NEWS
author wenzelm
Sat Jan 25 22:06:07 2014 +0100 (2014-01-25)
changeset 55143 04448228381d
parent 55139 4d899933a51a
child 55152 a56099a6447a
permissions -rw-r--r--
explicit eigen-context for attributes "where", "of", and corresponding read_instantiate, instantiate_tac;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    10 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    11 
    12 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    13 not check existence within the file-system.
    14 
    15 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary Isabelle/ML
    16 workaround in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    17 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.
    18 
    19 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
    20 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
    21 string token.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    22 
    23 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
    24 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.
    25 
    26 
    27 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    28 
    29 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
    30 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
    31 
    32 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
    33 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
    34 
    35 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
    36 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
    37 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
    38 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
    39 
    40 
    41 *** Pure ***
    42 
    43 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
    44 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
    45 instantiated theorem.
    46 
    47 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
    48 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
    49 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
    50 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
    51 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
    52 
    53 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
    54 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
    55 differently).
    56 
    57 
    58 *** HOL ***
    59 
    60 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
    61 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
    62 
    63 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".
    64   The "bnf", "wrap_free_constructors", "datatype_new", "codatatype",
    65   "primrec_new", "primcorec", and "primcorecursive" command are now part of
    66   "Main".
    67   INCOMPATIBILITY.
    68   Theory renamings:
    69     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
    70     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
    71     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
    72     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
    73     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
    74     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
    75     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
    76     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
    77     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
    78     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
    79     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
    80     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
    81     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
    82     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
    83     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
    84     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
    85     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
    86     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
    87     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
    88     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
    89     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
    90     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
    91   New theories:
    92     List_Prefix.thy (split from Library/Sublist.thy)
    93     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
    94     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
    95     Library/BNF_Decl.thy
    96     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
    97     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
    98   Discontinued theory:
    99     BNF/BNF.thy
   100     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   101 
   102 * New theory:
   103     Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy
   104 
   105 * Theory reorganizations:
   106   * Big_Operators.thy ~> Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy
   107 
   108 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   109 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   110 
   111 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   112 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   113 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   114 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   115 
   116 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   117 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   118 
   119 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   120 with the given constants.
   121 
   122 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
   123 
   124 Fact consolidations:
   125     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
   126     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
   127     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
   128     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
   129     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
   130     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
   131     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
   132     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
   133     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
   134     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
   135     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
   136     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
   137     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
   138     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
   139     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
   140     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
   141     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
   142     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
   143     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
   144     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
   145     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
   146     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
   147     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
   148     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
   149     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
   150     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
   151     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
   152     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
   153     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
   154     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
   155     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
   156     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
   157     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
   158     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
   159     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
   160     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
   161     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
   162     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
   163     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
   164     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
   165 
   166 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
   167 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
   168 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
   169 
   170 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1, min.cobounded2,
   171 max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
   172 
   173 For min_ac or max_ac, prefor more general collection ac_simps.
   174 
   175 INCOMPATBILITY. 
   176 
   177 * Word library: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
   178 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   179 
   180 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~> Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.
   181 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   182 
   183 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   184 operations on records.
   185 
   186 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
   187 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   188 
   189 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
   190     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   191 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   192 
   193 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
   194     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
   195     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
   196 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   197 
   198 * Abolished neg_numeral.
   199   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
   200   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
   201   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
   202     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
   203   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
   204     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
   205   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
   206 INCOMPATBILITY.
   207 
   208 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
   209     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
   210     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
   211     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
   212     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
   213 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   214 
   215 * Fact name consolidation:
   216     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   217     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
   218     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
   219     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
   220     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
   221 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   222 
   223 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
   224 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
   225 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
   226 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
   227 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
   228 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
   229 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
   230 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   231 
   232 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
   233 
   234 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
   235 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
   236 
   237 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
   238 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
   239 
   240 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
   241 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
   242 or the brute way with
   243 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
   244 
   245 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
   246 
   247 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
   248 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   249 
   250 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
   251 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
   252 
   253 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
   254 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
   255 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
   256 INCOMPATIBILITY
   257 
   258 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   259 
   260 * Nitpick:
   261   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
   262     infinite values.
   263 
   264 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   265   - type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces
   266   - changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   267     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   268     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   269     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   270     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-) open
   271     intervals.
   272 
   273 
   274 *** ML ***
   275 
   276 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
   277 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
   278 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
   279 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
   280 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
   281 of schematic variables.
   282 
   283 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   284 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   285 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   286 formal context.
   287 
   288 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   289 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   290 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   291 actually belongs to it).
   292 
   293 
   294 *** System ***
   295 
   296 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   297 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   298 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   299 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   300 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   301 
   302 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   303 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   304 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   305 
   306 
   307 
   308 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   309 -------------------------------------
   310 
   311 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   312 
   313 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   314 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   315 
   316 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   317 after edits surrounding the command location.
   318 
   319 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   320 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   321 e.g. out-of-memory).
   322 
   323 
   324 *** System ***
   325 
   326 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   327 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   328 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   329 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   330 
   331 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   332 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   333 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   334 
   335 
   336 
   337 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   338 -------------------------------------
   339 
   340 *** General ***
   341 
   342 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   343 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   344 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   345 
   346 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   347 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   348 
   349 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   350 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   351 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   352 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   353 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   354 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   355 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   356 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   357 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   358 syntax.
   359 
   360 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   361 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   362 
   363 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   364 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   365 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   366 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   367 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   368 
   369 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   370 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   371 
   372 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   373 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   374 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   375 
   376 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   377 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   378 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   379 
   380 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   381 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   382 
   383 
   384 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   385 
   386 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   387 Documentation panel.
   388 
   389 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   390 documentation.
   391 
   392 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   393 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   394 
   395 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   396 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   397 normal editing and checking process.
   398 
   399 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   400 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   401 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   402 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   403 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   404 
   405 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   406 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   407 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   408 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   409 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   410 
   411 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   412 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   413 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   414 
   415 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   416 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   417 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   418 to resolve conflict.
   419 
   420 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   421 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   422 
   423 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   424 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   425 such command executions while editing.
   426 
   427 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   428 document content.
   429 
   430 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   431 toplevel theorem statements.
   432 
   433 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   434 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   435 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   436 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   437 
   438 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   439 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   440 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   441 
   442 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   443 / Global Options / Appearance".
   444 
   445 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   446 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   447 
   448 
   449 *** Pure ***
   450 
   451 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   452 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   453 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   454 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   455 details.
   456 
   457 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   458 
   459 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   460 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   461 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   462 
   463 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   464 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   465 
   466 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   467 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   468 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   469 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   470 
   471 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   472 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   473 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   474 
   475 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   476 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   477 
   478 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   479 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   480 situations.
   481 
   482 
   483 *** HOL ***
   484 
   485 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   486 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   487 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   488 
   489 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   490 
   491 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   492 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   493 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   494 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   495 
   496   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   497 
   498 * Code generator:
   499   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   500     'code_instance'.
   501   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   502     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   503 
   504 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   505 examples.
   506 
   507 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   508 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   509 to distinguish both when desired.
   510 
   511 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   512 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   513 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   514 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   515 
   516 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   517 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   518 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   519 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   520 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   521 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   522 
   523 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   524 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   525 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   526 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   527 
   528 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   529 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   530 
   531 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   532 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   533 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   534 
   535 * Lifting:
   536   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   537     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
   538       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   539       transfer rules
   540     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   541       correspondence relation can be generated
   542     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   543       parametricity
   544     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   545   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   546   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   547     copies
   548   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   549     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   550     anonymous context)
   551   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
   552     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   553   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   554     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   555   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
   556     INCOMPATIBILITY
   557 
   558 * Transfer:
   559   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
   560     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   561   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   562   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   563     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   564   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   565 
   566 * Reification and reflection:
   567   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   568     "Reification".
   569   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   570   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   571 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   572 
   573 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   574   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   575     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   576     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   577   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   578     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   579   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   580     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   581     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   582     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   583     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   584     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   585     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   586     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   587   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   588     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   589   - Fact renames:
   590       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   591       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   592 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   593 
   594 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   595 
   596 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   597 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   598 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   599 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   600 
   601 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   602 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   603 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   604 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   605 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   606 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   607 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   608 lemmas.
   609 
   610 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   611 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   612 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   613 
   614 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
   615 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
   616 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   617 
   618 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   619 top and bottom elements.
   620 
   621 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   622 
   623 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   624 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   625 
   626  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
   627    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
   628    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
   629 
   630  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   631    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
   632    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   633 
   634    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
   635    arbitrary filter.
   636 
   637  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
   638    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   639    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
   640    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
   641    on a compact set.
   642 
   643  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   644    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   645    linear_continuum_topology).
   646 
   647  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   648    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
   649    on all sequences converging to x.
   650 
   651  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
   652    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
   653    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
   654    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
   655    left or right.
   656 
   657  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   658 
   659      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   660 
   661  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   662    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   663 
   664  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
   665    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
   666    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
   667    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
   668    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
   669    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
   670 
   671  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   672 
   673    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   674 
   675    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   676      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   677 
   678    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   679 
   680    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
   681      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
   682 
   683    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   684 
   685    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   686 
   687  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   688 
   689 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   690 
   691 * Nitpick:
   692   - Added option "spy"
   693   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors
   694 
   695 * Sledgehammer:
   696   - Renamed option:
   697       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   698     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   699   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy"
   700   - Better support for "isar_proofs"
   701   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server
   702 
   703 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   704 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   705 
   706 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   707   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   708   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
   709     generated code.
   710   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   711   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   712   - Fact renames:
   713     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   714     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
   715     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
   716 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   717 
   718 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
   719 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
   720 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
   721 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
   722 
   723 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
   724 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
   725 
   726 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   727 
   728 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   729 
   730     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   731     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   732 
   733 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   734 
   735 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
   736 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
   737 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
   738 
   739 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
   740 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
   741 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
   742 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   743 
   744 * HOL-BNF:
   745   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
   746     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
   747     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
   748     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
   749   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
   750     coinduct).
   751   - Renamed keywords:
   752     data ~> datatype_new
   753     codata ~> codatatype
   754     bnf_def ~> bnf
   755   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
   756     discs ~> disc
   757     map_comp' ~> map_comp
   758     map_id' ~> map_id
   759     sels ~> sel
   760     set_map' ~> set_map
   761     sets ~> set
   762 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   763 
   764 
   765 *** ML ***
   766 
   767 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
   768 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
   769 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
   770 Examples.thy in particular.
   771 
   772 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
   773 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
   774 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
   775 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
   776 
   777 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
   778 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
   779 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
   780 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
   781 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   782 
   783 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
   784 
   785     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
   786     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
   787 
   788 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   789 
   790 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
   791 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
   792 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
   793 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
   794 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
   795 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
   796 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
   797 
   798 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
   799 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
   800 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
   801 clasets separately from the context.
   802 
   803 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
   804 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
   805 
   806 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
   807 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
   808 
   809 
   810 *** System ***
   811 
   812 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
   813 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   814 
   815 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
   816 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   817 
   818 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
   819 settings variable.
   820 
   821 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
   822 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
   823 always pdf.
   824 
   825 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
   826 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
   827 
   828 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
   829 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
   830 
   831 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
   832 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
   833 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
   834 
   835 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
   836 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
   837 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
   838 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
   839 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   840 for HTML presentation of theories.
   841 
   842 
   843 
   844 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
   845 -----------------------------------
   846 
   847 *** General ***
   848 
   849 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
   850 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
   851 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
   852 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
   853 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
   854 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
   855 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
   856 
   857 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
   858 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
   859 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
   860 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
   861 
   862 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
   863 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
   864 
   865 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
   866 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
   867 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
   868 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
   869 dependencies properly.
   870 
   871 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
   872 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
   873 
   874 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
   875 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
   876 
   877 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
   878 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
   879 and "class ... context ...".
   880 
   881 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
   882 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
   883 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
   884 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
   885 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
   886 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
   887 
   888 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
   889 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
   890 
   891 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
   892 to name patterns (with clickable results).
   893 
   894 
   895 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   896 
   897 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
   898 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
   899 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
   900 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
   901 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
   902 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
   903 
   904 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
   905 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
   906 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
   907 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
   908 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
   909 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
   910 
   911 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
   912 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
   913 browser on demand.
   914 
   915 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
   916 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
   917 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
   918 that frequently occur in user interaction.
   919 
   920 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
   921 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
   922 
   923 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
   924 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
   925 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
   926 potentially infinite message streams.
   927 
   928 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
   929 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
   930 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
   931 schemes.
   932 
   933 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
   934 symbols.
   935 
   936 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
   937 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
   938 
   939 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
   940 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
   941 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
   942 
   943 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
   944 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
   945 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
   946 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
   947 
   948 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
   949 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
   950 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
   951 
   952 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
   953 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
   954 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
   955 Isabelle distribution.
   956 
   957 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
   958 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   959 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   960 
   961 
   962 *** Pure ***
   963 
   964 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   965 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   966 
   967 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
   968 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
   969 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   970 
   971 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   972 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   973 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   974 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   975 with some care where this is really required.
   976 
   977 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   978 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   979 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   980 
   981   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   982 
   983 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
   984 a Hasse diagram.
   985 
   986 
   987 *** HOL ***
   988 
   989 * Sledgehammer:
   990 
   991   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   992     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   993   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
   994   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   995   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
   996   - Renamed options:
   997       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   998       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   999       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  1000       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  1001 
  1002 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  1003 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  1004 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  1005 
  1006 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  1007 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1008 
  1009 * Lifting:
  1010   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  1011   - quot_del attribute
  1012   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  1013 
  1014 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  1015 expressions.
  1016 
  1017 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  1018 pointfree expressions.
  1019 
  1020 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  1021 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  1022 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  1023 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  1024 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1025 
  1026 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  1027 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  1028 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  1029 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  1030 accordingly.
  1031 
  1032 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  1033 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1034 
  1035 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  1036 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1037 
  1038 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1039 
  1040 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  1041 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  1042 
  1043 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  1044 
  1045 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  1046 
  1047   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  1048   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  1049 
  1050 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1051 
  1052 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  1053 
  1054   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  1055   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  1056 
  1057 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1058 
  1059 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  1060 
  1061   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  1062     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  1063     output f x converges to G.
  1064 
  1065   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  1066     infinity (at_bot).
  1067 
  1068   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  1069     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  1070 
  1071   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  1072     at_top".
  1073 
  1074 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1075 
  1076 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  1077 lattice type classes.
  1078 
  1079 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  1080 
  1081     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  1082     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  1083 
  1084 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1085 
  1086 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  1087 changes as follows.
  1088 
  1089   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  1090 
  1091       prefix ~> prefixeq
  1092       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  1093 
  1094   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  1095     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  1096     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  1097     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  1098 
  1099   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  1100     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  1101     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  1102 
  1103   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  1104     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  1105     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  1106     Library/Prefix_Order.
  1107 
  1108   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  1109     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  1110 
  1111       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  1112       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  1113       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  1114       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  1115       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  1116       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  1117       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  1118       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  1119       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  1120       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  1121       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  1122       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  1123       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  1124       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  1125       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  1126       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  1127 
  1128 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1129 
  1130 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  1131 
  1132 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  1133 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  1134 
  1135 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  1136 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  1137 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  1138 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  1139 
  1140   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  1141   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  1142   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  1143   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  1144   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  1145   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  1146   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  1147   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  1148   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  1149   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  1150 
  1151 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1152 
  1153 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  1154 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  1155 Data").
  1156 
  1157 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1158 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1159 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1160 code.
  1161 
  1162 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1163 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1164 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1165 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1166 
  1167 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1168 
  1169 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1170 
  1171 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1172 
  1173   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1174   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1175 
  1176 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1177 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1178 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1179 
  1180   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1181 
  1182     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1183     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1184     cart_base i  removed
  1185     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1186 
  1187   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1188 
  1189   Renamed lemmas:
  1190 
  1191     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1192     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1193     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1194     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1195     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1196     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1197     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1198     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1199     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1200     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1201 
  1202 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1203 
  1204 * HOL/Probability:
  1205 
  1206   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1207 
  1208   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1209     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1210     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1211 
  1212   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1213     projective family).
  1214 
  1215 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1216 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1217 
  1218 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1219 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1220 datatypes.
  1221 
  1222 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1223 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1224 
  1225 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1226 trees for the code generator.
  1227 
  1228 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1229 Lifting/Transfer.
  1230 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1231 
  1232 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1233 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1234 
  1235 
  1236 *** Document preparation ***
  1237 
  1238 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1239 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1240 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1241 
  1242 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1243 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1244 
  1245 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1246 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1247 document/root.tex.
  1248 
  1249 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1250 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1251 
  1252 
  1253 *** ML ***
  1254 
  1255 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1256 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1257 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1258 
  1259 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1260 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1261 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1262 
  1263 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1264 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1265 necessarily printing visible text.
  1266 
  1267 
  1268 *** System ***
  1269 
  1270 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1271 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1272 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1273 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1274 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1275 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1276 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1277 
  1278 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1279 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1280 
  1281   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1282 
  1283 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1284 
  1285 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1286 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1287 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1288 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1289 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1290 
  1291 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1292 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1293 
  1294 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1295 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1296 
  1297 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1298 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1299 
  1300 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1301 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1302 version of Isabelle.
  1303 
  1304 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1305 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1306 
  1307 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1308 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1309 for home-made settings.
  1310 
  1311 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1312 
  1313 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1314 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1315 configuration.
  1316 
  1317 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1318 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1319 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1320 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1321 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1322 
  1323 
  1324 
  1325 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1326 ------------------------------
  1327 
  1328 *** General ***
  1329 
  1330 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1331 
  1332   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1333     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1334   - markup for bound variables
  1335   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1336   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1337   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1338     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1339 
  1340 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1341 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1342 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1343 
  1344 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1345 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1346 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1347 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1348 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1349 
  1350   context
  1351     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1352     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1353   begin
  1354 
  1355   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1356 
  1357   end
  1358 
  1359   thm my_trans
  1360 
  1361 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1362 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1363 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1364 
  1365 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1366 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1367 
  1368 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1369 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1370 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1371 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1372 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1373 
  1374 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1375 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1376 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1377 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1378 indices of schematic variables.
  1379 
  1380 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1381 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1382 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1383 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1384 etc. was exploited.
  1385 
  1386 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1387 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1388 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1389 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1390 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1391 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1392 
  1393 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1394 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1395 manual.
  1396 
  1397 
  1398 *** Pure ***
  1399 
  1400 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1401 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1402 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1403 
  1404 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1405 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1406 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1407 undocumented feature.)
  1408 
  1409 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1410 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1411 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1412 
  1413   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1414 
  1415   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1416     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1417 
  1418 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1419 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1420 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1421 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1422 
  1423 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1424 
  1425     num ~> num_token
  1426     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1427     xstr ~> str_token
  1428 
  1429 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1430 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1431 position information via constraints).
  1432 
  1433 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1434 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1435 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1436 
  1437 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1438 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1439 
  1440 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1441 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1442 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1443 
  1444 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1445 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1446 
  1447 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1448 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1449 
  1450   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1451 
  1452 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1453 
  1454 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1455 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1456 
  1457 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1458 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1459 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1460 
  1461 
  1462 *** HOL ***
  1463 
  1464 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1465 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1466 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1467 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1468 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1469 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1470 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1471 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1472 possible.
  1473 
  1474 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1475 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1476 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1477 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1478 
  1479 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1480 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1481 
  1482 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1483 
  1484 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1485 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1486 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1487 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1488 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1489 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1490 
  1491   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1492     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1493 
  1494   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1495     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1496     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1497 
  1498   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1499     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1500 
  1501   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1502     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1503     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1504 
  1505   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1506     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1507 
  1508 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1509 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1510 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1511 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1512 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1513 
  1514   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1515     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1516     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1517     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1518     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1519 
  1520     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1521     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1522 
  1523   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1524     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1525     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1526     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1527     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1528     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1529     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1530     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1531 
  1532   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1533     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1534     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1535     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1536 
  1537   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1538     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1539     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1540     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1541 
  1542   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1543     from type nat to type int.
  1544 
  1545 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1546 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1547 
  1548   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1549     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1550     type.  Example syntax:
  1551 
  1552     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1553       is List.insert
  1554 
  1555     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1556     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1557     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1558     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1559     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1560     by the package.
  1561 
  1562   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1563     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1564     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1565     code generation for each constant.
  1566 
  1567   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1568     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1569     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1570     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1571     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1572 
  1573   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1574     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1575     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1576 
  1577 * Quotient package:
  1578 
  1579   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1580     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1581 
  1582   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1583     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1584 
  1585   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1586     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1587     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1588 
  1589   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1590     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1591 
  1592 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1593 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1594 
  1595 * Quickcheck:
  1596 
  1597   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1598     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1599     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1600     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1601     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1602 
  1603     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1604     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1605     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1606 
  1607     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1608     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1609 
  1610     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1611     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1612     show genuine counterexamples.
  1613 
  1614   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1615     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1616 
  1617     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1618     constructors of that type.
  1619 
  1620   - Support for multisets.
  1621 
  1622   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1623 
  1624   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1625     conjectures in a locale context.
  1626 
  1627 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1628 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1629 
  1630 * Sledgehammer:
  1631   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1632     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1633   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1634   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1635     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1636   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1637   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1638   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1639   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1640 
  1641 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1642 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1643 
  1644 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1645 
  1646 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1647 
  1648 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1649 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1650 
  1651   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1652 
  1653 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1654 a list and a nat.
  1655 
  1656 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1657 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1658 
  1659 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1660 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1661 default.
  1662 
  1663 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1664 
  1665   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1666 
  1667 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1668 
  1669 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1670 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1671 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1672 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1673 one_case.
  1674 
  1675 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1676 the result of the fact expression.
  1677 
  1678 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1679 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1680 of some relation theorems:
  1681 
  1682   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1683   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1684   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1685   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1686   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1687   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1688 
  1689 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1690 
  1691 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1692 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1693 
  1694 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1695 
  1696 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1697 to match the constant's name:
  1698 
  1699   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1700   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1701   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1702   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1703   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1704   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1705   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1706   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1707   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1708   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1709   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1710   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1711   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1712   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1713   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1714   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1715   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1716   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1717   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1718   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1719   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1720   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1721   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1722   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1723 
  1724 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1725 
  1726 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1727 and corresponding theorem names:
  1728 
  1729   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1730 
  1731   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1732 
  1733   - Renamed theorems:
  1734 
  1735     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1736     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1737     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1738     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1739     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1740     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1741     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1742     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1743     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1744     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1745     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1746     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1747     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1748     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1749     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1750     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1751     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1752     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1753     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1754     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1755     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1756     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1757     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1758 
  1759     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1760 
  1761     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1762 
  1763 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1764 
  1765 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1766 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1767 
  1768   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1769   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1770   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1771   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1772   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1773   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1774   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1775   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1776   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1777   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1778   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1779   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1780   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1781   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1782   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1783   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1784   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1785   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1786   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1787   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1788   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1789 
  1790 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1791 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1792 
  1793 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1794 
  1795 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1796 
  1797   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1798   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1799   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1800   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1801   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1802   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1803   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1804   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1805   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1806   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1807   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1808   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1809   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1810   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1811   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1812   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1813   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1814   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1815 
  1816 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1817 
  1818 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1819 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1820 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1821 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1822 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1823 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1824 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1825 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1826 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1827 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1828 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1829 
  1830 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1831 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1832 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1833 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1834 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1835 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1836 
  1837 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1838 through option types.
  1839 
  1840 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1841 relations.
  1842 
  1843 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1844 
  1845 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1846 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1847 
  1848   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1849   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1850   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1851   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1852   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1853   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1854   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1855   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1856   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1857   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1858   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1859   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1860   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1861   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1862   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1863   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1864   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1865   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1866   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1867   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1868   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1869   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1870   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1871   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1872   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1873   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1874   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1875   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1876   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1877   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1878   zless_le ~> less_le
  1879   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1880   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1881   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1882 
  1883 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1884 
  1885   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1886 
  1887 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1888 
  1889 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1890 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1891 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1892 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1893 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1894 
  1895 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1896 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1897 
  1898 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1899 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1900 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1901 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1902 follows:
  1903 
  1904   Operations:
  1905   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1906   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1907   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1908   del -> rbt_del
  1909   delete -> rbt_delete
  1910   ins -> rbt_ins
  1911   insert -> rbt_insert
  1912   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1913   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1914   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1915   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1916   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1917   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1918   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1919   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1920   union -> rbt_union
  1921   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1922   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1923 
  1924   Lemmas:
  1925   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1926   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1927   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1928   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1929   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1930   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1931   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1932   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1933   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1934   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1935   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1936   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1937   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1938   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1939   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1940   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1941   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1942   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1943   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1944   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1945   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1946   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1947   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1948   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1949   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1950   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1951   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1952   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1953   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1954   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1955   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1956   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1957   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1958   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1959   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1960   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1961   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1962   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1963   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1964   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1965   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1966   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1967   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1968   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1969   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1970   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1971   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1972   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1973   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1974   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1975   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1976   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1977   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1978   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1979   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1980   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1981   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1982   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1983   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1984   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1985   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1986   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1987   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1988   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1989   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1990   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1991   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1992   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1993   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1994   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1995   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1996   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1997   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1998   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1999   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  2000   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  2001   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  2002   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  2003   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  2004   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  2005   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  2006   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  2007   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  2008 
  2009 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  2010 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  2011 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2012 
  2013   Changed Operations:
  2014   float_abs -> abs
  2015   float_nprt -> nprt
  2016   float_pprt -> pprt
  2017   pow2 -> use powr
  2018   round_down -> float_round_down
  2019   round_up -> float_round_up
  2020   scale -> exponent
  2021 
  2022   Removed Operations:
  2023   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  2024 
  2025   Renamed Lemmas:
  2026   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  2027   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  2028   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  2029   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  2030   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  2031   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  2032   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  2033   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  2034   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  2035   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  2036   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  2037   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  2038   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  2039   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  2040   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  2041   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  2042   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  2043   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  2044   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  2045   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  2046   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  2047   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  2048   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  2049   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  2050   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  2051   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  2052   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  2053   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  2054   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  2055   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  2056   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  2057   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  2058   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  2059   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  2060   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  2061   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  2062 
  2063   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  2064   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  2065   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  2066   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  2067   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  2068   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  2069   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  2070   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  2071   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  2072   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  2073 
  2074 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  2075 association lists with distinct keys.
  2076 
  2077 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  2078 annotated commands.
  2079 
  2080 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  2081 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  2082 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  2083 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2084 
  2085 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  2086 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  2087 instead.
  2088 
  2089   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  2090   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  2091   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  2092   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  2093   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  2094   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  2095   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  2096   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2097   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2098   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2099   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  2100   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2101   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2102   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2103   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2104   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  2105   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2106   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  2107   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  2108   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  2109   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  2110   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  2111   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  2112   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  2113   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2114   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  2115   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  2116   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  2117   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  2118   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2119   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2120   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2121   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  2122   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  2123   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  2124   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  2125   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  2126   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  2127   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  2128   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  2129   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  2130 
  2131 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  2132 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  2133 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  2134 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  2135 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  2136 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  2137 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  2138 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  2139 
  2140 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  2141 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  2142 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  2143 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  2144 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  2145 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  2146 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  2147 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  2148 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  2149 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  2150 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  2151 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2152 
  2153   Renamed constants:
  2154   measure -> emeasure
  2155   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  2156   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  2157   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2158   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2159 
  2160   Removed locales:
  2161   completeable_measure_space
  2162   finite_measure_space
  2163   finite_prob_space
  2164   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2165   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2166   finite_sigma_algebra
  2167   measure_space
  2168   pair_finite_prob_space
  2169   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2170   pair_finite_space
  2171   pair_sigma_algebra
  2172   product_sigma_algebra
  2173 
  2174   Removed constants:
  2175   conditional_space
  2176   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2177   image_space
  2178   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2179   pair_measure_generator
  2180   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2181   subvimage
  2182 
  2183   Replacement theorems:
  2184   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2185   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2186   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2187   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2188   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2189   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2190   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2191   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2192   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2193   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2194   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2195   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2196   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2197   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2198   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2199   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2200   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2201   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2202   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2203   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2204   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2205   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2206   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2207   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2208   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2209   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2210   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2211   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2212   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2213   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2214   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2215   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2216   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2217   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2218   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2219   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2220   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2221   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2222   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2223   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2224   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2225   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2226   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2227   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2228   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2229   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2230   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2231   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2232   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2233   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2234   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2235   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2236   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2237   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2238   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2239   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2240   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2241   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2242   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2243   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2244   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2245   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2246   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2247   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2248   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2249   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2250   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2251   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2252   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2253   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2254   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2255   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2256   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2257   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2258   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2259   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2260   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2261   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2262   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2263   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2264   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2265   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2266   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2267   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2268   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2269   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2270   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2271   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2272   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2273   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2274   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2275   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2276   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2277   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2278   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2279   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2280   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2281   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2282   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2283   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2284   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2285   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2286   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2287   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2288   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2289   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2290   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2291   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2292   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2293   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2294   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2295   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2296   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2297   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2298   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2299   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2300   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2301   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2302   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2303   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2304   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2305   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2306   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2307   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2308   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2309   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2310   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2311   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2312 
  2313 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2314 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2315 
  2316 
  2317 *** FOL ***
  2318 
  2319 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2320 
  2321 
  2322 *** ZF ***
  2323 
  2324 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2325 analysis.
  2326 
  2327 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2328 
  2329 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2330 
  2331 
  2332 *** ML ***
  2333 
  2334 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2335 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2336 
  2337 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2338 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2339 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2340 
  2341 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2342 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2343 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2344 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2345 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2346 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2347 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2348 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2349 
  2350 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2351 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2352 
  2353 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2354 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2355 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2356 
  2357 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2358 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2359 
  2360 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2361 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2362 context as well.
  2363 
  2364 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2365 
  2366   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2367   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2368   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2369   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2370   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2371   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2372   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2373   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2374   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2375   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2376   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2377   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2378 
  2379 
  2380 *** System ***
  2381 
  2382 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2383 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2384 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2385 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2386 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2387 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2388 the generic user home was intended.
  2389 
  2390 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2391 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2392 
  2393 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2394 (not just JRE).
  2395 
  2396 
  2397 
  2398 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2399 ------------------------------------
  2400 
  2401 *** General ***
  2402 
  2403 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2404 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2405 
  2406   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2407     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2408     files for checking).
  2409 
  2410   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2411     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2412     positions.
  2413 
  2414   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2415     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2416     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2417 
  2418   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2419     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2420     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2421 
  2422   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2423     cores.
  2424 
  2425   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2426     versions (garbage collection).
  2427 
  2428 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2429 including some remaining limitations.
  2430 
  2431 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2432 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2433 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2434 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2435 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2436 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2437 
  2438 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2439 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2440 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2441 
  2442 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2443 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2444 usedir option -Q.
  2445 
  2446 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2447 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2448 
  2449   long_names   ~> names_long
  2450   short_names  ~> names_short
  2451   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2452 
  2453 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2454 
  2455   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2456 
  2457 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2458 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2459 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2460 
  2461 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2462 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2463 
  2464 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2465   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2466   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2467   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2468     "Classical Reasoner".
  2469 
  2470 
  2471 *** HOL ***
  2472 
  2473 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2474 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2475 
  2476 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2477 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2478 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2479 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2480 class complete_linorder.
  2481 
  2482 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2483 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2484 
  2485 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2486 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2487 
  2488   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2489   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2490   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2491   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2492   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2493   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2494   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2495   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2496   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2497   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2498   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2499 
  2500 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2501 
  2502   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2503   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2504   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2505   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2506   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2507   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2508   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2509   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2510   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2511   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2512   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2513   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2514   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2515   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2516   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2517   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2518 
  2519 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2520 
  2521 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2522 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2523 
  2524 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2525 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2526 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2527 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2528 
  2529 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2530 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2531 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2532 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2533 
  2534 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2535 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2536 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2537 
  2538 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2539 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2540 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2541 
  2542 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2543 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2544 
  2545 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2546 
  2547     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2548     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2549 
  2550 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2551 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2552 
  2553 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2554 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2555 
  2556 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2557 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2558 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2559 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2560 
  2561   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2562   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2563   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2564   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2565   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2566   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2567   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2568 
  2569 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2570 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2571 
  2572   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2573   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2574   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2575   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2576   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2577   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2578   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2579   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2580   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2581   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2582   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2583   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2584   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2585   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2586   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2587   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2588   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2589   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2590   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2591   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2592   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2593   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2594   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2595   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2596   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2597   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2598   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2599   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2600   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2601   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2602   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2603   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2604   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2605   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2606   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2607   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2608   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2609   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2610   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2611   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2612   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2613   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2614   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2615   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2616   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2617   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2618   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2619   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2620   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2621   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2622   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2623   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2624   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2625   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2626   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2627   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2628   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2629   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2630   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2631   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2632   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2633   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2634   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2635   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2636   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2637   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2638   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2639   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2640   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2641   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2642   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2643   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2644   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2645   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2646   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2647   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2648   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2649   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2650   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2651   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2652   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2653   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2654 
  2655 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2656 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2657 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2658 
  2659 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2660 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2661 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2662 
  2663 * Code generation:
  2664 
  2665   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2666     characters in the target language.
  2667 
  2668   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2669     instead.
  2670 
  2671   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2672 
  2673   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2674     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2675 
  2676       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2677 
  2678 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2679 
  2680 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2681 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2682 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2683 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2684 syntax.
  2685 
  2686 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2687 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2688 
  2689 * Nitpick:
  2690   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2691   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2692   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2693     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2694 
  2695 * Sledgehammer:
  2696   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2697   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2698     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2699   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2700     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2701   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2702     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2703   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2704     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2705   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2706     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2707 
  2708 * Metis:
  2709   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2710   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2711     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2712 
  2713 * Command 'try':
  2714   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2715     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2716   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2717     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2718 
  2719 * Quickcheck:
  2720   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2721     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2722   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2723     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2724   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2725     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2726     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2727     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2728   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2729     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2730 
  2731 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2732 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2733 
  2734 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2735 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2736 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2737 
  2738 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2739 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2740 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2741 
  2742 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2743 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2744 
  2745 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2746 arithmetic.
  2747 
  2748 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2749 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2750 and lattice type classes.
  2751 
  2752 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2753 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2754 
  2755 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2756 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2757 
  2758 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2759 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2760 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2761 
  2762   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2763   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2764   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2765   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2766 
  2767 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2768 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2769 constants:
  2770 
  2771   type inat   ~> type enat
  2772   Fin         ~> enat
  2773   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2774   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2775   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2776 
  2777 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2778 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2779 
  2780 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2781 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2782 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2783 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2784 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2785 
  2786 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2787 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2788 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2789 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2790 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2791 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2792 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2793 
  2794   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2795   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2796   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2797   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2798 
  2799 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2800 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2801 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2802 
  2803   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2804   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2805   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2806   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2807   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2808   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2809   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2810   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2811   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2812   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2813   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2814   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2815   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2816   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2817   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2818   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2819   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2820   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2821   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2822   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2823   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2824   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2825   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2826   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2827   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2828   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2829   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2830   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2831   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2832   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2833   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2834   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2835   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2836   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2837   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2838   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2839   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2840   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2841   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2842   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2843   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2844   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2845   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2846   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2847   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2848   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2849   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2850   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2851   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2852   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2853   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2854 
  2855 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2856   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2857   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2858   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2859   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2860     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2861 
  2862 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2863 
  2864   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2865   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2866   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2867   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2868   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2869   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2870   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2871   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2872   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2873   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2874   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2875   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2876   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2877   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2878   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2879   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2880   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2881   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2882   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2883   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2884   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2885   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2886   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2887   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2888   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2889 
  2890 
  2891 *** Document preparation ***
  2892 
  2893 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2894 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2895 same.
  2896 
  2897 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2898 result.
  2899 
  2900 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2901 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2902 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2903 
  2904 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2905 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2906 
  2907 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2908 like this:
  2909 
  2910   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2911   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2912 
  2913 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2914 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2915 layouts.
  2916 
  2917 
  2918 *** ML ***
  2919 
  2920 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2921 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2922 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2923 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2924 under external program control.
  2925 
  2926 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2927 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2928 
  2929 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2930 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2931 (better known as Proof General).
  2932 
  2933 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2934 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2935 
  2936 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2937 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2938 
  2939 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2940 (including quotes etc.).
  2941 
  2942 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2943 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2944 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2945 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2946 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2947 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2948 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2949 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2950 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2951 
  2952 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2953 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2954 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2955 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2956 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2957 
  2958 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2959 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2960 
  2961 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2962 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2963 
  2964 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2965 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2966 
  2967 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2968 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2969 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2970 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2971 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2972 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2973 proper Proof.context.
  2974 
  2975 
  2976 *** System ***
  2977 
  2978 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2979 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2980 
  2981 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2982 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2983 
  2984 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2985 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2986 
  2987   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2988   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2989   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2990   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2991   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2992 
  2993 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2994 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2995 
  2996 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2997 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2998 example:
  2999 
  3000   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  3001 
  3002 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  3003 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  3004 
  3005 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  3006 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  3007 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  3008 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  3009 
  3010 
  3011 
  3012 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  3013 ----------------------------------
  3014 
  3015 *** General ***
  3016 
  3017 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  3018 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  3019 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  3020 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  3021 like this:
  3022 
  3023   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  3024 
  3025 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  3026 
  3027 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  3028 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  3029 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  3030 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  3031 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  3032 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  3033 
  3034 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  3035 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  3036 the following package declarations:
  3037 
  3038   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  3039   \usepackage{textcomp}
  3040 
  3041 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  3042 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  3043 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  3044 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  3045 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  3046 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  3047 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  3048 
  3049 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  3050 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3051 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  3052 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  3053 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  3054 
  3055 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  3056 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  3057 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  3058 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3059 
  3060 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  3061 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  3062 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  3063 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  3064 
  3065   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  3066 
  3067   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  3068   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  3069   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  3070   show_types                    show_types
  3071   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  3072   show_consts                   show_consts
  3073   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  3074 
  3075   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  3076   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  3077   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  3078 
  3079   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  3080   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  3081 
  3082   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  3083 
  3084   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  3085   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  3086   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  3087   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  3088   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  3089 
  3090 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  3091 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  3092 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  3093 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  3094 
  3095 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  3096 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3097 
  3098   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  3099   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  3100 
  3101 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  3102 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  3103 float_token.
  3104 
  3105 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  3106 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  3107 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3108 
  3109 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  3110 DejaVu Sans.
  3111 
  3112 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  3113 
  3114 
  3115 *** Pure ***
  3116 
  3117 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  3118 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  3119 time.
  3120 
  3121 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  3122 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3123 
  3124 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  3125 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3126 
  3127 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  3128 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  3129 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  3130 command already provided this functionality.
  3131 
  3132 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  3133 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  3134 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  3135 without interpretations.
  3136 
  3137 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  3138 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  3139 
  3140 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  3141 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  3142 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  3143 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  3144 
  3145 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3146 'definition' instead.
  3147 
  3148 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  3149 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  3150 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  3151 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  3152 
  3153 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  3154 constructors.
  3155 
  3156 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  3157 the local file system.
  3158 
  3159 
  3160 *** HOL ***
  3161 
  3162 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3163 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3164 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3165 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3166 
  3167   declare [[coercion f]]
  3168 
  3169 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3170 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3171 
  3172   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3173 
  3174 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3175 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3176 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3177 other theories like this:
  3178 
  3179   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3180 
  3181 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3182 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3183 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3184 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3185 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3186 for examples.
  3187 
  3188 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3189 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3190 
  3191 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3192 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3193 
  3194 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3195 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3196 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3197 
  3198 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3199 functorial structure of types.
  3200 
  3201 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3202 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3203 
  3204 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3205 languages.
  3206 
  3207 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3208 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3209 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3210 
  3211 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3212 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3213 
  3214 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3215 combinators any longer.
  3216 
  3217 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3218 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3219 
  3220 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3221 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3222 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3223 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3224 
  3225   record 'a foo = ...
  3226   ...
  3227   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3228 
  3229 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3230 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3231 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3232 
  3233 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3234 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3235 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3236 
  3237 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3238 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3239 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3240 
  3241 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3242 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3243 
  3244 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3245 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3246 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3247 independently.
  3248 
  3249 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3250 counter example search.
  3251 
  3252 * Sledgehammer:
  3253   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3254     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3255     sledgehammer").
  3256   - Renamed commands:
  3257     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3258     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3259     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3260     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3261   - Renamed options:
  3262     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3263     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3264     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3265     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3266     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3267 
  3268 * Nitpick:
  3269   - Renamed options:
  3270     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3271     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3272     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3273   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3274   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3275   - Added "whack" option.
  3276   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3277   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3278   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3279   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3280     higher cardinalities.
  3281   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3282 
  3283 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3284 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3285 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3286 
  3287     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3288 
  3289 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3290 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3291 
  3292 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3293 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3294 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3295 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3296 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3297 "smt_solver".
  3298 
  3299 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3300 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3301 
  3302 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3303 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3304 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3305 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3306 
  3307 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3308   - Renamed:
  3309     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3310     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3311     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3312   - Added:
  3313     smt_verbose
  3314     smt_random_seed
  3315     smt_datatypes
  3316     smt_infer_triggers
  3317     smt_monomorph_limit
  3318     cvc3_options
  3319     remote_cvc3_options
  3320     remote_z3_options
  3321     yices_options
  3322 
  3323 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3324 header.
  3325 
  3326 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3327 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3328 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3329 
  3330   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3331 
  3332 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3333 
  3334 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3335 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3336 
  3337 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3338 
  3339 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3340 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3341 
  3342 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3343 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3344 
  3345 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3346 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3347 
  3348 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3349 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3350 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3351 
  3352 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3353 
  3354 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3355 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3356 
  3357 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3358 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3359 
  3360 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3361 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3362 for congruent(2)).
  3363 
  3364 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3365 
  3366   types
  3367     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3368     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3369 
  3370   constants
  3371     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3372     True ~> HOL.True
  3373     False ~> HOL.False
  3374     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3375     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3376     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3377     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3378     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3379     The ~> HOL.The
  3380     All ~> HOL.All
  3381     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3382     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3383     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3384     If ~> HOL.If
  3385     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3386     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3387     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3388     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3389     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3390     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3391     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3392     op : ~> Set.member
  3393     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3394 
  3395 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3396 
  3397 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3398 
  3399     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3400     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3401     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3402     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3403     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3404     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3405     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3406     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3407 
  3408 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3409 
  3410 * More stylized fact names:
  3411 
  3412   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3413   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3414   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3415   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3416 
  3417 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3418 
  3419 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3420 
  3421   constants
  3422     null ~> List.null
  3423 
  3424   facts
  3425     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3426     null_empty ~> null_def
  3427 
  3428 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3429 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3430 generation.
  3431 
  3432 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3433 Haskell code.
  3434 
  3435 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3436 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3437 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3438 
  3439 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3440 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3441 
  3442 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3443 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3444 
  3445 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3446 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3447 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3448 
  3449 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3450 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3451 
  3452 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3453 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3454 
  3455 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3456 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3457 referred to by its qualified name.
  3458 
  3459   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3460   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3461   product ~>  Enum.product
  3462 
  3463 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3464 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3465 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3466 
  3467 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3468 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3469 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3470 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3471 
  3472 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3473 sort_key.
  3474 
  3475 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3476 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3477 
  3478 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3479 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3480 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3481 
  3482   types
  3483     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3484               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3485               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3486         (depends on your needs)
  3487 
  3488   constants
  3489      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3490      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3491      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3492 
  3493 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3494 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3495 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3496 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3497 
  3498 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3499 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3500 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3501 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3502 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3503 
  3504 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3505 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3506 
  3507 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3508 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3509 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3510 
  3511 
  3512 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3513 
  3514 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3515 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3516 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3517 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3518 compatibility.
  3519 
  3520 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3521 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3522 
  3523 
  3524 *** HOLCF ***
  3525 
  3526 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3527 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3528 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3529 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3530 
  3531 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3532 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3533 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3534 
  3535   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3536   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3537   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3538 
  3539 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3540 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3541 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3542 
  3543 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3544 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3545 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3546 domain definition now works:
  3547 
  3548   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3549 
  3550 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3551 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3552 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3553 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3554 
  3555   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3556     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3557 
  3558   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3559 
  3560 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3561 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3562 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3563 
  3564 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3565 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3566 
  3567 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3568 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3569 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3570 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3571 
  3572 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3573 
  3574 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3575 
  3576 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3577 
  3578 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3579 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3580 
  3581 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3582 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3583 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3584 
  3585 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3586 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3587 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3588 
  3589 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3590 still supported as an input translation.
  3591 
  3592 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3593 
  3594   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3595   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3596   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3597   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3598   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3599   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3600   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3601 
  3602 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3603 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3604 
  3605   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3606   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3607   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3608   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3609   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3610   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3611 
  3612 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3613 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3614 
  3615 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3616 
  3617   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3618   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3619   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3620   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3621 
  3622 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3623 
  3624 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3625 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3626 
  3627 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3628 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3629 
  3630   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3631   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3632   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3633   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3634   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3635   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3636   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3637   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3638   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3639   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3640   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3641   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3642   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3643   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3644   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3645   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3646   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3647   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3648   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3649   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3650 
  3651 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3652 
  3653   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3654   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3655   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3656   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3657   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3658   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3659   box_less             ~> box_below
  3660   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3661   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3662   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3663   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3664   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3665   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3666   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3667   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3668   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3669   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3670   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3671   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3672   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3673   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3674   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3675   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3676   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3677   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3678   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3679   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3680   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3681   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3682   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3683   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3684   up_less              ~> up_below
  3685   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3686   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3687   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3688   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3689   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3690   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3691   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3692   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3693   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3694   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3695   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3696   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3697   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3698 
  3699 
  3700 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3701 
  3702 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3703 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3704 
  3705 
  3706 *** ML ***
  3707 
  3708 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3709 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3710 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3711 
  3712 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3713 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3714 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3715 
  3716 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3717 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3718 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3719 
  3720 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3721 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3722 
  3723 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3724 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3725 
  3726 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3727 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3728 
  3729 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3730 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3731 
  3732 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3733 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3734 almost all situations.
  3735 
  3736 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3737 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3738 Isabelle/ML.
  3739 
  3740 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3741 meaning.
  3742 
  3743 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3744 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3745 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3746 
  3747 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3748 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3749 
  3750 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3751 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3752 
  3753 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3754 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3755 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3756 
  3757 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3758 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3759 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3760 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3761 configuration options.
  3762 
  3763 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3764 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3765 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3766 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3767 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3768 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3769 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3770 
  3771 
  3772 
  3773 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3774 ---------------------------------
  3775 
  3776 *** General ***
  3777 
  3778 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3779 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3780 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3781 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3782 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3783 their full internal name.
  3784 
  3785 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3786 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3787 Some hints on upgrading:
  3788 
  3789   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3790     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3791     which are independent of this issue.
  3792 
  3793   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3794     provides the following special forms:
  3795 
  3796       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3797       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3798       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3799 
  3800     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3801     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3802     extra variables".
  3803 
  3804     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3805     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3806     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3807     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3808     "logic".
  3809 
  3810   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3811     antiquotations:
  3812 
  3813       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3814       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3815       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3816       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3817 
  3818   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3819     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3820     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3821     antiquotations.
  3822 
  3823 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3824 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3825 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3826 diagnose syntax problems.
  3827 
  3828 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3829 
  3830 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3831 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3832 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3833 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3834 
  3835 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3836 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3837 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3838 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3839 
  3840 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3841 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3842 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3843 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3844 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3845 
  3846 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3847 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3848 
  3849 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3850 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3851 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3852 
  3853   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3854 
  3855 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3856 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3857 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3858 
  3859 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3860 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3861 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3862 
  3863 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3864 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3865 
  3866 
  3867 *** Pure ***
  3868 
  3869 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3870 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3871 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3872 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3873 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3874 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3875 inspect proof terms.
  3876 
  3877 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3878 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3879 are added internally.  For example:
  3880 
  3881   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3882 
  3883 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3884 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3885 
  3886 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3887 
  3888 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3889 'class' instead.
  3890 
  3891 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3892 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3893 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3894 
  3895 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3896 invariants.
  3897 
  3898 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3899 user space functionality any longer.
  3900 
  3901 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3902 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3903 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3904 
  3905 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3906 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3907 
  3908 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3909 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3910 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3911 
  3912 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3913 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3914 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3915 
  3916 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3917 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3918 
  3919 
  3920 *** HOL ***
  3921 
  3922 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3923 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3924 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3925 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3926 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3927 
  3928 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3929 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3930 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3931 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3932 
  3933   fun
  3934     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3935   where
  3936     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3937 
  3938   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3939     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3940 
  3941   quotient_definition
  3942     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3943 
  3944 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3945 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3946 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3947 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3948 
  3949 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3950 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3951 
  3952 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3953 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3954 
  3955 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3956 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3957 
  3958 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3959 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3960 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3961 
  3962 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3963 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3964 
  3965 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3966 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3967 
  3968 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3969 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3970 
  3971 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3972 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3973 
  3974 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3975 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3976 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3977 
  3978   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3979   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3980   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3981   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3982   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3983   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3984   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3985   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3986   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3987   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3988   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3989   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3990   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3991   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3992   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3993   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3994   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3995   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3996   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3997   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3998   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3999   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  4000   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  4001   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  4002   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  4003   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  4004   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  4005   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  4006   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  4007   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  4008 
  4009 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  4010 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  4011 
  4012 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  4013 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  4014 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  4015 
  4016 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  4017 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  4018 
  4019 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  4020 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4021 
  4022 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  4023 
  4024 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  4025 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4026 
  4027 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  4028 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4029 
  4030 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4031 
  4032 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  4033 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  4034 
  4035 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  4036 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  4037 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  4038 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4039 
  4040 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  4041   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  4042   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  4043   - inverse, divide: Rings
  4044 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4045 
  4046 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  4047 lattices):
  4048 
  4049     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  4050     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  4051 
  4052     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  4053 
  4054     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  4055     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  4056     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4057     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  4058     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4059     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  4060     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  4061     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  4062     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  4063     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  4064     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  4065     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  4066     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  4067 
  4068     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  4069     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4070     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4071     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  4072     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  4073     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  4074     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  4075     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  4076     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  4077     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  4078     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  4079     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  4080     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  4081     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  4082     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  4083     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  4084     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  4085     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  4086 
  4087   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  4088   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  4089 
  4090     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  4091     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  4092     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  4093     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  4094     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  4095 
  4096 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4097 
  4098 * Refined field classes:
  4099   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  4100     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  4101     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  4102   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  4103 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4104 
  4105 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  4106   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  4107   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  4108   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  4109     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  4110   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  4111     equal_neg_zero.
  4112 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4113 
  4114 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  4115 sets to lattices:
  4116 
  4117   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  4118   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  4119   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  4120   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  4121   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  4122   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  4123   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  4124   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  4125   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  4126   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  4127 
  4128 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  4129 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  4130 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  4131 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  4132 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  4133 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4134 
  4135 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  4136 multiset order:
  4137 
  4138   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  4139     <= and <;
  4140   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  4141     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  4142     multiset_order;
  4143   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  4144     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  4145     generation;
  4146   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  4147     if needed.
  4148 
  4149 Renamed:
  4150 
  4151   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  4152   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  4153   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  4154 
  4155 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4156 
  4157 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4158 
  4159 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4160 
  4161 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4162 
  4163 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4164 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4165 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4166 
  4167   Constants:
  4168   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4169   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4170   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4171   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4172   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4173   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4174   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4175   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4176   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4177   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4178   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4179   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4180   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4181 
  4182   Lemmas:
  4183   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4184   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4185   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4186   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4187   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4188   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4189   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4190   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4191   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4192   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4193   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4194   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4195   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4196 
  4197 * Sledgehammer:
  4198   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4199     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4200     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4201     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4202     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4203     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4204     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4205   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4206   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4207     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4208   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4209     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4210     is still experimental.)
  4211   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4212     full-typed mode.
  4213   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4214 
  4215 * Nitpick:
  4216   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4217   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4218   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4219     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4220   - Added support for quotient types.
  4221   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4222     constructs.
  4223   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4224     "termination" proofs).
  4225   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4226   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4227   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4228   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4229     record getters.
  4230   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4231   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4232   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4233   - Added "atoms" option.
  4234   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4235     problems.
  4236   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4237     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4238     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4239   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4240     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4241   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4242 
  4243 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4244   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4245   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4246   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4247   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4248   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4249   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4250   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4251   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4252   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4253 
  4254 
  4255 *** HOLCF ***
  4256 
  4257 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4258 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4259 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4260 
  4261 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4262 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4263 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4264 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4265 
  4266 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4267 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4268 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4269 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4270 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4271 
  4272 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4273 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4274 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4275 
  4276 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4277 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4278 
  4279   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4280   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4281 
  4282 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4283 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4284 
  4285   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4286   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4287   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4288   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4289   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4290 
  4291 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4292 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4293 
  4294   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4295   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4296   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4297 
  4298 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4299 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4300 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4301 
  4302 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4303 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4304 
  4305 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4306 
  4307 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4308 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4309 
  4310 
  4311 *** ML ***
  4312 
  4313 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4314 
  4315     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4316     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4317 
  4318     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4319     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4320     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4321     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4322 
  4323     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4324     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4325     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4326 
  4327 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4328 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4329 
  4330 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4331 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4332 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4333 
  4334 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4335 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4336 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4337 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4338 
  4339 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4340 the context or even global references.
  4341 
  4342 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4343 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4344 
  4345 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4346 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4347 
  4348   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4349   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4350   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4351   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4352   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4353   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4354   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4355   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4356   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4357   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4358 
  4359 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4360 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4361 
  4362 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4363 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4364 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4365 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4366 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4367 
  4368 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4369 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4370 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4371 Theory_Data version.
  4372 
  4373 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4374 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4375 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4376 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4377 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4378 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4379 explicitly in rare situations.
  4380 
  4381 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4382 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4383 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4384 
  4385 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4386 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4387 
  4388 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4389 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4390 quite rare).
  4391 
  4392 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4393 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4394 
  4395 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4396 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4397 terms.
  4398 
  4399 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4400 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4401 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4402 
  4403 
  4404 *** System ***
  4405 
  4406 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4407 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4408 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4409 
  4410 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4411 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4412 respectively.
  4413 
  4414 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4415 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4416 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4417 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4418 
  4419   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4420 
  4421 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4422 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4423 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4424 component.
  4425 
  4426 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4427 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4428 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4429 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4430 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4431 the user for manual installation.
  4432 
  4433 
  4434 
  4435 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4436 -------------------------------------
  4437 
  4438 *** General ***
  4439 
  4440 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4441 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4442 
  4443 
  4444 *** Pure ***
  4445 
  4446 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4447 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4448 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4449 
  4450 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4451 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4452 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4453 
  4454 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4455 interpretation.
  4456 
  4457 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4458 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4459 
  4460 
  4461 *** Document preparation ***
  4462 
  4463 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4464 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4465 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4466 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4467 
  4468 
  4469 *** HOL ***
  4470 
  4471 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4472 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4473 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4474 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4475 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4476 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4477 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4478 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4479 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4480 
  4481 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4482 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4483 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4484 
  4485 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4486 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4487 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4488 
  4489 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4490 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4491 
  4492 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4493 
  4494 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4495 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4496 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4497 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4498 
  4499 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4500 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4501 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4502 "mirabelle" utility.
  4503 
  4504 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4505 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4506 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4507 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4508 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4509 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4510 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4511 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4512 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4513 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4514 
  4515 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4516 procedure only.
  4517 
  4518 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4519 
  4520 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4521 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4522 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4523 that fail later.
  4524 
  4525 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4526 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4527 
  4528 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4529 the same method as the approximation method.
  4530 
  4531 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4532 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4533 series expansion.
  4534 
  4535 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4536 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4537 
  4538 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4539 reals.
  4540 
  4541 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4542 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4543 
  4544 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4545 fixpoint theorem.
  4546 
  4547 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4548   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4549     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4550   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4551     accordingly
  4552   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4553     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4554   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4555     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4556 
  4557 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4558 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4559 lattice.
  4560 
  4561 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4562 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4563 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4564 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4565 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4566 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4567 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4568 
  4569 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4570   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4571     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4572   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4573     le_inf_iff
  4574   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4575     sup_aci)
  4576   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4577   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4578   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4579     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4580     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4581     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4582     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4583     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4584     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4585     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4586     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4587     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4588     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4589   - authentic syntax for
  4590     Set.Pow
  4591     Set.image
  4592   - mere abbreviations:
  4593     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4594     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4595     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4596     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4597     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4598     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4599     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4600     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4601   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4602 
  4603 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4604 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4605 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4606 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4607 
  4608 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4609 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4610 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4611 
  4612 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4613 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4614 
  4615 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4616 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4617 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4618 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4619 
  4620 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4621 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4622 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4623 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4624 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4625 
  4626 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4627 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4628 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4629 
  4630 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4631 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4632 
  4633 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4634 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4635 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4636 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4637 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4638 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4639 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4640 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4641 
  4642 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4643     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4644     code_post       replaces    code post
  4645     etc.
  4646   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4647 
  4648 * Renamed methods:
  4649     sizechange -> size_change
  4650     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4651   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4652 
  4653 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4654 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4655 
  4656 * Renamed theorems:
  4657     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4658     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4659     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4660     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4661     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4662   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4663 
  4664 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4665 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4666 
  4667 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4668 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4669 
  4670 
  4671 *** HOLCF ***
  4672 
  4673 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4674 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4675 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4676 
  4677 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4678 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4679 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4680 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4681 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4682 
  4683 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4684 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4685 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4686 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4687 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4688 
  4689 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4690 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4691 constructor are pre-configured.
  4692 
  4693 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4694 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4695 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4696 
  4697 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4698 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4699 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4700 as well.)
  4701 
  4702 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4703 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4704 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4705 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4706 examples.
  4707 
  4708 
  4709 *** ML ***
  4710 
  4711 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4712 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4713 
  4714 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4715 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4716 position, logical grouping etc.
  4717 
  4718 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4719 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4720 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4721 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4722 
  4723 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4724 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4725 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4726 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4727 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4728 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4729 
  4730 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4731 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4732 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4733 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4734 experiments with references.
  4735 
  4736 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4737 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4738 
  4739 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4740 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4741 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4742 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4743 
  4744 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4745 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4746 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4747 
  4748 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4749 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4750 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4751 
  4752 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4753 
  4754 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4755 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4756 
  4757 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4758 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4759 
  4760 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4761 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4762 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4763 
  4764 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4765 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4766 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4767 
  4768 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4769 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4770 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4771 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4772 
  4773 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4774 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4775 instead of global theory.
  4776 
  4777 
  4778 *** System ***
  4779 
  4780 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4781 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4782 usedir option -q.
  4783 
  4784 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4785 also the system manual.
  4786 
  4787 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4788 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4789 
  4790 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4791 this is always enabled.
  4792 
  4793 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4794 
  4795 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4796 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4797 currently supported on Linux only.
  4798 
  4799 
  4800 
  4801 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4802 --------------------------------
  4803 
  4804 *** General ***
  4805 
  4806 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4807 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4808 
  4809   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4810     "isatool."
  4811 
  4812   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4813     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4814 
  4815   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4816     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4817 
  4818 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4819 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4820 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4821 
  4822 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4823 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4824 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4825 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4826 via "isabelle emacs".
  4827 
  4828 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4829 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4830 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4831 
  4832 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4833 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4834 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4835 
  4836 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4837 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4838 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4839 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4840 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4841 
  4842 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4843 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4844 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4845 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4846 
  4847 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4848 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4849 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4850 
  4851 
  4852 *** Pure ***
  4853 
  4854 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4855 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4856 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4857 
  4858 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4859 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4860 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4861 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4862 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4863 
  4864 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4865 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4866 useful in locale declarations.
  4867 
  4868 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4869 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4870 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4871 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4872 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4873 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4874 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4875 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4876 no longer generated.
  4877 
  4878 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4879 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4880 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4881 
  4882 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4883 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4884 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4885 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4886 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4887 
  4888 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4889 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4890 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4891 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4892 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4893 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4894 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4895 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4896 
  4897 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4898 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4899 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4900 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4901 
  4902 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4903 
  4904 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4905 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4906 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4907 
  4908 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4909 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4910 
  4911 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4912 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4913 in HOL, write
  4914 
  4915     class foo = ...
  4916 
  4917 instead of
  4918 
  4919     class foo = type + ...
  4920 
  4921 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4922 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4923 
  4924 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4925 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4926 
  4927 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4928 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4929 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4930 
  4931 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4932 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4933 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4934 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4935 directly in regular applications.
  4936 
  4937 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4938 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4939 
  4940 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4941 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4942 
  4943 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4944 theory context.
  4945 
  4946 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4947 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4948 
  4949 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4950 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4951 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4952 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4953 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4954 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4955 
  4956   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4957 
  4958 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4959 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4960 normalization.
  4961 
  4962 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4963 addressing etc.
  4964 
  4965 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4966 
  4967   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4968   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4969 
  4970 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4971 
  4972   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4973      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4974      parts of the code generator framework).
  4975 
  4976   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4977      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4978      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4979 
  4980 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4981 
  4982 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4983 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4984 
  4985 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4986 patterns, e.g.
  4987 
  4988     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4989 
  4990 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4991 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4992 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4993 hyphen:
  4994 
  4995     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4996 
  4997 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4998 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4999 
  5000 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  5001 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  5002 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  5003 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  5004 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  5005 higher-order unification.
  5006 
  5007 
  5008 *** Document preparation ***
  5009 
  5010 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  5011 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  5012 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  5013 
  5014 
  5015 *** HOL ***
  5016 
  5017 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  5018 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  5019 
  5020 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  5021 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  5022 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  5023 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  5024 Main, as before.
  5025 
  5026 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  5027 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  5028 
  5029 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  5030 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  5031 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  5032 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  5033 
  5034 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  5035 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  5036 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  5037 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  5038 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  5039 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  5040 
  5041 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  5042 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  5043 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  5044 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  5045 
  5046 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  5047 menu.
  5048 
  5049 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  5050 (contains the empty clause).
  5051 
  5052 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  5053 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  5054 
  5055 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  5056 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  5057 
  5058 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  5059 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  5060 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5061 
  5062 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  5063 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  5064 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  5065 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  5066 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  5067 
  5068 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  5069 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  5070 
  5071 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  5072 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  5073 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  5074 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  5075 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  5076 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  5077 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  5078 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  5079 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  5080 
  5081 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  5082 
  5083 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  5084 
  5085 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  5086 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5087 
  5088 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  5089 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  5090 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  5091 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  5092 
  5093 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  5094 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5095 
  5096     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  5097     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  5098     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  5099     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  5100     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  5101     Union ~>    Set.Union
  5102     {} ~>       Set.empty
  5103     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  5104 
  5105 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  5106 theory Set.
  5107 
  5108 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  5109 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  5110 
  5111 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  5112 
  5113 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  5114 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  5115 
  5116 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  5117 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  5118 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  5119 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  5120 allowed. For examples see
  5121 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  5122 
  5123 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  5124 
  5125 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  5126 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5127 
  5128 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  5129 structure:
  5130 
  5131     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  5132     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5133     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5134     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5135     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5136     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5137     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5138     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5139     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5140     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5141     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5142     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5143     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5144     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5145     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5146     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5147     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5148     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5149     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5150     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5151     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5152     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5153     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5154     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5155     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5156     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5157     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5158     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5159     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5160     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5161     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5162     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5163     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5164 
  5165     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5166     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5167     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5168     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5169     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5170     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5171     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5172     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5173     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5174     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5175 
  5176     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5177     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5178     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5179     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5180     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5181     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5182 
  5183 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5184 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5185 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5186 
  5187 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5188 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5189 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5190 
  5191 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5192 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5193 
  5194 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5195 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5196 
  5197 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5198 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5199 proofs, e.g.
  5200 
  5201   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5202 
  5203 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5204 
  5205 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5206 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5207 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5208 
  5209 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5210 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5211 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5212 
  5213 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5214 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5215 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5216 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5217 
  5218 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5219 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5220 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5221 preorder_class.*.
  5222 
  5223 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5224 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5225 
  5226 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5227 
  5228   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5229 
  5230 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5231 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5232 fold_image.
  5233 
  5234 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5235 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5236 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5237 the former will disappear at some point.
  5238 
  5239 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5240 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5241 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5242 
  5243 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5244 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5245 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5246 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5247 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5248 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5249 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5250 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5251 
  5252 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5253 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5254 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5255 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5256 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5257 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5258 
  5259     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5260     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5261     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5262     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5263     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5264     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5265     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5266 
  5267 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5268 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5269 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5270 
  5271 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5272 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5273 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5274 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5275 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5276 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5277 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5278 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5279 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5280 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5281 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5282 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5283 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5284 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5285 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5286 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5287 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5288 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5289 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5290 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5291 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5292 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5293 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5294 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5295 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5296 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5297 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5298 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5299 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5300 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5301 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5302 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5303 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5304 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5305 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5306 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5307 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5308 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5309 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5310 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5311 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5312 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5313 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5314 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5315 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5316 
  5317 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5318 
  5319 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5320 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5321 
  5322 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5323 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5324 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5325 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5326 
  5327 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5328 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5329 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5330 theory RealVector.
  5331 
  5332 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5333 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5334 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5335 and inner products are included.
  5336 
  5337 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5338 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5339 supported.
  5340 
  5341 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5342 first diagonalization argument.
  5343 
  5344 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5345 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5346 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5347 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5348 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5349 
  5350     hide (open) const gcd
  5351     abbreviation gcd where
  5352       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5353     notation (output)
  5354       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5355 
  5356 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5357 
  5358 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5359 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5360 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5361 
  5362 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5363 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5364 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5365 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5366 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5367 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5368 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5369 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5370 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5371 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5372 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5373 cases.
  5374 
  5375 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5376 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5377 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5378 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5379 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5380 
  5381     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5382     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5383     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5384     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5385     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5386 
  5387 
  5388 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5389 
  5390 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5391 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5392 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5393 
  5394 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5395 
  5396 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5397 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5398 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5399 
  5400 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5401 
  5402 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5403 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5404 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5405 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5406 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5407 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5408 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5409 
  5410 
  5411 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5412 
  5413 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5414 
  5415 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5416 theory targets.
  5417 
  5418 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5419 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5420 'inductive' etc.
  5421 
  5422 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5423 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5424 
  5425 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5426 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5427 
  5428 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5429 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5430 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5431 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5432 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5433 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5434 the algorithm W:
  5435 
  5436  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5437  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5438          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5439 
  5440 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5441 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5442 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5443 
  5444 
  5445 *** HOLCF ***
  5446 
  5447 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5448 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5449 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5450 
  5451 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5452 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5453 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5454 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5455 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5456 
  5457 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5458 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5459 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5460 
  5461 
  5462 *** ZF ***
  5463 
  5464 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5465 
  5466 
  5467 *** ML ***
  5468 
  5469 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5470 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5471 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5472 5.2.1!
  5473 
  5474 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5475 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5476 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5477 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5478 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5479 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5480 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5481 
  5482 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5483 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5484 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5485 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5486 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5487 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5488 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5489 
  5490 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5491 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5492 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5493 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5494 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5495 
  5496 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5497 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5498 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5499 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5500 Method.add_method.
  5501 
  5502 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5503 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5504 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5505 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5506 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5507 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5508 
  5509 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5510 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5511 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5512 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5513 examples.
  5514 
  5515 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5516 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5517 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5518 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5519 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5520 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5521 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5522 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5523 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5524 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5525 
  5526 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5527 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5528 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5529 
  5530 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5531 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5532 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5533 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5534 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5535 resort for legacy applications.
  5536 
  5537 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5538 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5539 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5540 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5541 explicit runtime argument.
  5542 
  5543 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5544 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5545 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5546 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5547 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5548 
  5549 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5550 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5551 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5552 theory state.
  5553 
  5554 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5555 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5556 
  5557   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5558   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5559   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5560   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5561   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5562   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5563   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5564   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5565   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5566   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5567 
  5568 
  5569 *** System ***
  5570 
  5571 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5572 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5573 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5574 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5575 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5576 
  5577 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5578 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5579 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5580 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5581 
  5582 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5583 
  5584 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5585 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5586 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5587 prover operations.
  5588 
  5589 
  5590 
  5591 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5592 -------------------------------
  5593 
  5594 *** General ***
  5595 
  5596 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5597 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5598 
  5599 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5600 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5601 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5602 provides a proper context already.
  5603 
  5604 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5605 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5606 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5607 
  5608 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5609 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5610 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5611 swap theory imports.
  5612 
  5613 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5614 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5615 
  5616 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5617 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5618 white space without escapes.
  5619 
  5620 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5621 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5622 "foo_bar".
  5623 
  5624 
  5625 *** Pure ***
  5626 
  5627 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5628 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5629 
  5630 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5631 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5632 
  5633 (1) unused_thms
  5634      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5635 
  5636 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5637      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5638      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5639 
  5640 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5641      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5642      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5643      their ancestors.
  5644 
  5645 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5646 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5647 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5648 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5649 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5650 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5651 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5652 
  5653 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5654 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5655 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5656 
  5657 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5658 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5659 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5660 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5661 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5662 
  5663 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5664 
  5665 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5666 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5667 update of theories within ML code.
  5668 
  5669 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5670 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5671 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5672 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5673 
  5674 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5675 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5676 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5677 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5678 
  5679 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5680 
  5681 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5682 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5683 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5684 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5685 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5686 
  5687 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5688 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5689 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5690 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5691 situations.
  5692 
  5693 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5694 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5695 proof text.
  5696 
  5697 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5698 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5699 
  5700 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5701 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5702 predicates.
  5703 
  5704 
  5705 *** Document preparation ***
  5706 
  5707 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5708 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5709 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5710 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5711 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5712 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5713 
  5714 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5715 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5716 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5717 
  5718 
  5719 *** HOL ***
  5720 
  5721 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5722 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5723 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5724 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5725 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5726 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5727 
  5728 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5729 with multithreading.
  5730 
  5731 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5732 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5733 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5734 
  5735 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5736 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5737 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5738 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5739 
  5740 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5741 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5742 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5743 and makes them available separately.  See
  5744 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5745 
  5746 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5747 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5748 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5749 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5750 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5751 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5752 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5753 the declared rules.
  5754 
  5755 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5756 
  5757   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5758 
  5759 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5760 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5761 
  5762 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5763 
  5764   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5765 
  5766   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5767     definitions on => and bool.
  5768 
  5769   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5770     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5771     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5772 
  5773       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5774       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5775       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5776       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5777       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5778       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5779       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5780       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5781 
  5782   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5783     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5784     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5785 
  5786   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5787     The proof pattern
  5788 
  5789       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5790       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5791 
  5792     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5793     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5794 
  5795       have "EX S. P S"
  5796       proof
  5797         show "P S" <...>
  5798       qed
  5799 
  5800   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5801     The proof pattern
  5802 
  5803       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5804       also have "S = T" <...>
  5805       finally have "P T" .
  5806 
  5807     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5808     must be replaced by something like
  5809 
  5810       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5811       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5812       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5813 
  5814   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5815     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5816 
  5817       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5818 
  5819     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5820     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5821     type of the form
  5822 
  5823       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5824 
  5825     rather than
  5826 
  5827       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5828 
  5829 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5830 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5831 
  5832 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5833 
  5834 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5835 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5836 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5837 
  5838 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5839 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5840 
  5841 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5842 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5843 
  5844 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5845 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5846 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5847 
  5848 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5849 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5850 
  5851   less_trans
  5852   less_linear
  5853   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5854   le_less_trans
  5855   less_le_trans
  5856   less_not_sym
  5857   less_asym
  5858 
  5859 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5860 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5861 and different variable names.
  5862 
  5863 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5864 
  5865 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5866 finite maps.
  5867 
  5868 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5869 
  5870 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5871 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5872 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5873 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5874 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5875 accordingly.
  5876 
  5877 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5878 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5879 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5880 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5881 
  5882 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5883 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5884 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5885 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5886 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5887 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5888 
  5889 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5890 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5891 
  5892 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5893 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5894 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5895 
  5896 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5897 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5898 
  5899 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5900 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5901 
  5902 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5903 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5904 
  5905 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5906 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5907 
  5908 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5909 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5910 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5911 
  5912 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5913 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5914 
  5915 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5916 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5917 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5918 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5919 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5920 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5921 
  5922 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5923 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5924 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5925 
  5926 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5927 
  5928 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5929 
  5930 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5931 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5932 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5933 
  5934 
  5935 *** ZF ***
  5936 
  5937 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5938 same session:
  5939 
  5940   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5941   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5942   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5943   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5944   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5945   List      -> List_ZF
  5946   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5947 
  5948 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5949 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5950 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5951 
  5952 
  5953 *** ML ***
  5954 
  5955 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5956 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5957 
  5958 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5959 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5960 
  5961 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5962 
  5963 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5964 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5965 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5966 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5967 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5968 
  5969 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5970 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5971 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5972 
  5973 
  5974 *** System ***
  5975 
  5976 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5977 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5978 
  5979 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5980 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5981 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5982 
  5983 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5984 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5985 
  5986 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5987 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5988 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5989 
  5990 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5991 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5992 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5993 
  5994 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5995 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5996 
  5997 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5998 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5999 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  6000 script.
  6001 
  6002 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  6003 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  6004 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  6005 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  6006 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  6007 
  6008 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  6009 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  6010 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  6011 
  6012 
  6013 
  6014 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  6015 -----------------------------------
  6016 
  6017 *** General ***
  6018 
  6019 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  6020 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  6021 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  6022 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  6023 
  6024 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  6025 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  6026 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6027 
  6028 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  6029 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  6030 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  6031 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6032 
  6033 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  6034 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  6035 quotes.
  6036 
  6037 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  6038 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  6039 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  6040 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  6041 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  6042 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  6043 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  6044 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  6045 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  6046 
  6047 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  6048 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  6049 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  6050 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  6051 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  6052 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  6053 
  6054 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  6055 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  6056 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  6057 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  6058 
  6059 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  6060 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  6061 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  6062 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  6063 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  6064 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  6065 
  6066 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  6067 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  6068 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  6069 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  6070 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  6071 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  6072 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  6073 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  6074 
  6075 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  6076 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  6077 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  6078 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  6079 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  6080 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  6081 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  6082 
  6083 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  6084 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  6085 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  6086 
  6087 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  6088 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  6089 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  6090 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  6091 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  6092 limit is imposed.
  6093 
  6094 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  6095 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  6096 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  6097 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  6098 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  6099 and scalability.
  6100 
  6101 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  6102 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  6103 
  6104 
  6105 *** Document preparation ***
  6106 
  6107 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  6108 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  6109 current context.
  6110 
  6111 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  6112 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  6113 
  6114 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  6115 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  6116 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  6117 
  6118 
  6119 *** Pure ***
  6120 
  6121 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  6122 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  6123 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  6124 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  6125 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  6126 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  6127 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  6128 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  6129 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  6130 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  6131 
  6132 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  6133 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  6134 sketch:
  6135 
  6136     internal compilation:
  6137         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  6138     writing SML code to a file:
  6139         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  6140     writing OCaml code to a file:
  6141         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  6142     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  6143         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  6144 
  6145     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  6146         method ``eval''
  6147 
  6148 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  6149 
  6150 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  6151 
  6152     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  6153     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  6154     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  6155     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  6156 
  6157 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  6158 
  6159     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  6160       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  6161 
  6162     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  6163       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  6164 
  6165     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  6166       {(target)}+
  6167         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  6168 
  6169     code_class <and_list of classes>
  6170       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  6171         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  6172 
  6173 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  6174 
  6175 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  6176 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  6177 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  6178 codegen".
  6179 
  6180 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  6181 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  6182 annotations).
  6183 
  6184 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  6185 syntax.
  6186 
  6187 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  6188 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  6189 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  6190 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  6191 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  6192 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  6193 
  6194 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  6195 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  6196 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  6197 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  6198 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  6199 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  6200 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  6201 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  6202 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  6203 equations, see section "definitions".
  6204 
  6205 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  6206 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  6207 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  6208 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  6209 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  6210 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  6211 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  6212 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  6213 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  6214 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  6215 
  6216 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  6217 configuration options:
  6218 
  6219   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  6220   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  6221   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  6222   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  6223   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  6224   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  6225   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  6226   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  6227   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  6228 
  6229 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  6230 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  6231 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  6232 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  6233 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  6234 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  6235 order.
  6236 
  6237 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  6238 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  6239 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  6240 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  6241 context encountered later on.
  6242 
  6243 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  6244 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  6245 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  6246 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  6247 
  6248 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  6249 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  6250 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  6251 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  6252 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  6253 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  6254 
  6255 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  6256 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  6257 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  6258 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  6259 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  6260 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  6261 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  6262 more permissive.
  6263