changeset
   862
  fixes S :: "('a::real_normed_vector) set"
04ad69081646 generalize some lemmas
huffman
parents: 44523
diff changeset
   863
  assumes "cone S" shows "cone (closure S)"
40377
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   864
proof-
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   865
{ assume "S = {}" hence ?thesis by auto }
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   866
moreover
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   867
{ assume "S ~= {}" hence "0:S & (!c. c>0 --> op *\<^sub>R c ` S = S)" using cone_iff[of S] assms by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   868
  hence "0:(closure S) & (!c. c>0 --> op *\<^sub>R c ` (closure S) = (closure S))"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   869
     using closure_subset by (auto simp add: closure_scaleR)
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   870
  hence ?thesis using cone_iff[of "closure S"] by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   871
}
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   872
ultimately show ?thesis by blast
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   873
qed
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
   874
44467
13e72da170fc change some subsection headings to subsubsection
huffman
parents: 44466
diff changeset
   875
subsection {* Affine dependence and consequential theorems (from Lars Schewe) *}
33175
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   876
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   877
definition
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   878
  affine_dependent :: "'a::real_vector set \<Rightarrow> bool" where
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   879
  "affine_dependent s \<longleftrightarrow> (\<exists>x\<in>s. x \<in> (affine hull (s - {x})))"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   880
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   881
lemma affine_dependent_explicit:
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   882
  "affine_dependent p \<longleftrightarrow>
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   883
    (\<exists>s u. finite s \<and> s \<subseteq> p \<and> setsum u s = 0 \<and>
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   884
    (\<exists>v\<in>s. u v \<noteq> 0) \<and> setsum (\<lambda>v. u v *\<^sub>R v) s = 0)"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   885
  unfolding affine_dependent_def affine_hull_explicit mem_Collect_eq apply(rule)
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   886
  apply(erule bexE,erule exE,erule exE) apply(erule conjE)+ defer apply(erule exE,erule exE) apply(erule conjE)+ apply(erule bexE)
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   887
proof-
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   888
  fix x s u assume as:"x \<in> p" "finite s" "s \<noteq> {}" "s \<subseteq> p - {x}" "setsum u s = 1" "(\<Sum>v\<in>s. u v *\<^sub>R v) = x"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   889
  have "x\<notin>s" using as(1,4) by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   890
  show "\<exists>s u. finite s \<and> s \<subseteq> p \<and> setsum u s = 0 \<and> (\<exists>v\<in>s. u v \<noteq> 0) \<and> (\<Sum>v\<in>s. u v *\<^sub>R v) = 0"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   891
    apply(rule_tac x="insert x s" in exI, rule_tac x="\<lambda>v. if v = x then - 1 else u v" in exI)
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   892
    unfolding if_smult and setsum_clauses(2)[OF as(2)] and setsum_delta_notmem[OF `x\<notin>s`] and as using as by auto 
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   893
next
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   894
  fix s u v assume as:"finite s" "s \<subseteq> p" "setsum u s = 0" "(\<Sum>v\<in>s. u v *\<^sub>R v) = 0" "v \<in> s" "u v \<noteq> 0"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   895
  have "s \<noteq> {v}" using as(3,6) by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   896
  thus "\<exists>x\<in>p. \<exists>s u. finite s \<and> s \<noteq> {} \<and> s \<subseteq> p - {x} \<and> setsum u s = 1 \<and> (\<Sum>v\<in>s. u v *\<^sub>R v) = x" 
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   897
    apply(rule_tac x=v in bexI, rule_tac x="s - {v}" in exI, rule_tac x="\<lambda>x. - (1 / u v) * u x" in exI)
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   898
    unfolding scaleR_scaleR[THEN sym] and scaleR_right.setsum [symmetric] unfolding setsum_right_distrib[THEN sym] and setsum_diff1[OF as(1)] using as by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   899
qed
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   900
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   901
lemma affine_dependent_explicit_finite:
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   902
  fixes s :: "'a::real_vector set" assumes "finite s"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   903
  shows "affine_dependent s \<longleftrightarrow> (\<exists>u. setsum u s = 0 \<and> (\<exists>v\<in>s. u v \<noteq> 0) \<and> setsum (\<lambda>v. u v *\<^sub>R v) s = 0)"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   904
  (is "?lhs = ?rhs")
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   905
proof
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   906
  have *:"\<And>vt u v. (if vt then u v else 0) *\<^sub>R v = (if vt then (u v) *\<^sub>R v else (0::'a))" by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   907
  assume ?lhs
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   908
  then obtain t u v where "finite t" "t \<subseteq> s" "setsum u t = 0" "v\<in>t" "u v \<noteq> 0"  "(\<Sum>v\<in>t. u v *\<^sub>R v) = 0"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   909
    unfolding affine_dependent_explicit by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   910
  thus ?rhs apply(rule_tac x="\<lambda>x. if x\<in>t then u x else 0" in exI)
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   911
    apply auto unfolding * and setsum_restrict_set[OF assms, THEN sym]
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   912
    unfolding Int_absorb1[OF `t\<subseteq>s`] by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   913
next
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   914
  assume ?rhs
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   915
  then obtain u v where "setsum u s = 0"  "v\<in>s" "u v \<noteq> 0" "(\<Sum>v\<in>s. u v *\<^sub>R v) = 0" by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   916
  thus ?lhs unfolding affine_dependent_explicit using assms by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   917
qed
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   918
44465
fa56622bb7bc move connected_real_lemma to the one place it is used
huffman
parents: 44457
diff changeset
   919
subsection {* Connectedness of convex sets *}
fa56622bb7bc move connected_real_lemma to the one place it is used
huffman
parents: 44457
diff changeset
   920
fa56622bb7bc move connected_real_lemma to the one place it is used
huffman
parents: 44457
diff changeset
   921
lemma connected_real_lemma:
fa56622bb7bc move connected_real_lemma to the one place it is used
huffman
parents: 44457
diff changeset
   922
  fixes f :: "real \<Rightarrow> 'a::metric_space"
fa56622bb7bc move connected_real_lemma to the one place it is used
huffman
parents: 44457
diff changeset
   923
  assumes ab: "a \<le> b" and fa: "f a \<in> e1" and fb: "f b \<in> e2"
fa56622bb7bc move connected_real_lemma to the one place it is used
huffman
parents: 44457
diff changeset
   924
  and dst: "\<And>e x. a <= x \<Longrightarrow> x <= b \<Longrightarrow> 0 < e ==> \<exists>d > 0. \<forall>y. abs(y - x) < d \<longrightarrow> dist(f y) (f x) < e"
fa56622bb7bc move connected_real_lemma to the one place it is used
huffman
parents: 44457
diff changeset
   925
  and e1: "\<forall>y \<in> e1. \<exists>e > 0. \<forall>y'. dist y' y < e \<longrightarrow> y' \<in> e1"
fa56622bb7bc move connected_real_lemma to the one place it is used
huffman
parents: 44457
diff changeset
   926
  and e2: "\<forall>y \<in> e2. \<exists>e > 0. \<forall>y'. dist y' y < e \<longrightarrow> y' \<in> e2"
fa56622bb7bc move connected_real_lemma to the one place it is used
huffman
parents: 44457
diff changeset
   927
  and e12: "~(\<exists>x \<ge> a. x <= b \<and> f x \<in> e1 \<and> f x \<in> e2)"
fa56622bb7bc move connected_real_lemma to the one place it is used
huffman
parents: 44457
diff changeset
   928
  shows "\<exists>x \<ge> a. x <= b \<and> f x \<notin> e1 \<and> f x \<notin> e2" (is "\<exists> x. ?P x")
fa56622bb7bc move connected_real_lemma to the one place it is used
huffman
parents: 44457
diff changeset
   929
proof-
fa56622bb7bc move connected_real_lemma to the one place it is used
huffman
parents: 44457
diff changeset
   930
  let ?S = "{c. \<forall>x \<ge> a. x <= c \<longrightarrow> f x \<in> e1}"
fa56622bb7bc move connected_real_lemma to the one place it is used
huffman
parents: 44457
diff changeset
   931
  have Se: " \<exists>x. x \<in> ?S" apply (rule exI[where x=a]) by (auto simp add: fa)
fa56622bb7bc move connected_real_lemma to the one place it is used
huffman
parents: 44457
diff changeset
   932
  have Sub: "\<exists>y. isUb UNIV ?S y"
fa56622bb7bc move connected_real_lemma to the one place it is used
huffman
parents: 44457
diff changeset
   933
    apply (rule exI[where x= b])
fa56622bb7bc move connected_real_lemma to the one place it is used
huffman
parents: 44457
diff changeset
   934
    using ab fb e12 by (auto simp add: isUb_def setle_def)
fa56622bb7bc move connected_real_lemma to the one place it is used
huffman
parents: 44457
diff changeset
   935
  from reals_complete[OF Se Sub] obtain l where
fa56622bb7bc move connected_real_lemma to the one place it is used
huffman
parents: 44457
diff changeset
   936
    l: "isLub UNIV ?S l"by blast
fa56622bb7bc move connected_real_lemma to the one place it is used
huffman
parents: 44457
diff changeset
   937
  have alb: "a \<le> l" "l \<le> b" using l ab fa fb e12
fa56622bb7bc move connected_real_lemma to the one place it is used
huffman
parents: 44457
diff changeset
   938
    apply (auto simp add: isLub_def leastP_def isUb_def setle_def setge_def)
fa56622bb7bc move connected_real_lemma to the one place it is used
huffman
parents: 44457
diff changeset
   939
    by (metis linorder_linear)
fa56622bb7bc move connected_real_lemma to the one place it is used
huffman
parents: 44457
diff changeset
   940
  have ale1: "\<forall>z \<ge> a. z < l \<longrightarrow> f z \<in> e1" using l
fa56622bb7bc move connected_real_lemma to the one place it is used
huffman
parents: 44457
diff changeset
   941
    apply (auto simp add: isLub_def leastP_def isUb_def setle_def setge_def)
fa56622bb7bc move connected_real_lemma to the one place it is used
huffman
parents: 44457
diff changeset
   942
    by (metis linorder_linear not_le)
fa56622bb7bc move connected_real_lemma to the one place it is used
huffman
parents: 44457
diff changeset
   943
    have th1: "\<And>z x e d :: real. z <= x + e \<Longrightarrow> e < d ==> z < x \<or> abs(z - x) < d" by arith
fa56622bb7bc move connected_real_lemma to the one place it is used
huffman
parents: 44457
diff changeset
   944
    have th2: "\<And>e x:: real. 0 < e ==> ~(x + e <= x)" by arith
fa56622bb7bc move connected_real_lemma to the one place it is used
huffman
parents: 44457
diff changeset
   945
    have "\<And>d::real. 0 < d \<Longrightarrow> 0 < d/2 \<and> d/2 < d" by simp
fa56622bb7bc move connected_real_lemma to the one place it is used
huffman
parents: 44457
diff changeset
   946
    then have th3: "\<And>d::real. d > 0 \<Longrightarrow> \<exists>e > 0. e < d" by blast
fa56622bb7bc move connected_real_lemma to the one place it is used
huffman
parents: 44457
diff changeset
   947
    {assume le2: "f l \<in> e2"
fa56622bb7bc move connected_real_lemma to the one place it is used
huffman
parents: 44457
diff changeset
   948
      from le2 fa fb e12 alb have la: "l \<noteq> a" by metis
fa56622bb7bc move connected_real_lemma to the one place it is used
huffman
parents: 44457
diff changeset
   949
      hence lap: "l - a > 0" using alb by arith
fa56622bb7bc move connected_real_lemma to the one place it is used
huffman
parents: 44457
diff changeset
   950
      from e2[rule_format, OF le2] obtain e where
fa56622bb7bc move connected_real_lemma to the one place it is used
huffman
parents: 44457
diff changeset
   951
        e: "e > 0" "\<forall>y. dist y (f l) < e \<longrightarrow> y \<in> e2" by metis
fa56622bb7bc move connected_real_lemma to the one place it is used
huffman
parents: 44457
diff changeset
   952
      from dst[OF alb e(1)] obtain d where
fa56622bb7bc move connected_real_lemma to the one place it is used
huffman
parents: 44457
diff changeset
   953
        d: "d > 0" "\<forall>y. \<bar>y - l\<bar> < d \<longrightarrow> dist (f y) (f l) < e" by metis
fa56622bb7bc move connected_real_lemma to the one place it is used
huffman
parents: 44457
diff changeset
   954
      let ?d' = "min (d/2) ((l - a)/2)"
fa56622bb7bc move connected_real_lemma to the one place it is used
huffman
parents: 44457
diff changeset
   955
      have "?d' < d \<and> 0 < ?d' \<and> ?d' < l - a" using lap d(1)
fa56622bb7bc move connected_real_lemma to the one place it is used
huffman
parents: 44457
diff changeset
   956
        by (simp add: min_max.less_infI2)
fa56622bb7bc move connected_real_lemma to the one place it is used
huffman
parents: 44457
diff changeset
   957
      then have "\<exists>d'. d' < d \<and> d' >0 \<and> l - d' > a" by auto
fa56622bb7bc move connected_real_lemma to the one place it is used
huffman
parents: 44457
diff changeset
   958
      then obtain d' where d': "d' > 0" "d' < d" "l - d' > a" by metis
fa56622bb7bc move connected_real_lemma to the one place it is used
huffman
parents: 44457
diff changeset
   959
      from d e have th0: "\<forall>y. \<bar>y - l\<bar> < d \<longrightarrow> f y \<in> e2" by metis
fa56622bb7bc move connected_real_lemma to the one place it is used
huffman
parents: 44457
diff changeset
   960
      from th0[rule_format, of "l - d'"] d' have "f (l - d') \<in> e2" by auto
fa56622bb7bc move connected_real_lemma to the one place it is used
huffman
parents: 44457
diff changeset
   961
      moreover
fa56622bb7bc move connected_real_lemma to the one place it is used
huffman
parents: 44457
diff changeset
   962
      have "f (l - d') \<in> e1" using ale1[rule_format, of "l -d'"] d' by auto
fa56622bb7bc move connected_real_lemma to the one place it is used
huffman
parents: 44457
diff changeset
   963
      ultimately have False using e12 alb d' by auto}
fa56622bb7bc move connected_real_lemma to the one place it is used
huffman
parents: 44457
diff changeset
   964
    moreover
fa56622bb7bc move connected_real_lemma to the one place it is used
huffman
parents: 44457
diff changeset
   965
    {assume le1: "f l \<in> e1"
fa56622bb7bc move connected_real_lemma to the one place it is used
huffman
parents: 44457
diff changeset
   966
    from le1 fa fb e12 alb have lb: "l \<noteq> b" by metis
fa56622bb7bc move connected_real_lemma to the one place it is used
huffman
parents: 44457
diff changeset
   967
      hence blp: "b - l > 0" using alb by arith
fa56622bb7bc move connected_real_lemma to the one place it is used
huffman
parents: 44457
diff changeset
   968
      from e1[rule_format, OF le1] obtain e where
fa56622bb7bc move connected_real_lemma to the one place it is used
huffman
parents: 44457
diff changeset
   969
        e: "e > 0" "\<forall>y. dist y (f l) < e \<longrightarrow> y \<in> e1" by metis
fa56622bb7bc move connected_real_lemma to the one place it is used
huffman
parents: 44457
diff changeset
   970
      from dst[OF alb e(1)] obtain d where
fa56622bb7bc move connected_real_lemma to the one place it is used
huffman
parents: 44457
diff changeset
   971
        d: "d > 0" "\<forall>y. \<bar>y - l\<bar> < d \<longrightarrow> dist (f y) (f l) < e" by metis
fa56622bb7bc move connected_real_lemma to the one place it is used
huffman
parents: 44457
diff changeset
   972
      have "\<And>d::real. 0 < d \<Longrightarrow> d/2 < d \<and> 0 < d/2" by simp
fa56622bb7bc move connected_real_lemma to the one place it is used
huffman
parents: 44457
diff changeset
   973
      then have "\<exists>d'. d' < d \<and> d' >0" using d(1) by blast
fa56622bb7bc move connected_real_lemma to the one place it is used
huffman
parents: 44457
diff changeset
   974
      then obtain d' where d': "d' > 0" "d' < d" by metis
fa56622bb7bc move connected_real_lemma to the one place it is used
huffman
parents: 44457
diff changeset
   975
      from d e have th0: "\<forall>y. \<bar>y - l\<bar> < d \<longrightarrow> f y \<in> e1" by auto
fa56622bb7bc move connected_real_lemma to the one place it is used
huffman
parents: 44457
diff changeset
   976
      hence "\<forall>y. l \<le> y \<and> y \<le> l + d' \<longrightarrow> f y \<in> e1" using d' by auto
fa56622bb7bc move connected_real_lemma to the one place it is used
huffman
parents: 44457
diff changeset
   977
      with ale1 have "\<forall>y. a \<le> y \<and> y \<le> l + d' \<longrightarrow> f y \<in> e1" by auto
fa56622bb7bc move connected_real_lemma to the one place it is used
huffman
parents: 44457
diff changeset
   978
      with l d' have False
fa56622bb7bc move connected_real_lemma to the one place it is used
huffman
parents: 44457
diff changeset
   979
        by (auto simp add: isLub_def isUb_def setle_def setge_def leastP_def) }
fa56622bb7bc move connected_real_lemma to the one place it is used
huffman
parents: 44457
diff changeset
   980
    ultimately show ?thesis using alb by metis
fa56622bb7bc move connected_real_lemma to the one place it is used
huffman
parents: 44457
diff changeset
   981
qed
33175
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   982
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   983
lemma convex_connected:
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   984
  fixes s :: "'a::real_normed_vector set"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   985
  assumes "convex s" shows "connected s"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   986
proof-
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   987
  { fix e1 e2 assume as:"open e1" "open e2" "e1 \<inter> e2 \<inter> s = {}" "s \<subseteq> e1 \<union> e2" 
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   988
    assume "e1 \<inter> s \<noteq> {}" "e2 \<inter> s \<noteq> {}"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   989
    then obtain x1 x2 where x1:"x1\<in>e1" "x1\<in>s" and x2:"x2\<in>e2" "x2\<in>s" by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   990
    hence n:"norm (x1 - x2) > 0" unfolding zero_less_norm_iff using as(3) by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   991
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   992
    { fix x e::real assume as:"0 \<le> x" "x \<le> 1" "0 < e"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   993
      { fix y have *:"(1 - x) *\<^sub>R x1 + x *\<^sub>R x2 - ((1 - y) *\<^sub>R x1 + y *\<^sub>R x2) = (y - x) *\<^sub>R x1 - (y - x) *\<^sub>R x2"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   994
          by (simp add: algebra_simps)
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   995
        assume "\<bar>y - x\<bar> < e / norm (x1 - x2)"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   996
        hence "norm ((1 - x) *\<^sub>R x1 + x *\<^sub>R x2 - ((1 - y) *\<^sub>R x1 + y *\<^sub>R x2)) < e"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   997
          unfolding * and scaleR_right_diff_distrib[THEN sym]
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   998
          unfolding less_divide_eq using n by auto  }
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
   999
      hence "\<exists>d>0. \<forall>y. \<bar>y - x\<bar> < d \<longrightarrow> norm ((1 - x) *\<^sub>R x1 + x *\<^sub>R x2 - ((1 - y) *\<^sub>R x1 + y *\<^sub>R x2)) < e"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1000
        apply(rule_tac x="e / norm (x1 - x2)" in exI) using as
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1001
        apply auto unfolding zero_less_divide_iff using n by simp  }  note * = this
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1002
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1003
    have "\<exists>x\<ge>0. x \<le> 1 \<and> (1 - x) *\<^sub>R x1 + x *\<^sub>R x2 \<notin> e1 \<and> (1 - x) *\<^sub>R x1 + x *\<^sub>R x2 \<notin> e2"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1004
      apply(rule connected_real_lemma) apply (simp add: `x1\<in>e1` `x2\<in>e2` dist_commute)+
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1005
      using * apply(simp add: dist_norm)
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1006
      using as(1,2)[unfolded open_dist] apply simp
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1007
      using as(1,2)[unfolded open_dist] apply simp
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1008
      using assms[unfolded convex_alt, THEN bspec[where x=x1], THEN bspec[where x=x2]] using x1 x2
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1009
      using as(3) by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1010
    then obtain x where "x\<ge>0" "x\<le>1" "(1 - x) *\<^sub>R x1 + x *\<^sub>R x2 \<notin> e1"  "(1 - x) *\<^sub>R x1 + x *\<^sub>R x2 \<notin> e2" by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1011
    hence False using as(4) 
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1012
      using assms[unfolded convex_alt, THEN bspec[where x=x1], THEN bspec[where x=x2]]
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1013
      using x1(2) x2(2) by auto  }
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1014
  thus ?thesis unfolding connected_def by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1015
qed
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1016
44467
13e72da170fc change some subsection headings to subsubsection
huffman
parents: 44466
diff changeset
  1017
text {* One rather trivial consequence. *}
33175
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1018
34964
4e8be3c04d37 Replaced vec1 and dest_vec1 by abbreviation.
hoelzl
parents: 34915
diff changeset
  1019
lemma connected_UNIV[intro]: "connected (UNIV :: 'a::real_normed_vector set)"
33175
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1020
  by(simp add: convex_connected convex_UNIV)
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1021
44467
13e72da170fc change some subsection headings to subsubsection
huffman
parents: 44466
diff changeset
  1022
text {* Balls, being convex, are connected. *}
33175
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1023
37489
44e42d392c6e Introduce a type class for euclidean spaces, port most lemmas from real^'n to this type class.
hoelzl
parents: 36844
diff changeset
  1024
lemma convex_box: fixes a::"'a::euclidean_space"
44e42d392c6e Introduce a type class for euclidean spaces, port most lemmas from real^'n to this type class.
hoelzl
parents: 36844
diff changeset
  1025
  assumes "\<And>i. i<DIM('a) \<Longrightarrow> convex {x. P i x}"
44e42d392c6e Introduce a type class for euclidean spaces, port most lemmas from real^'n to this type class.
hoelzl
parents: 36844
diff changeset
  1026
  shows "convex {x. \<forall>i<DIM('a). P i (x$$i)}"
44457
d366fa5551ef declare euclidean_simps [simp] at the point they are proved;
huffman
parents: 44365
diff changeset
  1027
  using assms unfolding convex_def by auto
33175
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1028
37489
44e42d392c6e Introduce a type class for euclidean spaces, port most lemmas from real^'n to this type class.
hoelzl
parents: 36844
diff changeset
  1029
lemma convex_positive_orthant: "convex {x::'a::euclidean_space. (\<forall>i<DIM('a). 0 \<le> x$$i)}"
36623
d26348b667f2 Moved Convex theory to library.
hoelzl
parents: 36590
diff changeset
  1030
  by (rule convex_box) (simp add: atLeast_def[symmetric] convex_real_interval)
33175
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1031
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1032
lemma convex_local_global_minimum:
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1033
  fixes s :: "'a::real_normed_vector set"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1034
  assumes "0<e" "convex_on s f" "ball x e \<subseteq> s" "\<forall>y\<in>ball x e. f x \<le> f y"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1035
  shows "\<forall>y\<in>s. f x \<le> f y"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1036
proof(rule ccontr)
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1037
  have "x\<in>s" using assms(1,3) by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1038
  assume "\<not> (\<forall>y\<in>s. f x \<le> f y)"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1039
  then obtain y where "y\<in>s" and y:"f x > f y" by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1040
  hence xy:"0 < dist x y" by (auto simp add: dist_nz[THEN sym])
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1041
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1042
  then obtain u where "0 < u" "u \<le> 1" and u:"u < e / dist x y"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1043
    using real_lbound_gt_zero[of 1 "e / dist x y"] using xy `e>0` and divide_pos_pos[of e "dist x y"] by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1044
  hence "f ((1-u) *\<^sub>R x + u *\<^sub>R y) \<le> (1-u) * f x + u * f y" using `x\<in>s` `y\<in>s`
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1045
    using assms(2)[unfolded convex_on_def, THEN bspec[where x=x], THEN bspec[where x=y], THEN spec[where x="1-u"]] by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1046
  moreover
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1047
  have *:"x - ((1 - u) *\<^sub>R x + u *\<^sub>R y) = u *\<^sub>R (x - y)" by (simp add: algebra_simps)
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1048
  have "(1 - u) *\<^sub>R x + u *\<^sub>R y \<in> ball x e" unfolding mem_ball dist_norm unfolding * and norm_scaleR and abs_of_pos[OF `0<u`] unfolding dist_norm[THEN sym]
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1049
    using u unfolding pos_less_divide_eq[OF xy] by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1050
  hence "f x \<le> f ((1 - u) *\<^sub>R x + u *\<^sub>R y)" using assms(4) by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1051
  ultimately show False using mult_strict_left_mono[OF y `u>0`] unfolding left_diff_distrib by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1052
qed
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1053
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1054
lemma convex_ball:
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1055
  fixes x :: "'a::real_normed_vector"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1056
  shows "convex (ball x e)" 
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1057
proof(auto simp add: convex_def)
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1058
  fix y z assume yz:"dist x y < e" "dist x z < e"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1059
  fix u v ::real assume uv:"0 \<le> u" "0 \<le> v" "u + v = 1"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1060
  have "dist x (u *\<^sub>R y + v *\<^sub>R z) \<le> u * dist x y + v * dist x z" using uv yz
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1061
    using convex_distance[of "ball x e" x, unfolded convex_on_def, THEN bspec[where x=y], THEN bspec[where x=z]] by auto
36623
d26348b667f2 Moved Convex theory to library.
hoelzl
parents: 36590
diff changeset
  1062
  thus "dist x (u *\<^sub>R y + v *\<^sub>R z) < e" using convex_bound_lt[OF yz uv] by auto
33175
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1063
qed
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1064
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1065
lemma convex_cball:
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1066
  fixes x :: "'a::real_normed_vector"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1067
  shows "convex(cball x e)"
36362
06475a1547cb fix lots of looping simp calls and other warnings
huffman
parents: 36341
diff changeset
  1068
proof(auto simp add: convex_def Ball_def)
33175
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1069
  fix y z assume yz:"dist x y \<le> e" "dist x z \<le> e"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1070
  fix u v ::real assume uv:" 0 \<le> u" "0 \<le> v" "u + v = 1"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1071
  have "dist x (u *\<^sub>R y + v *\<^sub>R z) \<le> u * dist x y + v * dist x z" using uv yz
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1072
    using convex_distance[of "cball x e" x, unfolded convex_on_def, THEN bspec[where x=y], THEN bspec[where x=z]] by auto
36623
d26348b667f2 Moved Convex theory to library.
hoelzl
parents: 36590
diff changeset
  1073
  thus "dist x (u *\<^sub>R y + v *\<^sub>R z) \<le> e" using convex_bound_le[OF yz uv] by auto 
33175
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1074
qed
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1075
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1076
lemma connected_ball:
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1077
  fixes x :: "'a::real_normed_vector"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1078
  shows "connected (ball x e)"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1079
  using convex_connected convex_ball by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1080
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1081
lemma connected_cball:
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1082
  fixes x :: "'a::real_normed_vector"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1083
  shows "connected(cball x e)"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1084
  using convex_connected convex_cball by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1085
44467
13e72da170fc change some subsection headings to subsubsection
huffman
parents: 44466
diff changeset
  1086
subsection {* Convex hull *}
33175
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1087
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1088
lemma convex_convex_hull: "convex(convex hull s)"
44170
510ac30f44c0 make Multivariate_Analysis work with separate set type
huffman
parents: 44142
diff changeset
  1089
  unfolding hull_def using convex_Inter[of "{t. convex t \<and> s \<subseteq> t}"]
510ac30f44c0 make Multivariate_Analysis work with separate set type
huffman
parents: 44142
diff changeset
  1090
  by auto
33175
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1091
34064
eee04bbbae7e avoid dependency on implicit dest rule predicate1D in proofs
haftmann
parents: 33758
diff changeset
  1092
lemma convex_hull_eq: "convex hull s = s \<longleftrightarrow> convex s"
44170
510ac30f44c0 make Multivariate_Analysis work with separate set type
huffman
parents: 44142
diff changeset
  1093
by (metis convex_convex_hull hull_same)
33175
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1094
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1095
lemma bounded_convex_hull:
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1096
  fixes s :: "'a::real_normed_vector set"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1097
  assumes "bounded s" shows "bounded(convex hull s)"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1098
proof- from assms obtain B where B:"\<forall>x\<in>s. norm x \<le> B" unfolding bounded_iff by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1099
  show ?thesis apply(rule bounded_subset[OF bounded_cball, of _ 0 B])
44170
510ac30f44c0 make Multivariate_Analysis work with separate set type
huffman
parents: 44142
diff changeset
  1100
    unfolding subset_hull[of convex, OF convex_cball]
33175
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1101
    unfolding subset_eq mem_cball dist_norm using B by auto qed
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1102
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1103
lemma finite_imp_bounded_convex_hull:
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1104
  fixes s :: "'a::real_normed_vector set"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1105
  shows "finite s \<Longrightarrow> bounded(convex hull s)"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1106
  using bounded_convex_hull finite_imp_bounded by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1107
44467
13e72da170fc change some subsection headings to subsubsection
huffman
parents: 44466
diff changeset
  1108
subsubsection {* Convex hull is "preserved" by a linear function *}
40377
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
  1109
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
  1110
lemma convex_hull_linear_image:
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
  1111
  assumes "bounded_linear f"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
  1112
  shows "f ` (convex hull s) = convex hull (f ` s)"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
  1113
  apply rule unfolding subset_eq ball_simps apply(rule_tac[!] hull_induct, rule hull_inc) prefer 3  
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
  1114
  apply(erule imageE)apply(rule_tac x=xa in image_eqI) apply assumption
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
  1115
  apply(rule hull_subset[unfolded subset_eq, rule_format]) apply assumption
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
  1116
proof-
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
  1117
  interpret f: bounded_linear f by fact
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
  1118
  show "convex {x. f x \<in> convex hull f ` s}" 
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
  1119
  unfolding convex_def by(auto simp add: f.scaleR f.add convex_convex_hull[unfolded convex_def, rule_format]) next
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
  1120
  interpret f: bounded_linear f by fact
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
  1121
  show "convex {x. x \<in> f ` (convex hull s)}" using  convex_convex_hull[unfolded convex_def, of s] 
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
  1122
    unfolding convex_def by (auto simp add: f.scaleR [symmetric] f.add [symmetric])
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
  1123
qed auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
  1124
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
  1125
lemma in_convex_hull_linear_image:
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
  1126
  assumes "bounded_linear f" "x \<in> convex hull s"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
  1127
  shows "(f x) \<in> convex hull (f ` s)"
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
  1128
using convex_hull_linear_image[OF assms(1)] assms(2) by auto
0e5d48096f58 Extend convex analysis by Bogdan Grechuk
hoelzl
parents: 39302
diff changeset
  1129
44467
13e72da170fc change some subsection headings to subsubsection
huffman
parents: 44466
diff changeset
  1130
subsubsection {* Stepping theorems for convex hulls of finite sets *}
33175
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1131
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1132
lemma convex_hull_empty[simp]: "convex hull {} = {}"
44170
510ac30f44c0 make Multivariate_Analysis work with separate set type
huffman
parents: 44142
diff changeset
  1133
  apply(rule hull_unique) by auto
33175
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1134
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1135
lemma convex_hull_singleton[simp]: "convex hull {a} = {a}"
44170
510ac30f44c0 make Multivariate_Analysis work with separate set type
huffman
parents: 44142
diff changeset
  1136
  apply(rule hull_unique) by auto
33175
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1137
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1138
lemma convex_hull_insert:
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1139
  fixes s :: "'a::real_vector set"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1140
  assumes "s \<noteq> {}"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1141
  shows "convex hull (insert a s) = {x. \<exists>u\<ge>0. \<exists>v\<ge>0. \<exists>b. (u + v = 1) \<and>
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1142
                                    b \<in> (convex hull s) \<and> (x = u *\<^sub>R a + v *\<^sub>R b)}" (is "?xyz = ?hull")
44170
510ac30f44c0 make Multivariate_Analysis work with separate set type
huffman
parents: 44142
diff changeset
  1143
 apply(rule,rule hull_minimal,rule) unfolding insert_iff prefer 3 apply rule proof-
33175
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1144
 fix x assume x:"x = a \<or> x \<in> s"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1145
 thus "x\<in>?hull" apply rule unfolding mem_Collect_eq apply(rule_tac x=1 in exI) defer 
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1146
   apply(rule_tac x=0 in exI) using assms hull_subset[of s convex] by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1147
next
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1148
  fix x assume "x\<in>?hull"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1149
  then obtain u v b where obt:"u\<ge>0" "v\<ge>0" "u + v = 1" "b \<in> convex hull s" "x = u *\<^sub>R a + v *\<^sub>R b" by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1150
  have "a\<in>convex hull insert a s" "b\<in>convex hull insert a s"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1151
    using hull_mono[of s "insert a s" convex] hull_mono[of "{a}" "insert a s" convex] and obt(4) by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1152
  thus "x\<in> convex hull insert a s" unfolding obt(5) using convex_convex_hull[of "insert a s", unfolded convex_def]
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1153
    apply(erule_tac x=a in ballE) apply(erule_tac x=b in ballE) apply(erule_tac x=u in allE) using obt by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1154
next
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1155
  show "convex ?hull" unfolding convex_def apply(rule,rule,rule,rule,rule,rule,rule) proof-
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1156
    fix x y u v assume as:"(0::real) \<le> u" "0 \<le> v" "u + v = 1" "x\<in>?hull" "y\<in>?hull"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1157
    from as(4) obtain u1 v1 b1 where obt1:"u1\<ge>0" "v1\<ge>0" "u1 + v1 = 1" "b1 \<in> convex hull s" "x = u1 *\<^sub>R a + v1 *\<^sub>R b1" by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1158
    from as(5) obtain u2 v2 b2 where obt2:"u2\<ge>0" "v2\<ge>0" "u2 + v2 = 1" "b2 \<in> convex hull s" "y = u2 *\<^sub>R a + v2 *\<^sub>R b2" by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1159
    have *:"\<And>(x::'a) s1 s2. x - s1 *\<^sub>R x - s2 *\<^sub>R x = ((1::real) - (s1 + s2)) *\<^sub>R x" by (auto simp add: algebra_simps)
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1160
    have "\<exists>b \<in> convex hull s. u *\<^sub>R x + v *\<^sub>R y = (u * u1) *\<^sub>R a + (v * u2) *\<^sub>R a + (b - (u * u1) *\<^sub>R b - (v * u2) *\<^sub>R b)"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1161
    proof(cases "u * v1 + v * v2 = 0")
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1162
      have *:"\<And>(x::'a) s1 s2. x - s1 *\<^sub>R x - s2 *\<^sub>R x = ((1::real) - (s1 + s2)) *\<^sub>R x" by (auto simp add: algebra_simps)
36071
c8ae8e56d42e tuned many proofs a bit
nipkow
parents: 35577
diff changeset
  1163
      case True hence **:"u * v1 = 0" "v * v2 = 0"
c8ae8e56d42e tuned many proofs a bit
nipkow
parents: 35577
diff changeset
  1164
        using mult_nonneg_nonneg[OF `u\<ge>0` `v1\<ge>0`] mult_nonneg_nonneg[OF `v\<ge>0` `v2\<ge>0`] by arith+
33175
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1165
      hence "u * u1 + v * u2 = 1" using as(3) obt1(3) obt2(3) by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1166
      thus ?thesis unfolding obt1(5) obt2(5) * using assms hull_subset[of s convex] by(auto simp add: ** scaleR_right_distrib)
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1167
    next
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1168
      have "1 - (u * u1 + v * u2) = (u + v) - (u * u1 + v * u2)" using as(3) obt1(3) obt2(3) by (auto simp add: field_simps)
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1169
      also have "\<dots> = u * (v1 + u1 - u1) + v * (v2 + u2 - u2)" using as(3) obt1(3) obt2(3) by (auto simp add: field_simps) 
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1170
      also have "\<dots> = u * v1 + v * v2" by simp finally have **:"1 - (u * u1 + v * u2) = u * v1 + v * v2" by auto
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1171
      case False have "0 \<le> u * v1 + v * v2" "0 \<le> u * v1" "0 \<le> u * v1 + v * v2" "0 \<le> v * v2" apply -
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1172
        apply(rule add_nonneg_nonneg) prefer 4 apply(rule add_nonneg_nonneg) apply(rule_tac [!] mult_nonneg_nonneg)
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1173
        using as(1,2) obt1(1,2) obt2(1,2) by auto 
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1174
      thus ?thesis unfolding obt1(5) obt2(5) unfolding * and ** using False
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1175
        apply(rule_tac x="((u * v1) / (u * v1 + v * v2)) *\<^sub>R b1 + ((v * v2) / (u * v1 + v * v2)) *\<^sub>R b2" in bexI) defer
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1176
        apply(rule convex_convex_hull[of s, unfolded convex_def, rule_format]) using obt1(4) obt2(4)
44349
f057535311c5 remove redundant lemma real_0_le_divide_iff in favor or zero_le_divide_iff
huffman
parents: 44282
diff changeset
  1177
        unfolding add_divide_distrib[THEN sym] and zero_le_divide_iff
33175
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1178
        by (auto simp add: scaleR_left_distrib scaleR_right_distrib)
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1179
    qed note * = this
36071
c8ae8e56d42e tuned many proofs a bit
nipkow
parents: 35577
diff changeset
  1180
    have u1:"u1 \<le> 1" unfolding obt1(3)[THEN sym] and not_le using obt1(2) by auto
c8ae8e56d42e tuned many proofs a bit
nipkow
parents: 35577
diff changeset
  1181
    have u2:"u2 \<le> 1" unfolding obt2(3)[THEN sym] and not_le using obt2(2) by auto
33175
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1182
    have "u1 * u + u2 * v \<le> (max u1 u2) * u + (max u1 u2) * v" apply(rule add_mono)
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1183
      apply(rule_tac [!] mult_right_mono) using as(1,2) obt1(1,2) obt2(1,2) by auto
44282
f0de18b62d63 remove bounded_(bi)linear locale interpretations, to avoid duplicating so many lemmas
huffman
parents: 44170
diff changeset
  1184
    also have "\<dots> \<le> 1" unfolding right_distrib[THEN sym] and as(3) using u1 u2 by auto
33175
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1185
    finally 
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1186
    show "u *\<^sub>R x + v *\<^sub>R y \<in> ?hull" unfolding mem_Collect_eq apply(rule_tac x="u * u1 + v * u2" in exI)
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1187
      apply(rule conjI) defer apply(rule_tac x="1 - u * u1 - v * u2" in exI) unfolding Bex_def
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1188
      using as(1,2) obt1(1,2) obt2(1,2) * by(auto intro!: mult_nonneg_nonneg add_nonneg_nonneg simp add: algebra_simps)
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1189
  qed
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1190
qed
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1191
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1192
44467
13e72da170fc change some subsection headings to subsubsection
huffman
parents: 44466
diff changeset
  1193
subsubsection {* Explicit expression for convex hull *}
33175
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1194
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1195
lemma convex_hull_indexed:
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1196
  fixes s :: "'a::real_vector set"
2083bde13ce1 distinguished session for multivariate analysis
himmelma
parents:
diff changeset
  1197
  shows "convex hull s = {y. \<exists>k u x. (\<forall>i\<in>{1::nat .. k}. 0 \<le> u i \<and> x i \<in> s) \<and>