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NEWS

author | wenzelm |

Sat Aug 20 20:24:12 2011 +0200 (2011-08-20) | |

changeset 44335 | 156be0e43336 |

parent 44322 | 43b465f4c480 |

child 44522 | 2f7e9d890efe |

permissions | -rw-r--r-- |

discontinued "Interrupt", which could disturb administrative tasks of the document model;

1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes

2 ==============================================

4 New in this Isabelle version

5 ----------------------------

7 *** General ***

9 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1

10 digests. Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional

11 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.

13 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to

14 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100). See also isabelle

15 usedir option -Q.

17 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version

18 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.

20 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been

21 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.

23 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master

24 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).

25 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.

26 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the

27 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".

28 INCOMPATIBILITY.

30 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and

31 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:

33 ISABELLE_CSDP (formerly CSDP_EXE)

34 ISABELLE_GHC (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)

35 ISABELLE_OCAML (formerly EXEC_OCAML)

36 ISABELLE_SWIPL (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)

37 ISABELLE_YAP (formerly EXEC_YAP)

39 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has

40 been discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY.

42 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper

43 configuration options, with more conventional names:

45 long_names ~> names_long

46 short_names ~> names_short

47 unique_names ~> names_unique

49 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:

51 declare [[names_unique = false]]

53 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`. Note

54 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications

55 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.

57 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual provides more formal references in

58 syntax diagrams.

60 * Attribute case_names has been refined: the assumptions in each case can

61 be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].

64 *** HOL ***

66 * Classes bot and top require underlying partial order rather than preorder:

67 uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

69 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;

70 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong. New type classes for complete

71 boolean algebras and complete linear orders. Lemmas Inf_less_iff,

72 less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in class complete_linorder.

73 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def,

74 Inf_apply, Sup_apply.

75 Redundant lemmas Inf_singleton, Sup_singleton, Inf_binary, Sup_binary,

76 INF_eq, SUP_eq, INF_UNIV_range, SUP_UNIV_range, Int_eq_Inter,

77 INTER_eq_Inter_image, Inter_def, INT_eq, Un_eq_Union, UNION_eq_Union_image,

78 Union_def, UN_singleton, UN_eq have been discarded.

79 More consistent and less misunderstandable names:

80 INFI_def ~> INF_def

81 SUPR_def ~> SUP_def

82 INF_leI ~> INF_lower

83 INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2

84 le_INFI ~> INF_greatest

85 le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper

86 le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2

87 SUP_leI ~> SUP_least

88 INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq

89 SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq

90 INFI_apply ~> INF_apply

91 SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply

92 INTER_def ~> INTER_eq

93 UNION_def ~> UNION_eq

95 INCOMPATIBILITY.

97 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems referring

98 to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection UN_ball_bex_simps.

99 INCOMPATIBILITY.

101 * Archimedean_Field.thy:

102 floor now is defined as parameter of a separate type class floor_ceiling.

104 * Finite_Set.thy: more coherent development of fold_set locales:

106 locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute

107 locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem

109 Both use point-free characterisation; interpretation proofs may need adjustment.

110 INCOMPATIBILITY.

112 * Code generation:

113 - theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of characters

114 in the target language.

115 - commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code instead.

116 - method evaluation is legacy, use method eval instead.

117 - legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default. To activate it, add the following

118 line in your theory:

119 setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}

121 * Declare ext [intro] by default. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.

123 * Nitpick:

124 - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.

125 - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.

126 - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.

127 INCOMPATIBILITY.

129 * Sledgehammer:

130 - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.

131 INCOMPATIBILITY.

132 - Added support for SNARK and ToFoF-E on SystemOnTPTP and for simply typed

133 TPTP problems (TFF).

134 - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound", "max_mono_iters",

135 and "max_new_mono_instances" options.

136 - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full Types"

137 Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.

139 * Metis:

140 - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

141 - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

143 * "try":

144 - Renamed "try_methods" and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and "elim:"

145 options. INCOMPATIBILITY.

146 - Introduced "try" that not only runs "try_methods" but also "solve_direct",

147 "sledgehammer", "quickcheck", and "nitpick".

149 * Quickcheck:

150 - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample

151 (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester)

152 - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples

153 (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester)

154 - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables

155 narrowing-based testing.

156 It requires that the Glasgow Haskell compiler is installed and

157 its location is known to Isabelle with the environment variable

158 ISABELLE_GHC.

159 - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator

160 from HOL-Library

162 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".

163 INCOMPATIBILITY. Use partial_function instead.

165 * HOL-Probability:

166 - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.

167 - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.

168 - Use extended reals instead of positive extended reals.

169 INCOMPATIBILITY.

171 * Old recdef package has been moved to Library/Old_Recdef.thy, where it

172 must be loaded explicitly. INCOMPATIBILITY.

174 * Well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has been moved to

175 Library/Wfrec.thy. INCOMPATIBILITY.

177 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to Library/Extended_Nat.

178 The names of the following types and constants have changed:

179 inat (type) ~> enat

180 Fin ~> enat

181 Infty ~> infinity (overloaded)

182 iSuc ~> eSuc

183 the_Fin ~> the_enat

184 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has

185 been renamed accordingly.

187 * Limits.thy: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in

188 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.

190 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed

191 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants

192 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to

193 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have

194 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use

195 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have

196 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):

198 Cart_eq ~> vec_eq_iff

199 dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le

200 tendsto_vector ~> vec_tendstoI

201 Cauchy_vector ~> vec_CauchyI

203 * Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the bounded_linear and

204 bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in order to reduce the

205 number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the original names for

206 distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

208 divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib

209 divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib

210 divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib

211 mult.add_right ~> right_distrib

212 mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib

213 mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib

214 mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib

217 *** Document preparation ***

219 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators, which are better

220 avoided in the first place. Implicit tab-width is 1.

222 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also

223 isar-ref manual.

225 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its result.

227 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups

228 like this:

230 \isabellestyle{it} %preferred default

231 {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}

233 * New term style "isub" as ad-hoc conversion of variables x1, y23 into

234 subscripted form x\<^isub>1, y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.

236 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>

237 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).

240 *** ML ***

242 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML

243 representations within quoted string tokens. By encoding logical

244 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be

245 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text

246 under external program control.

248 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory

249 data, which requires explicit setup.

251 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official

252 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop

253 (better known as Proof General).

255 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme. Old

256 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.

258 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes

259 former start_timing/end_timing etc.

261 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users

262 (including quotes etc.).

264 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories

265 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as

266 type constraints). Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant

267 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints. Positions can

268 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /

269 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant

270 "_strip_positions" within parse trees. As last resort, positions can

271 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is

272 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.

274 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute

275 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less

276 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY,

277 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,

278 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.

280 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is

281 already available via context of "advanced" translation.

283 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic

284 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.

286 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving

287 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).

289 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types

290 claset/clasimpset. Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs

291 operate directly on Proof.context. Raw type claset retains its use as

292 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via

293 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc. Type clasimpset has been discontinued.

294 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require

295 proper Proof.context.

297 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static

298 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.

299 For example:

301 Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"

305 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)

306 ----------------------------------

308 *** General ***

310 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see

311 src/Tools/jEdit). This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with

312 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis. The

313 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run

314 like this:

316 Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit

318 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.

320 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER

321 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),

322 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra

323 suffix. This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each

324 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.

325 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.

327 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned

328 ISO-Latin-1. INCOMPATIBILITY. Isabelle LaTeX documents might require

329 the following package declarations:

331 \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}

332 \usepackage{textcomp}

334 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that

335 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of

336 non-ASCII bytes as before. Since Isabelle/ML string literals may

337 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be

338 used here as well. Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a

339 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)

340 merely give a byte-oriented representation.

342 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master

343 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).

344 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.

345 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use

346 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.

348 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.

349 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --

350 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies. Recall that Isabelle/ML

351 files exclusively use the .ML extension. Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.

353 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly

354 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of

355 unsynchronized references or print modes. There are both ML Config.T

356 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.

358 ML (Config.T) Isar (attribute)

360 eta_contract eta_contract

361 show_brackets show_brackets

362 show_sorts show_sorts

363 show_types show_types

364 show_question_marks show_question_marks

365 show_consts show_consts

366 show_abbrevs show_abbrevs

368 Syntax.ast_trace syntax_ast_trace

369 Syntax.ast_stat syntax_ast_stat

370 Syntax.ambiguity_level syntax_ambiguity_level

372 Goal_Display.goals_limit goals_limit

373 Goal_Display.show_main_goal show_main_goal

375 Method.rule_trace rule_trace

377 Thy_Output.display thy_output_display

378 Thy_Output.quotes thy_output_quotes

379 Thy_Output.indent thy_output_indent

380 Thy_Output.source thy_output_source

381 Thy_Output.break thy_output_break

383 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be

384 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.

385 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode

386 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.

388 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.

389 INCOMPATIBILITY.

391 trace_simp ~> simp_trace

392 debug_simp ~> simp_debug

394 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic

395 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for

396 float_token.

398 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):

399 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.

400 INCOMPATIBILITY.

402 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from

403 DejaVu Sans.

405 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.

408 *** Pure ***

410 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat

411 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some

412 time.

414 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)

415 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

417 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for

418 experimentation in Isar without any result. INCOMPATIBILITY.

420 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept

421 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate

422 entities in the context of the interpretation. The 'interpretation'

423 command already provided this functionality.

425 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances

426 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in

427 the current context. Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context

428 without interpretations.

430 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs

431 in addition to interpretations in theories.

433 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate

434 the theory name space. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY. The ML functions

435 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this

436 feature is still required for historical reasons.

438 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

439 'definition' instead.

441 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of

442 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as

443 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon. Consider using "assms"

444 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.

446 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type

447 constructors.

449 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within

450 the local file system.

453 *** HOL ***

455 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type

456 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term. Theory

457 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as

458 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:

460 declare [[coercion f]]

462 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to

463 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.

465 declare [[coercion_map map]]

467 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including

468 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main. This is controlled by

469 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in

470 other theories like this:

472 declare [[coercion_enabled]]

474 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive

475 function definitions over complete partial orders. Concrete instances

476 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary

477 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL. See

478 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy

479 for examples.

481 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared

482 as [simp]. INCOMPATIBILITY.

484 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class

485 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.

487 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to

488 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for

489 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.

491 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the

492 functorial structure of types.

494 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator

495 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.

497 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target

498 languages.

500 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"

501 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".

502 INCOMPATIBILITY.

504 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints

505 to standard output. INCOMPATIBILITY.

507 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case

508 combinators any longer.

510 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with

511 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".

513 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record

514 types. Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code

515 generation any longer. INCOMPATIBILITY. In cases of need, a suitable

516 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:

518 record 'a foo = ...

519 ...

520 rep_datatype foo_ext ...

522 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a

523 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).

524 INCOMPATIBILITY.

526 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random

527 testing. Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",

528 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".

530 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite

531 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to

532 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.

534 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to

535 "random". INCOMPATIBILITY.

537 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30

538 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the

539 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set

540 independently.

542 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for

543 counter example search.

545 * Sledgehammer:

546 - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof

547 method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc

548 sledgehammer").

549 - Renamed commands:

550 sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers

551 sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers

552 sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers

553 INCOMPATIBILITY.

554 - Renamed options:

555 sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]

556 sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]

557 sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]

558 (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)

559 INCOMPATIBILITY.

561 * Nitpick:

562 - Renamed options:

563 nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]

564 nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]

565 INCOMPATIBILITY.

566 - Added support for partial quotient types.

567 - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.

568 - Added "whack" option.

569 - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.

570 - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.

571 - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.

572 - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach

573 higher cardinalities.

574 - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.

576 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options

577 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled

578 to diagnose these tools. E.g.

580 using [[metis_trace = true]]

582 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct". The tool is now available

583 manually as command 'solve_direct'.

585 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to

586 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable

587 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example. For

588 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;

589 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option

590 "smt_solver".

592 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,

593 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".

595 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using

596 the oracle mode (no proofs). Direct support of pairs has been dropped

597 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT

598 support for a similar behavior). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

600 * Changed SMT configuration options:

601 - Renamed:

602 z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)

603 z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts

604 INCOMPATIBILITY.

605 - Added:

606 smt_verbose

607 smt_random_seed

608 smt_datatypes

609 smt_infer_triggers

610 smt_monomorph_limit

611 cvc3_options

612 remote_cvc3_options

613 remote_z3_options

614 yices_options

616 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory

617 header.

619 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list

620 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions. Occasional

621 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:

623 declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]

625 * Removed old version of primrec package. INCOMPATIBILITY.

627 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long

628 been the case with "split". INCOMPATIBILITY.

630 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype. INCOMPATIBILITY.

632 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of

633 [split_format]. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

635 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction

636 rules. INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.

638 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name

639 contents for other uses. INCOMPATIBILITY.

641 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class

642 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various

643 tuning. INCOMPATIBILITY.

645 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1. INCOMPATIBILITY.

647 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".

648 INCOMPATIBILITY.

650 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to

651 avoid confusion with finite sets. INCOMPATIBILITY.

653 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence

654 relations. INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same

655 for congruent(2)).

657 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:

659 types

660 bool ~> HOL.bool

661 nat ~> Nat.nat

663 constants

664 Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop

665 True ~> HOL.True

666 False ~> HOL.False

667 op & ~> HOL.conj

668 op | ~> HOL.disj

669 op --> ~> HOL.implies

670 op = ~> HOL.eq

671 Not ~> HOL.Not

672 The ~> HOL.The

673 All ~> HOL.All

674 Ex ~> HOL.Ex

675 Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1

676 Let ~> HOL.Let

677 If ~> HOL.If

678 Ball ~> Set.Ball

679 Bex ~> Set.Bex

680 Suc ~> Nat.Suc

681 Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair

682 fst ~> Product_Type.fst

683 snd ~> Product_Type.snd

684 curry ~> Product_Type.curry

685 op : ~> Set.member

686 Collect ~> Set.Collect

688 INCOMPATIBILITY.

690 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:

692 bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def

693 top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def

694 inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def

695 sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def

696 bot_fun_eq ~> bot_fun_def

697 top_fun_eq ~> top_fun_def

698 inf_fun_eq ~> inf_fun_def

699 sup_fun_eq ~> sup_fun_def

701 INCOMPATIBILITY.

703 * More stylized fact names:

705 expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff

706 expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff

707 set_ext ~> set_eqI

708 nat_number ~> eval_nat_numeral

710 INCOMPATIBILITY.

712 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:

714 constants

715 null ~> List.null

717 facts

718 mem_iff ~> member_def

719 null_empty ~> null_def

721 INCOMPATIBILITY. Note that these were not supposed to be used

722 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code

723 generation.

725 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating

726 Haskell code.

728 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV". Term

729 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV". The theorems

730 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged. INCOMPATIBILITY.

732 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace

733 "*" and "+" respectively. INCOMPATIBILITY.

735 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden. Write

736 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.

738 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of

739 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,

740 though. INCOMPATIBILITY.

742 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"

743 instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

745 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".

746 INCOMPATIBILITY.

748 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.

749 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be

750 referred to by its qualified name.

752 enum ~> Enum.enum

753 nlists ~> Enum.nlists

754 product ~> Enum.product

756 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.

757 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.

758 INCOMPATIBILITY.

760 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into

761 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names

762 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.

763 INCOMPATIBILITY.

765 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of

766 sort_key.

768 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.

769 INCOMPATIBILITY.

771 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean

772 space. Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces

773 instead of finite cartesian products.

775 types

776 real ^ 'n ~> 'a::real_vector

777 ~> 'a::euclidean_space

778 ~> 'a::ordered_euclidean_space

779 (depends on your needs)

781 constants

782 _ $ _ ~> _ $$ _

783 \<chi> x. _ ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _

784 CARD('n) ~> DIM('a)

786 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some

787 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products

788 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to

789 be euclidean_spaces. INCOMPATIBILITY.

791 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real

792 numbers. Use pextreal as value for measures. Introduce the

793 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for

794 arbitrary sigma finite measures. Introduces Lebesgue measure based on

795 the integral in Multivariate Analysis. INCOMPATIBILITY.

797 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.

798 INCOMPATIBILITY.

800 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and

801 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program

802 verifier. See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.

805 *** HOL-Algebra ***

807 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and

808 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative

809 counterparts. Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory

810 qualifier 'add'. Previous theorem names are redeclared for

811 compatibility.

813 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a

814 definition). This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.

817 *** HOLCF ***

819 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The

820 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'. To use the domain

821 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.

822 INCOMPATIBILITY.

824 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort. Class "predomain"

825 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by

826 replacing sort annotations as shown below. INCOMPATIBILITY.

828 'a::type ~> 'a::countable

829 'a::cpo ~> 'a::predomain

830 'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain

832 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".

833 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any

834 "default_sort rep" declarations. INCOMPATIBILITY.

836 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed

837 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict

838 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following

839 domain definition now works:

841 domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")

843 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class

844 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,

845 'a option, and 'a list. Additionally, it configures fixrec and the

846 domain package to work with these types. For example:

848 fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"

849 where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"

851 domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")

853 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a

854 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See

855 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.

857 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class

858 now just asserts that such a function exists. INCOMPATIBILITY.

860 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl". HOLCF no longer

861 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances

862 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in

863 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.

865 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".

867 * The predicate "directed" has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

869 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

871 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".

872 INCOMPATIBILITY.

874 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax

875 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents

876 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".

878 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed

879 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set

880 syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY.

882 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom". The syntax "UU" is

883 still supported as an input translation.

885 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).

887 expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff

888 below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI

889 expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff

890 ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI

891 expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff

892 below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI

893 cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP

895 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.

896 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.

898 Rep_CFun ~> Rep_cfun

899 Abs_CFun ~> Abs_cfun

900 Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod

901 Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod

902 Rep_Ssum ~> Rep_ssum

903 Abs_Ssum ~> Abs_ssum

905 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have

906 been renamed to *_bottom_iff. INCOMPATIBILITY.

908 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:

910 - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.

911 - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.

912 - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.

913 - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.

915 INCOMPATIBILITY.

917 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are

918 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when". INCOMPATIBILITY.

920 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the

921 names of constants and types involved. INCOMPATIBILITY.

923 thelub_const ~> lub_const

924 lub_const ~> is_lub_const

925 thelubI ~> lub_eqI

926 is_lub_lub ~> is_lubD2

927 lubI ~> is_lub_lub

928 unique_lub ~> is_lub_unique

929 is_ub_lub ~> is_lub_rangeD1

930 lub_bin_chain ~> is_lub_bin_chain

931 lub_fun ~> is_lub_fun

932 thelub_fun ~> lub_fun

933 thelub_cfun ~> lub_cfun

934 thelub_Pair ~> lub_Pair

935 lub_cprod ~> is_lub_prod

936 thelub_cprod ~> lub_prod

937 minimal_cprod ~> minimal_prod

938 inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo

939 UU_I ~> bottomI

940 compact_UU ~> compact_bottom

941 deflation_UU ~> deflation_bottom

942 finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom

944 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY.

946 sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans

947 sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans

948 refl_less ~> below_refl

949 trans_less ~> below_trans

950 antisym_less ~> below_antisym

951 antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]

952 box_less ~> box_below

953 rev_trans_less ~> rev_below_trans

954 not_less2not_eq ~> not_below2not_eq

955 less_UU_iff ~> below_UU_iff

956 flat_less_iff ~> flat_below_iff

957 adm_less ~> adm_below

958 adm_not_less ~> adm_not_below

959 adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below

960 less_fun_def ~> below_fun_def

961 expand_fun_less ~> fun_below_iff

962 less_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI

963 less_discr_def ~> below_discr_def

964 discr_less_eq ~> discr_below_eq

965 less_unit_def ~> below_unit_def

966 less_cprod_def ~> below_prod_def

967 prod_lessI ~> prod_belowI

968 Pair_less_iff ~> Pair_below_iff

969 fst_less_iff ~> fst_below_iff

970 snd_less_iff ~> snd_below_iff

971 expand_cfun_less ~> cfun_below_iff

972 less_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI

973 injection_less ~> injection_below

974 less_up_def ~> below_up_def

975 not_Iup_less ~> not_Iup_below

976 Iup_less ~> Iup_below

977 up_less ~> up_below

978 Def_inject_less_eq ~> Def_below_Def

979 Def_less_is_eq ~> Def_below_iff

980 spair_less_iff ~> spair_below_iff

981 less_sprod ~> below_sprod

982 spair_less ~> spair_below

983 sfst_less_iff ~> sfst_below_iff

984 ssnd_less_iff ~> ssnd_below_iff

985 fix_least_less ~> fix_least_below

986 dist_less_one ~> dist_below_one

987 less_ONE ~> below_ONE

988 ONE_less_iff ~> ONE_below_iff

989 less_sinlD ~> below_sinlD

990 less_sinrD ~> below_sinrD

993 *** FOL and ZF ***

995 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper

996 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =". INCOMPATIBILITY.

999 *** ML ***

1001 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises

1002 Fail if the argument is false. Due to inlining the source position of

1003 failed assertions is included in the error output.

1005 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML

1006 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.

1007 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.

1009 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of

1010 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.

1011 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.

1013 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority

1014 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.

1016 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax

1017 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.

1019 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with

1020 ListPair.UnequalLengths.

1022 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier. Note that the

1023 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.

1025 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its

1026 meaning. Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in

1027 almost all situations.

1029 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.

1030 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in

1031 Isabelle/ML.

1033 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its

1034 meaning.

1036 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its

1037 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is

1038 rarely-used global-only stuff.

1040 * Discontinued Output.debug. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln

1041 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).

1043 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty

1044 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.

1046 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive. Rare

1047 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and

1048 @{thms} for most purposes.

1050 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar

1051 interaction mode as before. Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been

1052 discontinued -- use plain := instead. This should be *rare* anyway,

1053 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably

1054 configuration options.

1056 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning

1057 interrupts. Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that

1058 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt. User code must not absorb

1059 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be

1060 followed by re-raising of the original exception. Another common

1061 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of

1062 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.

1066 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)

1067 ---------------------------------

1069 *** General ***

1071 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type

1072 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust

1073 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax. Within

1074 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by

1075 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with

1076 their full internal name.

1078 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations

1079 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).

1080 Some hints on upgrading:

1082 - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced

1083 by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',

1084 which are independent of this issue.

1086 - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax

1087 provides the following special forms:

1089 CONST c -- produces syntax version of constant c from context

1090 XCONST c -- literally c, checked as constant from context

1091 c -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'

1093 Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the

1094 system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains

1095 extra variables".

1097 Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their

1098 concrete syntax. Some old translations rules need to be written

1099 for the "type" category, using type constructor application

1100 instead of pseudo-term application of the default category

1101 "logic".

1103 - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following

1104 antiquotations:

1106 @{class_syntax c} -- type class c within parse tree / AST

1107 @{term_syntax c} -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST

1108 @{const_syntax c} -- ML version of "CONST c" above

1109 @{syntax_const c} -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)

1111 - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*

1112 represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim. Use @{class

1113 c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax

1114 antiquotations.

1116 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base

1117 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide. Recall

1118 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to

1119 diagnose syntax problems.

1121 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.

1123 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof

1124 body, too. This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',

1125 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is

1126 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.

1128 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --

1129 need to specify constant name and syntax separately. Internal ML

1130 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.

1131 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

1133 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,

1134 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',

1135 'schematic_corollary'. Thus the relevance of the proof is made

1136 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or

1137 asynchronous interactive environment. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

1139 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been

1140 discontinued (old legacy feature).

1142 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by

1143 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the

1144 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via

1146 using [[trace_simp = true]]

1148 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in

1149 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or

1150 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.

1152 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',

1153 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command. Minor

1154 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1156 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is

1157 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.

1160 *** Pure ***

1162 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the

1163 "unconstrain" operation internally. This eliminates all sort

1164 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit

1165 OFCLASS-premises. On the proof term level, this operation is

1166 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs

1167 are always free of sort constraints. INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that

1168 inspect proof terms.

1170 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that

1171 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself

1172 are added internally. For example:

1174 definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"

1176 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory

1177 "class" prefix. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1179 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1181 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

1182 'class' instead.

1184 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into

1185 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.

1186 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1188 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying

1189 invariants.

1191 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the

1192 user space functionality any longer.

1194 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale

1195 subgoals. This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.

1196 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1198 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body. This allows to

1199 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.

1201 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax

1202 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the

1203 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).

1205 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory

1206 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or

1207 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.

1209 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works

1210 within a local theory context. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

1213 *** HOL ***

1215 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without

1216 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not

1217 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL. Note that the logical environment may

1218 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different

1219 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.

1221 * New package for quotient types. Commands 'quotient_type' and

1222 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by

1223 quotient constructions. An example is the type of integers created by

1224 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:

1226 fun

1227 intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"

1228 where

1229 "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"

1231 quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel

1232 by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)

1234 quotient_definition

1235 "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"

1237 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the

1238 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type. The example

1239 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient

1240 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.

1242 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid

1243 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.

1245 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating

1246 separate HOL-SMT session.

1248 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.

1249 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1251 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed. Use library Word/Word.thy

1252 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in

1253 the AFP entry RSAPPS.

1255 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no

1256 longer shadowed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1258 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.

1259 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1261 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.

1262 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1264 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes

1265 instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1267 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and

1268 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"

1269 instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1271 floor_number_of_eq ~> floor_number_of

1272 le_floor_eq_number_of ~> number_of_le_floor

1273 le_floor_eq_zero ~> zero_le_floor

1274 le_floor_eq_one ~> one_le_floor

1275 floor_less_eq_number_of ~> floor_less_number_of

1276 floor_less_eq_zero ~> floor_less_zero

1277 floor_less_eq_one ~> floor_less_one

1278 less_floor_eq_number_of ~> number_of_less_floor

1279 less_floor_eq_zero ~> zero_less_floor

1280 less_floor_eq_one ~> one_less_floor

1281 floor_le_eq_number_of ~> floor_le_number_of

1282 floor_le_eq_zero ~> floor_le_zero

1283 floor_le_eq_one ~> floor_le_one

1284 floor_subtract_number_of ~> floor_diff_number_of

1285 floor_subtract_one ~> floor_diff_one

1286 ceiling_number_of_eq ~> ceiling_number_of

1287 ceiling_le_eq_number_of ~> ceiling_le_number_of

1288 ceiling_le_zero_eq ~> ceiling_le_zero

1289 ceiling_le_eq_one ~> ceiling_le_one

1290 less_ceiling_eq_number_of ~> number_of_less_ceiling

1291 less_ceiling_eq_zero ~> zero_less_ceiling

1292 less_ceiling_eq_one ~> one_less_ceiling

1293 ceiling_less_eq_number_of ~> ceiling_less_number_of

1294 ceiling_less_eq_zero ~> ceiling_less_zero

1295 ceiling_less_eq_one ~> ceiling_less_one

1296 le_ceiling_eq_number_of ~> number_of_le_ceiling

1297 le_ceiling_eq_zero ~> zero_le_ceiling

1298 le_ceiling_eq_one ~> one_le_ceiling

1299 ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of

1300 ceiling_subtract_one ~> ceiling_diff_one

1302 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the

1303 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.

1305 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"

1306 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as

1307 implementation. INCOMPATIBILTY.

1309 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by

1310 AFP/thys/Coinductive.

1312 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has

1313 been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1315 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.

1317 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,

1318 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1320 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",

1321 "Int" etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1323 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1325 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute

1326 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.

1328 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory

1329 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more

1330 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes

1331 within the HOL theories. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1333 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:

1334 - less_eq, less: Orderings

1335 - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups

1336 - inverse, divide: Rings

1337 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1339 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and

1340 lattices):

1342 lower_semilattice ~> semilattice_inf

1343 upper_semilattice ~> semilattice_sup

1345 dense_linear_order ~> dense_linorder

1347 pordered_ab_group_add ~> ordered_ab_group_add

1348 pordered_ab_group_add_abs ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs

1349 pordered_ab_semigroup_add ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add

1350 pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le

1351 pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add

1352 pordered_cancel_comm_semiring ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring

1353 pordered_cancel_semiring ~> ordered_cancel_semiring

1354 pordered_comm_monoid_add ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add

1355 pordered_comm_ring ~> ordered_comm_ring

1356 pordered_comm_semiring ~> ordered_comm_semiring

1357 pordered_ring ~> ordered_ring

1358 pordered_ring_abs ~> ordered_ring_abs

1359 pordered_semiring ~> ordered_semiring

1361 ordered_ab_group_add ~> linordered_ab_group_add

1362 ordered_ab_semigroup_add ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add

1363 ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add

1364 ordered_comm_semiring_strict ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict

1365 ordered_field ~> linordered_field

1366 ordered_field_no_lb ~> linordered_field_no_lb

1367 ordered_field_no_ub ~> linordered_field_no_ub

1368 ordered_field_dense_linear_order ~> dense_linordered_field

1369 ordered_idom ~> linordered_idom

1370 ordered_ring ~> linordered_ring

1371 ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor

1372 ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor

1373 ordered_ring_strict ~> linordered_ring_strict

1374 ordered_semidom ~> linordered_semidom

1375 ordered_semiring ~> linordered_semiring

1376 ordered_semiring_1 ~> linordered_semiring_1

1377 ordered_semiring_1_strict ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict

1378 ordered_semiring_strict ~> linordered_semiring_strict

1380 The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a

1381 separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:

1383 lordered_ab_group_add ~> lattice_ab_group_add

1384 lordered_ab_group_add_abs ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs

1385 lordered_ab_group_add_meet ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add

1386 lordered_ab_group_add_join ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add

1387 lordered_ring ~> lattice_ring

1389 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1391 * Refined field classes:

1392 - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,

1393 linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --

1394 subsumes former division_by_zero class;

1395 - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.

1396 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1398 * Refined algebra theorem collections:

1399 - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;

1400 - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;

1401 - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem

1402 groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;

1403 - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for

1404 equal_neg_zero.

1405 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1407 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from

1408 sets to lattices:

1410 fun_left_comm_idem_inter ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf

1411 fun_left_comm_idem_union ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup

1412 inter_Inter_fold_inter ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf

1413 union_Union_fold_union ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup

1414 Inter_fold_inter ~> Inf_fold_inf

1415 Union_fold_union ~> Sup_fold_sup

1416 inter_INTER_fold_inter ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf

1417 union_UNION_fold_union ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup

1418 INTER_fold_inter ~> INFI_fold_inf

1419 UNION_fold_union ~> SUPR_fold_sup

1421 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been

1422 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.

1423 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed

1424 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert. Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace

1425 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ. Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right

1426 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1428 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and

1429 multiset order:

1431 - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax

1432 <= and <;

1433 - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties

1434 are provided by means of interpretation with prefix

1435 multiset_order;

1436 - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,

1437 conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code

1438 generation;

1439 - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,

1440 if needed.

1442 Renamed:

1444 multiset_eq_conv_count_eq ~> multiset_ext_iff

1445 multi_count_ext ~> multiset_ext

1446 diff_union_inverse2 ~> diff_union_cancelR

1448 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1450 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.

1452 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.

1454 * Theory List: added transpose.

1456 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions

1457 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries

1458 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1460 Constants:

1461 Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat ~> prod_encode

1462 Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2 ~> prod_decode

1463 Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij ~> int_encode

1464 Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij ~> int_decode

1465 Countable.pair_encode ~> prod_encode

1466 NatIso.prod2nat ~> prod_encode

1467 NatIso.nat2prod ~> prod_decode

1468 NatIso.sum2nat ~> sum_encode

1469 NatIso.nat2sum ~> sum_decode

1470 NatIso.list2nat ~> list_encode

1471 NatIso.nat2list ~> list_decode

1472 NatIso.set2nat ~> set_encode

1473 NatIso.nat2set ~> set_decode

1475 Lemmas:

1476 Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij ~> bij_int_decode

1477 Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj ~> inj_prod_encode

1478 Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj ~> surj_prod_encode

1479 Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj ~> inj_prod_decode

1480 Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj ~> surj_prod_decode

1481 Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id ~> int_encode_inverse

1482 Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id ~> int_decode_inverse

1483 Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode

1484 Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode

1485 Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij ~> inj_int_encode

1486 Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij ~> inj_int_decode

1487 Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij ~> bij_int_encode

1488 Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij ~> bij_int_decode

1490 * Sledgehammer:

1491 - Renamed ATP commands:

1492 atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_atps

1493 atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_atps

1494 atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages

1495 atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize

1496 print_atps ~> sledgehammer available_atps

1497 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1498 - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").

1499 - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize

1500 Sledgehammer's behavior. See the manual for details.

1501 - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces

1502 direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction. (This feature

1503 is still experimental.)

1504 - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in

1505 full-typed mode.

1506 - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.

1508 * Nitpick:

1509 - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.

1510 - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.

1511 - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision

1512 of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.

1513 - Added support for quotient types.

1514 - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"

1515 constructs.

1516 - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and

1517 "termination" proofs).

1518 - Added support for term postprocessors.

1519 - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".

1520 - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.

1521 - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and

1522 record getters.

1523 - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.

1524 - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.

1525 - Improved precision of set constructs.

1526 - Added "atoms" option.

1527 - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same

1528 problems.

1529 - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and

1530 "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and

1531 "SAT4J_Light". INCOMPATIBILITY.

1532 - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",

1533 "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1534 - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1536 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not

1537 a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.

1538 If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.

1539 By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations

1540 are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases

1541 to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.

1542 Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old

1543 behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"

1544 and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.

1545 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1548 *** HOLCF ***

1550 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have

1551 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype

1552 package. Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.

1554 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for

1555 recursive domain "foo". The reach lemma is now stated directly in

1556 terms of "foo_take". Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must

1557 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.

1559 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously

1560 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form

1561 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.

1562 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,

1563 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

1565 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now

1566 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each

1567 constructor). INCOMPATIBILITY.

1569 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"

1570 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.

1572 foo_bar.reach ~> foo.reach bar.reach

1573 foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma bar.take_lemma

1575 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for

1576 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.

1578 foo.ind ~> foo.induct

1579 foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct

1580 foo.coind ~> foo.coinduct

1581 foo.casedist ~> foo.exhaust

1582 foo.exhaust ~> foo.nchotomy

1584 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package

1585 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.

1587 foo_simps ~> foo.simps

1588 foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold

1589 foo_induct ~> foo.induct

1591 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed. The "fixrec_simp"

1592 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.

1593 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1595 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed. Proof scripts should use

1596 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.

1598 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.

1600 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of

1601 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.

1604 *** ML ***

1606 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:

1608 @{class NAME} -- type class

1609 @{class_syntax NAME} -- syntax representation of the above

1611 @{type_name NAME} -- logical type

1612 @{type_abbrev NAME} -- type abbreviation

1613 @{nonterminal NAME} -- type of concrete syntactic category

1614 @{type_syntax NAME} -- syntax representation of any of the above

1616 @{const_name NAME} -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)

1617 @{const_abbrev NAME} -- abbreviated constant

1618 @{const_syntax NAME} -- syntax representation of any of the above

1620 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw

1621 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).

1623 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary

1624 values similar to the ML toplevel. The result is compiler dependent

1625 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.

1627 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to

1628 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}. This replaces impure

1629 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do

1630 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.

1632 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on

1633 the context or even global references.

1635 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174). It

1636 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).

1638 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names

1639 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:

1641 OuterKeyword ~> Keyword

1642 OuterLex ~> Token

1643 OuterParse ~> Parse

1644 OuterSyntax ~> Outer_Syntax

1645 PrintMode ~> Print_Mode

1646 SpecParse ~> Parse_Spec

1647 ThyInfo ~> Thy_Info

1648 ThyLoad ~> Thy_Load

1649 ThyOutput ~> Thy_Output

1650 TypeInfer ~> Type_Infer

1652 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting

1653 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.

1655 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named

1656 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or

1657 ProofContext.init_global. There are some situations where a global

1658 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to

1659 pass the proper local context through the code!

1661 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data

1662 needs to be pure. Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional

1663 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard

1664 Theory_Data version.

1666 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms

1667 no longer minimize sorts. Thus certification at the boundary of the

1668 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,

1669 which is an important monotonicity principle. Sorts are now minimized

1670 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the

1671 system. Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort

1672 explicitly in rare situations.

1674 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to

1675 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.

1676 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1678 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as

1679 usual for resolution. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.

1681 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global

1682 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is

1683 quite rare).

1685 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted

1686 as infinity (as in chop). Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.

1688 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical

1689 order of type variables. INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof

1690 terms.

1692 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs

1693 may no longer carry premises. User-level specifications are

1694 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.

1697 *** System ***

1699 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;

1700 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions. Note that

1701 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.

1703 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy

1704 feature since Isabelle2009). Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,

1705 respectively.

1707 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the

1708 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit

1709 variant, even on a 64 bit machine. The following example setting

1710 prefers 64 bit if available:

1712 ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"

1714 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging

1715 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.

1716 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built

1717 component.

1719 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono

1720 and Bluesky TeX fonts. It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,

1721 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system

1722 (cf. isabellesym.sty). The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System

1723 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking

1724 the user for manual installation.

1728 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)

1729 -------------------------------------

1731 *** General ***

1733 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>. Only

1734 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.

1737 *** Pure ***

1739 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.

1740 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map

1741 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.

1743 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'. Use "print_interps

1744 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.

1745 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.

1747 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial. New section on conditional

1748 interpretation.

1750 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters

1751 are formally declared. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1754 *** Document preparation ***

1756 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}

1757 instead of @{foo_style style ...} (old form is still retained for

1758 backward compatibility). Styles can be also applied for

1759 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.

1762 *** HOL ***

1764 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with

1765 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and

1766 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order

1767 features (esp. lambda abstractions). It is an incomplete decision

1768 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;

1769 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing. Certificates

1770 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for

1771 re-checking proofs. Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for

1772 installing SMT solvers locally. See src/HOL/SMT.

1774 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by

1775 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C

1776 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#). See src/HOL/Boogie.

1778 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod

1779 relational model finder. See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and

1780 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.

1782 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate

1783 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.

1785 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.

1787 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;

1788 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records

1789 and datatypes. Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory

1790 Library/SML_Quickcheck.

1792 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools. Applies

1793 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to

1794 every proof step in a theory. To be used in batch mode via the

1795 "mirabelle" utility.

1797 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real

1798 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory

1799 Library/Sum_Of_Squares. It is not a complete decision procedure but

1800 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,

1801 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and

1802 inequalities between polynomials. It makes use of external

1803 semidefinite programming solvers. Method "sos" generates a

1804 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need

1805 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked. See

1806 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.

1808 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision

1809 procedure only.

1811 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.

1813 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.

1814 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs. This slows

1815 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"

1816 that fail later.

1818 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type

1819 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.

1821 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using

1822 the same method as the approximation method.

1824 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as

1825 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor

1826 series expansion.

1828 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype

1829 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.

1831 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of

1832 reals.

1834 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure

1835 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.

1837 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's

1838 fixpoint theorem.

1840 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:

1841 - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides

1842 and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory

1843 - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int

1844 accordingly

1845 - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including

1846 theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)

1847 - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to

1848 src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory

1850 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and

1851 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete

1852 lattice.

1854 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of

1855 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,

1856 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been

1857 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems

1858 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and

1859 zdiv_zmult_zmult2. div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.

1860 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1862 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:

1863 - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default

1864 intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity

1865 - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with

1866 le_inf_iff

1867 - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and

1868 sup_aci)

1869 - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci

1870 - new class "boolean_algebra"

1871 - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory

1872 "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)

1873 renamed and with authentic syntax:

1874 Set.Inf ~> Complete_Lattice.Inf

1875 Set.Sup ~> Complete_Lattice.Sup

1876 Set.INFI ~> Complete_Lattice.INFI

1877 Set.SUPR ~> Complete_Lattice.SUPR

1878 Set.Inter ~> Complete_Lattice.Inter

1879 Set.Union ~> Complete_Lattice.Union

1880 Set.INTER ~> Complete_Lattice.INTER

1881 Set.UNION ~> Complete_Lattice.UNION

1882 - authentic syntax for

1883 Set.Pow

1884 Set.image

1885 - mere abbreviations:

1886 Set.empty (for bot)

1887 Set.UNIV (for top)

1888 Set.inter (for inf, formerly Set.Int)

1889 Set.union (for sup, formerly Set.Un)

1890 Complete_Lattice.Inter (for Inf)

1891 Complete_Lattice.Union (for Sup)

1892 Complete_Lattice.INTER (for INFI)

1893 Complete_Lattice.UNION (for SUPR)

1894 - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate

1896 INCOMPATIBILITY. Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or

1897 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also

1898 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be

1899 deleted to achieve the desired effect.

1901 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp

1902 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1

1903 etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1905 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as

1906 pred_set_conv by default. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1908 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated

1909 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^". Power operation on

1910 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic

1911 in class power. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1913 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:

1914 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}". INCOMPATIBILITY,

1915 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally

1916 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this. Fix using

1917 O_assoc[symmetric]. The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".

1919 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an

1920 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV". Lemmas are renamed accordingly.

1921 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1923 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory

1924 prefixes. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1926 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by

1927 the attribute of the same name. Each of the theorems in the list

1928 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and

1929 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the

1930 Simplifier. Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative

1931 of most elementary terms. Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and

1932 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).

1933 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1935 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:

1936 code_unfold replaces code unfold

1937 code_post replaces code post

1938 etc.

1939 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1941 * Renamed methods:

1942 sizechange -> size_change

1943 induct_scheme -> induction_schema

1944 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1946 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".

1947 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.

1949 * Renamed theorems:

1950 Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1

1951 Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left

1952 Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1

1953 *anti_sym -> *antisym*

1954 vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def

1955 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1957 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp]. Removed List.map_compose.

1958 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1960 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).

1961 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1964 *** HOLCF ***

1966 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are

1967 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".

1968 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.

1970 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the

1971 domain package, for representable domains. Syntax is identical to the

1972 old domain package. The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect

1973 recursion using previously-defined type constructors. See

1974 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.

1976 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant

1977 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs

1978 simplification. Rewriting is done using rules declared with the

1979 "fixrec_simp" attribute. The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a

1980 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.

1982 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors

1983 with HOL function types. Pattern-match combinators for the Pair

1984 constructor are pre-configured.

1986 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules

1987 for mutually-recursive definitions: Induction rules have conclusions

1988 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".

1990 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has

1991 been renamed to "below". The name "below" now replaces "less" in many

1992 theorem names. (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported

1993 as well.)

1995 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns". Bottom

1996 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make

1997 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the

1998 Glasgow Haskell Compiler). See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for

1999 examples.

2002 *** ML ***

2004 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler

2005 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.

2007 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely

2008 identified entries, with some additional information such as source

2009 position, logical grouping etc.

2011 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and

2012 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data. Data needs

2013 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit

2014 copy operation) is still available for some time.

2016 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)

2017 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state

2018 variables with atomic update. This works via pure function

2019 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as

2020 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,

2021 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!

2023 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)

2024 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe

2025 behaviour. The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to

2026 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive

2027 experiments with references.

2029 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for

2030 parallel tactical reasoning.

2032 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS

2033 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the

2034 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the

2035 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.

2037 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has

2038 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion. Use SUBPROOF

2039 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.

2041 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph. (Since

2042 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them

2043 separately.) Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

2045 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2047 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar. Occasional,

2048 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2050 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty

2051 mode, which avoids critical setmp.

2053 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related

2054 combinators for "args". INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified

2055 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.

2057 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of. May fall

2058 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as

2059 last resort. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2061 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former

2062 ProofContext.pretty_thm). May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global

2063 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.

2064 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2066 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

2067 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context

2068 instead of global theory.

2071 *** System ***

2073 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores

2074 (max. speedup factor 5.0). See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and

2075 usedir option -q.

2077 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see

2078 also the system manual.

2080 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with

2081 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".

2083 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;

2084 this is always enabled.

2086 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.

2088 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'

2089 on a given logic image. This requires the lighttpd webserver and is

2090 currently supported on Linux only.

2094 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)

2095 --------------------------------

2097 *** General ***

2099 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on

2100 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).

2102 - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of

2103 "isatool."

2105 - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been

2106 removed (should rarely occur to regular users).

2108 - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been

2109 removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).

2111 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables

2112 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,

2113 respectively. (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)

2115 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if

2116 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise. Individual

2117 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the

2118 Isabelle system manual. In particular, Proof General is now available

2119 via "isabelle emacs".

2121 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts. Users may need to

2122 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle

2123 install -p ...", or use symlinks.

2125 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the

2126 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause

2127 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).

2129 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,

2130 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place. Special

2131 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle. Note that

2132 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any

2133 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.

2135 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on

2136 multi-core systems. A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on

2137 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably

2138 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H). (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)

2140 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and

2141 "system") have been updated and extended. Formally checked references

2142 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.

2145 *** Pure ***

2147 * Complete re-implementation of locales. INCOMPATIBILITY in several

2148 respects. The most important changes are listed below. See the

2149 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.

2151 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming. Parameters

2152 must be declared in a for clause. To aid compatibility with previous

2153 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not

2154 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added

2155 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.

2157 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in

2158 locale expressions and context elements. The latter is particularly

2159 useful in locale declarations.

2161 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale

2162 expressions. Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale

2163 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or

2164 optional (syntax "name?:"). The default depends for plain "name:"

2165 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in

2166 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in

2167 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory. The old

2168 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are

2169 no longer generated.

2171 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e". The

2172 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square

2173 brackets) is no longer available. Use locale expressions.

2175 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in

2176 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even

2177 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior. In the

2178 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones. Qualifiers

2179 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.

2181 - Dropped locale element "includes". This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.

2182 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the

2183 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those

2184 that are already present in the theorem specification. Multiple

2185 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one

2186 involving the locale predicate. In the proof body, declarations (most

2187 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective

2188 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").

2190 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the

2191 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,

2192 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on

2193 the parameters (context element "constrains").

2195 - Discontinued "locale (open)". INCOMPATIBILITY.

2197 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.

2198 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs. Use

2199 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.

2201 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation

2202 attributes. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2204 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import

2205 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification. Particularly

2206 in HOL, write

2208 class foo = ...

2210 instead of

2212 class foo = type + ...

2214 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a

2215 parameter prefix any longer. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2217 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.

2218 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.

2220 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in

2221 Isabelle2007. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really

2222 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.

2224 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in

2225 isar-ref manual. Removed locales meta_term_syntax and

2226 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,

2227 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations. Note that &&& should not be used

2228 directly in regular applications.

2230 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal

2231 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).

2233 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command. INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML

2234 interface with 'setup' command instead.

2236 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local

2237 theory context.

2239 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory

2240 context. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2242 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort

2243 hypotheses. Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be

2244 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the

2245 type instance information of the background theory. Non-trivial sort

2246 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via

2247 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c). For example:

2249 lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...

2251 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --

2252 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule

2253 normalization.

2255 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state

2256 addressing etc.

2258 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:

2260 unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)

2261 unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)

2263 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):

2265 a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular

2266 constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other

2267 parts of the code generator framework).

2269 b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code

2270 attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming

2271 from definition, primrec, fun etc.

2273 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2275 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators. Thus [code

2276 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2278 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name

2279 patterns, e.g.

2281 find_consts "_ => bool"

2283 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to

2284 the whole type. Searching by name is possible. Multiple queries are

2285 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a

2286 hyphen:

2288 find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"

2290 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that

2291 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).

2293 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal

2294 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could

2295 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.

2296 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,

2297 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of

2298 higher-order unification.

2301 *** Document preparation ***

2303 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,

2304 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression

2305 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.

2308 *** HOL ***

2310 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL. Entry

2311 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.

2313 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important

2314 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...). This facilitates

2315 experimentation and tool development. Note that user applications

2316 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory

2317 Main, as before.

2319 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates

2320 experimentation due to shorter build times.

2322 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which

2323 were previously part of former HOL-Complex. Entry point Hyperreal

2324 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use

2325 new entry point Hypercomplex.

2327 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of

2328 Posix processes. Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML

2329 process. New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix

2330 platforms (Cygwin). Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined

2331 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions. Basic Sledgehammer

2332 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.

2334 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use

2335 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other

2336 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also

2337 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.

2339 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings

2340 menu.

2342 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial

2343 (contains the empty clause).

2345 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising

2346 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.

2348 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also

2349 src/Tools/coherent.ML).

2351 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary". Usually

2352 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though

2353 logically there is no difference. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2355 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms. The

2356 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed. In

2357 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be

2358 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]). See further

2359 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.

2361 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.

2362 Declare with attribute [code nbe].

2364 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules

2365 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the

2366 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes. Mutual induction rules

2367 are now presented as a list of individual projections

2368 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with

2369 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported. INCOMPATIBILITY, in

2370 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple

2371 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t

2372 rule: prod.exhaust) here.

2374 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.

2376 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".

2378 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option. Renamed

2379 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.

2381 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial

2382 orders. With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about

2383 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",

2384 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".

2386 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with

2387 authentic syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY:

2389 op Int ~> Set.Int

2390 op Un ~> Set.Un

2391 INTER ~> Set.INTER

2392 UNION ~> Set.UNION

2393 Inter ~> Set.Inter

2394 Union ~> Set.Union

2395 {} ~> Set.empty

2396 UNIV ~> Set.UNIV

2398 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in

2399 theory Set.

2401 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any

2402 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.

2404 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.

2406 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,

2407 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.

2409 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof

2410 method "approximation". It proves formulas on real values by using

2411 interval arithmetic. In the formulas are also the transcendental

2412 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are

2413 allowed. For examples see

2414 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.

2416 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.

2418 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".

2419 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2421 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution

2422 structure:

2424 src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy

2425 src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/

2426 src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/

2427 src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/

2428 src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/

2429 src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/

2430 src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/

2431 src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/

2432 src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/

2433 src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/

2434 src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/

2435 src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/

2436 src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/

2437 src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/

2438 src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/

2439 src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/

2440 src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/

2441 src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/

2442 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/

2443 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/

2444 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/

2445 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/

2446 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/

2447 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/

2448 src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/

2449 src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/

2450 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/

2451 src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/

2452 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/

2453 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/

2454 src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/

2455 src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach

2456 src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/

2458 src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

2459 src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

2460 src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

2461 src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML

2462 src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

2463 src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

2464 src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

2465 src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

2466 src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

2467 src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

2469 src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

2470 src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

2471 src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

2472 src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

2473 src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

2474 src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

2476 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof

2477 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if

2478 possible), avoiding strange error messages.

2480 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a

2481 modification of) the size-change principle. Requires SAT solver. See

2482 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.

2484 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound

2485 variable occurs at most once in let expression body. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2487 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when

2488 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.

2490 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used

2491 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in

2492 proofs, e.g.

2494 assumes [arith]: "x > 0"

2496 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.

2498 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and

2499 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"

2500 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot". INCOMPATIBILITY.

2502 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an

2503 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.

2504 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2506 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit

2507 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption. For instantiation of

2508 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.

2509 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2511 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".

2512 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder

2513 etc. slightly changed. Some theorems named order_class.* now named

2514 preorder_class.*.

2516 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,

2517 "diag" to "Id_on".

2519 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type

2521 ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b

2523 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator

2524 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to

2525 fold_image.

2527 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"

2528 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be

2529 extended with further lemmas!). At the moment both still exist but

2530 the former will disappear at some point.

2532 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in

2533 class recpower. Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types

2534 have been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:

2536 rat_power_0 -> power_0

2537 rat_power_Suc -> power_Suc

2538 realpow_0 -> power_0

2539 realpow_Suc -> power_Suc

2540 complexpow_0 -> power_0

2541 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc

2542 power_poly_0 -> power_0

2543 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc

2545 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been

2546 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on

2547 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1. Likewise a bunch

2548 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class

2549 semiring_div. INCOMPATIBILITY. This involves the following theorem

2550 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:

2552 dvd_def_mod ~> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0

2553 zero_dvd_iff ~> dvd_0_left_iff

2554 dvd_0 ~> dvd_0_right

2555 DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0

2556 DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0

2557 mult_div ~> div_mult_self2_is_id

2558 mult_mod ~> mod_mult_self2_is_0

2560 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based

2561 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field). INCOMPATIBILITY,

2562 rename old lemmas as follows:

2564 dvd_diff -> nat_dvd_diff

2565 dvd_zminus_iff -> dvd_minus_iff

2566 mod_add1_eq -> mod_add_eq

2567 mod_mult1_eq -> mod_mult_right_eq

2568 mod_mult1_eq' -> mod_mult_left_eq

2569 mod_mult_distrib_mod -> mod_mult_eq

2570 nat_mod_add_left_eq -> mod_add_left_eq

2571 nat_mod_add_right_eq -> mod_add_right_eq

2572 nat_mod_div_trivial -> mod_div_trivial

2573 nat_mod_mod_trivial -> mod_mod_trivial

2574 zdiv_zadd_self1 -> div_add_self1

2575 zdiv_zadd_self2 -> div_add_self2

2576 zdiv_zmult_self1 -> div_mult_self2_is_id

2577 zdiv_zmult_self2 -> div_mult_self1_is_id

2578 zdvd_triv_left -> dvd_triv_left

2579 zdvd_triv_right -> dvd_triv_right

2580 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left

2581 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]

2582 zmod_zadd_left_eq -> mod_add_left_eq

2583 zmod_zadd_right_eq -> mod_add_right_eq

2584 zmod_zadd_self1 -> mod_add_self1

2585 zmod_zadd_self2 -> mod_add_self2

2586 zmod_zadd1_eq -> mod_add_eq

2587 zmod_zdiff1_eq -> mod_diff_eq

2588 zmod_zdvd_zmod -> mod_mod_cancel

2589 zmod_zmod_cancel -> mod_mod_cancel

2590 zmod_zmult_self1 -> mod_mult_self2_is_0

2591 zmod_zmult_self2 -> mod_mult_self1_is_0

2592 zmod_1 -> mod_by_1

2593 zdiv_1 -> div_by_1

2594 zdvd_abs1 -> abs_dvd_iff

2595 zdvd_abs2 -> dvd_abs_iff

2596 zdvd_refl -> dvd_refl

2597 zdvd_trans -> dvd_trans

2598 zdvd_zadd -> dvd_add

2599 zdvd_zdiff -> dvd_diff

2600 zdvd_zminus_iff -> dvd_minus_iff

2601 zdvd_zminus2_iff -> minus_dvd_iff

2602 zdvd_zmultD -> dvd_mult_right

2603 zdvd_zmultD2 -> dvd_mult_left

2604 zdvd_zmult_mono -> mult_dvd_mono

2605 zdvd_0_right -> dvd_0_right

2606 zdvd_0_left -> dvd_0_left_iff

2607 zdvd_1_left -> one_dvd

2608 zminus_dvd_iff -> minus_dvd_iff

2610 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2612 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated

2613 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.

2615 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of

2616 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a. In addition to

2617 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod. Code

2618 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.

2620 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real

2621 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a

2622 => real. Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from

2623 theory RealVector.

2625 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product

2626 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.

2627 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,

2628 and inner products are included.

2630 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2. In

2631 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also

2632 supported.

2634 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's

2635 first diagonalization argument.

2637 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,

2638 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in

2639 the HOL Distribution. Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and

2640 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY,

2641 may recover tupled syntax as follows:

2643 hide (open) const gcd

2644 abbreviation gcd where

2645 "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"

2646 notation (output)

2647 GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")

2649 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.

2651 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more

2652 instantiations for algebraic structures. Removed some duplicate

2653 theorems. Changes in simp rules. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2655 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates

2656 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding

2657 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.

2658 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated

2659 simultaneously. Provides a generic and safe interface for

2660 instrumentalizing code generation. See

2661 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.

2662 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML

2663 code on the ML toplevel. Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}

2664 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are

2665 set. Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that

2666 cases.

2668 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now

2669 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be

2670 represented as datatype. The characteristic theorems have to be

2671 proven. INCOMPATIBILITY. Also observe that the following theorems

2672 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:

2674 unit_induct ~> unit.induct

2675 prod_induct ~> prod.induct

2676 sum_induct ~> sum.induct

2677 Suc_Suc_eq ~> nat.inject

2678 Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc ~> nat.distinct

2681 *** HOL-Algebra ***

2683 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation

2684 is not restricted to equality. INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice

2685 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.

2687 * New theory of factorial domains.

2689 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.

2690 INCOMPATIBILITY. Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv

2691 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.

2693 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:

2695 UpperD ~> Upper_memD

2696 LowerD ~> Lower_memD

2697 least_carrier ~> least_closed

2698 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed

2699 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below

2700 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero

2701 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero (collision with assumption)

2704 *** HOL-Nominal ***

2706 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.

2708 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local

2709 theory targets.

2711 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its

2712 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in

2713 'inductive' etc.

2715 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes

2716 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.

2718 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the

2719 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.

2721 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction

2722 principles for inductive definitions. In contrast to

2723 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of

2724 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of

2725 atoms to be avoided. The only inductive definition we have at the

2726 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in

2727 the algorithm W:

2729 Gamma |- t1 : T1 (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2 x#Gamma

2730 -----------------------------------------------------------------

2731 Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2

2733 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by

2734 "close Gamma T1". We are looking for other examples where this

2735 feature might be useful. Please let us know.

2738 *** HOLCF ***

2740 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity

2741 subgoals. The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional

2742 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].

2744 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for

2745 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions. In

2746 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the

2747 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.

2748 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

2750 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general

2751 format as seen in 'inductive' etc. See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for

2752 examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2755 *** ZF ***

2757 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.

2760 *** ML ***

2762 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for

2763 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later. Important note: the TimeLimit facility

2764 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML

2765 5.2.1!

2767 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see

2768 src/Pure/Cuncurrent. The data-oriented model of "future values" is

2769 particularly convenient to organize independent functional

2770 computations. The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a

2771 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the

2772 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables. (Requires

2773 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)

2775 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar

2776 context (theory or proof). Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'

2777 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning

2778 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).

2779 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the

2780 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a

2781 theory. (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)

2783 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof

2784 context. Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in

2785 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.

2786 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the

2787 proof. (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)

2789 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup

2790 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and

2791 'method_setup'. INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify

2792 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old

2793 Method.add_method.

2795 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm

2796 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle

2797 name. The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type

2798 is specified. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code

2799 accordingly. Note that extra performance may be gained by producing

2800 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.

2802 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via

2803 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally

2804 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user

2805 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common

2806 examples.

2808 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and

2809 name space operations. Basic operations on qualified names have been

2810 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,

2811 Long_Name.append. Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by

2812 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise

2813 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper

2814 tracking of source positions. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old

2815 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract

2816 bindings everywhere. See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,

2817 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML

2819 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,

2820 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the

2821 bstring as before. INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!

2823 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,

2824 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,

2825 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.). INCOMPATIBILITY, should

2826 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,

2827 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last

2828 resort for legacy applications.

2830 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to

2831 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,

2832 Simp_tac, SIMPSET). INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in

2833 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as

2834 explicit runtime argument.

2836 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,

2837 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof

2838 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking. Moreover,

2839 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings

2840 thereof. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2842 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of

2843 transactions. E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML

2844 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new

2845 theory state.

2847 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by

2848 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:

2850 @{binding name} - basic name binding

2851 @{let ?pat = term} - term abbreviation (HO matching)

2852 @{note name = fact} - fact abbreviation

2853 @{thm fact} - singleton fact (with attributes)

2854 @{thms fact} - general fact (with attributes)

2855 @{lemma prop by method} - singleton goal

2856 @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2} - singleton goal

2857 @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method} - general goal

2858 @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal

2859 @{lemma (open) ...} - open derivation

2862 *** System ***

2864 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke

2865 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not

2866 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on

2867 isabelle-process). The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the

2868 installation location of the Proof General distribution.

2870 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate

2871 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application. See

2872 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example. (The obsolete Java

2873 process wrapper has been discontinued.)

2875 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.

2877 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are

2878 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled. This allows

2879 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal

2880 prover operations.

2884 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)

2885 -------------------------------

2887 *** General ***

2889 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized

2890 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.

2892 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the

2893 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in

2894 conflict with concurrency. INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which

2895 provides a proper context already.

2897 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy

2898 file are no longer supported. INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and

2899 'use' within a theory file will do the job.

2901 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space

2902 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first

2903 space take precedence. INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to

2904 swap theory imports.

2906 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter. Potential

2907 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.

2909 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,

2910 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

2911 white space without escapes.

2913 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes

2914 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML). E.g. "foo\095bar" for

2915 "foo_bar".

2918 *** Pure ***

2920 * Context-dependent token translations. Default setup reverts locally

2921 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.

2923 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.

2924 There are three ways of invoking it:

2926 (1) unused_thms

2927 Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.

2929 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -

2930 Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,

2931 excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.

2933 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m

2934 Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of

2935 their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of

2936 their ancestors.

2938 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by

2939 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance

2940 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered

2941 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in

2942 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer

2943 reported as unused. Moreover, if all theorems in the group are

2944 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.

2946 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for

2947 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is

2948 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).

2950 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous

2951 theorems within the same name space. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove

2952 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications. Note

2953 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using

2954 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.

2956 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.

2958 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and

2959 clasimpset. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear

2960 update of theories within ML code.

2962 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.

2963 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require

2964 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics

2965 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.

2967 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on

2968 theory/local_theory. Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'

2969 instead. Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.

2970 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2972 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.

2974 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class

2975 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.

2976 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.

2977 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and

2978 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.

2980 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only

2981 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the

2982 background context (locale etc.). Affects `prop` notation and method

2983 "fact". INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare

2984 situations.

2986 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented

2987 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the

2988 proof text.

2990 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".

2991 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.

2993 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';

2994 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale

2995 predicates.

2998 *** Document preparation ***

3000 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for

3001 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed

3002 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the

3003 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default

3004 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets

3005 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).

3007 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given

3008 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method

3009 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.

3012 *** HOL ***

3014 * New primrec package. Specification syntax conforms in style to

3015 definition/function/.... No separate induction rule is provided. The

3016 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications

3017 by syntax. The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.

3018 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style

3019 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.

3021 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works

3022 with multithreading.

3024 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a

3025 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses. Theorems that

3026 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.

3028 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To

3029 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]]. Attributes

3030 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed

3031 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3033 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules

3034 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors

3035 out some operations that are done internally by the function package

3036 and makes them available separately. See

3037 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.

3039 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination

3040 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the

3041 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.

3042 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and

3043 just guides the heuristic. To find suitable measure functions, the

3044 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate

3045 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using

3046 the declared rules.

3048 This setup also deals with rules like

3050 "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"

3052 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.

3053 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.

3055 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"

3057 INCOMPATIBILITIES:

3059 - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by

3060 definitions on => and bool.

3062 - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved

3063 using the definitions of the operators on => and bool. Therefore,

3064 the following theorems have been renamed:

3066 subset_def -> subset_eq

3067 psubset_def -> psubset_eq

3068 set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq

3069 Compl_def -> Compl_eq

3070 Sup_set_def -> Sup_set_eq

3071 Inf_set_def -> Inf_set_eq

3072 sup_set_def -> sup_set_eq

3073 inf_set_def -> inf_set_eq

3075 - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some

3076 rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of

3077 the unknowns in the rule is a set.

3079 - Higher order unification and forward proofs:

3080 The proof pattern

3082 have "P (S::'a set)" <...>

3083 then have "EX S. P S" ..

3085 no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification

3086 algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern

3088 have "EX S. P S"

3089 proof

3090 show "P S" <...>

3091 qed

3093 - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):

3094 The proof pattern

3096 have "P (S::'a set)" <...>

3097 also have "S = T" <...>

3098 finally have "P T" .

3100 no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and

3101 must be replaced by something like

3103 have "P (S::'a set)" <...>

3104 moreover have "S = T" <...>

3105 ultimately have "P T" by simp

3107 - Tactics or packages written in ML code:

3108 Code performing pattern matching on types via

3110 Type ("set", [T]) => ...

3112 must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or

3113 binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a

3114 type of the form

3116 T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool

3118 rather than

3120 T1 => ... => Tn => U set

3122 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and

3123 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.

3125 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3127 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter. Use class

3128 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.

3129 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3131 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"

3132 and "Cons". INCOMPATIBILITY.

3134 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.

3135 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

3137 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and

3138 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.

3139 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3141 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of

3142 the same name in theory Orderings:

3144 less_trans

3145 less_linear

3146 le_imp_less_or_eq

3147 le_less_trans

3148 less_le_trans

3149 less_not_sym

3150 less_asym

3152 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to

3153 less_irrefl_nat. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types

3154 and different variable names.

3156 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.

3158 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of

3159 finite maps.

3161 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.

3163 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed. The infix

3164 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have

3165 disappeared. INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in

3166 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively. Theorems

3167 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"

3168 accordingly.

3170 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer

3171 depend on well-founded relations. INCOMPATIBILITY. Definitions

3172 le_def and less_def have disappeared. Consider lemmas not_less

3173 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.

3175 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin

3176 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been

3177 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes

3178 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,

3179 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.

3180 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3182 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper

3183 case_names ("base" and "step"). INCOMPATIBILITY.

3185 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete

3186 lattices. The form set-specific version is available as

3187 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.

3189 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".

3190 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3192 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings

3193 with division and modulo operations. Subsumes former class dvd_mod.

3195 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory

3196 Int. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3198 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural

3199 numbers rather than integers. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3201 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class

3202 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).

3203 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3205 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic

3206 syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3208 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,

3209 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,

3210 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,

3211 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,

3212 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object

3213 equality. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3215 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term

3216 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.

3217 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.

3219 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.

3221 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.

3223 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of

3224 pairs. Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and

3225 well-orders on sets and on types.

3228 *** ZF ***

3230 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the

3231 same session:

3233 Datatype -> Datatype_ZF

3234 Inductive -> Inductive_ZF

3235 Int -> Int_ZF

3236 IntDiv -> IntDiv_ZF

3237 Nat -> Nat_ZF

3238 List -> List_ZF

3239 Main -> Main_ZF

3241 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below

3242 Main might need to be adapted. Regular theory Main is still

3243 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.

3246 *** ML ***

3248 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const

3249 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.

3251 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact

3252 (of the same name). Removed obsolete print command.

3254 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.

3256 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global

3257 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes

3258 non-critical. The global print_mode reference is for session

3259 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,

3260 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3262 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external

3263 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML

3264 5.2.1). Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!

3267 *** System ***

3269 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---

3270 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.

3272 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;

3273 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR

3274 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".

3276 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general

3277 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.

3279 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to

3280 standard XML transfer syntax. See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and

3281 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.

3283 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)

3284 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust

3285 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.

3287 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),

3288 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).

3290 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature. NB: the documented

3291 way of changing the user's settings is via

3292 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash

3293 script.

3295 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU

3296 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for

3297 optimal performance tuning. The corresponding usedir option -M allows

3298 "max" as an alias for "0". WARNING: does not work on certain versions

3299 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).

3301 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the

3302 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably

3303 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).

3307 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)

3308 -----------------------------------

3310 *** General ***

3312 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a

3313 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the

3314 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:

3315 legacy features will disappear eventually.

3317 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been

3318 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''. Use isatool

3319 fixheaders to convert existing theory files. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3321 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been

3322 discontinued altogether. Note that ML proof scripts may still be used

3323 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML

3324 function use_legacy_bindings. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3326 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',

3327 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords. INCOMPATIBILITY, use double

3328 quotes.

3330 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory

3331 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the

3332 accidental file locations of previously successful loads. The strict

3333 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by

3334 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several

3335 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header

3336 specification, but without merging the results. Potential

3337 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands

3338 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.

3340 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file

3341 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical

3342 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting

3343 (cf. the system manual). The new scheme allows to work with

3344 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source

3345 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.

3347 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy

3348 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy

3349 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader

3350 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.

3352 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is

3353 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous

3354 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the

3355 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and

3356 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit

3357 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.

3359 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',

3360 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in

3361 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations

3362 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space

3363 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse

3364 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax

3365 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and

3366 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.

3368 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required

3369 to keep existing proof scripts running. Most other user-level

3370 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open

3371 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).

3372 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because

3373 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being

3374 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().

3376 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"

3377 criterion; "with_dups" option. Certain ProofGeneral versions might

3378 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).

3380 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1

3381 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are

3382 suppressed from proof state output. Note that the ProofGeneral

3383 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but

3384 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems

3385 limit is imposed.

3387 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of

3388 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''. The body may

3389 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism

3390 that has been implemented on top of these primitives. This concept

3391 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility

3392 and scalability.

3394 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;

3395 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).

3398 *** Document preparation ***

3400 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,

3401 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the

3402 current context.

3404 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which

3405 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.

3407 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation

3408 "c args == rhs" given in the current context. (Any number of

3409 arguments may be given on the LHS.)

3412 *** Pure ***

3414 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to

3415 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle. Definitions and

3416 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with

3417 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic

3418 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class

3419 context). Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate

3420 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting

3421 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.

3422 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).

3423 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.

3425 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable

3426 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes). A short usage

3427 sketch:

3429 internal compilation:

3430 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML

3431 writing SML code to a file:

3432 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>

3433 writing OCaml code to a file:

3434 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>

3435 writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:

3436 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>

3438 evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:

3439 method ``eval''

3441 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.

3443 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:

3445 [code fun]: select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant

3446 [code fun del]: deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant

3447 [code inline]: select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place

3448 [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place

3450 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):

3452 code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>

3453 {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+

3455 code_type <and-list of type constructors>

3456 {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+

3458 code_instance <and-list of instances>

3459 {(target)}+

3460 where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>

3462 code_class <and_list of classes>

3463 {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+

3464 where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?

3466 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.

3468 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and

3469 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy. A separate tutorial on code

3470 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc

3471 codegen".

3473 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now

3474 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type

3475 annotations).

3477 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory

3478 syntax.

3480 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic

3481 dependencies. The overloading scheme is slightly more general than

3482 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact

3483 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.

3484 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more

3485 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!

3487 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the

3488 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general

3489 declaration given in the signature. For example, with the declaration

3490 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented

3491 as c(nat). Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural

3492 recursion over such type arguments. Incomplete specification patterns

3493 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the

3494 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.

3495 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive

3496 equations, see section "definitions".

3498 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof

3499 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple

3500 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data. Tools may

3501 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to

3502 these values using Config.get etc. Users may change options via an

3503 associated attribute of the same name. This form of context

3504 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or

3505 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''. Thus it has become

3506 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar

3507 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.

3509 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into

3510 configuration options:

3512 Unify.search_bound unify_search_bound

3513 Unify.trace_bound unify_trace_bound

3514 Unify.trace_simp unify_trace_simp

3515 Unify.trace_types unify_trace_types

3516 Simplifier.simp_depth_limit simp_depth_limit

3517 Blast.depth_limit blast_depth_limit

3518 DatatypeProp.dtK datatype_distinctness_limit

3519 fast_arith_neq_limit fast_arith_neq_limit

3520 fast_arith_split_limit fast_arith_split_limit

3522 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context

3523 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also

3524 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML). The user may add or delete facts via

3525 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command. This facility is

3526 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way

3527 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical

3528 order.

3530 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic

3531 declaration functions written in ML. This enables arbitrary content

3532 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the

3533 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application

3534 context encountered later on.

3536 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures. Command

3537 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body

3538 text in ML). Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current

3539 context. ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.

3541 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations

3542 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,

3543 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on

3544 the background context will persist. This form of in-place

3545 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and

3546 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.

3548 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now

3549 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying

3550 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic

3551 assumption steps. This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'

3552 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",

3553 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the

3554 Isar proof context. POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is

3555 more permissive.

3557 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is

3558 considered a legacy feature. Common applications like ``have A .''

3559 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''. In general,

3560 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and

3561 maintainability of proof texts.

3563 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives

3564 the obtained context from the course of reasoning! For example:

3566 assume "EX x y. A x & B y" -- "any previous fact"

3567 then guess x and y by clarify

3569 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and

3570 proof tools being involved here.

3572 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal

3573 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax. This works wherever

3574 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof

3575 methods, attributes etc. Literal facts are retrieved from the context

3576 according to unification of type and term parameters. For example,

3577 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known

3578 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:

3579 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.

3581 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition

3582 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with

3583 certain special cases of literal facts:

3585 have "A" by fact == note `A`

3586 have "A ==> B" by fact == note `A ==> B`

3587 have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact == note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`

3588 have "P a ==> Q a" by fact == note `P a ==> Q a`

3590 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in

3591 outer syntax. Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without

3592 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.

3594 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,

3595 both named and unnamed ones.

3597 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:

3599 def x == "t" and y == "u"

3601 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to

3602 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given

3603 rewrite rules. Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or

3604 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.

3606 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',

3607 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities

3608 (potentially conditional). The underlying notion of rewrite rule is

3609 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the

3610 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).

3612 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the

3613 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.

3615 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a

3616 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N

3617 sub-goals, which need to exist. For example, ``simp_all [3]''

3618 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]

3619 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the

3620 originally first one.

3622 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order

3623 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as

3624 expected.

3626 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either

3627 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'

3628 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and

3629 assumptions). The latter allows to express general elimination rules

3630 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:

3632 lemma exE: -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

3633 assumes "EX x. P x"

3634 obtains x where "P x"

3636 lemma conjE: -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

3637 assumes "A & B"

3638 obtains A and B

3640 lemma disjE: -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

3641 assumes "A | B"

3642 obtains

3643 A

3644 | B

3646 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"

3647 explicitly:

3649 lemma classical: -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

3650 obtains "~ thesis"

3652 lemma Peirce's_Law: -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

3653 obtains "thesis ==> something"

3655 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the

3656 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.

3657 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be

3658 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the

3659 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute

3660 case_names).

3662 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as

3663 "assms" fact in the proof context. This is more appropriate than the

3664 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current

3665 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.

3667 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or

3668 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a

3669 top-level lemma.

3671 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context

3672 introduction rule (default "that").

3674 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

3675 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens

3676 to occur.

3678 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant

3679 according to the current context. This is particularly useful for

3680 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant

3681 representations independently of name spaces.

3683 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"

3684 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist

3685 in the same context. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3687 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'

3688 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and

3689 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation

3690 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the

3691 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the

3692 current context.

3694 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',

3695 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit

3696 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence). See also the

3697 isar-ref manual. Examples:

3699 axiomatization

3700 eq (infix "===" 50) where

3701 eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"

3703 definition "f x y = x + y + 1"

3704 definition g where "g x = f x x"

3706 abbreviation

3707 neq (infix "=!=" 50) where

3708 "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"

3710 These specifications may be also used in a locale context. Then the

3711 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the

3712 constant name is qualified by the locale base name. An internal

3713 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the

3714 parameters implicit and using the original short name. See also

3715 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic

3716 entities from a monomorphic theory.

3718 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but

3719 not inherited by general import expressions. Also note that

3720 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +

3721 'translations' in common applications. The "no_abbrevs" print mode

3722 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.

3724 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,

3725 independently of name spaces. The parse tree representation is

3726 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and

3727 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.

3729 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms

3730 (e.g. 'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits

3731 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_"). For example:

3733 definition "K x _ = x"

3735 inductive conj for A B

3736 where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"

3738 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of

3739 the current context. Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of

3740 abbreviations on output.

3742 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and

3743 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer

3744 required to be injective. For example, this allows to define

3745 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.

3747 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.

3748 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is

3749 now an interpretation. INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of

3750 locale expressions. In particular, in interpretations of locales with

3751 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not

3752 removed automatically. Use methods `intro_locales' and

3753 `unfold_locales'; see below.

3755 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'

3756 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates. The methods are

3757 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.

3758 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not

3759 unfold predicates to assumptions.

3761 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated

3762 has changed. This enables to override declarations from fragments due

3763 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.

3765 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been

3766 extended. One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are

3767 unfolded in interpreted theorems. This is useful for replacing

3768 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by

3769 concepts already existing in the target context. Example:

3771 interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]

3772 where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"

3774 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a

3775 definition specification element in the context of locale

3776 partial_order.

3778 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support

3779 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level

3780 connectives !! and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals

3781 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long

3782 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in

3783 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also

3784 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic

3785 examples.

3787 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of

3788 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into

3789 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested

3790 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,

3791 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.

3793 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list

3794 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide

3795 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive

3796 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify

3797 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:

3799 (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)

3800 (induct set: foo bar)

3801 (induct pred: foo bar)

3802 (induct type: foo bar)

3804 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the

3805 new format.

3807 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see

3808 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.

3810 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is

3811 considered a legacy feature.

3813 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic

3814 variables (index 0). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

3816 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level

3817 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by

3818 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The

3819 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.

3821 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format

3822 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when

3823 manipulating the claset.

3825 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,

3826 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at

3827 least one premise.

3829 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional

3830 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions). Weights are

3831 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single

3832 rule steps.

3834 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",

3835 where the body does not mention the bound variable. Note that dummy

3836 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes

3837 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected. Potential

3838 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic

3839 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.

3841 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated

3842 parse translation. INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,

3843 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".

3845 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using

3846 the graph browser tool.

3848 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by

3849 default; use '!' option for full details.

3852 *** HOL ***

3854 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose

3855 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).

3856 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples. WARNING: the

3857 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with

3858 multi-threading.

3860 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as

3861 background processes. It generates calls to the "metis" method if

3862 successful. These can be pasted into the proof. Users do not have to

3863 wait for the automatic provers to return. WARNING: does not really

3864 work with multi-threading.

3866 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for

3867 potential counter-examples. Controlled by ML references

3868 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default

3869 5000 milliseconds). Fails silently if statements is outside of

3870 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.

3872 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".

3874 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic

3875 equality.

3877 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in

3878 the new 'class' package:

3880 HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs

3881 HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide

3882 0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero

3883 1 ~> HOL.one_class.one

3884 op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus

3885 op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus

3886 uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus

3887 op * ~> HOL.times_class.times

3888 op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less

3889 op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq

3890 Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power

3891 Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size

3892 Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of

3893 FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf

3894 FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup

3895 Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min

3896 Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max

3897 Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div

3898 Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod

3899 Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd

3901 INCOMPATIBILITY. Adaptions may be required in the following cases:

3903 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",

3904 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for

3905 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong. INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific

3906 names.

3908 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"

3909 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.

3911 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")

3912 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative

3913 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows

3914 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle

3915 distribution). INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs

3917 d) ML code directly refering to constant names

3918 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and

3919 so on. INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.

3920 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.

3922 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".

3924 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex

3925 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn". Two possible defs of

3926 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and

3927 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.

3928 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3930 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory

3931 Orderings), added parameter "less". INCOMPATIBILITY.

3933 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and

3934 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid

3935 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans". INCOMPATIBILITY.

3937 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to

3938 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.

3940 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up

3941 for classes "order" and "linorder". Instances of the reasoner are available

3942 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.

3943 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner

3944 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver. Diagnostic

3945 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner

3946 in the current context.

3948 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated

3949 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.

3950 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3952 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration

3953 with new class dense_linear_order.

3955 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.

3957 constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"

3958 constant "Meet" now named "Inf"

3960 classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named

3961 "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"

3962 class "lorder" now named "lattice"

3963 class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"

3965 Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions

3966 for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).

3968 INCOMPATIBILITY. Theorem renames:

3970 meet_left_le ~> inf_le1

3971 meet_right_le ~> inf_le2

3972 join_left_le ~> sup_ge1

3973 join_right_le ~> sup_ge2

3974 meet_join_le ~> inf_sup_ord

3975 le_meetI ~> le_infI

3976 join_leI ~> le_supI

3977 le_meet ~> le_inf_iff

3978 le_join ~> ge_sup_conv

3979 meet_idempotent ~> inf_idem

3980 join_idempotent ~> sup_idem

3981 meet_comm ~> inf_commute

3982 join_comm ~> sup_commute

3983 meet_leI1 ~> le_infI1

3984 meet_leI2 ~> le_infI2

3985 le_joinI1 ~> le_supI1

3986 le_joinI2 ~> le_supI2

3987 meet_assoc ~> inf_assoc

3988 join_assoc ~> sup_assoc

3989 meet_left_comm ~> inf_left_commute

3990 meet_left_idempotent ~> inf_left_idem

3991 join_left_comm ~> sup_left_commute

3992 join_left_idempotent ~> sup_left_idem

3993 meet_aci ~> inf_aci

3994 join_aci ~> sup_aci

3995 le_def_meet ~> le_iff_inf

3996 le_def_join ~> le_iff_sup

3997 join_absorp2 ~> sup_absorb2

3998 join_absorp1 ~> sup_absorb1

3999 meet_absorp1 ~> inf_absorb1

4000 meet_absorp2 ~> inf_absorb2

4001 meet_join_absorp ~> inf_sup_absorb

4002 join_meet_absorp ~> sup_inf_absorb

4003 distrib_join_le ~> distrib_sup_le

4004 distrib_meet_le ~> distrib_inf_le

4006 add_meet_distrib_left ~> add_inf_distrib_left

4007 add_join_distrib_left ~> add_sup_distrib_left

4008 is_join_neg_meet ~> is_join_neg_inf

4009 is_meet_neg_join ~> is_meet_neg_sup

4010 add_meet_distrib_right ~> add_inf_distrib_right

4011 add_join_distrib_right ~> add_sup_distrib_right

4012 add_meet_join_distribs ~> add_sup_inf_distribs

4013 join_eq_neg_meet ~> sup_eq_neg_inf

4014 meet_eq_neg_join ~> inf_eq_neg_sup

4015 add_eq_meet_join ~> add_eq_inf_sup

4016 meet_0_imp_0 ~> inf_0_imp_0

4017 join_0_imp_0 ~> sup_0_imp_0

4018 meet_0_eq_0 ~> inf_0_eq_0

4019 join_0_eq_0 ~> sup_0_eq_0

4020 neg_meet_eq_join ~> neg_inf_eq_sup

4021 neg_join_eq_meet ~> neg_sup_eq_inf

4022 join_eq_if ~> sup_eq_if

4024 mono_meet ~> mono_inf

4025 mono_join ~> mono_sup

4026 meet_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_eq

4027 join_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_eq

4028 meet_fun_eq ~> inf_fun_eq

4029 join_fun_eq ~> sup_fun_eq

4030 meet_set_eq ~> inf_set_eq

4031 join_set_eq ~> sup_set_eq

4032 meet1_iff ~> inf1_iff

4033 meet2_iff ~> inf2_iff

4034 meet1I ~> inf1I

4035 meet2I ~> inf2I

4036 meet1D1 ~> inf1D1

4037 meet2D1 ~> inf2D1

4038 meet1D2 ~> inf1D2

4039 meet2D2 ~> inf2D2

4040 meet1E ~> inf1E

4041 meet2E ~> inf2E

4042 join1_iff ~> sup1_iff

4043 join2_iff ~> sup2_iff

4044 join1I1 ~> sup1I1

4045 join2I1 ~> sup2I1

4046 join1I1 ~> sup1I1

4047 join2I2 ~> sup1I2

4048 join1CI ~> sup1CI

4049 join2CI ~> sup2CI

4050 join1E ~> sup1E

4051 join2E ~> sup2E

4053 is_meet_Meet ~> is_meet_Inf

4054 Meet_bool_def ~> Inf_bool_def

4055 Meet_fun_def ~> Inf_fun_def

4056 Meet_greatest ~> Inf_greatest

4057 Meet_lower ~> Inf_lower

4058 Meet_set_def ~> Inf_set_def

4060 Sup_def ~> Sup_Inf

4061 Sup_bool_eq ~> Sup_bool_def

4062 Sup_fun_eq ~> Sup_fun_def

4063 Sup_set_eq ~> Sup_set_def

4065 listsp_meetI ~> listsp_infI

4066 listsp_meet_eq ~> listsp_inf_eq

4068 meet_min ~> inf_min

4069 join_max ~> sup_max

4071 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has

4072 type "'a::size ==> bool"

4074 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems

4075 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still

4076 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named

4077 "*.size".

4079 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".

4080 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4082 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,

4083 Linorder etc. have disappeared; operations defined in terms of

4084 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4086 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4088 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size

4089 machine words, with arithemtic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating

4090 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for

4091 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including

4092 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity. Instantiated to all appropriate

4093 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of

4094 numerals on all operations.

4096 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.

4098 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).

4100 * Code generator library theories:

4101 - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target

4102 languages.

4103 - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target

4104 languages.

4105 - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character

4106 codes; includes Code_Integer.

4107 - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.

4108 - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,

4109 denominator).

4110 - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those

4111 representable by rational numbers.

4112 - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will

4113 result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;

4114 includes Code_Integer.

4115 - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to

4116 target-language built-in integers.

4117 - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to

4118 strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.

4120 * New package for inductive predicates

4122 An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via

4124 inductive

4125 p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

4126 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

4127 where

4128 rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"

4129 | ...

4131 with full support for type-inference, rather than

4133 consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

4135 abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

4136 where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

4138 inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"

4139 intros

4140 rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

4141 ...

4143 For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive

4144 sets to be defined with the new package via

4146 inductive_set

4147 s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

4148 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

4149 where

4150 rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

4151 | ...

4153 or

4155 inductive_set

4156 s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

4157 and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

4158 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

4159 where

4160 "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

4161 | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"

4162 | ...

4164 if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.

4166 Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,

4167 src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.

4169 INCOMPATIBILITIES:

4171 - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates

4172 is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly

4173 introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the

4174 introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather

4175 than before the actual inductive definition.

4177 - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now

4178 quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction

4179 rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break

4180 some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by

4181 reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'

4182 statements of the form

4184 case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})

4186 or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding

4187 meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.

4189 | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"

4191 - The format of the elimination rules is now

4193 p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>

4194 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)

4195 ==> ... ==> P

4197 for predicates and

4199 (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>

4200 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)

4201 ==> ... ==> P

4203 for sets rather than

4205 x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>

4206 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)

4207 ==> ... ==> P

4209 This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples

4210 (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all

4211 rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.

4213 - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive

4214 sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The

4215 list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.

4217 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,

4218 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,

4219 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy

4220 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function

4221 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but

4222 users are encouraged to use the new package.

4224 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination

4225 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures.

4227 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including

4228 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional

4229 programming. Internally, this is translated into nested

4230 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined

4231 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show

4232 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow

4233 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an

4234 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new

4235 variable.

4237 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"

4238 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification

4239 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did

4240 previously. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:

4241 - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"

4242 - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules

4244 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using

4245 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the

4246 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for

4247 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding

4248 declarations for computation on the coefficients. The method is

4249 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class

4250 of idoms with numerals. See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at

4251 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this

4252 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.

4254 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over

4255 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to

4256 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class

4257 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,

4258 rat, etc.

4260 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append". Use ML

4261 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to

4262 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.

4264 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".

4266 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.

4267 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)

4269 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.

4270 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.

4272 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :

4273 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list

4274 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4276 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders. It used to be

4277 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]

4278 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4280 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD" to "set_takeWhileD".

4282 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.

4284 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for

4285 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all

4286 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or

4287 positive/negative (in inequations).

4289 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib

4290 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and

4291 ring_distribs. Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field

4292 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4294 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function

4295 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried. Infix syntax for

4296 algebraic operations.

4298 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.

4299 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4301 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.

4302 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4304 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the

4305 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update

4306 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.

4307 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be

4308 adapted.

4310 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0

4311 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring. Richer structures do not

4312 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem

4313 there, not an axiom. INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,

4314 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.

4316 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just

4317 commutative semirings. INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate

4318 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.

4320 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.

4321 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,

4322 better use 'abbreviation'.

4324 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member". INCOMPATIBILITY.

4326 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has

4327 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'. INCOMPATIBILITY --

4328 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:

4329 - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead

4330 of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.

4331 - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.

4332 - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.

4333 - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.

4335 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.

4337 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may

4338 contain free variables. For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''

4339 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof). This command is suitable for

4340 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML

4341 first. Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided. See

4342 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.

4344 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority

4345 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is

4346 "A = B" (with priority 50).

4348 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.

4349 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,

4350 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z". Potential

4351 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4353 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).

4355 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds

4356 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4358 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been

4359 removed. Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.

4361 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites

4362 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq"). INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using

4363 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.

4365 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to

4366 True/False.

4368 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".

4370 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.

4372 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the

4373 ``rule'' method.

4375 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:

4376 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences

4377 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form

4378 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.

4380 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.

4381 zChaff is still supported as well.

4383 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,

4384 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;

4386 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to

4387 Library.

4389 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.

4391 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists

4392 as greatest fixed-point.

4394 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as

4395 association lists.

4397 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)

4398 efficiently by compiling it to ML. The goal is "proved" (via an

4399 oracle) if it evaluates to True.

4401 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)

4402 also when invoked by the simplifier. This results in the Simplifier

4403 being more powerful on arithmetic goals. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4404 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old

4405 behavior.

4407 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.

4409 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an

4410 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional

4411 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the

4412 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The

4413 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs

4414 s. If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.

4416 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)

4417 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,

4418 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code

4419 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then

4420 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =

4421 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the

4422 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.

4424 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is

4425 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy

4427 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a

4428 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an

4429 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of

4430 HOL types. This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,

4431 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.

4434 *** HOL-Complex ***

4436 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real

4437 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.

4438 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so

4439 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential

4440 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4442 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and

4443 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a

4444 and norm :: 'a => real.

4446 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from

4447 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now

4448 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

4450 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.

4451 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.

4453 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the

4454 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector

4455 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential

4456 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4458 Infinitesimal :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

4459 HFinite :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

4460 HInfinite :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

4461 approx :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool

4462 monad :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set

4463 galaxy :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set

4464 (NS)LIMSEQ :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool

4465 (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

4466 (NS)Bseq :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

4467 (NS)Cauchy :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

4468 (NS)LIM :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool

4469 is(NS)Cont :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool

4470 deriv :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool

4471 sgn :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a

4472 exp :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a

4474 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for

4475 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =

4476 hnorm. Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the

4477 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):

4479 approx <-- capprox

4480 HFinite <-- CFinite

4481 HInfinite <-- CInfinite

4482 Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal

4483 monad <-- cmonad

4484 galaxy <-- cgalaxy

4485 (NS)LIM <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM

4486 is(NS)Cont <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR

4487 (ns)deriv <-- (ns)cderiv

4490 *** HOL-Algebra ***

4492 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.

4494 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.

4495 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4497 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->

4498 greatest_closed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4500 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute. For examples see

4501 Ring.thy. INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations

4502 of algebraic structures.

4504 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.

4507 *** HOL-Nominal ***

4509 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding

4510 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic. See src/HOL/Nominal and

4511 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples. Prospective users should consult

4512 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/

4515 *** ML ***

4517 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int

4518 (even on SML/NJ).

4520 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked

4521 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at

4522 compile-time. For example:

4524 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}

4525 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}

4526 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}

4527 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}

4528 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}

4529 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}

4530 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}

4531 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}

4532 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}

4533 ML {* @{type_name c} *}

4534 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}

4535 ML {* @{const_name c} *}

4536 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}

4537 ML {* @{context} *}

4538 ML {* @{theory} *}

4539 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}

4540 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}

4541 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}

4542 ML {* @{simpset} *}

4543 ML {* @{claset} *}

4544 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}

4546 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.

4548 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with

4549 ML_Context.trace enabled.

4551 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions

4552 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and

4553 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.

4555 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now

4556 use Context.generic instead of just theory.

4558 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and

4559 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of

4560 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.

4562 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always

4563 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.

4564 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while

4565 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and

4566 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure

4567 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably

4568 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type

4569 declarations and definitions.

4571 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed

4572 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,

4573 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need

4574 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)

4576 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in

4577 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the

4578 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,

4579 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

4581 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with

4582 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed

4583 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --

4584 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and

4585 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede

4586 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.

4588 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --

4589 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been

4590 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted

4591 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for

4592 attributes, methods, etc.

4594 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."

4595 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to

4596 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and

4597 fold_map combinators.

4599 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional

4600 comments (tags) are now strictly separate. Name hints -- which are

4601 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the

4602 derivation.

4604 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an

4605 actual goal state (thm). Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to

4606 achieve the old behaviour.

4608 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a

4609 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule

4610 statements.

4612 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now

4613 enforced instead of silently assumed. INCOMPATIBILITY, may use

4614 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.

4616 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating

4617 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc. This replaces

4618 some popular functions from term.ML:

4620 Term.variant -> Name.variant

4621 Term.variantlist -> Name.variant_list

4622 Term.invent_names -> Name.invent_list

4624 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations

4625 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).

4627 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper

4628 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context. For example,

4629 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and

4630 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces

4631 various freeze_thaw operations.

4633 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for

4634 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former

4635 Tactic.prove). Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results

4636 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for

4637 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard. Note that

4638 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is

4639 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or

4640 in a locale context).

4642 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)

4643 and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations

4644 (Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.

4645 which are considered legacy and await removal.

4647 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking

4648 (Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),

4649 with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term

4650 etc.). Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still

4651 available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using

4652 a mere theory instead of a full context.

4654 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception

4655 ERROR of string uniformly. Function error now merely raises ERROR,

4656 without any side effect on output channels. The Isar toplevel takes

4657 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions. ML code may use plain

4658 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:

4660 ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."

4662 Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be

4663 embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like

4664 this:

4666 Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)

4668 INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed

4669 obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,

4670 Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)

4671 -- use plain ERROR instead.

4673 * Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a

4674 list. INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.

4676 * Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to

4677 ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.

4679 * Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the

4680 theory before entering a proof state. Transactions now always see a

4681 quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and

4682 batch mode.

4684 * Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax. Renamed

4685 OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords. Removed

4686 OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in

4687 OuterSyntax.command etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4689 * Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now

4690 contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the

4691 very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by

4692 simpset_of/local_simpset_of). Consequently, all plug-in components

4693 (solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.

4695 * Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the

4696 local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc

4697 etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this! Removed

4698 former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --

4699 INCOMPATIBILITY. Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to

4700 specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.

4702 * Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces

4703 change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a

4704 theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --

4705 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4707 * Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired

4708 "Trueprop" etc.

4711 *** System ***

4713 * settings: the default heap location within ISABELLE_HOME_USER now

4714 includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER. This simplifies use of multiple

4715 Isabelle installations.

4717 * isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical

4718 operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source

4719 code.

4721 * Basic Isabelle mode for jEdit, see Isabelle/lib/jedit/.

4723 * Support for parallel execution, using native multicore support of

4724 Poly/ML 5.1. The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing

4725 independent theories, according to the given theory header

4726 specifications. The maximum number of worker threads is specified via

4727 usedir option -M or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. A

4728 speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected on a 4-core machine, and up

4729 to 6 on a 8-core machine. User-code needs to observe certain

4730 guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A in the Isar

4731 Implementation manual.

4735 New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)

4736 ----------------------------------

4738 *** General ***

4740 * Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is

4742 theory <name>

4743 imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>

4744 uses <file1> ... <fileM>

4745 begin

4747 where the 'uses' part is optional. The previous syntax

4749 theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:

4751 will disappear in the next release. Use isatool fixheaders to convert

4752 existing theory files. Note that there is no change in ancient

4753 non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.

4755 * Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via

4756 relative and absolute paths.

4758 * Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a

4759 list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,

4760 simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select

4761 theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that

4762 match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified

4763 name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose

4764 lhs match term. Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects

4765 all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under

4766 'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f. Example:

4768 C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."

4770 prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",

4771 matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."

4772 in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).

4774 * Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of

4775 'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.

4777 * Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that

4778 Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both

4779 formal and informal parts). Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof

4780 General interface. Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):

4782 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html

4783 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html

4785 * Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the

4786 Classical Reasoner. Typical big applications run around 2 times

4787 faster.

4790 *** Document preparation ***

4792 * Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output

4793 of raw sources. Only those symbols that do not require additional

4794 LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are

4795 displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim. isatool display

4796 and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the

4797 DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).

4799 * Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,

4800 notably folding and hiding. Predefined tags include "theory" (for

4801 theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for

4802 commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and

4803 "invisible" are unused by default. Users may give explicit tag

4804 specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''. The

4805 interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document

4806 preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of

4807 isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,

4808 \isadroptag.

4810 Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool

4811 usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them). Typical

4812 specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present

4813 theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold

4814 proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit

4815 these parts without any formal replacement text. The Isabelle site

4816 default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as

4817 specified above.

4819 * Several new antiquotations:

4821 @{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;

4823 @{typeof term} prints the type of a term;

4825 @{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the

4826 argument is a known logical constant;

4828 @{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or

4829 theorem applying a "style" to it

4831 @{ML text}

4833 Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of

4834 definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the

4835 conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem19'

4836 to print the specified premise. TermStyle.add_style provides an ML

4837 interface for introducing further styles. See also the "LaTeX Sugar"

4838 document practical applications. The ML antiquotation prints

4839 type-checked ML expressions verbatim.

4841 * Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',

4842 and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which

4843 specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations. For

4844 example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.

4846 * Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative

4847 context interpreting the subsequent argument. For example: @{thm

4848 [locale=lattice] inf_assoc}.

4850 * Proper output of proof terms (@{prf ...} and @{full_prf ...}) within

4851 a proof context.

4853 * Proper output of antiquotations for theory commands involving a

4854 proof context (such as 'locale' or 'theorem (in loc) ...').

4856 * Delimiters of outer tokens (string etc.) now produce separate LaTeX

4857 macros (\isachardoublequoteopen, isachardoublequoteclose etc.).

4859 * isatool usedir: new option -C (default true) controls whether option

4860 -D should include a copy of the original document directory; -C false

4861 prevents unwanted effects such as copying of administrative CVS data.

4864 *** Pure ***

4866 * Considerably improved version of 'constdefs' command. Now performs

4867 automatic type-inference of declared constants; additional support for

4868 local structure declarations (cf. locales and HOL records), see also

4869 isar-ref manual. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to observe strictly

4870 sequential dependencies of definitions within a single 'constdefs'

4871 section; moreover, the declared name needs to be an identifier. If

4872 all fails, consider to fall back on 'consts' and 'defs' separately.

4874 * Improved indexed syntax and implicit structures. First of all,

4875 indexed syntax provides a notational device for subscripted

4876 application, using the new syntax \<^bsub>term\<^esub> for arbitrary

4877 expressions. Secondly, in a local context with structure

4878 declarations, number indexes \<^sub>n or the empty index (default

4879 number 1) refer to a certain fixed variable implicitly; option

4880 show_structs controls printing of implicit structures. Typical

4881 applications of these concepts involve record types and locales.

4883 * New command 'no_syntax' removes grammar declarations (and

4884 translations) resulting from the given syntax specification, which is

4885 interpreted in the same manner as for the 'syntax' command.

4887 * 'Advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) may depend

4888 on the signature of the theory context being presently used for

4889 parsing/printing, see also isar-ref manual.

4891 * Improved 'oracle' command provides a type-safe interface to turn an

4892 ML expression of type theory -> T -> term into a primitive rule of

4893 type theory -> T -> thm (i.e. the functionality of Thm.invoke_oracle

4894 is already included here); see also FOL/ex/IffExample.thy;

4895 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4897 * axclass: name space prefix for class "c" is now "c_class" (was "c"

4898 before); "cI" is no longer bound, use "c.intro" instead.

4899 INCOMPATIBILITY. This change avoids clashes of fact bindings for

4900 axclasses vs. locales.

4902 * Improved internal renaming of symbolic identifiers -- attach primes

4903 instead of base 26 numbers.

4905 * New flag show_question_marks controls printing of leading question

4906 marks in schematic variable names.

4908 * In schematic variable names, *any* symbol following \<^isub> or

4909 \<^isup> is now treated as part of the base name. For example, the

4910 following works without printing of awkward ".0" indexes:

4912 lemma "x\<^isub>1 = x\<^isub>2 ==> x\<^isub>2 = x\<^isub>1"

4913 by simp

4915 * Inner syntax includes (*(*nested*) comments*).

4917 * Pretty printer now supports unbreakable blocks, specified in mixfix

4918 annotations as "(00...)".

4920 * Clear separation of logical types and nonterminals, where the latter

4921 may only occur in 'syntax' specifications or type abbreviations.

4922 Before that distinction was only partially implemented via type class

4923 "logic" vs. "{}". Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare cases of improper

4924 use of 'types'/'consts' instead of 'nonterminals'/'syntax'. Some very

4925 exotic syntax specifications may require further adaption

4926 (e.g. Cube/Cube.thy).

4928 * Removed obsolete type class "logic", use the top sort {} instead.

4929 Note that non-logical types should be declared as 'nonterminals'

4930 rather than 'types'. INCOMPATIBILITY for new object-logic

4931 specifications.

4933 * Attributes 'induct' and 'cases': type or set names may now be

4934 locally fixed variables as well.

4936 * Simplifier: can now control the depth to which conditional rewriting

4937 is traced via the PG menu Isabelle -> Settings -> Trace Simp Depth

4938 Limit.

4940 * Simplifier: simplification procedures may now take the current

4941 simpset into account (cf. Simplifier.simproc(_i) / mk_simproc

4942 interface), which is very useful for calling the Simplifier

4943 recursively. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: the 'prems' argument of simprocs

4944 is gone -- use prems_of_ss on the simpset instead. Moreover, the

4945 low-level mk_simproc no longer applies Logic.varify internally, to

4946 allow for use in a context of fixed variables.

4948 * thin_tac now works even if the assumption being deleted contains !!

4949 or ==>. More generally, erule now works even if the major premise of

4950 the elimination rule contains !! or ==>.

4952 * Method 'rules' has been renamed to 'iprover'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4954 * Reorganized bootstrapping of the Pure theories; CPure is now derived

4955 from Pure, which contains all common declarations already. Both

4956 theories are defined via plain Isabelle/Isar .thy files.

4957 INCOMPATIBILITY: elements of CPure (such as the CPure.intro /

4958 CPure.elim / CPure.dest attributes) now appear in the Pure name space;

4959 use isatool fixcpure to adapt your theory and ML sources.

4961 * New syntax 'name(i-j, i-, i, ...)' for referring to specific

4962 selections of theorems in named facts via index ranges.

4964 * 'print_theorems': in theory mode, really print the difference

4965 wrt. the last state (works for interactive theory development only),

4966 in proof mode print all local facts (cf. 'print_facts');

4968 * 'hide': option '(open)' hides only base names.

4970 * More efficient treatment of intermediate checkpoints in interactive

4971 theory development.

4973 * Code generator is now invoked via code_module (incremental code

4974 generation) and code_library (modular code generation, ML structures

4975 for each theory). INCOMPATIBILITY: new keywords 'file' and 'contains'

4976 must be quoted when used as identifiers.

4978 * New 'value' command for reading, evaluating and printing terms using

4979 the code generator. INCOMPATIBILITY: command keyword 'value' must be

4980 quoted when used as identifier.

4983 *** Locales ***

4985 * New commands for the interpretation of locale expressions in

4986 theories (1), locales (2) and proof contexts (3). These generate

4987 proof obligations from the expression specification. After the

4988 obligations have been discharged, theorems of the expression are added

4989 to the theory, target locale or proof context. The synopsis of the

4990 commands is a follows:

4992 (1) interpretation expr inst

4993 (2) interpretation target < expr

4994 (3) interpret expr inst

4996 Interpretation in theories and proof contexts require a parameter

4997 instantiation of terms from the current context. This is applied to

4998 specifications and theorems of the interpreted expression.

4999 Interpretation in locales only permits parameter renaming through the

5000 locale expression. Interpretation is smart in that interpretations

5001 that are active already do not occur in proof obligations, neither are

5002 instantiated theorems stored in duplicate. Use 'print_interps' to

5003 inspect active interpretations of a particular locale. For details,

5004 see the Isar Reference manual. Examples can be found in

5005 HOL/Finite_Set.thy and HOL/Algebra/UnivPoly.thy.

5007 INCOMPATIBILITY: former 'instantiate' has been withdrawn, use

5008 'interpret' instead.

5010 * New context element 'constrains' for adding type constraints to

5011 parameters.

5013 * Context expressions: renaming of parameters with syntax

5014 redeclaration.

5016 * Locale declaration: 'includes' disallowed.

5018 * Proper static binding of attribute syntax -- i.e. types / terms /

5019 facts mentioned as arguments are always those of the locale definition

5020 context, independently of the context of later invocations. Moreover,

5021 locale operations (renaming and type / term instantiation) are applied

5022 to attribute arguments as expected.

5024 INCOMPATIBILITY of the ML interface: always pass Attrib.src instead of

5025 actual attributes; rare situations may require Attrib.attribute to

5026 embed those attributes into Attrib.src that lack concrete syntax.

5027 Attribute implementations need to cooperate properly with the static

5028 binding mechanism. Basic parsers Args.XXX_typ/term/prop and

5029 Attrib.XXX_thm etc. already do the right thing without further

5030 intervention. Only unusual applications -- such as "where" or "of"

5031 (cf. src/Pure/Isar/attrib.ML), which process arguments depending both

5032 on the context and the facts involved -- may have to assign parsed

5033 values to argument tokens explicitly.

5035 * Changed parameter management in theorem generation for long goal

5036 statements with 'includes'. INCOMPATIBILITY: produces a different

5037 theorem statement in rare situations.

5039 * Locale inspection command 'print_locale' omits notes elements. Use

5040 'print_locale!' to have them included in the output.

5043 *** Provers ***

5045 * Provers/hypsubst.ML: improved version of the subst method, for

5046 single-step rewriting: it now works in bound variable contexts. New is

5047 'subst (asm)', for rewriting an assumption. INCOMPATIBILITY: may

5048 rewrite a different subterm than the original subst method, which is

5049 still available as 'simplesubst'.

5051 * Provers/quasi.ML: new transitivity reasoners for transitivity only

5052 and quasi orders.

5054 * Provers/trancl.ML: new transitivity reasoner for transitive and

5055 reflexive-transitive closure of relations.

5057 * Provers/blast.ML: new reference depth_limit to make blast's depth

5058 limit (previously hard-coded with a value of 20) user-definable.

5060 * Provers/simplifier.ML has been moved to Pure, where Simplifier.setup

5061 is peformed already. Object-logics merely need to finish their

5062 initial simpset configuration as before. INCOMPATIBILITY.

5065 *** HOL ***

5067 * Symbolic syntax of Hilbert Choice Operator is now as follows:

5069 syntax (epsilon)

5070 "_Eps" :: "[pttrn, bool] => 'a" ("(3\<some>_./ _)" [0, 10] 10)

5072 The symbol \<some> is displayed as the alternative epsilon of LaTeX

5073 and x-symbol; use option '-m epsilon' to get it actually printed.

5074 Moreover, the mathematically important symbolic identifier \<epsilon>

5075 becomes available as variable, constant etc. INCOMPATIBILITY,

5077 * "x > y" abbreviates "y < x" and "x >= y" abbreviates "y <= x".

5078 Similarly for all quantifiers: "ALL x > y" etc. The x-symbol for >=

5079 is \<ge>. New transitivity rules have been added to HOL/Orderings.thy to

5080 support corresponding Isar calculations.

5082 * "{x:A. P}" abbreviates "{x. x:A & P}", and similarly for "\<in>"

5083 instead of ":".

5085 * theory SetInterval: changed the syntax for open intervals:

5087 Old New

5088 {..n(} {..<n}

5089 {)n..} {n<..}

5090 {m..n(} {m..<n}

5091 {)m..n} {m<..n}

5092 {)m..n(} {m<..<n}

5094 The old syntax is still supported but will disappear in the next

5095 release. For conversion use the following Emacs search and replace

5096 patterns (these are not perfect but work quite well):

5098 {)\([^\.]*\)\.\. -> {\1<\.\.}

5099 \.\.\([^(}]*\)(} -> \.\.<\1}

5101 * Theory Commutative_Ring (in Library): method comm_ring for proving

5102 equalities in commutative rings; method 'algebra' provides a generic

5103 interface.

5105 * Theory Finite_Set: changed the syntax for 'setsum', summation over

5106 finite sets: "setsum (%x. e) A", which used to be "\<Sum>x:A. e", is

5107 now either "SUM x:A. e" or "\<Sum>x \<in> A. e". The bound variable can

5108 be a tuple pattern.

5110 Some new syntax forms are available:

5112 "\<Sum>x | P. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {x. P}"

5113 "\<Sum>x = a..b. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {a..b}"

5114 "\<Sum>x = a..<b. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {a..<b}"

5115 "\<Sum>x < k. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {..<k}"

5117 The latter form "\<Sum>x < k. e" used to be based on a separate

5118 function "Summation", which has been discontinued.

5120 * theory Finite_Set: in structured induction proofs, the insert case

5121 is now 'case (insert x F)' instead of the old counterintuitive 'case

5122 (insert F x)'.

5124 * The 'refute' command has been extended to support a much larger

5125 fragment of HOL, including axiomatic type classes, constdefs and

5126 typedefs, inductive datatypes and recursion.

5128 * New tactics 'sat' and 'satx' to prove propositional tautologies.

5129 Requires zChaff with proof generation to be installed. See

5130 HOL/ex/SAT_Examples.thy for examples.

5132 * Datatype induction via method 'induct' now preserves the name of the

5133 induction variable. For example, when proving P(xs::'a list) by

5134 induction on xs, the induction step is now P(xs) ==> P(a#xs) rather

5135 than P(list) ==> P(a#list) as previously. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY

5136 in unstructured proof scripts.

5138 * Reworked implementation of records. Improved scalability for

5139 records with many fields, avoiding performance problems for type

5140 inference. Records are no longer composed of nested field types, but

5141 of nested extension types. Therefore the record type only grows linear

5142 in the number of extensions and not in the number of fields. The

5143 top-level (users) view on records is preserved. Potential

5144 INCOMPATIBILITY only in strange cases, where the theory depends on the

5145 old record representation. The type generated for a record is called

5146 <record_name>_ext_type.

5148 Flag record_quick_and_dirty_sensitive can be enabled to skip the

5149 proofs triggered by a record definition or a simproc (if

5150 quick_and_dirty is enabled). Definitions of large records can take

5151 quite long.

5153 New simproc record_upd_simproc for simplification of multiple record

5154 updates enabled by default. Moreover, trivial updates are also

5155 removed: r(|x := x r|) = r. INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break

5156 occasionally, since simplification is more powerful by default.

5158 * typedef: proper support for polymorphic sets, which contain extra

5159 type-variables in the term.

5161 * Simplifier: automatically reasons about transitivity chains

5162 involving "trancl" (r^+) and "rtrancl" (r^*) by setting up tactics

5163 provided by Provers/trancl.ML as additional solvers. INCOMPATIBILITY:

5164 old proofs break occasionally as simplification may now solve more

5165 goals than previously.

5167 * Simplifier: converts x <= y into x = y if assumption y <= x is

5168 present. Works for all partial orders (class "order"), in particular

5169 numbers and sets. For linear orders (e.g. numbers) it treats ~ x < y

5170 just like y <= x.

5172 * Simplifier: new simproc for "let x = a in f x". If a is a free or

5173 bound variable or a constant then the let is unfolded. Otherwise

5174 first a is simplified to b, and then f b is simplified to g. If

5175 possible we abstract b from g arriving at "let x = b in h x",

5176 otherwise we unfold the let and arrive at g. The simproc can be

5177 enabled/disabled by the reference use_let_simproc. Potential

5178 INCOMPATIBILITY since simplification is more powerful by default.

5180 * Classical reasoning: the meson method now accepts theorems as arguments.

5182 * Prover support: pre-release of the Isabelle-ATP linkup, which runs background

5183 jobs to provide advice on the provability of subgoals.

5185 * Theory OrderedGroup and Ring_and_Field: various additions and

5186 improvements to faciliate calculations involving equalities and

5187 inequalities.

5189 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

5190 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

5192 abs_eq now named abs_of_nonneg

5193 abs_of_ge_0 now named abs_of_nonneg

5194 abs_minus_eq now named abs_of_nonpos

5195 imp_abs_id now named abs_of_nonneg

5196 imp_abs_neg_id now named abs_of_nonpos

5197 mult_pos now named mult_pos_pos

5198 mult_pos_le now named mult_nonneg_nonneg

5199 mult_pos_neg_le now named mult_nonneg_nonpos

5200 mult_pos_neg2_le now named mult_nonneg_nonpos2

5201 mult_neg now named mult_neg_neg

5202 mult_neg_le now named mult_nonpos_nonpos

5204 * The following lemmas in Ring_and_Field have been added to the simplifier:

5206 zero_le_square

5207 not_square_less_zero

5209 The following lemmas have been deleted from Real/RealPow:

5211 realpow_zero_zero

5212 realpow_two

5213 realpow_less

5214 zero_le_power

5215 realpow_two_le

5216 abs_realpow_two

5217 realpow_two_abs

5219 * Theory Parity: added rules for simplifying exponents.

5221 * Theory List:

5223 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

5224 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

5226 list_all_Nil now named list_all.simps(1)

5227 list_all_Cons now named list_all.simps(2)

5228 list_all_conv now named list_all_iff

5229 set_mem_eq now named mem_iff

5231 * Theories SetsAndFunctions and BigO (see HOL/Library) support

5232 asymptotic "big O" calculations. See the notes in BigO.thy.

5235 *** HOL-Complex ***

5237 * Theory RealDef: better support for embedding natural numbers and

5238 integers in the reals.

5240 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

5241 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

5243 exp_ge_add_one_self now requires no hypotheses

5244 real_of_int_add reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

5245 real_of_int_minus reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

5246 real_of_int_diff reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

5247 real_of_int_mult reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

5249 * Theory RComplete: expanded support for floor and ceiling functions.

5251 * Theory Ln is new, with properties of the natural logarithm

5253 * Hyperreal: There is a new type constructor "star" for making

5254 nonstandard types. The old type names are now type synonyms:

5256 hypreal = real star

5257 hypnat = nat star

5258 hcomplex = complex star

5260 * Hyperreal: Many groups of similarly-defined constants have been

5261 replaced by polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):

5263 star_of <-- hypreal_of_real, hypnat_of_nat, hcomplex_of_complex

5265 starset <-- starsetNat, starsetC

5266 *s* <-- *sNat*, *sc*

5267 starset_n <-- starsetNat_n, starsetC_n

5268 *sn* <-- *sNatn*, *scn*

5269 InternalSets <-- InternalNatSets, InternalCSets

5271 starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

5272 *f* <-- *fNat*, *fNat2*, *fc*, *fRc*, *fcR*

5273 starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n

5274 *fn* <-- *fNatn*, *fNat2n*, *fcn*, *fRcn*, *fcRn*

5275 InternalFuns <-- InternalNatFuns, InternalNatFuns2, Internal{C,RC,CR}Funs

5277 * Hyperreal: Many type-specific theorems have been removed in favor of

5278 theorems specific to various axiomatic type classes (INCOMPATIBILITY):

5280 add_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_commute

5281 add_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_assocs

5282 OrderedGroup.add_0 <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_zero_left

5283 OrderedGroup.add_0_right <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_zero_right

5284 right_minus <-- hypreal_add_minus

5285 left_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_minus_left

5286 mult_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_commute

5287 mult_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_assoc

5288 mult_1_left <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_1, hcomplex_mult_one_left

5289 mult_1_right <-- hcomplex_mult_one_right

5290 mult_zero_left <-- hcomplex_mult_zero_left

5291 left_distrib <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_mult_distrib

5292 right_distrib <-- hypnat_add_mult_distrib2

5293 zero_neq_one <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_not_eq_one

5294 right_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse

5295 left_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse_left, hcomplex_mult_inv_left

5296 order_refl <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_refl

5297 order_trans <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_trans

5298 order_antisym <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_anti_sym

5299 order_less_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less_le

5300 linorder_linear <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_linear

5301 add_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_add_left_mono

5302 mult_strict_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_less_mono2

5303 add_nonneg_nonneg <-- hypreal_le_add_order

5305 * Hyperreal: Separate theorems having to do with type-specific

5306 versions of constants have been merged into theorems that apply to the

5307 new polymorphic constants (INCOMPATIBILITY):

5309 STAR_UNIV_set <-- {STAR_real,NatStar_real,STARC_complex}_set

5310 STAR_empty_set <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_empty_set

5311 STAR_Un <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Un

5312 STAR_Int <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Int

5313 STAR_Compl <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Compl

5314 STAR_subset <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_subset

5315 STAR_mem <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_mem

5316 STAR_mem_Compl <-- {STAR,STARC}_mem_Compl

5317 STAR_diff <-- {STAR,STARC}_diff

5318 STAR_star_of_image_subset <-- {STAR_hypreal_of_real, NatStar_hypreal_of_real,

5319 STARC_hcomplex_of_complex}_image_subset

5320 starset_n_Un <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Un

5321 starset_n_Int <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Int

5322 starset_n_Compl <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Compl

5323 starset_n_diff <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_diff

5324 InternalSets_Un <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Un

5325 InternalSets_Int <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Int

5326 InternalSets_Compl <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Compl

5327 InternalSets_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_diff

5328 InternalSets_UNIV_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_UNIV_diff

5329 InternalSets_starset_n <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_starset{Nat,C}_n

5330 starset_starset_n_eq <-- starset{Nat,C}_starset{Nat,C}_n_eq

5331 starset_n_starset <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_starset{Nat,C}

5332 starfun_n_starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n_starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

5333 starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

5334 starfun_mult <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_mult

5335 starfun_add <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_add

5336 starfun_minus <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_minus

5337 starfun_diff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_diff

5338 starfun_o <-- starfun{NatNat2,Nat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o

5339 starfun_o2 <-- starfun{NatNat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o2

5340 starfun_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_const_fun

5341 starfun_inverse <-- starfun{Nat,C,RC,CR}_inverse

5342 starfun_eq <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_eq

5343 starfun_eq_iff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_eq_iff

5344 starfun_Id <-- starfunC_Id

5345 starfun_approx <-- starfun{Nat,CR}_approx

5346 starfun_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_capprox

5347 starfun_abs <-- starfunNat_rabs

5348 starfun_lambda_cancel <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel

5349 starfun_lambda_cancel2 <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel2

5350 starfun_mult_HFinite_approx <-- starfunCR_mult_HFinite_capprox

5351 starfun_mult_CFinite_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_mult_CFinite_capprox

5352 starfun_add_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_add_capprox

5353 starfun_add_approx <-- starfunCR_add_approx

5354 starfun_inverse_inverse <-- starfunC_inverse_inverse

5355 starfun_divide <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_divide

5356 starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n

5357 starfun_n_mult <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_mult

5358 starfun_n_add <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_add

5359 starfun_n_add_minus <-- starfunNat_n_add_minus

5360 starfun_n_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_const_fun

5361 starfun_n_minus <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_minus

5362 starfun_n_eq <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_eq

5364 star_n_add <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add

5365 star_n_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_minus

5366 star_n_diff <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_diff

5367 star_n_mult <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_mult

5368 star_n_inverse <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_inverse

5369 star_n_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le

5370 star_n_less <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less

5371 star_n_zero_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_num

5372 star_n_one_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_one_num

5373 star_n_abs <-- hypreal_hrabs

5374 star_n_divide <-- hcomplex_divide

5376 star_of_add <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_add

5377 star_of_minus <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_minus

5378 star_of_diff <-- hypreal_of_real_diff

5379 star_of_mult <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_mult

5380 star_of_one <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_one

5381 star_of_zero <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_zero

5382 star_of_le <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_le_iff

5383 star_of_less <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_less_iff

5384 star_of_eq <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_eq_iff

5385 star_of_inverse <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_inverse

5386 star_of_divide <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_divide

5387 star_of_of_nat <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_nat

5388 star_of_of_int <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_int

5389 star_of_number_of <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_number_of

5390 star_of_number_less <-- number_of_less_hypreal_of_real_iff

5391 star_of_number_le <-- number_of_le_hypreal_of_real_iff

5392 star_of_eq_number <-- hypreal_of_real_eq_number_of_iff

5393 star_of_less_number <-- hypreal_of_real_less_number_of_iff

5394 star_of_le_number <-- hypreal_of_real_le_number_of_iff

5395 star_of_power <-- hypreal_of_real_power

5396 star_of_eq_0 <-- hcomplex_of_complex_zero_iff

5398 * Hyperreal: new method "transfer" that implements the transfer

5399 principle of nonstandard analysis. With a subgoal that mentions

5400 nonstandard types like "'a star", the command "apply transfer"

5401 replaces it with an equivalent one that mentions only standard types.

5402 To be successful, all free variables must have standard types; non-

5403 standard variables must have explicit universal quantifiers.

5405 * Hyperreal: A theory of Taylor series.

5408 *** HOLCF ***

5410 * Discontinued special version of 'constdefs' (which used to support

5411 continuous functions) in favor of the general Pure one with full

5412 type-inference.

5414 * New simplification procedure for solving continuity conditions; it

5415 is much faster on terms with many nested lambda abstractions (cubic

5416 instead of exponential time).

5418 * New syntax for domain package: selector names are now optional.

5419 Parentheses should be omitted unless argument is lazy, for example:

5421 domain 'a stream = cons "'a" (lazy "'a stream")

5423 * New command 'fixrec' for defining recursive functions with pattern

5424 matching; defining multiple functions with mutual recursion is also

5425 supported. Patterns may include the constants cpair, spair, up, sinl,

5426 sinr, or any data constructor defined by the domain package. The given

5427 equations are proven as rewrite rules. See HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for

5428 syntax and examples.

5430 * New commands 'cpodef' and 'pcpodef' for defining predicate subtypes

5431 of cpo and pcpo types. Syntax is exactly like the 'typedef' command,

5432 but the proof obligation additionally includes an admissibility

5433 requirement. The packages generate instances of class cpo or pcpo,

5434 with continuity and strictness theorems for Rep and Abs.

5436 * HOLCF: Many theorems have been renamed according to a more standard naming

5437 scheme (INCOMPATIBILITY):

5439 foo_inject: "foo$x = foo$y ==> x = y"

5440 foo_eq: "(foo$x = foo$y) = (x = y)"

5441 foo_less: "(foo$x << foo$y) = (x << y)"

5442 foo_strict: "foo$UU = UU"

5443 foo_defined: "... ==> foo$x ~= UU"

5444 foo_defined_iff: "(foo$x = UU) = (x = UU)"

5447 *** ZF ***

5449 * ZF/ex: theories Group and Ring provide examples in abstract algebra,

5450 including the First Isomorphism Theorem (on quotienting by the kernel

5451 of a homomorphism).

5453 * ZF/Simplifier: install second copy of type solver that actually

5454 makes use of TC rules declared to Isar proof contexts (or locales);

5455 the old version is still required for ML proof scripts.

5458 *** Cube ***

5460 * Converted to Isar theory format; use locales instead of axiomatic

5461 theories.

5464 *** ML ***

5466 * Pure/library.ML: added ##>, ##>>, #>> -- higher-order counterparts

5467 for ||>, ||>>, |>>,

5469 * Pure/library.ML no longer defines its own option datatype, but uses

5470 that of the SML basis, which has constructors NONE and SOME instead of

5471 None and Some, as well as exception Option.Option instead of OPTION.

5472 The functions the, if_none, is_some, is_none have been adapted

5473 accordingly, while Option.map replaces apsome.

5475 * Pure/library.ML: the exception LIST has been given up in favour of

5476 the standard exceptions Empty and Subscript, as well as

5477 Library.UnequalLengths. Function like Library.hd and Library.tl are

5478 superceded by the standard hd and tl functions etc.

5480 A number of basic list functions are no longer exported to the ML

5481 toplevel, as they are variants of predefined functions. The following

5482 suggests how one can translate existing code:

5484 rev_append xs ys = List.revAppend (xs, ys)

5485 nth_elem (i, xs) = List.nth (xs, i)

5486 last_elem xs = List.last xs

5487 flat xss = List.concat xss

5488 seq fs = List.app fs

5489 partition P xs = List.partition P xs

5490 mapfilter f xs = List.mapPartial f xs

5492 * Pure/library.ML: several combinators for linear functional

5493 transformations, notably reverse application and composition:

5495 x |> f f #> g

5496 (x, y) |-> f f #-> g

5498 * Pure/library.ML: introduced/changed precedence of infix operators:

5500 infix 1 |> |-> ||> ||>> |>> |>>> #> #->;

5501 infix 2 ?;

5502 infix 3 o oo ooo oooo;

5503 infix 4 ~~ upto downto;

5505 Maybe INCOMPATIBILITY when any of those is used in conjunction with other

5506 infix operators.

5508 * Pure/library.ML: natural list combinators fold, fold_rev, and

5509 fold_map support linear functional transformations and nesting. For

5510 example:

5512 fold f [x1, ..., xN] y =

5513 y |> f x1 |> ... |> f xN

5515 (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] y =

5516 y |> fold f xs1 |> ... |> fold f xsN

5518 fold f [x1, ..., xN] =

5519 f x1 #> ... #> f xN

5521 (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] =

5522 fold f xs1 #> ... #> fold f xsN

5524 * Pure/library.ML: the following selectors on type 'a option are

5525 available:

5527 the: 'a option -> 'a (*partial*)

5528 these: 'a option -> 'a where 'a = 'b list

5529 the_default: 'a -> 'a option -> 'a

5530 the_list: 'a option -> 'a list

5532 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides

5533 basic operations for association lists, following natural argument

5534 order; moreover the explicit equality predicate passed here avoids

5535 potentially expensive polymorphic runtime equality checks.

5536 The old functions may be expressed as follows:

5538 assoc = uncurry (AList.lookup (op =))

5539 assocs = these oo AList.lookup (op =)

5540 overwrite = uncurry (AList.update (op =)) o swap

5542 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides

5544 val make: ('a -> 'b) -> 'a list -> ('a * 'b) list

5545 val find: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> ('c * 'b) list -> 'a -> 'c list

5547 replacing make_keylist and keyfilter (occassionally used)

5548 Naive rewrites:

5550 make_keylist = AList.make

5551 keyfilter = AList.find (op =)

5553 * eq_fst and eq_snd now take explicit equality parameter, thus

5554 avoiding eqtypes. Naive rewrites:

5556 eq_fst = eq_fst (op =)

5557 eq_snd = eq_snd (op =)

5559 * Removed deprecated apl and apr (rarely used).

5560 Naive rewrites:

5562 apl (n, op) =>>= curry op n

5563 apr (op, m) =>>= fn n => op (n, m)

5565 * Pure/General: structure OrdList (cf. Pure/General/ord_list.ML)

5566 provides a reasonably efficient light-weight implementation of sets as

5567 lists.

5569 * Pure/General: generic tables (cf. Pure/General/table.ML) provide a

5570 few new operations; existing lookup and update are now curried to

5571 follow natural argument order (for use with fold etc.);

5572 INCOMPATIBILITY, use (uncurry Symtab.lookup) etc. as last resort.

5574 * Pure/General: output via the Isabelle channels of

5575 writeln/warning/error etc. is now passed through Output.output, with a

5576 hook for arbitrary transformations depending on the print_mode

5577 (cf. Output.add_mode -- the first active mode that provides a output

5578 function wins). Already formatted output may be embedded into further

5579 text via Output.raw; the result of Pretty.string_of/str_of and derived

5580 functions (string_of_term/cterm/thm etc.) is already marked raw to

5581 accommodate easy composition of diagnostic messages etc. Programmers

5582 rarely need to care about Output.output or Output.raw at all, with

5583 some notable exceptions: Output.output is required when bypassing the

5584 standard channels (writeln etc.), or in token translations to produce

5585 properly formatted results; Output.raw is required when capturing

5586 already output material that will eventually be presented to the user

5587 a second time. For the default print mode, both Output.output and

5588 Output.raw have no effect.

5590 * Pure/General: Output.time_accumulator NAME creates an operator ('a

5591 -> 'b) -> 'a -> 'b to measure runtime and count invocations; the

5592 cumulative results are displayed at the end of a batch session.

5594 * Pure/General: File.sysify_path and File.quote_sysify path have been

5595 replaced by File.platform_path and File.shell_path (with appropriate

5596 hooks). This provides a clean interface for unusual systems where the

5597 internal and external process view of file names are different.

5599 * Pure: more efficient orders for basic syntactic entities: added

5600 fast_string_ord, fast_indexname_ord, fast_term_ord; changed sort_ord

5601 and typ_ord to use fast_string_ord and fast_indexname_ord (term_ord is

5602 NOT affected); structures Symtab, Vartab, Typtab, Termtab use the fast

5603 orders now -- potential INCOMPATIBILITY for code that depends on a

5604 particular order for Symtab.keys, Symtab.dest, etc. (consider using

5605 Library.sort_strings on result).

5607 * Pure/term.ML: combinators fold_atyps, fold_aterms, fold_term_types,

5608 fold_types traverse types/terms from left to right, observing natural

5609 argument order. Supercedes previous foldl_XXX versions, add_frees,

5610 add_vars etc. have been adapted as well: INCOMPATIBILITY.

5612 * Pure: name spaces have been refined, with significant changes of the

5613 internal interfaces -- INCOMPATIBILITY. Renamed cond_extern(_table)

5614 to extern(_table). The plain name entry path is superceded by a

5615 general 'naming' context, which also includes the 'policy' to produce

5616 a fully qualified name and external accesses of a fully qualified

5617 name; NameSpace.extend is superceded by context dependent

5618 Sign.declare_name. Several theory and proof context operations modify

5619 the naming context. Especially note Theory.restore_naming and

5620 ProofContext.restore_naming to get back to a sane state; note that

5621 Theory.add_path is no longer sufficient to recover from

5622 Theory.absolute_path in particular.

5624 * Pure: new flags short_names (default false) and unique_names

5625 (default true) for controlling output of qualified names. If

5626 short_names is set, names are printed unqualified. If unique_names is

5627 reset, the name prefix is reduced to the minimum required to achieve

5628 the original result when interning again, even if there is an overlap

5629 with earlier declarations.

5631 * Pure/TheoryDataFun: change of the argument structure; 'prep_ext' is

5632 now 'extend', and 'merge' gets an additional Pretty.pp argument

5633 (useful for printing error messages). INCOMPATIBILITY.

5635 * Pure: major reorganization of the theory context. Type Sign.sg and

5636 Theory.theory are now identified, referring to the universal

5637 Context.theory (see Pure/context.ML). Actual signature and theory

5638 content is managed as theory data. The old code and interfaces were

5639 spread over many files and structures; the new arrangement introduces

5640 considerable INCOMPATIBILITY to gain more clarity:

5642 Context -- theory management operations (name, identity, inclusion,

5643 parents, ancestors, merge, etc.), plus generic theory data;

5645 Sign -- logical signature and syntax operations (declaring consts,

5646 types, etc.), plus certify/read for common entities;

5648 Theory -- logical theory operations (stating axioms, definitions,

5649 oracles), plus a copy of logical signature operations (consts,

5650 types, etc.); also a few basic management operations (Theory.copy,

5651 Theory.merge, etc.)

5653 The most basic sign_of operations (Theory.sign_of, Thm.sign_of_thm

5654 etc.) as well as the sign field in Thm.rep_thm etc. have been retained

5655 for convenience -- they merely return the theory.

5657 * Pure: type Type.tsig is superceded by theory in most interfaces.

5659 * Pure: the Isar proof context type is already defined early in Pure

5660 as Context.proof (note that ProofContext.context and Proof.context are

5661 aliases, where the latter is the preferred name). This enables other

5662 Isabelle components to refer to that type even before Isar is present.

5664 * Pure/sign/theory: discontinued named name spaces (i.e. classK,

5665 typeK, constK, axiomK, oracleK), but provide explicit operations for

5666 any of these kinds. For example, Sign.intern typeK is now

5667 Sign.intern_type, Theory.hide_space Sign.typeK is now

5668 Theory.hide_types. Also note that former

5669 Theory.hide_classes/types/consts are now

5670 Theory.hide_classes_i/types_i/consts_i, while the non '_i' versions

5671 internalize their arguments! INCOMPATIBILITY.

5673 * Pure: get_thm interface (of PureThy and ProofContext) expects

5674 datatype thmref (with constructors Name and NameSelection) instead of

5675 plain string -- INCOMPATIBILITY;

5677 * Pure: cases produced by proof methods specify options, where NONE

5678 means to remove case bindings -- INCOMPATIBILITY in

5679 (RAW_)METHOD_CASES.

5681 * Pure: the following operations retrieve axioms or theorems from a

5682 theory node or theory hierarchy, respectively:

5684 Theory.axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list

5685 Theory.all_axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list

5686 PureThy.thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list

5687 PureThy.all_thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list

5689 * Pure: print_tac now outputs the goal through the trace channel.

5691 * Isar toplevel: improved diagnostics, mostly for Poly/ML only.

5692 Reference Toplevel.debug (default false) controls detailed printing

5693 and tracing of low-level exceptions; Toplevel.profiling (default 0)

5694 controls execution profiling -- set to 1 for time and 2 for space

5695 (both increase the runtime).

5697 * Isar session: The initial use of ROOT.ML is now always timed,

5698 i.e. the log will show the actual process times, in contrast to the

5699 elapsed wall-clock time that the outer shell wrapper produces.

5701 * Simplifier: improved handling of bound variables (nameless

5702 representation, avoid allocating new strings). Simprocs that invoke

5703 the Simplifier recursively should use Simplifier.inherit_bounds to

5704 avoid local name clashes. Failure to do so produces warnings

5705 "Simplifier: renamed bound variable ..."; set Simplifier.debug_bounds

5706 for further details.

5708 * ML functions legacy_bindings and use_legacy_bindings produce ML fact

5709 bindings for all theorems stored within a given theory; this may help

5710 in porting non-Isar theories to Isar ones, while keeping ML proof

5711 scripts for the time being.

5713 * ML operator HTML.with_charset specifies the charset begin used for

5714 generated HTML files. For example:

5716 HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Hebrew";

5717 HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Chinese";

5720 *** System ***

5722 * Allow symlinks to all proper Isabelle executables (Isabelle,

5723 isabelle, isatool etc.).

5725 * ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT setting specifies preferred document format (for

5726 isatool doc, isatool mkdir, display_drafts etc.).

5728 * isatool usedir: option -f allows specification of the ML file to be

5729 used by Isabelle; default is ROOT.ML.

5731 * New isatool version outputs the version identifier of the Isabelle

5732 distribution being used.

5734 * HOL: new isatool dimacs2hol converts files in DIMACS CNF format

5735 (containing Boolean satisfiability problems) into Isabelle/HOL

5736 theories.

5740 New in Isabelle2004 (April 2004)

5741 --------------------------------

5743 *** General ***

5745 * Provers/order.ML: new efficient reasoner for partial and linear orders.

5746 Replaces linorder.ML.

5748 * Pure: Greek letters (except small lambda, \<lambda>), as well as Gothic

5749 (\<aa>...\<zz>\<AA>...\<ZZ>), calligraphic (\<A>...\<Z>), and Euler

5750 (\<a>...\<z>), are now considered normal letters, and can therefore

5751 be used anywhere where an ASCII letter (a...zA...Z) has until

5752 now. COMPATIBILITY: This obviously changes the parsing of some

5753 terms, especially where a symbol has been used as a binder, say

5754 '\<Pi>x. ...', which is now a type error since \<Pi>x will be parsed

5755 as an identifier. Fix it by inserting a space around former

5756 symbols. Call 'isatool fixgreek' to try to fix parsing errors in

5757 existing theory and ML files.

5759 * Pure: Macintosh and Windows line-breaks are now allowed in theory files.

5761 * Pure: single letter sub/superscripts (\<^isub> and \<^isup>) are now

5762 allowed in identifiers. Similar to Greek letters \<^isub> is now considered

5763 a normal (but invisible) letter. For multiple letter subscripts repeat

5764 \<^isub> like this: x\<^isub>1\<^isub>2.

5766 * Pure: There are now sub-/superscripts that can span more than one

5767 character. Text between \<^bsub> and \<^esub> is set in subscript in

5768 ProofGeneral and LaTeX, text between \<^bsup> and \<^esup> in

5769 superscript. The new control characters are not identifier parts.

5771 * Pure: Control-symbols of the form \<^raw:...> will literally print the

5772 content of "..." to the latex file instead of \isacntrl... . The "..."

5773 may consist of any printable characters excluding the end bracket >.

5775 * Pure: Using new Isar command "finalconsts" (or the ML functions

5776 Theory.add_finals or Theory.add_finals_i) it is now possible to

5777 declare constants "final", which prevents their being given a definition

5778 later. It is useful for constants whose behaviour is fixed axiomatically

5779 rather than definitionally, such as the meta-logic connectives.

5781 * Pure: 'instance' now handles general arities with general sorts

5782 (i.e. intersections of classes),

5784 * Presentation: generated HTML now uses a CSS style sheet to make layout

5785 (somewhat) independent of content. It is copied from lib/html/isabelle.css.

5786 It can be changed to alter the colors/layout of generated pages.

5789 *** Isar ***

5791 * Tactic emulation methods rule_tac, erule_tac, drule_tac, frule_tac,

5792 cut_tac, subgoal_tac and thin_tac:

5793 - Now understand static (Isar) contexts. As a consequence, users of Isar

5794 locales are no longer forced to write Isar proof scripts.

5795 For details see Isar Reference Manual, paragraph 4.3.2: Further tactic

5796 emulations.

5797 - INCOMPATIBILITY: names of variables to be instantiated may no

5798 longer be enclosed in quotes. Instead, precede variable name with `?'.

5799 This is consistent with the instantiation attribute "where".

5801 * Attributes "where" and "of":

5802 - Now take type variables of instantiated theorem into account when reading

5803 the instantiation string. This fixes a bug that caused instantiated

5804 theorems to have too special types in some circumstances.

5805 - "where" permits explicit instantiations of type variables.

5807 * Calculation commands "moreover" and "also" no longer interfere with

5808 current facts ("this"), admitting arbitrary combinations with "then"

5809 and derived forms.

5811 * Locales:

5812 - Goal statements involving the context element "includes" no longer

5813 generate theorems with internal delta predicates (those ending on

5814 "_axioms") in the premise.

5815 Resolve particular premise with <locale>.intro to obtain old form.

5816 - Fixed bug in type inference ("unify_frozen") that prevented mix of target

5817 specification and "includes" elements in goal statement.

5818 - Rule sets <locale>.intro and <locale>.axioms no longer declared as

5819 [intro?] and [elim?] (respectively) by default.

5820 - Experimental command for instantiation of locales in proof contexts:

5821 instantiate <label>[<attrs>]: <loc>

5822 Instantiates locale <loc> and adds all its theorems to the current context

5823 taking into account their attributes. Label and attrs are optional

5824 modifiers, like in theorem declarations. If present, names of

5825 instantiated theorems are qualified with <label>, and the attributes

5826 <attrs> are applied after any attributes these theorems might have already.

5827 If the locale has assumptions, a chained fact of the form

5828 "<loc> t1 ... tn" is expected from which instantiations of the parameters

5829 are derived. The command does not support old-style locales declared

5830 with "locale (open)".

5831 A few (very simple) examples can be found in FOL/ex/LocaleInst.thy.

5833 * HOL: Tactic emulation methods induct_tac and case_tac understand static

5834 (Isar) contexts.

5837 *** HOL ***

5839 * Proof import: new image HOL4 contains the imported library from

5840 the HOL4 system with about 2500 theorems. It is imported by

5841 replaying proof terms produced by HOL4 in Isabelle. The HOL4 image

5842 can be used like any other Isabelle image. See

5843 HOL/Import/HOL/README for more information.

5845 * Simplifier:

5846 - Much improved handling of linear and partial orders.

5847 Reasoners for linear and partial orders are set up for type classes

5848 "linorder" and "order" respectively, and are added to the default simpset

5849 as solvers. This means that the simplifier can build transitivity chains

5850 to solve goals from the assumptions.

5851 - INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break occasionally. Typically, applications

5852 of blast or auto after simplification become unnecessary because the goal

5853 is solved by simplification already.

5855 * Numerics: new theory Ring_and_Field contains over 250 basic numerical laws,

5856 all proved in axiomatic type classes for semirings, rings and fields.

5858 * Numerics:

5859 - Numeric types (nat, int, and in HOL-Complex rat, real, complex, etc.) are

5860 now formalized using the Ring_and_Field theory mentioned above.

5861 - INCOMPATIBILITY: simplification and arithmetic behaves somewhat differently

5862 than before, because now they are set up once in a generic manner.

5863 - INCOMPATIBILITY: many type-specific arithmetic laws have gone.

5864 Look for the general versions in Ring_and_Field (and Power if they concern

5865 exponentiation).

5867 * Type "rat" of the rational numbers is now available in HOL-Complex.

5869 * Records:

5870 - Record types are now by default printed with their type abbreviation

5871 instead of the list of all field types. This can be configured via

5872 the reference "print_record_type_abbr".

5873 - Simproc "record_upd_simproc" for simplification of multiple updates added

5874 (not enabled by default).

5875 - Simproc "record_ex_sel_eq_simproc" to simplify EX x. sel r = x resp.

5876 EX x. x = sel r to True (not enabled by default).

5877 - Tactic "record_split_simp_tac" to split and simplify records added.

5879 * 'specification' command added, allowing for definition by

5880 specification. There is also an 'ax_specification' command that

5881 introduces the new constants axiomatically.

5883 * arith(_tac) is now able to generate counterexamples for reals as well.

5885 * HOL-Algebra: new locale "ring" for non-commutative rings.

5887 * HOL-ex: InductiveInvariant_examples illustrates advanced recursive function

5888 definitions, thanks to Sava Krsti\'{c} and John Matthews.

5890 * HOL-Matrix: a first theory for matrices in HOL with an application of

5891 matrix theory to linear programming.

5893 * Unions and Intersections:

5894 The latex output syntax of UN and INT has been changed

5895 from "\Union x \in A. B" to "\Union_{x \in A} B"

5896 i.e. the index formulae has become a subscript.

5897 Similarly for "\Union x. B", and for \Inter instead of \Union.

5899 * Unions and Intersections over Intervals:

5900 There is new short syntax "UN i<=n. A" for "UN i:{0..n}. A". There is

5901 also an x-symbol version with subscripts "\<Union>\<^bsub>i <= n\<^esub>. A"

5902 like in normal math, and corresponding versions for < and for intersection.

5904 * HOL/List: Ordering "lexico" is renamed "lenlex" and the standard

5905 lexicographic dictonary ordering has been added as "lexord".

5907 * ML: the legacy theory structures Int and List have been removed. They had

5908 conflicted with ML Basis Library structures having the same names.

5910 * 'refute' command added to search for (finite) countermodels. Only works

5911 for a fragment of HOL. The installation of an external SAT solver is

5912 highly recommended. See "HOL/Refute.thy" for details.

5914 * 'quickcheck' command: Allows to find counterexamples by evaluating

5915 formulae under an assignment of free variables to random values.

5916 In contrast to 'refute', it can deal with inductive datatypes,

5917 but cannot handle quantifiers. See "HOL/ex/Quickcheck_Examples.thy"

5918 for examples.

5921 *** HOLCF ***

5923 * Streams now come with concatenation and are part of the HOLCF image

5927 New in Isabelle2003 (May 2003)

5928 ------------------------------

5930 *** General ***

5932 * Provers/simplifier:

5934 - Completely reimplemented method simp (ML: Asm_full_simp_tac):

5935 Assumptions are now subject to complete mutual simplification,

5936 not just from left to right. The simplifier now preserves

5937 the order of assumptions.

5939 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:

5941 -- simp sometimes diverges where the old version did

5942 not, e.g. invoking simp on the goal

5944 [| P (f x); y = x; f x = f y |] ==> Q

5946 now gives rise to the infinite reduction sequence

5948 P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> P(f y) --(y = x)--> P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> ...

5950 Using "simp (asm_lr)" (ML: Asm_lr_simp_tac) instead often solves this

5951 kind of problem.

5953 -- Tactics combining classical reasoner and simplification (such as auto)

5954 are also affected by this change, because many of them rely on

5955 simp. They may sometimes diverge as well or yield a different numbers

5956 of subgoals. Try to use e.g. force, fastsimp, or safe instead of auto

5957 in case of problems. Sometimes subsequent calls to the classical

5958 reasoner will fail because a preceeding call to the simplifier too

5959 eagerly simplified the goal, e.g. deleted redundant premises.

5961 - The simplifier trace now shows the names of the applied rewrite rules

5963 - You can limit the number of recursive invocations of the simplifier

5964 during conditional rewriting (where the simplifie tries to solve the

5965 conditions before applying the rewrite rule):

5966 ML "simp_depth_limit := n"

5967 where n is an integer. Thus you can force termination where previously

5968 the simplifier would diverge.

5970 - Accepts free variables as head terms in congruence rules. Useful in Isar.

5972 - No longer aborts on failed congruence proof. Instead, the

5973 congruence is ignored.

5975 * Pure: New generic framework for extracting programs from constructive

5976 proofs. See HOL/Extraction.thy for an example instantiation, as well

5977 as HOL/Extraction for some case studies.

5979 * Pure: The main goal of the proof state is no longer shown by default, only

5980 the subgoals. This behaviour is controlled by a new flag.

5981 PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Settings -> Show Main Goal

5982 (ML: Proof.show_main_goal).

5984 * Pure: You can find all matching introduction rules for subgoal 1, i.e. all

5985 rules whose conclusion matches subgoal 1:

5986 PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Show me -> matching rules

5987 The rules are ordered by how closely they match the subgoal.

5988 In particular, rules that solve a subgoal outright are displayed first

5989 (or rather last, the way they are printed).

5990 (ML: ProofGeneral.print_intros())

5992 * Pure: New flag trace_unify_fail causes unification to print

5993 diagnostic information (PG: in trace buffer) when it fails. This is

5994 useful for figuring out why single step proofs like rule, erule or

5995 assumption failed.

5997 * Pure: Locale specifications now produce predicate definitions

5998 according to the body of text (covering assumptions modulo local

5999 definitions); predicate "loc_axioms" covers newly introduced text,

6000 while "loc" is cumulative wrt. all included locale expressions; the

6001 latter view is presented only on export into the global theory

6002 context; potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use "(open)" option to fall back

6003 on the old view without predicates;

6005 * Pure: predefined locales "var" and "struct" are useful for sharing

6006 parameters (as in CASL, for example); just specify something like

6007 ``var x + var y + struct M'' as import;

6009 * Pure: improved thms_containing: proper indexing of facts instead of

6010 raw theorems; check validity of results wrt. current name space;

6011 include local facts of proof configuration (also covers active

6012 locales), cover fixed variables in index; may use "_" in term

6013 specification; an optional limit for the number of printed facts may

6014 be given (the default is 40);

6016 * Pure: disallow duplicate fact bindings within new-style theory files

6017 (batch-mode only);

6019 * Provers: improved induct method: assumptions introduced by case

6020 "foo" are split into "foo.hyps" (from the rule) and "foo.prems" (from

6021 the goal statement); "foo" still refers to all facts collectively;

6023 * Provers: the function blast.overloaded has been removed: all constants

6024 are regarded as potentially overloaded, which improves robustness in exchange

6025 for slight decrease in efficiency;

6027 * Provers/linorder: New generic prover for transitivity reasoning over

6028 linear orders. Note: this prover is not efficient!

6030 * Isar: preview of problems to finish 'show' now produce an error

6031 rather than just a warning (in interactive mode);

6034 *** HOL ***

6036 * arith(_tac)

6038 - Produces a counter example if it cannot prove a goal.

6039 Note that the counter example may be spurious if the goal is not a formula

6040 of quantifier-free linear arithmetic.

6041 In ProofGeneral the counter example appears in the trace buffer.

6043 - Knows about div k and mod k where k is a numeral of type nat or int.

6045 - Calls full Presburger arithmetic (by Amine Chaieb) if quantifier-free

6046 linear arithmetic fails. This takes account of quantifiers and divisibility.

6047 Presburger arithmetic can also be called explicitly via presburger(_tac).

6049 * simp's arithmetic capabilities have been enhanced a bit: it now

6050 takes ~= in premises into account (by performing a case split);

6052 * simp reduces "m*(n div m) + n mod m" to n, even if the two summands

6053 are distributed over a sum of terms;

6055 * New tactic "trans_tac" and method "trans" instantiate

6056 Provers/linorder.ML for axclasses "order" and "linorder" (predicates

6057 "<=", "<" and "=").

6059 * function INCOMPATIBILITIES: Pi-sets have been redefined and moved from main

6060 HOL to Library/FuncSet; constant "Fun.op o" is now called "Fun.comp";

6062 * 'typedef' command has new option "open" to suppress the set

6063 definition;

6065 * functions Min and Max on finite sets have been introduced (theory

6066 Finite_Set);

6068 * attribute [symmetric] now works for relations as well; it turns

6069 (x,y) : R^-1 into (y,x) : R, and vice versa;

6071 * induct over a !!-quantified statement (say !!x1..xn):

6072 each "case" automatically performs "fix x1 .. xn" with exactly those names.

6074 * Map: `empty' is no longer a constant but a syntactic abbreviation for

6075 %x. None. Warning: empty_def now refers to the previously hidden definition

6076 of the empty set.

6078 * Algebra: formalization of classical algebra. Intended as base for

6079 any algebraic development in Isabelle. Currently covers group theory

6080 (up to Sylow's theorem) and ring theory (Universal Property of

6081 Univariate Polynomials). Contributions welcome;

6083 * GroupTheory: deleted, since its material has been moved to Algebra;

6085 * Complex: new directory of the complex numbers with numeric constants,

6086 nonstandard complex numbers, and some complex analysis, standard and

6087 nonstandard (Jacques Fleuriot);

6089 * HOL-Complex: new image for analysis, replacing HOL-Real and HOL-Hyperreal;

6091 * Hyperreal: introduced Gauge integration and hyperreal logarithms (Jacques

6092 Fleuriot);

6094 * Real/HahnBanach: updated and adapted to locales;

6096 * NumberTheory: added Gauss's law of quadratic reciprocity (by Avigad,

6097 Gray and Kramer);

6099 * UNITY: added the Meier-Sanders theory of progress sets;

6101 * MicroJava: bytecode verifier and lightweight bytecode verifier

6102 as abstract algorithms, instantiated to the JVM;

6104 * Bali: Java source language formalization. Type system, operational

6105 semantics, axiomatic semantics. Supported language features:

6106 classes, interfaces, objects,virtual methods, static methods,

6107 static/instance fields, arrays, access modifiers, definite

6108 assignment, exceptions.

6111 *** ZF ***

6113 * ZF/Constructible: consistency proof for AC (Gdel's constructible

6114 universe, etc.);

6116 * Main ZF: virtually all theories converted to new-style format;

6119 *** ML ***

6121 * Pure: Tactic.prove provides sane interface for internal proofs;

6122 omits the infamous "standard" operation, so this is more appropriate

6123 than prove_goalw_cterm in many situations (e.g. in simprocs);

6125 * Pure: improved error reporting of simprocs;

6127 * Provers: Simplifier.simproc(_i) provides sane interface for setting

6128 up simprocs;

6131 *** Document preparation ***

6133 * uses \par instead of \\ for line breaks in theory text. This may

6134 shift some page breaks in large documents. To get the old behaviour

6135 use \renewcommand{\isanewline}{\mbox{}\\\mbox{}} in root.tex.

6137 * minimized dependencies of isabelle.sty and isabellesym.sty on

6138 other packages

6140 * \<euro> now needs package babel/greek instead of marvosym (which

6141 broke \Rightarrow)

6143 * normal size for \<zero>...\<nine> (uses \mathbf instead of

6144 textcomp package)

6148 New in Isabelle2002 (March 2002)

6149 --------------------------------

6151 *** Document preparation ***

6153 * greatly simplified document preparation setup, including more

6154 graceful interpretation of isatool usedir -i/-d/-D options, and more

6155 instructive isatool mkdir; users should basically be able to get

6156 started with "isatool mkdir HOL Test && isatool make"; alternatively,

6157 users may run a separate document processing stage manually like this:

6158 "isatool usedir -D output HOL Test && isatool document Test/output";

6160 * theory dependency graph may now be incorporated into documents;

6161 isatool usedir -g true will produce session_graph.eps/.pdf for use

6162 with \includegraphics of LaTeX;

6164 * proper spacing of consecutive markup elements, especially text

6165 blocks after section headings;

6167 * support bold style (for single symbols only), input syntax is like

6168 this: "\<^bold>\<alpha>" or "\<^bold>A";

6170 * \<bullet> is now output as bold \cdot by default, which looks much

6171 better in printed text;

6173 * added default LaTeX bindings for \<tturnstile> and \<TTurnstile>;

6174 note that these symbols are currently unavailable in Proof General /

6175 X-Symbol; new symbols \<zero>, \<one>, ..., \<nine>, and \<euro>;

6177 * isatool latex no longer depends on changed TEXINPUTS, instead

6178 isatool document copies the Isabelle style files to the target

6179 location;

6182 *** Isar ***

6184 * Pure/Provers: improved proof by cases and induction;

6185 - 'case' command admits impromptu naming of parameters (such as

6186 "case (Suc n)");

6187 - 'induct' method divinates rule instantiation from the inductive

6188 claim; no longer requires excessive ?P bindings for proper

6189 instantiation of cases;

6190 - 'induct' method properly enumerates all possibilities of set/type

6191 rules; as a consequence facts may be also passed through *type*

6192 rules without further ado;

6193 - 'induct' method now derives symbolic cases from the *rulified*

6194 rule (before it used to rulify cases stemming from the internal

6195 atomized version); this means that the context of a non-atomic

6196 statement becomes is included in the hypothesis, avoiding the

6197 slightly cumbersome show "PROP ?case" form;

6198 - 'induct' may now use elim-style induction rules without chaining

6199 facts, using ``missing'' premises from the goal state; this allows

6200 rules stemming from inductive sets to be applied in unstructured

6201 scripts, while still benefitting from proper handling of non-atomic

6202 statements; NB: major inductive premises need to be put first, all

6203 the rest of the goal is passed through the induction;

6204 - 'induct' proper support for mutual induction involving non-atomic

6205 rule statements (uses the new concept of simultaneous goals, see

6206 below);

6207 - append all possible rule selections, but only use the first

6208 success (no backtracking);

6209 - removed obsolete "(simplified)" and "(stripped)" options of methods;

6210 - undeclared rule case names default to numbers 1, 2, 3, ...;

6211 - added 'print_induct_rules' (covered by help item in recent Proof

6212 General versions);

6213 - moved induct/cases attributes to Pure, methods to Provers;

6214 - generic method setup instantiated for FOL and HOL;

6216 * Pure: support multiple simultaneous goal statements, for example

6217 "have a: A and b: B" (same for 'theorem' etc.); being a pure

6218 meta-level mechanism, this acts as if several individual goals had

6219 been stated separately; in particular common proof methods need to be

6220 repeated in order to cover all claims; note that a single elimination

6221 step is *not* sufficient to establish the two conjunctions, so this

6222 fails:

6224 assume "A & B" then have A and B .. (*".." fails*)

6226 better use "obtain" in situations as above; alternative refer to

6227 multi-step methods like 'auto', 'simp_all', 'blast+' etc.;

6229 * Pure: proper integration with ``locales''; unlike the original

6230 version by Florian Kammller, Isar locales package high-level proof