src/HOL/Parity.thy
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(*  Title:      HOL/Parity.thy
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    Author:     Jeremy Avigad
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    Author:     Jacques D. Fleuriot
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*)
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header {* Even and Odd for int and nat *}
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theory Parity
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imports Main
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begin
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class even_odd = 
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  fixes even :: "'a \<Rightarrow> bool"
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abbreviation
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  odd :: "'a\<Colon>even_odd \<Rightarrow> bool" where
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  "odd x \<equiv> \<not> even x"
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instantiation nat and int  :: even_odd
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begin
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definition
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  even_def [presburger]: "even x \<longleftrightarrow> (x\<Colon>int) mod 2 = 0"
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definition
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  even_nat_def [presburger]: "even x \<longleftrightarrow> even (int x)"
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instance ..
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end
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lemma transfer_int_nat_relations:
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  "even (int x) \<longleftrightarrow> even x"
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  by (simp add: even_nat_def)
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declare transfer_morphism_int_nat[transfer add return:
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  transfer_int_nat_relations
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]
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lemma even_zero_int[simp]: "even (0::int)" by presburger
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lemma odd_one_int[simp]: "odd (1::int)" by presburger
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lemma even_zero_nat[simp]: "even (0::nat)" by presburger
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lemma odd_1_nat [simp]: "odd (1::nat)" by presburger
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lemma even_numeral_int [simp]: "even (numeral (Num.Bit0 k) :: int)"
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  unfolding even_def by simp
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lemma odd_numeral_int [simp]: "odd (numeral (Num.Bit1 k) :: int)"
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  unfolding even_def by simp
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(* TODO: proper simp rules for Num.Bit0, Num.Bit1 *)
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declare even_def[of "neg_numeral v", simp] for v
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lemma even_numeral_nat [simp]: "even (numeral (Num.Bit0 k) :: nat)"
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  unfolding even_nat_def by simp
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lemma odd_numeral_nat [simp]: "odd (numeral (Num.Bit1 k) :: nat)"
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  unfolding even_nat_def by simp
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subsection {* Even and odd are mutually exclusive *}
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lemma int_pos_lt_two_imp_zero_or_one:
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    "0 <= x ==> (x::int) < 2 ==> x = 0 | x = 1"
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  by presburger
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lemma neq_one_mod_two [simp, presburger]: 
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  "((x::int) mod 2 ~= 0) = (x mod 2 = 1)" by presburger
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subsection {* Behavior under integer arithmetic operations *}
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declare dvd_def[algebra]
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lemma nat_even_iff_2_dvd[algebra]: "even (x::nat) \<longleftrightarrow> 2 dvd x"
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  by presburger
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lemma int_even_iff_2_dvd[algebra]: "even (x::int) \<longleftrightarrow> 2 dvd x"
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  by presburger
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lemma even_times_anything: "even (x::int) ==> even (x * y)"
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  by algebra
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lemma anything_times_even: "even (y::int) ==> even (x * y)" by algebra
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lemma odd_times_odd: "odd (x::int) ==> odd y ==> odd (x * y)" 
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  by (simp add: even_def mod_mult_right_eq)
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lemma even_product[simp,presburger]: "even((x::int) * y) = (even x | even y)"
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  apply (auto simp add: even_times_anything anything_times_even)
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  apply (rule ccontr)
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  apply (auto simp add: odd_times_odd)
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  done
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lemma even_plus_even: "even (x::int) ==> even y ==> even (x + y)"
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by presburger
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lemma even_plus_odd: "even (x::int) ==> odd y ==> odd (x + y)"
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by presburger
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lemma odd_plus_even: "odd (x::int) ==> even y ==> odd (x + y)"
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by presburger
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lemma odd_plus_odd: "odd (x::int) ==> odd y ==> even (x + y)" by presburger
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lemma even_sum[simp,presburger]:
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  "even ((x::int) + y) = ((even x & even y) | (odd x & odd y))"
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by presburger
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lemma even_neg[simp,presburger,algebra]: "even (-(x::int)) = even x"
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by presburger
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lemma even_difference[simp]:
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    "even ((x::int) - y) = ((even x & even y) | (odd x & odd y))" by presburger
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lemma even_power[simp,presburger]: "even ((x::int)^n) = (even x & n \<noteq> 0)"
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by (induct n) auto
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lemma odd_pow: "odd x ==> odd((x::int)^n)" by simp
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subsection {* Equivalent definitions *}
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lemma two_times_even_div_two: "even (x::int) ==> 2 * (x div 2) = x" 
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by presburger
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lemma two_times_odd_div_two_plus_one:
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  "odd (x::int) ==> 2 * (x div 2) + 1 = x"
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by presburger
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lemma even_equiv_def: "even (x::int) = (EX y. x = 2 * y)" by presburger
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lemma odd_equiv_def: "odd (x::int) = (EX y. x = 2 * y + 1)" by presburger
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subsection {* even and odd for nats *}
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lemma pos_int_even_equiv_nat_even: "0 \<le> x ==> even x = even (nat x)"
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by (simp add: even_nat_def)
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lemma even_product_nat[simp,presburger,algebra]:
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  "even((x::nat) * y) = (even x | even y)"
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by (simp add: even_nat_def int_mult)
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lemma even_sum_nat[simp,presburger,algebra]:
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  "even ((x::nat) + y) = ((even x & even y) | (odd x & odd y))"
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by presburger
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lemma even_difference_nat[simp,presburger,algebra]:
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  "even ((x::nat) - y) = (x < y | (even x & even y) | (odd x & odd y))"
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by presburger
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lemma even_Suc[simp,presburger,algebra]: "even (Suc x) = odd x"
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by presburger
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lemma even_power_nat[simp,presburger,algebra]:
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  "even ((x::nat)^y) = (even x & 0 < y)"
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by (simp add: even_nat_def int_power)
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   159
subsection {* Equivalent definitions *}
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   160
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   161
lemma nat_lt_two_imp_zero_or_one:
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   162
  "(x::nat) < Suc (Suc 0) ==> x = 0 | x = Suc 0"
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   163
by presburger
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   164
47195501ecf7 moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial to Library;
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   165
lemma even_nat_mod_two_eq_zero: "even (x::nat) ==> x mod (Suc (Suc 0)) = 0"
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   166
by presburger
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   167
47195501ecf7 moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial to Library;
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   168
lemma odd_nat_mod_two_eq_one: "odd (x::nat) ==> x mod (Suc (Suc 0)) = Suc 0"
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   169
by presburger
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   170
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   171
lemma even_nat_equiv_def: "even (x::nat) = (x mod Suc (Suc 0) = 0)"
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   172
by presburger
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   173
47195501ecf7 moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial to Library;
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   174
lemma odd_nat_equiv_def: "odd (x::nat) = (x mod Suc (Suc 0) = Suc 0)"
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by presburger
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   176
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   177
lemma even_nat_div_two_times_two: "even (x::nat) ==>
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   178
    Suc (Suc 0) * (x div Suc (Suc 0)) = x" by presburger
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   179
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   180
lemma odd_nat_div_two_times_two_plus_one: "odd (x::nat) ==>
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   181
    Suc( Suc (Suc 0) * (x div Suc (Suc 0))) = x" by presburger
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   182
47195501ecf7 moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial to Library;
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   183
lemma even_nat_equiv_def2: "even (x::nat) = (EX y. x = Suc (Suc 0) * y)"
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by presburger
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   185
47195501ecf7 moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial to Library;
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   186
lemma odd_nat_equiv_def2: "odd (x::nat) = (EX y. x = Suc(Suc (Suc 0) * y))"
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   187
by presburger
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   188
25600
73431bd8c4c4 joined EvenOdd theory with Parity
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   189
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   190
subsection {* Parity and powers *}
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   191
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   192
lemma  minus_one_even_odd_power:
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   193
     "(even x --> (- 1::'a::{comm_ring_1})^x = 1) &
21256
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   194
      (odd x --> (- 1::'a)^x = - 1)"
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parents:
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   195
  apply (induct x)
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parents:
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   196
  apply (rule conjI)
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parents:
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   197
  apply simp
31148
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   198
  apply (insert even_zero_nat, blast)
35216
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   199
  apply simp
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   200
  done
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parents:
diff changeset
   201
47195501ecf7 moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial to Library;
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   202
lemma minus_one_even_power [simp]:
31017
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   203
    "even x ==> (- 1::'a::{comm_ring_1})^x = 1"
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   204
  using minus_one_even_odd_power by blast
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   205
47195501ecf7 moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial to Library;
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   206
lemma minus_one_odd_power [simp]:
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   207
    "odd x ==> (- 1::'a::{comm_ring_1})^x = - 1"
21263
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diff changeset
   208
  using minus_one_even_odd_power by blast
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parents:
diff changeset
   209
47195501ecf7 moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial to Library;
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parents:
diff changeset
   210
lemma neg_one_even_odd_power:
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parents: 45607
diff changeset
   211
     "(even x --> (-1::'a::{comm_ring_1})^x = 1) &
21256
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parents:
diff changeset
   212
      (odd x --> (-1::'a)^x = -1)"
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parents:
diff changeset
   213
  apply (induct x)
35216
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huffman
parents: 35043
diff changeset
   214
  apply (simp, simp)
21256
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parents:
diff changeset
   215
  done
47195501ecf7 moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial to Library;
wenzelm
parents:
diff changeset
   216
47195501ecf7 moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial to Library;
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parents:
diff changeset
   217
lemma neg_one_even_power [simp]:
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parents: 45607
diff changeset
   218
    "even x ==> (-1::'a::{comm_ring_1})^x = 1"
21263
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diff changeset
   219
  using neg_one_even_odd_power by blast
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parents:
diff changeset
   220
47195501ecf7 moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial to Library;
wenzelm
parents:
diff changeset
   221
lemma neg_one_odd_power [simp]:
47108
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huffman
parents: 45607
diff changeset
   222
    "odd x ==> (-1::'a::{comm_ring_1})^x = -1"
21263
wenzelm
parents: 21256
diff changeset
   223
  using neg_one_even_odd_power by blast
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wenzelm
parents:
diff changeset
   224
47195501ecf7 moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial to Library;
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parents:
diff changeset
   225
lemma neg_power_if:
31017
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haftmann
parents: 30738
diff changeset
   226
     "(-x::'a::{comm_ring_1}) ^ n =
21256
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parents:
diff changeset
   227
      (if even n then (x ^ n) else -(x ^ n))"
21263
wenzelm
parents: 21256
diff changeset
   228
  apply (induct n)
35216
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huffman
parents: 35043
diff changeset
   229
  apply simp_all
21263
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diff changeset
   230
  done
21256
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parents:
diff changeset
   231
21263
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   232
lemma zero_le_even_power: "even n ==>
35631
0b8a5fd339ab generalize some lemmas from class linordered_ring_strict to linordered_ring
huffman
parents: 35216
diff changeset
   233
    0 <= (x::'a::{linordered_ring,monoid_mult}) ^ n"
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parents:
diff changeset
   234
  apply (simp add: even_nat_equiv_def2)
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wenzelm
parents:
diff changeset
   235
  apply (erule exE)
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wenzelm
parents:
diff changeset
   236
  apply (erule ssubst)
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wenzelm
parents:
diff changeset
   237
  apply (subst power_add)
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wenzelm
parents:
diff changeset
   238
  apply (rule zero_le_square)
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wenzelm
parents:
diff changeset
   239
  done
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wenzelm
parents:
diff changeset
   240
21263
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parents: 21256
diff changeset
   241
lemma zero_le_odd_power: "odd n ==>
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parents: 33358
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   242
    (0 <= (x::'a::{linordered_idom}) ^ n) = (0 <= x)"
35216
7641e8d831d2 get rid of many duplicate simp rule warnings
huffman
parents: 35043
diff changeset
   243
apply (auto simp: odd_nat_equiv_def2 power_add zero_le_mult_iff)
36722
c8ea75ea4a29 tuned proof
haftmann
parents: 35644
diff changeset
   244
apply (metis field_power_not_zero divisors_zero order_antisym_conv zero_le_square)
30056
0a35bee25c20 added lemmas
nipkow
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diff changeset
   245
done
21256
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wenzelm
parents:
diff changeset
   246
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diff changeset
   247
lemma zero_le_power_eq[presburger]: "(0 <= (x::'a::{linordered_idom}) ^ n) =
21256
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parents:
diff changeset
   248
    (even n | (odd n & 0 <= x))"
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wenzelm
parents:
diff changeset
   249
  apply auto
21263
wenzelm
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diff changeset
   250
  apply (subst zero_le_odd_power [symmetric])
21256
47195501ecf7 moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial to Library;
wenzelm
parents:
diff changeset
   251
  apply assumption+
47195501ecf7 moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial to Library;
wenzelm
parents:
diff changeset
   252
  apply (erule zero_le_even_power)
21263
wenzelm
parents: 21256
diff changeset
   253
  done
21256
47195501ecf7 moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial to Library;
wenzelm
parents:
diff changeset
   254
35028
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haftmann
parents: 33358
diff changeset
   255
lemma zero_less_power_eq[presburger]: "(0 < (x::'a::{linordered_idom}) ^ n) =
21256
47195501ecf7 moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial to Library;
wenzelm
parents:
diff changeset
   256
    (n = 0 | (even n & x ~= 0) | (odd n & 0 < x))"
27668
6eb20b2cecf8 Tuned and simplified proofs
chaieb
parents: 27651
diff changeset
   257
6eb20b2cecf8 Tuned and simplified proofs
chaieb
parents: 27651
diff changeset
   258
  unfolding order_less_le zero_le_power_eq by auto
21256
47195501ecf7 moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial to Library;
wenzelm
parents:
diff changeset
   259
35028
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haftmann
parents: 33358
diff changeset
   260
lemma power_less_zero_eq[presburger]: "((x::'a::{linordered_idom}) ^ n < 0) =
27668
6eb20b2cecf8 Tuned and simplified proofs
chaieb
parents: 27651
diff changeset
   261
    (odd n & x < 0)"
21263
wenzelm
parents: 21256
diff changeset
   262
  apply (subst linorder_not_le [symmetric])+
21256
47195501ecf7 moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial to Library;
wenzelm
parents:
diff changeset
   263
  apply (subst zero_le_power_eq)
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wenzelm
parents:
diff changeset
   264
  apply auto
21263
wenzelm
parents: 21256
diff changeset
   265
  done
21256
47195501ecf7 moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial to Library;
wenzelm
parents:
diff changeset
   266
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haftmann
parents: 33358
diff changeset
   267
lemma power_le_zero_eq[presburger]: "((x::'a::{linordered_idom}) ^ n <= 0) =
21256
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wenzelm
parents:
diff changeset
   268
    (n ~= 0 & ((odd n & x <= 0) | (even n & x = 0)))"
21263
wenzelm
parents: 21256
diff changeset
   269
  apply (subst linorder_not_less [symmetric])+
21256
47195501ecf7 moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial to Library;
wenzelm
parents:
diff changeset
   270
  apply (subst zero_less_power_eq)
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wenzelm
parents:
diff changeset
   271
  apply auto
21263
wenzelm
parents: 21256
diff changeset
   272
  done
21256
47195501ecf7 moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial to Library;
wenzelm
parents:
diff changeset
   273
21263
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parents: 21256
diff changeset
   274
lemma power_even_abs: "even n ==>
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haftmann
parents: 33358
diff changeset
   275
    (abs (x::'a::{linordered_idom}))^n = x^n"
21263
wenzelm
parents: 21256
diff changeset
   276
  apply (subst power_abs [symmetric])
21256
47195501ecf7 moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial to Library;
wenzelm
parents:
diff changeset
   277
  apply (simp add: zero_le_even_power)
21263
wenzelm
parents: 21256
diff changeset
   278
  done
21256
47195501ecf7 moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial to Library;
wenzelm
parents:
diff changeset
   279
23522
7e8255828502 Tuned proofs
chaieb
parents: 23438
diff changeset
   280
lemma zero_less_power_nat_eq[presburger]: "(0 < (x::nat) ^ n) = (n = 0 | 0 < x)"
21263
wenzelm
parents: 21256
diff changeset
   281
  by (induct n) auto
21256
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wenzelm
parents:
diff changeset
   282
21263
wenzelm
parents: 21256
diff changeset
   283
lemma power_minus_even [simp]: "even n ==>
31017
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haftmann
parents: 30738
diff changeset
   284
    (- x)^n = (x^n::'a::{comm_ring_1})"
21256
47195501ecf7 moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial to Library;
wenzelm
parents:
diff changeset
   285
  apply (subst power_minus)
47195501ecf7 moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial to Library;
wenzelm
parents:
diff changeset
   286
  apply simp
21263
wenzelm
parents: 21256
diff changeset
   287
  done
21256
47195501ecf7 moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial to Library;
wenzelm
parents:
diff changeset
   288
21263
wenzelm
parents: 21256
diff changeset
   289
lemma power_minus_odd [simp]: "odd n ==>
31017
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haftmann
parents: 30738
diff changeset
   290
    (- x)^n = - (x^n::'a::{comm_ring_1})"
21256
47195501ecf7 moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial to Library;
wenzelm
parents:
diff changeset
   291
  apply (subst power_minus)
47195501ecf7 moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial to Library;
wenzelm
parents:
diff changeset
   292
  apply simp
21263
wenzelm
parents: 21256
diff changeset
   293
  done
21256
47195501ecf7 moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial to Library;
wenzelm
parents:
diff changeset
   294
35028
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haftmann
parents: 33358
diff changeset
   295
lemma power_mono_even: fixes x y :: "'a :: {linordered_idom}"
29803
c56a5571f60a Added derivation lemmas for power series and theorems for the pi, arcus tangens and logarithm series
hoelzl
parents: 29654
diff changeset
   296
  assumes "even n" and "\<bar>x\<bar> \<le> \<bar>y\<bar>"
c56a5571f60a Added derivation lemmas for power series and theorems for the pi, arcus tangens and logarithm series
hoelzl
parents: 29654
diff changeset
   297
  shows "x^n \<le> y^n"
c56a5571f60a Added derivation lemmas for power series and theorems for the pi, arcus tangens and logarithm series
hoelzl
parents: 29654
diff changeset
   298
proof -
c56a5571f60a Added derivation lemmas for power series and theorems for the pi, arcus tangens and logarithm series
hoelzl
parents: 29654
diff changeset
   299
  have "0 \<le> \<bar>x\<bar>" by auto
c56a5571f60a Added derivation lemmas for power series and theorems for the pi, arcus tangens and logarithm series
hoelzl
parents: 29654
diff changeset
   300
  with `\<bar>x\<bar> \<le> \<bar>y\<bar>`
c56a5571f60a Added derivation lemmas for power series and theorems for the pi, arcus tangens and logarithm series
hoelzl
parents: 29654
diff changeset
   301
  have "\<bar>x\<bar>^n \<le> \<bar>y\<bar>^n" by (rule power_mono)
c56a5571f60a Added derivation lemmas for power series and theorems for the pi, arcus tangens and logarithm series
hoelzl
parents: 29654
diff changeset
   302
  thus ?thesis unfolding power_even_abs[OF `even n`] .
c56a5571f60a Added derivation lemmas for power series and theorems for the pi, arcus tangens and logarithm series
hoelzl
parents: 29654
diff changeset
   303
qed
c56a5571f60a Added derivation lemmas for power series and theorems for the pi, arcus tangens and logarithm series
hoelzl
parents: 29654
diff changeset
   304
c56a5571f60a Added derivation lemmas for power series and theorems for the pi, arcus tangens and logarithm series
hoelzl
parents: 29654
diff changeset
   305
lemma odd_pos: "odd (n::nat) \<Longrightarrow> 0 < n" by presburger
c56a5571f60a Added derivation lemmas for power series and theorems for the pi, arcus tangens and logarithm series
hoelzl
parents: 29654
diff changeset
   306
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haftmann
parents: 33358
diff changeset
   307
lemma power_mono_odd: fixes x y :: "'a :: {linordered_idom}"
29803
c56a5571f60a Added derivation lemmas for power series and theorems for the pi, arcus tangens and logarithm series
hoelzl
parents: 29654
diff changeset
   308
  assumes "odd n" and "x \<le> y"
c56a5571f60a Added derivation lemmas for power series and theorems for the pi, arcus tangens and logarithm series
hoelzl
parents: 29654
diff changeset
   309
  shows "x^n \<le> y^n"
c56a5571f60a Added derivation lemmas for power series and theorems for the pi, arcus tangens and logarithm series
hoelzl
parents: 29654
diff changeset
   310
proof (cases "y < 0")
c56a5571f60a Added derivation lemmas for power series and theorems for the pi, arcus tangens and logarithm series
hoelzl
parents: 29654
diff changeset
   311
  case True with `x \<le> y` have "-y \<le> -x" and "0 \<le> -y" by auto
c56a5571f60a Added derivation lemmas for power series and theorems for the pi, arcus tangens and logarithm series
hoelzl
parents: 29654
diff changeset
   312
  hence "(-y)^n \<le> (-x)^n" by (rule power_mono)
c56a5571f60a Added derivation lemmas for power series and theorems for the pi, arcus tangens and logarithm series
hoelzl
parents: 29654
diff changeset
   313
  thus ?thesis unfolding power_minus_odd[OF `odd n`] by auto
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next
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   315
  case False
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   316
  show ?thesis
c56a5571f60a Added derivation lemmas for power series and theorems for the pi, arcus tangens and logarithm series
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   317
  proof (cases "x < 0")
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   318
    case True hence "n \<noteq> 0" and "x \<le> 0" using `odd n`[THEN odd_pos] by auto
c56a5571f60a Added derivation lemmas for power series and theorems for the pi, arcus tangens and logarithm series
hoelzl
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   319
    hence "x^n \<le> 0" unfolding power_le_zero_eq using `odd n` by auto
c56a5571f60a Added derivation lemmas for power series and theorems for the pi, arcus tangens and logarithm series
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   320
    moreover
c56a5571f60a Added derivation lemmas for power series and theorems for the pi, arcus tangens and logarithm series
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   321
    from `\<not> y < 0` have "0 \<le> y" by auto
c56a5571f60a Added derivation lemmas for power series and theorems for the pi, arcus tangens and logarithm series
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   322
    hence "0 \<le> y^n" by auto
c56a5571f60a Added derivation lemmas for power series and theorems for the pi, arcus tangens and logarithm series
hoelzl
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   323
    ultimately show ?thesis by auto
c56a5571f60a Added derivation lemmas for power series and theorems for the pi, arcus tangens and logarithm series
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   324
  next
c56a5571f60a Added derivation lemmas for power series and theorems for the pi, arcus tangens and logarithm series
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   325
    case False hence "0 \<le> x" by auto
c56a5571f60a Added derivation lemmas for power series and theorems for the pi, arcus tangens and logarithm series
hoelzl
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   326
    with `x \<le> y` show ?thesis using power_mono by auto
c56a5571f60a Added derivation lemmas for power series and theorems for the pi, arcus tangens and logarithm series
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   327
  qed
c56a5571f60a Added derivation lemmas for power series and theorems for the pi, arcus tangens and logarithm series
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   328
qed
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   329
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   331
subsection {* More Even/Odd Results *}
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   332
 
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   333
lemma even_mult_two_ex: "even(n) = (\<exists>m::nat. n = 2*m)" by presburger
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   334
lemma odd_Suc_mult_two_ex: "odd(n) = (\<exists>m. n = Suc (2*m))" by presburger
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   335
lemma even_add [simp]: "even(m + n::nat) = (even m = even n)"  by presburger
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   336
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   337
lemma odd_add [simp]: "odd(m + n::nat) = (odd m \<noteq> odd n)" by presburger
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   338
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   339
lemma div_Suc: "Suc a div c = a div c + Suc 0 div c +
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   340
    (a mod c + Suc 0 mod c) div c" 
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   341
  apply (subgoal_tac "Suc a = a + Suc 0")
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   342
  apply (erule ssubst)
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   343
  apply (rule div_add1_eq, simp)
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   344
  done
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   345
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   346
lemma lemma_even_div2 [simp]: "even (n::nat) ==> (n + 1) div 2 = n div 2" by presburger
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   347
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   348
lemma lemma_not_even_div2 [simp]: "~even n ==> (n + 1) div 2 = Suc (n div 2)"
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   349
by presburger
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   350
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   351
lemma even_num_iff: "0 < n ==> even n = (~ even(n - 1 :: nat))"  by presburger
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   352
lemma even_even_mod_4_iff: "even (n::nat) = even (n mod 4)" by presburger
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   353
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   354
lemma lemma_odd_mod_4_div_2: "n mod 4 = (3::nat) ==> odd((n - 1) div 2)" by presburger
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   355
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   356
lemma lemma_even_mod_4_div_2: "n mod 4 = (1::nat) ==> even ((n - 1) div 2)"
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chaieb
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   357
  by presburger
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   358
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   359
text {* Simplify, when the exponent is a numeral *}
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   360
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2a1953f0d20d merged fork with new numeral representation (see NEWS)
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   361
lemmas zero_le_power_eq_numeral [simp] =
2a1953f0d20d merged fork with new numeral representation (see NEWS)
huffman
parents: 45607
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   362
    zero_le_power_eq [of _ "numeral w"] for w
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parents:
diff changeset
   363
47108
2a1953f0d20d merged fork with new numeral representation (see NEWS)
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parents: 45607
diff changeset
   364
lemmas zero_less_power_eq_numeral [simp] =
2a1953f0d20d merged fork with new numeral representation (see NEWS)
huffman
parents: 45607
diff changeset
   365
    zero_less_power_eq [of _ "numeral w"] for w
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47195501ecf7 moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial to Library;
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parents:
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   366
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2a1953f0d20d merged fork with new numeral representation (see NEWS)
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   367
lemmas power_le_zero_eq_numeral [simp] =
2a1953f0d20d merged fork with new numeral representation (see NEWS)
huffman
parents: 45607
diff changeset
   368
    power_le_zero_eq [of _ "numeral w"] for w
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parents:
diff changeset
   369
47108
2a1953f0d20d merged fork with new numeral representation (see NEWS)
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parents: 45607
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   370
lemmas power_less_zero_eq_numeral [simp] =
2a1953f0d20d merged fork with new numeral representation (see NEWS)
huffman
parents: 45607
diff changeset
   371
    power_less_zero_eq [of _ "numeral w"] for w
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wenzelm
parents:
diff changeset
   372
47108
2a1953f0d20d merged fork with new numeral representation (see NEWS)
huffman
parents: 45607
diff changeset
   373
lemmas zero_less_power_nat_eq_numeral [simp] =
2a1953f0d20d merged fork with new numeral representation (see NEWS)
huffman
parents: 45607
diff changeset
   374
    zero_less_power_nat_eq [of _ "numeral w"] for w
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parents:
diff changeset
   375
47108
2a1953f0d20d merged fork with new numeral representation (see NEWS)
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   376
lemmas power_eq_0_iff_numeral [simp] = power_eq_0_iff [of _ "numeral w"] for w
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parents:
diff changeset
   377
47108
2a1953f0d20d merged fork with new numeral representation (see NEWS)
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diff changeset
   378
lemmas power_even_abs_numeral [simp] = power_even_abs [of "numeral w" _] for w
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wenzelm
parents:
diff changeset
   379
47195501ecf7 moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial to Library;
wenzelm
parents:
diff changeset
   380
47195501ecf7 moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial to Library;
wenzelm
parents:
diff changeset
   381
subsection {* An Equivalence for @{term [source] "0 \<le> a^n"} *}
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wenzelm
parents:
diff changeset
   382
47195501ecf7 moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial to Library;
wenzelm
parents:
diff changeset
   383
lemma even_power_le_0_imp_0:
35028
108662d50512 more consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and lattices) -- c.f. NEWS
haftmann
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diff changeset
   384
    "a ^ (2*k) \<le> (0::'a::{linordered_idom}) ==> a=0"
35216
7641e8d831d2 get rid of many duplicate simp rule warnings
huffman
parents: 35043
diff changeset
   385
  by (induct k) (auto simp add: zero_le_mult_iff mult_le_0_iff)
21256
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wenzelm
parents:
diff changeset
   386
23522
7e8255828502 Tuned proofs
chaieb
parents: 23438
diff changeset
   387
lemma zero_le_power_iff[presburger]:
35028
108662d50512 more consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and lattices) -- c.f. NEWS
haftmann
parents: 33358
diff changeset
   388
  "(0 \<le> a^n) = (0 \<le> (a::'a::{linordered_idom}) | even n)"
21256
47195501ecf7 moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial to Library;
wenzelm
parents:
diff changeset
   389
proof cases
47195501ecf7 moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial to Library;
wenzelm
parents:
diff changeset
   390
  assume even: "even n"
47195501ecf7 moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial to Library;
wenzelm
parents:
diff changeset
   391
  then obtain k where "n = 2*k"
47195501ecf7 moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial to Library;
wenzelm
parents:
diff changeset
   392
    by (auto simp add: even_nat_equiv_def2 numeral_2_eq_2)
21263
wenzelm
parents: 21256
diff changeset
   393
  thus ?thesis by (simp add: zero_le_even_power even)
21256
47195501ecf7 moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial to Library;
wenzelm
parents:
diff changeset
   394
next
47195501ecf7 moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial to Library;
wenzelm
parents:
diff changeset
   395
  assume odd: "odd n"
47195501ecf7 moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial to Library;
wenzelm
parents:
diff changeset
   396
  then obtain k where "n = Suc(2*k)"
47195501ecf7 moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial to Library;
wenzelm
parents:
diff changeset
   397
    by (auto simp add: odd_nat_equiv_def2 numeral_2_eq_2)
47195501ecf7 moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial to Library;
wenzelm
parents:
diff changeset
   398
  thus ?thesis
35216
7641e8d831d2 get rid of many duplicate simp rule warnings
huffman
parents: 35043
diff changeset
   399
    by (auto simp add: zero_le_mult_iff zero_le_even_power
21263
wenzelm
parents: 21256
diff changeset
   400
             dest!: even_power_le_0_imp_0)
wenzelm
parents: 21256
diff changeset
   401
qed
wenzelm
parents: 21256
diff changeset
   402
21256
47195501ecf7 moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial to Library;
wenzelm
parents:
diff changeset
   403
47195501ecf7 moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial to Library;
wenzelm
parents:
diff changeset
   404
subsection {* Miscellaneous *}
47195501ecf7 moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial to Library;
wenzelm
parents:
diff changeset
   405
23522
7e8255828502 Tuned proofs
chaieb
parents: 23438
diff changeset
   406
lemma [presburger]:"(x + 1) div 2 = x div 2 \<longleftrightarrow> even (x::int)" by presburger
7e8255828502 Tuned proofs
chaieb
parents: 23438
diff changeset
   407
lemma [presburger]: "(x + 1) div 2 = x div 2 + 1 \<longleftrightarrow> odd (x::int)" by presburger
7e8255828502 Tuned proofs
chaieb
parents: 23438
diff changeset
   408
lemma even_plus_one_div_two: "even (x::int) ==> (x + 1) div 2 = x div 2"  by presburger
7e8255828502 Tuned proofs
chaieb
parents: 23438
diff changeset
   409
lemma odd_plus_one_div_two: "odd (x::int) ==> (x + 1) div 2 = x div 2 + 1" by presburger
21256
47195501ecf7 moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial to Library;
wenzelm
parents:
diff changeset
   410
23522
7e8255828502 Tuned proofs
chaieb
parents: 23438
diff changeset
   411
lemma [presburger]: "(Suc x) div Suc (Suc 0) = x div Suc (Suc 0) \<longleftrightarrow> even x" by presburger
7e8255828502 Tuned proofs
chaieb
parents: 23438
diff changeset
   412
lemma [presburger]: "(Suc x) div Suc (Suc 0) = x div Suc (Suc 0) \<longleftrightarrow> even x" by presburger
21263
wenzelm
parents: 21256
diff changeset
   413
lemma even_nat_plus_one_div_two: "even (x::nat) ==>
23522
7e8255828502 Tuned proofs
chaieb
parents: 23438
diff changeset
   414
    (Suc x) div Suc (Suc 0) = x div Suc (Suc 0)" by presburger
21256
47195501ecf7 moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial to Library;
wenzelm
parents:
diff changeset
   415
21263
wenzelm
parents: 21256
diff changeset
   416
lemma odd_nat_plus_one_div_two: "odd (x::nat) ==>
23522
7e8255828502 Tuned proofs
chaieb
parents: 23438
diff changeset
   417
    (Suc x) div Suc (Suc 0) = Suc (x div Suc (Suc 0))" by presburger
21256
47195501ecf7 moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial to Library;
wenzelm
parents:
diff changeset
   418
47195501ecf7 moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial to Library;
wenzelm
parents:
diff changeset
   419
end