src/Pure/General/sql.scala
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clarified handling of SQL.Type;
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/*  Title:      Pure/General/sql.scala
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    Author:     Makarius
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Support for SQL databases: SQLite and PostgreSQL.
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*/
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package isabelle
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import java.sql.{DriverManager, Connection, PreparedStatement, ResultSet}
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object SQL
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{
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  /** SQL language **/
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  /* concrete syntax */
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  def quote_char(c: Char): String =
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    c match {
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      case '\u0000' => "\\0"
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      case '\'' => "\\'"
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      case '\"' => "\\\""
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      case '\b' => "\\b"
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      case '\n' => "\\n"
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      case '\r' => "\\r"
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      case '\t' => "\\t"
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      case '\u001a' => "\\Z"
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      case '\\' => "\\\\"
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      case _ => c.toString
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    }
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  def quote_string(s: String): String =
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    quote(s.map(quote_char(_)).mkString)
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  def quote_ident(s: String): String =
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    quote(s.replace("\"", "\"\""))
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  def enclosure(ss: Iterable[String]): String = ss.mkString("(", ", ", ")")
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  /* types */
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  object Type extends Enumeration
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  {
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    val Int = Value("INTEGER")
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    val Long = Value("BIGINT")
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    val Double = Value("DOUBLE PRECISION")
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    val String = Value("TEXT")
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    val Bytes = Value("BLOB")
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  }
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  type Type_Name = Type.Value => String
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  def default_type_name(t: Type.Value): String = t.toString
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  /* columns */
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  object Column
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  {
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    def int(name: String, strict: Boolean = true, primary_key: Boolean = false): Column[Int] =
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      new Column_Int(name, strict, primary_key)
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    def long(name: String, strict: Boolean = true, primary_key: Boolean = false): Column[Long] =
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      new Column_Long(name, strict, primary_key)
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    def double(name: String, strict: Boolean = true, primary_key: Boolean = false): Column[Double] =
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      new Column_Double(name, strict, primary_key)
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    def string(name: String, strict: Boolean = true, primary_key: Boolean = false): Column[String] =
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      new Column_String(name, strict, primary_key)
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    def bytes(name: String, strict: Boolean = true, primary_key: Boolean = false): Column[Bytes] =
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      new Column_Bytes(name, strict, primary_key)
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  }
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  abstract class Column[+A] private[SQL](
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      val name: String,
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      val strict: Boolean,
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      val primary_key: Boolean,
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      val sql_type: Type.Value) extends Function[ResultSet, A]
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  {
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    def sql_name: String = quote_ident(name)
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    def sql_decl(type_name: Type_Name): String =
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      sql_name + " " + type_name(sql_type) +
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      (if (strict) " NOT NULL" else "") +
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      (if (primary_key) " PRIMARY KEY" else "")
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    def string(rs: ResultSet): String =
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    {
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      val s = rs.getString(name)
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      if (s == null) "" else s
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    }
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    def apply(rs: ResultSet): A
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    def get(rs: ResultSet): Option[A] =
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    {
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      val x = apply(rs)
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      if (rs.wasNull) None else Some(x)
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    }
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    override def toString: String = sql_decl(default_type_name)
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  }
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  class Column_Int private[SQL](name: String, strict: Boolean, primary_key: Boolean)
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    extends Column[Int](name, strict, primary_key, Type.Int)
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  {
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    def apply(rs: ResultSet): Int = rs.getInt(name)
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  }
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  class Column_Long private[SQL](name: String, strict: Boolean, primary_key: Boolean)
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    extends Column[Long](name, strict, primary_key, Type.Long)
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  {
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    def apply(rs: ResultSet): Long = rs.getLong(name)
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  }
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  class Column_Double private[SQL](name: String, strict: Boolean, primary_key: Boolean)
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    extends Column[Double](name, strict, primary_key, Type.Double)
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  {
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    def apply(rs: ResultSet): Double = rs.getDouble(name)
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  }
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  class Column_String private[SQL](name: String, strict: Boolean, primary_key: Boolean)
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    extends Column[String](name, strict, primary_key, Type.String)
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  {
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    def apply(rs: ResultSet): String =
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    {
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      val s = rs.getString(name)
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      if (s == null) "" else s
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    }
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  }
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  class Column_Bytes private[SQL](name: String, strict: Boolean, primary_key: Boolean)
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    extends Column[Bytes](name, strict, primary_key, Type.Bytes)
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  {
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    def apply(rs: ResultSet): Bytes =
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    {
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      val bs = rs.getBytes(name)
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      if (bs == null) Bytes.empty else Bytes(bs)
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    }
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  }
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  /* tables */
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  def table(name: String, columns: List[Column[Any]]): Table = new Table(name, columns)
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  class Table private[SQL](name: String, columns: List[Column[Any]])
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  {
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    private val columns_index: Map[String, Int] =
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      columns.iterator.map(_.name).zipWithIndex.toMap
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    Library.duplicates(columns.map(_.name)) match {
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      case Nil =>
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      case bad => error("Duplicate column names " + commas_quote(bad) + " for table " + quote(name))
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    }
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    columns.filter(_.primary_key) match {
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      case bad if bad.length > 1 =>
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        error("Multiple primary keys " + commas_quote(bad.map(_.name)) + " for table " + quote(name))
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      case _ =>
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    }
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    def sql_create(strict: Boolean, rowid: Boolean, type_name: Type_Name): String =
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      "CREATE TABLE " + (if (strict) "" else "IF NOT EXISTS ") +
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        quote_ident(name) + " " + enclosure(columns.map(_.sql_decl(type_name))) +
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        (if (rowid) "" else " WITHOUT ROWID")
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    def sql_drop(strict: Boolean): String =
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      "DROP TABLE " + (if (strict) "" else "IF EXISTS ") + quote_ident(name)
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    def sql_create_index(
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        index_name: String, index_columns: List[Column[Any]],
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        strict: Boolean, unique: Boolean): String =
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      "CREATE " + (if (unique) "UNIQUE " else "") + "INDEX " +
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        (if (strict) "" else "IF NOT EXISTS ") + quote_ident(index_name) + " ON " +
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        quote_ident(name) + " " + enclosure(index_columns.map(_.name))
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    def sql_drop_index(index_name: String, strict: Boolean): String =
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      "DROP INDEX " + (if (strict) "" else "IF EXISTS ") + quote_ident(index_name)
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    def sql_insert: String =
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      "INSERT INTO " + quote_ident(name) + " VALUES " + enclosure(columns.map(_ => "?"))
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    def sql_select(select_columns: List[Column[Any]], distinct: Boolean): String =
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      "SELECT " + (if (distinct) "DISTINCT " else "") +
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      commas(select_columns.map(_.sql_name)) + " FROM " + quote_ident(name)
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    override def toString: String =
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      "TABLE " + quote_ident(name) + " " + enclosure(columns.map(_.toString))
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  }
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  /* results */
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  def iterator[A](rs: ResultSet)(get: ResultSet => A): Iterator[A] = new Iterator[A]
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  {
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    private var _next: Boolean = rs.next()
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    def hasNext: Boolean = _next
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    def next: A = { val x = get(rs); _next = rs.next(); x }
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  }
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  /** SQL database operations **/
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  trait Database
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  {
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    /* types */
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    def type_name(t: Type.Value): String = default_type_name(t)
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    /* connection */
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    def connection: Connection
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    def close() { connection.close }
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    def transaction[A](body: => A): A =
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    {
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      val auto_commit = connection.getAutoCommit
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      val savepoint = connection.setSavepoint
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      try {
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        connection.setAutoCommit(false)
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        val result = body
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        connection.commit
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        result
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      }
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      catch { case exn: Throwable => connection.rollback(savepoint); throw exn }
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      finally { connection.setAutoCommit(auto_commit) }
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    }
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    /* statements */
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    def statement(sql: String): PreparedStatement = connection.prepareStatement(sql)
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    def insert_statement(table: Table): PreparedStatement = statement(table.sql_insert)
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    def select_statement(table: Table, columns: List[Column[Any]],
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        sql: String = "", distinct: Boolean = false): PreparedStatement =
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      statement(table.sql_select(columns, distinct) + (if (sql == "") "" else " " + sql))
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    /* tables */
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    def tables: List[String] =
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      iterator(connection.getMetaData.getTables(null, null, "%", null))(_.getString(3)).toList
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    def create_table(table: Table, strict: Boolean = true, rowid: Boolean = true): Unit =
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      using(statement(table.sql_create(strict, rowid, type_name)))(_.execute())
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    def drop_table(table: Table, strict: Boolean = true): Unit =
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      using(statement(table.sql_drop(strict)))(_.execute())
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    def create_index(table: Table, name: String, columns: List[Column[Any]],
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        strict: Boolean = true, unique: Boolean = false): Unit =
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      using(statement(table.sql_create_index(name, columns, strict, unique)))(_.execute())
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    def drop_index(table: Table, name: String, strict: Boolean = true): Unit =
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      using(statement(table.sql_drop_index(name, strict)))(_.execute())
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  }
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}
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/** SQLite **/
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object SQLite
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{
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  def open_database(path: Path): Database =
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  {
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    val path0 = path.expand
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    val s0 = File.platform_path(path0)
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    val s1 = if (Platform.is_windows) s0.replace('\\', '/') else s0
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    val connection = DriverManager.getConnection("jdbc:sqlite:" + s1)
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    new Database(path0.toString, connection)
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  }
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  class Database private[SQLite](name: String, val connection: Connection) extends SQL.Database
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  {
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    override def toString: String = name
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    def rebuild { using(statement("VACUUM"))(_.execute()) }
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  }
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}
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/** PostgreSQL **/
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object PostgreSQL
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{
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  val default_port = 5432
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  def open_database(
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    user: String,
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    password: String,
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    database: String = "",
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    host: String = "",
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    port: Int = default_port): Database =
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  {
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    require(user != "")
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    val spec =
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      (if (host != "") host else "localhost") +
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      (if (port != default_port) ":" + port else "") + "/" +
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      (if (database != "") database else user)
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    val connection = DriverManager.getConnection("jdbc:postgresql://" + spec, user, password)
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    new Database(user + "@" + spec, connection)
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  }
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  class Database private[PostgreSQL](name: String, val connection: Connection) extends SQL.Database
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  {
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    override def toString: String = name
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    override def type_name(t: SQL.Type.Value): String =
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      if (t == SQL.Type.Bytes) "BYTEA"
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      else SQL.default_type_name(t)
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  }
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}