doc-src/Intro/intro.tex
author oheimb
Wed, 12 Nov 1997 18:58:50 +0100
changeset 4223 f60e3d2c81d3
parent 3285 9a3fe25f30bb
child 4239 8c98484ef66f
permissions -rw-r--r--
added thin_refl to hyp_subst_tac
Ignore whitespace changes - Everywhere: Within whitespace: At end of lines:
3096
ccc2c92bb232 Updated to LaTeX 2e
berghofe
parents: 2976
diff changeset
     1
\documentclass[12pt]{article}
3285
9a3fe25f30bb fixed packages;
wenzelm
parents: 3127
diff changeset
     2
\usepackage{a4}
3096
ccc2c92bb232 Updated to LaTeX 2e
berghofe
parents: 2976
diff changeset
     3
2656
71097a167f0b made a bit more robust;
wenzelm
parents: 1878
diff changeset
     4
\makeatletter
3285
9a3fe25f30bb fixed packages;
wenzelm
parents: 3127
diff changeset
     5
\input{../proof.sty}
2656
71097a167f0b made a bit more robust;
wenzelm
parents: 1878
diff changeset
     6
\input{../iman.sty}
71097a167f0b made a bit more robust;
wenzelm
parents: 1878
diff changeset
     7
\input{../extra.sty}
71097a167f0b made a bit more robust;
wenzelm
parents: 1878
diff changeset
     8
\makeatother
71097a167f0b made a bit more robust;
wenzelm
parents: 1878
diff changeset
     9
105
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    10
%% $Id$
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    11
%% run    bibtex intro         to prepare bibliography
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    12
%% run    ../sedindex intro    to prepare index file
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    13
%prth *(\(.*\));          \1;      
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    14
%{\\out \(.*\)}          {\\out val it = "\1" : thm}
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    15
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    16
\title{Introduction to Isabelle}   
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    17
\author{{\em Lawrence C. Paulson}\\
3127
4cc2fe62f7c3 New acknowledgements; no Fast_tac
paulson
parents: 3096
diff changeset
    18
        Computer Laboratory \\ University of Cambridge \\
4cc2fe62f7c3 New acknowledgements; no Fast_tac
paulson
parents: 3096
diff changeset
    19
        \texttt{lcp@cl.cam.ac.uk}\\[3ex] 
4cc2fe62f7c3 New acknowledgements; no Fast_tac
paulson
parents: 3096
diff changeset
    20
        With Contributions by Tobias Nipkow and Markus Wenzel
105
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    21
}
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    22
\makeindex
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    23
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    24
\underscoreoff
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    25
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    26
\setcounter{secnumdepth}{2} \setcounter{tocdepth}{2}
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    27
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    28
\sloppy
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    29
\binperiod     %%%treat . like a binary operator
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    30
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    31
\newcommand\qeq{\stackrel{?}{\equiv}}  %for disagreement pairs in unification
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    32
\newcommand{\nand}{\mathbin{\lnot\&}} 
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    33
\newcommand{\xor}{\mathbin{\#}}
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    34
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    35
\pagenumbering{roman} 
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    36
\begin{document}
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    37
\pagestyle{empty}
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    38
\begin{titlepage}
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    39
\maketitle 
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    40
\thispagestyle{empty}
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    41
\vfill
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    42
{\small Copyright \copyright{} \number\year{} by Lawrence C. Paulson}
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    43
\end{titlepage}
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    44
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    45
\pagestyle{headings}
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    46
\part*{Preface}
1878
ac8e534b4834 Updated BibTeX identifiers
paulson
parents: 1866
diff changeset
    47
\index{Isabelle!overview} \index{Isabelle!object-logics supported}
ac8e534b4834 Updated BibTeX identifiers
paulson
parents: 1866
diff changeset
    48
Isabelle~\cite{paulson-natural,paulson-found,paulson700} is a generic theorem
ac8e534b4834 Updated BibTeX identifiers
paulson
parents: 1866
diff changeset
    49
prover.  It has been instantiated to support reasoning in several
ac8e534b4834 Updated BibTeX identifiers
paulson
parents: 1866
diff changeset
    50
object-logics:
105
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    51
\begin{itemize}
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    52
\item first-order logic, constructive and classical versions
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    53
\item higher-order logic, similar to that of Gordon's {\sc
348
1f5a94209c97 post-CRC corrections
lcp
parents: 311
diff changeset
    54
hol}~\cite{mgordon-hol}
105
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    55
\item Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory~\cite{suppes72}
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    56
\item an extensional version of Martin-L\"of's Type Theory~\cite{nordstrom90}
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    57
\item the classical first-order sequent calculus, {\sc lk}
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    58
\item the modal logics $T$, $S4$, and $S43$
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    59
\item the Logic for Computable Functions~\cite{paulson87}
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    60
\end{itemize}
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    61
A logic's syntax and inference rules are specified declaratively; this
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    62
allows single-step proof construction.  Isabelle provides control
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    63
structures for expressing search procedures.  Isabelle also provides
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    64
several generic tools, such as simplifiers and classical theorem provers,
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    65
which can be applied to object-logics.
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    66
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    67
\index{ML}
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    68
Isabelle is a large system, but beginners can get by with a small
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    69
repertoire of commands and a basic knowledge of how Isabelle works.  Some
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    70
knowledge of Standard~\ML{} is essential, because \ML{} is Isabelle's user
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    71
interface.  Advanced Isabelle theorem proving can involve writing \ML{}
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    72
code, possibly with Isabelle's sources at hand.  My book
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    73
on~\ML{}~\cite{paulson91} covers much material connected with Isabelle,
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    74
including a simple theorem prover.  Users must be familiar with logic as
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    75
used in computer science; there are many good
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    76
texts~\cite{galton90,reeves90}.
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    77
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    78
\index{LCF}
348
1f5a94209c97 post-CRC corrections
lcp
parents: 311
diff changeset
    79
{\sc lcf}, developed by Robin Milner and colleagues~\cite{mgordon79}, is an
105
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    80
ancestor of {\sc hol}, Nuprl, and several other systems.  Isabelle borrows
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    81
ideas from {\sc lcf}: formulae are~\ML{} values; theorems belong to an
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    82
abstract type; tactics and tacticals support backward proof.  But {\sc lcf}
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    83
represents object-level rules by functions, while Isabelle represents them
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    84
by terms.  You may find my other writings~\cite{paulson87,paulson-handbook}
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    85
helpful in understanding the relationship between {\sc lcf} and Isabelle.
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    86
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    87
\index{Isabelle!release history} Isabelle was first distributed in 1986.
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    88
The 1987 version introduced a higher-order meta-logic with an improved
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    89
treatment of quantifiers.  The 1988 version added limited polymorphism and
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    90
support for natural deduction.  The 1989 version included a parser and
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    91
pretty printer generator.  The 1992 version introduced type classes, to
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    92
support many-sorted and higher-order logics.  The current version provides
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    93
greater support for theories and is much faster.  Isabelle is still under
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    94
development and will continue to change.
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    95
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
    96
\subsubsection*{Overview} 
296
e1f6cd9f682e revisions to first Springer draft
lcp
parents: 184
diff changeset
    97
This manual consists of three parts.  Part~I discusses the Isabelle's
e1f6cd9f682e revisions to first Springer draft
lcp
parents: 184
diff changeset
    98
foundations.  Part~II, presents simple on-line sessions, starting with
e1f6cd9f682e revisions to first Springer draft
lcp
parents: 184
diff changeset
    99
forward proof.  It also covers basic tactics and tacticals, and some
e1f6cd9f682e revisions to first Springer draft
lcp
parents: 184
diff changeset
   100
commands for invoking them.  Part~III contains further examples for users
e1f6cd9f682e revisions to first Springer draft
lcp
parents: 184
diff changeset
   101
with a bit of experience.  It explains how to derive rules define theories,
e1f6cd9f682e revisions to first Springer draft
lcp
parents: 184
diff changeset
   102
and concludes with an extended example: a Prolog interpreter.
105
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   103
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   104
Isabelle's Reference Manual and Object-Logics manual contain more details.
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   105
They assume familiarity with the concepts presented here.
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   106
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   107
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   108
\subsubsection*{Acknowledgements} 
311
3fb8cdb32e10 penultimate Springer draft
lcp
parents: 296
diff changeset
   109
Tobias Nipkow contributed most of the section on defining theories.
3127
4cc2fe62f7c3 New acknowledgements; no Fast_tac
paulson
parents: 3096
diff changeset
   110
Stefan Berghofer and Sara Kalvala suggested improvements.
105
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   111
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   112
Tobias Nipkow has made immense contributions to Isabelle, including the
184
236b655114a1 Changed Acknowledgements
lcp
parents: 105
diff changeset
   113
parser generator, type classes, and the simplifier.  Carsten Clasohm and
236b655114a1 Changed Acknowledgements
lcp
parents: 105
diff changeset
   114
Markus Wenzel made major contributions; Sonia Mahjoub and Karin Nimmermann
236b655114a1 Changed Acknowledgements
lcp
parents: 105
diff changeset
   115
also helped.  Isabelle was developed using Dave Matthews's Standard~{\sc
236b655114a1 Changed Acknowledgements
lcp
parents: 105
diff changeset
   116
  ml} compiler, Poly/{\sc ml}.  Many people have contributed to Isabelle's
236b655114a1 Changed Acknowledgements
lcp
parents: 105
diff changeset
   117
standard object-logics, including Martin Coen, Philippe de Groote, Philippe
3127
4cc2fe62f7c3 New acknowledgements; no Fast_tac
paulson
parents: 3096
diff changeset
   118
No\"el.  The research has been funded by the EPSRC (grants
4cc2fe62f7c3 New acknowledgements; no Fast_tac
paulson
parents: 3096
diff changeset
   119
GR/G53279, GR/H40570, GR/K57381, GR/K77051)
4cc2fe62f7c3 New acknowledgements; no Fast_tac
paulson
parents: 3096
diff changeset
   120
and by ESPRIT (projects 3245: Logical Frameworks, and 6453: Types).
105
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   121
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   122
\newpage
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   123
\pagestyle{plain} \tableofcontents 
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   124
\newpage
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   125
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   126
\newfont{\sanssi}{cmssi12}
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   127
\vspace*{2.5cm}
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   128
\begin{quote}
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   129
\raggedleft
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   130
{\sanssi
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   131
You can only find truth with logic\\
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   132
if you have already found truth without it.}\\
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   133
\bigskip
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   134
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   135
G.K. Chesterton, {\em The Man who was Orthodox}
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   136
\end{quote}
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   137
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   138
\clearfirst  \pagestyle{headings}
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   139
\include{foundations}
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   140
\include{getting}
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   141
\include{advanced}
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   142
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   143
\bibliographystyle{plain} \small\raggedright\frenchspacing
873
0cfc734e3dbd \bibliography now includes crossref.bib
lcp
parents: 348
diff changeset
   144
\bibliography{string,atp,funprog,general,logicprog,isabelle,theory,crossref}
105
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   145
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   146
\input{intro.ind}
216d6ed87399 Initial revision
lcp
parents:
diff changeset
   147
\end{document}