NEWS
author blanchet
Thu Jan 16 16:33:19 2014 +0100 (2014-01-16)
changeset 55018 2a526bd279ed
parent 55015 e33c5bd729ff
child 55029 61a6bf7d4b02
permissions -rw-r--r--
moved 'Zorn' into 'Main', since it's a BNF dependency
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    10 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    11 
    12 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    13 not check existence within the file-system.
    14 
    15 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary Isabelle/ML
    16 workaround in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    17 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.
    18 
    19 
    20 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    21 
    22 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
    23 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
    24 
    25 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
    26 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
    27 
    28 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
    29 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
    30 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
    31 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
    32 
    33 
    34 *** Pure ***
    35 
    36 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
    37 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
    38 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
    39 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
    40 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
    41 
    42 
    43 *** HOL ***
    44 
    45 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
    46 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
    47 
    48 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
    49 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
    50 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
    51 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
    52 
    53 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
    54 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    55 
    56 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
    57 with the given constants.
    58 
    59 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
    60 
    61 Fact consolidations:
    62     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
    63     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
    64     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
    65     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
    66     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
    67     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
    68     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
    69     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
    70     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
    71     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
    72     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
    73     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
    74     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
    75     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
    76     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
    77     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
    78     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
    79     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
    80     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
    81     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
    82     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
    83     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
    84     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
    85     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
    86     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
    87     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
    88     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
    89     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
    90     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
    91     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
    92     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
    93     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
    94     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
    95     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
    96     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
    97     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
    98     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
    99     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
   100     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
   101     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
   102 
   103 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
   104 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
   105 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
   106 
   107 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1, min.cobounded2,
   108 max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
   109 
   110 For min_ac or max_ac, prefor more general collection ac_simps.
   111 
   112 INCOMPATBILITY. 
   113 
   114 * Word library: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
   115 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   116 
   117 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~> Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.
   118 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   119 
   120 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   121 operations on records.
   122 
   123 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
   124 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   125 
   126 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
   127     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   128 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   129 
   130 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
   131     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
   132     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
   133 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   134 
   135 * Abolished neg_numeral.
   136   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
   137   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
   138   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
   139     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
   140   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
   141     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
   142   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
   143 INCOMPATBILITY.
   144 
   145 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
   146     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
   147     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
   148     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
   149     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
   150 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   151 
   152 * Fact name consolidation:
   153     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   154     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
   155     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
   156     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
   157     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
   158 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   159 
   160 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
   161 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
   162 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
   163 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
   164 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
   165 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
   166 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
   167 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   168 
   169 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
   170 
   171 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
   172 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
   173 
   174 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
   175 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
   176 
   177 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
   178 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
   179 or the brute way with
   180 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
   181 
   182 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
   183 
   184 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
   185 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   186 
   187 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
   188 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
   189 
   190 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
   191 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
   192 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
   193 INCOMPATIBILITY
   194 
   195 * Nitpick:
   196   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
   197     infinite values.
   198 
   199 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   200   - type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces
   201   - changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   202     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   203     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   204     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   205     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-) open
   206     intervals.
   207 
   208 
   209 *** ML ***
   210 
   211 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   212 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   213 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   214 formal context.
   215 
   216 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   217 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   218 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   219 actually belongs to it).
   220 
   221 
   222 *** System ***
   223 
   224 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   225 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   226 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   227 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   228 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   229 
   230 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   231 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   232 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   233 
   234 
   235 
   236 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   237 -------------------------------------
   238 
   239 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   240 
   241 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   242 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   243 
   244 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   245 after edits surrounding the command location.
   246 
   247 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   248 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   249 e.g. out-of-memory).
   250 
   251 
   252 *** System ***
   253 
   254 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   255 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   256 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   257 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   258 
   259 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   260 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   261 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   262 
   263 
   264 
   265 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   266 -------------------------------------
   267 
   268 *** General ***
   269 
   270 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   271 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   272 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   273 
   274 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   275 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   276 
   277 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   278 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   279 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   280 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   281 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   282 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   283 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   284 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   285 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   286 syntax.
   287 
   288 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   289 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   290 
   291 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   292 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   293 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   294 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   295 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   296 
   297 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   298 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   299 
   300 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   301 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   302 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   303 
   304 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   305 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   306 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   307 
   308 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   309 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   310 
   311 
   312 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   313 
   314 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   315 Documentation panel.
   316 
   317 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   318 documentation.
   319 
   320 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   321 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   322 
   323 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   324 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   325 normal editing and checking process.
   326 
   327 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   328 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   329 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   330 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   331 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   332 
   333 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   334 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   335 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   336 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   337 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   338 
   339 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   340 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   341 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   342 
   343 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   344 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   345 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   346 to resolve conflict.
   347 
   348 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   349 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   350 
   351 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   352 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   353 such command executions while editing.
   354 
   355 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   356 document content.
   357 
   358 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   359 toplevel theorem statements.
   360 
   361 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   362 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   363 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   364 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   365 
   366 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   367 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   368 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   369 
   370 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   371 / Global Options / Appearance".
   372 
   373 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   374 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   375 
   376 
   377 *** Pure ***
   378 
   379 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   380 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   381 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   382 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   383 details.
   384 
   385 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   386 
   387 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   388 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   389 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   390 
   391 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   392 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   393 
   394 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   395 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   396 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   397 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   398 
   399 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   400 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   401 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   402 
   403 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   404 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   405 
   406 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   407 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   408 situations.
   409 
   410 
   411 *** HOL ***
   412 
   413 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   414 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   415 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   416 
   417 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   418 
   419 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   420 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   421 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   422 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   423 
   424   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   425 
   426 * Code generator:
   427   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   428     'code_instance'.
   429   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   430     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   431 
   432 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   433 examples.
   434 
   435 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   436 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   437 to distinguish both when desired.
   438 
   439 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   440 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   441 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   442 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   443 
   444 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   445 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   446 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   447 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   448 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   449 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   450 
   451 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   452 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   453 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   454 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   455 
   456 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   457 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   458 
   459 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   460 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   461 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   462 
   463 * Lifting:
   464   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   465     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
   466       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   467       transfer rules
   468     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   469       correspondence relation can be generated
   470     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   471       parametricity
   472     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   473   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   474   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   475     copies
   476   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   477     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   478     anonymous context)
   479   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
   480     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   481   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   482     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   483   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
   484     INCOMPATIBILITY
   485 
   486 * Transfer:
   487   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
   488     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   489   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   490   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   491     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   492   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   493 
   494 * Reification and reflection:
   495   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   496     "Reification".
   497   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   498   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   499 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   500 
   501 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   502   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   503     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   504     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   505   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   506     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   507   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   508     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   509     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   510     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   511     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   512     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   513     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   514     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   515   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   516     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   517   - Fact renames:
   518       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   519       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   520 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   521 
   522 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   523 
   524 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   525 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   526 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   527 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   528 
   529 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   530 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   531 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   532 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   533 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   534 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   535 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   536 lemmas.
   537 
   538 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   539 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   540 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   541 
   542 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
   543 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
   544 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   545 
   546 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   547 top and bottom elements.
   548 
   549 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   550 
   551 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   552 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   553 
   554  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
   555    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
   556    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
   557 
   558  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   559    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
   560    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   561 
   562    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
   563    arbitrary filter.
   564 
   565  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
   566    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   567    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
   568    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
   569    on a compact set.
   570 
   571  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   572    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   573    linear_continuum_topology).
   574 
   575  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   576    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
   577    on all sequences converging to x.
   578 
   579  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
   580    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
   581    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
   582    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
   583    left or right.
   584 
   585  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   586 
   587      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   588 
   589  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   590    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   591 
   592  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
   593    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
   594    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
   595    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
   596    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
   597    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
   598 
   599  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   600 
   601    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   602 
   603    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   604      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   605 
   606    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   607 
   608    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
   609      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
   610 
   611    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   612 
   613    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   614 
   615  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   616 
   617 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   618 
   619 * Nitpick:
   620   - Added option "spy"
   621   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors
   622 
   623 * Sledgehammer:
   624   - Renamed option:
   625       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   626     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   627   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy"
   628   - Better support for "isar_proofs"
   629   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server
   630 
   631 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   632 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   633 
   634 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   635   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   636   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
   637     generated code.
   638   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   639   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   640   - Fact renames:
   641     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   642     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
   643     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
   644 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   645 
   646 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
   647 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
   648 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
   649 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
   650 
   651 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
   652 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
   653 
   654 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   655 
   656 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   657 
   658     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   659     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   660 
   661 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   662 
   663 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
   664 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
   665 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
   666 
   667 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
   668 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
   669 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
   670 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   671 
   672 * HOL-BNF:
   673   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
   674     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
   675     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
   676     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
   677   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
   678     coinduct).
   679   - Renamed keywords:
   680     data ~> datatype_new
   681     codata ~> codatatype
   682     bnf_def ~> bnf
   683   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
   684     discs ~> disc
   685     map_comp' ~> map_comp
   686     map_id' ~> map_id
   687     sels ~> sel
   688     set_map' ~> set_map
   689     sets ~> set
   690 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   691 
   692 
   693 *** ML ***
   694 
   695 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
   696 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
   697 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
   698 Examples.thy in particular.
   699 
   700 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
   701 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
   702 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
   703 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
   704 
   705 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
   706 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
   707 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
   708 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
   709 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   710 
   711 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
   712 
   713     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
   714     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
   715 
   716 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   717 
   718 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
   719 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
   720 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
   721 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
   722 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
   723 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
   724 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
   725 
   726 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
   727 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
   728 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
   729 clasets separately from the context.
   730 
   731 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
   732 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
   733 
   734 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
   735 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
   736 
   737 
   738 *** System ***
   739 
   740 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
   741 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   742 
   743 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
   744 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   745 
   746 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
   747 settings variable.
   748 
   749 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
   750 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
   751 always pdf.
   752 
   753 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
   754 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
   755 
   756 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
   757 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
   758 
   759 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
   760 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
   761 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
   762 
   763 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
   764 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
   765 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
   766 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
   767 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   768 for HTML presentation of theories.
   769 
   770 
   771 
   772 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
   773 -----------------------------------
   774 
   775 *** General ***
   776 
   777 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
   778 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
   779 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
   780 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
   781 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
   782 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
   783 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
   784 
   785 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
   786 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
   787 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
   788 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
   789 
   790 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
   791 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
   792 
   793 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
   794 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
   795 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
   796 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
   797 dependencies properly.
   798 
   799 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
   800 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
   801 
   802 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
   803 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
   804 
   805 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
   806 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
   807 and "class ... context ...".
   808 
   809 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
   810 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
   811 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
   812 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
   813 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
   814 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
   815 
   816 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
   817 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
   818 
   819 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
   820 to name patterns (with clickable results).
   821 
   822 
   823 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   824 
   825 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
   826 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
   827 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
   828 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
   829 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
   830 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
   831 
   832 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
   833 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
   834 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
   835 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
   836 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
   837 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
   838 
   839 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
   840 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
   841 browser on demand.
   842 
   843 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
   844 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
   845 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
   846 that frequently occur in user interaction.
   847 
   848 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
   849 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
   850 
   851 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
   852 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
   853 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
   854 potentially infinite message streams.
   855 
   856 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
   857 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
   858 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
   859 schemes.
   860 
   861 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
   862 symbols.
   863 
   864 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
   865 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
   866 
   867 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
   868 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
   869 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
   870 
   871 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
   872 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
   873 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
   874 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
   875 
   876 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
   877 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
   878 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
   879 
   880 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
   881 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
   882 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
   883 Isabelle distribution.
   884 
   885 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
   886 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   887 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   888 
   889 
   890 *** Pure ***
   891 
   892 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   893 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   894 
   895 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
   896 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
   897 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   898 
   899 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   900 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   901 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   902 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   903 with some care where this is really required.
   904 
   905 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   906 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   907 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   908 
   909   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   910 
   911 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
   912 a Hasse diagram.
   913 
   914 
   915 *** HOL ***
   916 
   917 * Sledgehammer:
   918 
   919   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   920     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   921   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
   922   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   923   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
   924   - Renamed options:
   925       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   926       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   927       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   928       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   929 
   930 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
   931 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
   932 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   933 
   934 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
   935 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   936 
   937 * Lifting:
   938   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
   939   - quot_del attribute
   940   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
   941 
   942 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   943 expressions.
   944 
   945 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   946 pointfree expressions.
   947 
   948 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   949 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   950 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   951 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
   952 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   953 
   954 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   955 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   956 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   957 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   958 accordingly.
   959 
   960 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   961 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   962 
   963 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
   964 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   965 
   966 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   967 
   968 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   969 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   970 
   971 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   972 
   973 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
   974 
   975   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
   976   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
   977 
   978 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   979 
   980 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
   981 
   982   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   983   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   984 
   985 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   986 
   987 * Generalized the definition of limits:
   988 
   989   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
   990     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
   991     output f x converges to G.
   992 
   993   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
   994     infinity (at_bot).
   995 
   996   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
   997     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
   998 
   999   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  1000     at_top".
  1001 
  1002 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1003 
  1004 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  1005 lattice type classes.
  1006 
  1007 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  1008 
  1009     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  1010     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  1011 
  1012 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1013 
  1014 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  1015 changes as follows.
  1016 
  1017   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  1018 
  1019       prefix ~> prefixeq
  1020       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  1021 
  1022   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  1023     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  1024     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  1025     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  1026 
  1027   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  1028     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  1029     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  1030 
  1031   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  1032     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  1033     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  1034     Library/Prefix_Order.
  1035 
  1036   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  1037     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  1038 
  1039       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  1040       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  1041       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  1042       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  1043       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  1044       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  1045       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  1046       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  1047       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  1048       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  1049       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  1050       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  1051       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  1052       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  1053       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  1054       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  1055 
  1056 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1057 
  1058 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  1059 
  1060 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  1061 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  1062 
  1063 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  1064 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  1065 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  1066 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  1067 
  1068   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  1069   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  1070   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  1071   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  1072   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  1073   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  1074   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  1075   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  1076   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  1077   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  1078 
  1079 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1080 
  1081 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  1082 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  1083 Data").
  1084 
  1085 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1086 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1087 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1088 code.
  1089 
  1090 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1091 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1092 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1093 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1094 
  1095 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1096 
  1097 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1098 
  1099 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1100 
  1101   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1102   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1103 
  1104 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1105 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1106 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1107 
  1108   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1109 
  1110     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1111     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1112     cart_base i  removed
  1113     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1114 
  1115   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1116 
  1117   Renamed lemmas:
  1118 
  1119     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1120     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1121     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1122     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1123     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1124     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1125     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1126     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1127     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1128     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1129 
  1130 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1131 
  1132 * HOL/Probability:
  1133 
  1134   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1135 
  1136   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1137     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1138     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1139 
  1140   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1141     projective family).
  1142 
  1143 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1144 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1145 
  1146 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1147 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1148 datatypes.
  1149 
  1150 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1151 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1152 
  1153 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1154 trees for the code generator.
  1155 
  1156 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1157 Lifting/Transfer.
  1158 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1159 
  1160 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1161 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1162 
  1163 
  1164 *** Document preparation ***
  1165 
  1166 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1167 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1168 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1169 
  1170 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1171 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1172 
  1173 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1174 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1175 document/root.tex.
  1176 
  1177 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1178 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1179 
  1180 
  1181 *** ML ***
  1182 
  1183 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1184 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1185 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1186 
  1187 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1188 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1189 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1190 
  1191 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1192 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1193 necessarily printing visible text.
  1194 
  1195 
  1196 *** System ***
  1197 
  1198 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1199 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1200 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1201 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1202 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1203 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1204 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1205 
  1206 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1207 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1208 
  1209   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1210 
  1211 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1212 
  1213 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1214 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1215 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1216 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1217 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1218 
  1219 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1220 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1221 
  1222 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1223 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1224 
  1225 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1226 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1227 
  1228 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1229 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1230 version of Isabelle.
  1231 
  1232 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1233 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1234 
  1235 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1236 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1237 for home-made settings.
  1238 
  1239 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1240 
  1241 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1242 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1243 configuration.
  1244 
  1245 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1246 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1247 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1248 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1249 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1250 
  1251 
  1252 
  1253 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1254 ------------------------------
  1255 
  1256 *** General ***
  1257 
  1258 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1259 
  1260   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1261     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1262   - markup for bound variables
  1263   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1264   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1265   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1266     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1267 
  1268 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1269 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1270 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1271 
  1272 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1273 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1274 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1275 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1276 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1277 
  1278   context
  1279     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1280     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1281   begin
  1282 
  1283   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1284 
  1285   end
  1286 
  1287   thm my_trans
  1288 
  1289 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1290 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1291 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1292 
  1293 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1294 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1295 
  1296 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1297 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1298 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1299 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1300 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1301 
  1302 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1303 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1304 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1305 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1306 indices of schematic variables.
  1307 
  1308 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1309 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1310 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1311 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1312 etc. was exploited.
  1313 
  1314 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1315 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1316 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1317 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1318 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1319 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1320 
  1321 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1322 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1323 manual.
  1324 
  1325 
  1326 *** Pure ***
  1327 
  1328 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1329 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1330 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1331 
  1332 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1333 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1334 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1335 undocumented feature.)
  1336 
  1337 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1338 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1339 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1340 
  1341   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1342 
  1343   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1344     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1345 
  1346 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1347 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1348 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1349 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1350 
  1351 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1352 
  1353     num ~> num_token
  1354     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1355     xstr ~> str_token
  1356 
  1357 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1358 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1359 position information via constraints).
  1360 
  1361 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1362 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1363 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1364 
  1365 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1366 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1367 
  1368 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1369 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1370 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1371 
  1372 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1373 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1374 
  1375 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1376 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1377 
  1378   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1379 
  1380 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1381 
  1382 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1383 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1384 
  1385 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1386 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1387 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1388 
  1389 
  1390 *** HOL ***
  1391 
  1392 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1393 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1394 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1395 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1396 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1397 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1398 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1399 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1400 possible.
  1401 
  1402 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1403 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1404 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1405 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1406 
  1407 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1408 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1409 
  1410 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1411 
  1412 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1413 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1414 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1415 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1416 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1417 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1418 
  1419   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1420     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1421 
  1422   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1423     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1424     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1425 
  1426   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1427     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1428 
  1429   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1430     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1431     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1432 
  1433   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1434     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1435 
  1436 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1437 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1438 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1439 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1440 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1441 
  1442   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1443     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1444     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1445     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1446     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1447 
  1448     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1449     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1450 
  1451   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1452     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1453     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1454     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1455     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1456     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1457     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1458     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1459 
  1460   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1461     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1462     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1463     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1464 
  1465   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1466     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1467     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1468     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1469 
  1470   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1471     from type nat to type int.
  1472 
  1473 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1474 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1475 
  1476   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1477     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1478     type.  Example syntax:
  1479 
  1480     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1481       is List.insert
  1482 
  1483     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1484     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1485     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1486     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1487     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1488     by the package.
  1489 
  1490   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1491     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1492     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1493     code generation for each constant.
  1494 
  1495   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1496     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1497     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1498     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1499     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1500 
  1501   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1502     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1503     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1504 
  1505 * Quotient package:
  1506 
  1507   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1508     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1509 
  1510   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1511     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1512 
  1513   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1514     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1515     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1516 
  1517   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1518     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1519 
  1520 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1521 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1522 
  1523 * Quickcheck:
  1524 
  1525   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1526     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1527     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1528     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1529     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1530 
  1531     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1532     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1533     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1534 
  1535     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1536     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1537 
  1538     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1539     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1540     show genuine counterexamples.
  1541 
  1542   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1543     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1544 
  1545     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1546     constructors of that type.
  1547 
  1548   - Support for multisets.
  1549 
  1550   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1551 
  1552   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1553     conjectures in a locale context.
  1554 
  1555 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1556 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1557 
  1558 * Sledgehammer:
  1559   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1560     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1561   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1562   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1563     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1564   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1565   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1566   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1567   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1568 
  1569 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1570 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1571 
  1572 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1573 
  1574 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1575 
  1576 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1577 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1578 
  1579   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1580 
  1581 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1582 a list and a nat.
  1583 
  1584 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1585 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1586 
  1587 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1588 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1589 default.
  1590 
  1591 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1592 
  1593   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1594 
  1595 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1596 
  1597 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1598 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1599 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1600 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1601 one_case.
  1602 
  1603 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1604 the result of the fact expression.
  1605 
  1606 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1607 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1608 of some relation theorems:
  1609 
  1610   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1611   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1612   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1613   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1614   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1615   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1616 
  1617 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1618 
  1619 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1620 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1621 
  1622 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1623 
  1624 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1625 to match the constant's name:
  1626 
  1627   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1628   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1629   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1630   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1631   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1632   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1633   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1634   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1635   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1636   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1637   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1638   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1639   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1640   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1641   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1642   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1643   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1644   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1645   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1646   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1647   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1648   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1649   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1650   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1651 
  1652 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1653 
  1654 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1655 and corresponding theorem names:
  1656 
  1657   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1658 
  1659   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1660 
  1661   - Renamed theorems:
  1662 
  1663     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1664     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1665     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1666     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1667     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1668     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1669     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1670     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1671     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1672     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1673     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1674     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1675     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1676     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1677     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1678     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1679     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1680     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1681     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1682     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1683     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1684     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1685     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1686 
  1687     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1688 
  1689     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1690 
  1691 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1692 
  1693 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1694 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1695 
  1696   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1697   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1698   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1699   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1700   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1701   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1702   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1703   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1704   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1705   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1706   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1707   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1708   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1709   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1710   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1711   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1712   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1713   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1714   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1715   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1716   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1717 
  1718 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1719 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1720 
  1721 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1722 
  1723 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1724 
  1725   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1726   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1727   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1728   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1729   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1730   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1731   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1732   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1733   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1734   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1735   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1736   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1737   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1738   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1739   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1740   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1741   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1742   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1743 
  1744 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1745 
  1746 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1747 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1748 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1749 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1750 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1751 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1752 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1753 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1754 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1755 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1756 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1757 
  1758 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1759 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1760 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1761 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1762 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1763 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1764 
  1765 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1766 through option types.
  1767 
  1768 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1769 relations.
  1770 
  1771 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1772 
  1773 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1774 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1775 
  1776   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1777   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1778   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1779   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1780   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1781   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1782   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1783   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1784   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1785   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1786   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1787   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1788   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1789   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1790   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1791   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1792   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1793   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1794   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1795   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1796   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1797   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1798   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1799   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1800   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1801   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1802   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1803   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1804   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1805   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1806   zless_le ~> less_le
  1807   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1808   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1809   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1810 
  1811 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1812 
  1813   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1814 
  1815 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1816 
  1817 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1818 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1819 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1820 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1821 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1822 
  1823 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1824 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1825 
  1826 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1827 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1828 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1829 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1830 follows:
  1831 
  1832   Operations:
  1833   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1834   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1835   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1836   del -> rbt_del
  1837   delete -> rbt_delete
  1838   ins -> rbt_ins
  1839   insert -> rbt_insert
  1840   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1841   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1842   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1843   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1844   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1845   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1846   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1847   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1848   union -> rbt_union
  1849   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1850   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1851 
  1852   Lemmas:
  1853   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1854   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1855   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1856   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1857   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1858   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1859   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1860   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1861   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1862   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1863   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1864   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1865   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1866   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1867   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1868   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1869   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1870   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1871   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1872   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1873   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1874   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1875   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1876   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1877   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1878   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1879   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1880   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1881   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1882   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1883   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1884   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1885   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1886   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1887   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1888   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1889   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1890   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1891   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1892   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1893   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1894   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1895   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1896   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1897   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1898   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1899   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1900   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1901   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1902   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1903   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1904   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1905   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1906   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1907   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1908   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1909   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1910   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1911   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1912   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1913   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1914   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1915   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1916   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1917   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1918   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1919   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1920   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1921   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1922   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1923   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1924   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1925   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1926   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1927   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1928   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1929   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1930   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1931   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1932   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1933   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1934   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1935   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1936 
  1937 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1938 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1939 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1940 
  1941   Changed Operations:
  1942   float_abs -> abs
  1943   float_nprt -> nprt
  1944   float_pprt -> pprt
  1945   pow2 -> use powr
  1946   round_down -> float_round_down
  1947   round_up -> float_round_up
  1948   scale -> exponent
  1949 
  1950   Removed Operations:
  1951   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1952 
  1953   Renamed Lemmas:
  1954   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1955   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1956   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1957   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1958   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1959   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1960   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1961   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1962   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1963   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1964   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1965   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1966   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1967   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1968   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1969   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1970   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1971   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1972   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1973   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1974   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1975   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1976   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1977   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1978   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1979   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1980   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1981   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1982   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1983   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1984   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1985   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1986   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1987   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1988   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1989   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1990 
  1991   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1992   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1993   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1994   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1995   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1996   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1997   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1998   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1999   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  2000   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  2001 
  2002 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  2003 association lists with distinct keys.
  2004 
  2005 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  2006 annotated commands.
  2007 
  2008 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  2009 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  2010 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  2011 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2012 
  2013 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  2014 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  2015 instead.
  2016 
  2017   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  2018   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  2019   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  2020   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  2021   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  2022   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  2023   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  2024   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2025   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2026   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2027   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  2028   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2029   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2030   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2031   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2032   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  2033   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2034   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  2035   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  2036   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  2037   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  2038   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  2039   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  2040   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  2041   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2042   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  2043   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  2044   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  2045   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  2046   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2047   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2048   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2049   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  2050   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  2051   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  2052   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  2053   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  2054   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  2055   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  2056   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  2057   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  2058 
  2059 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  2060 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  2061 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  2062 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  2063 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  2064 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  2065 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  2066 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  2067 
  2068 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  2069 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  2070 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  2071 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  2072 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  2073 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  2074 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  2075 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  2076 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  2077 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  2078 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  2079 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2080 
  2081   Renamed constants:
  2082   measure -> emeasure
  2083   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  2084   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  2085   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2086   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2087 
  2088   Removed locales:
  2089   completeable_measure_space
  2090   finite_measure_space
  2091   finite_prob_space
  2092   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2093   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2094   finite_sigma_algebra
  2095   measure_space
  2096   pair_finite_prob_space
  2097   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2098   pair_finite_space
  2099   pair_sigma_algebra
  2100   product_sigma_algebra
  2101 
  2102   Removed constants:
  2103   conditional_space
  2104   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2105   image_space
  2106   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2107   pair_measure_generator
  2108   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2109   subvimage
  2110 
  2111   Replacement theorems:
  2112   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2113   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2114   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2115   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2116   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2117   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2118   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2119   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2120   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2121   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2122   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2123   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2124   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2125   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2126   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2127   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2128   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2129   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2130   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2131   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2132   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2133   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2134   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2135   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2136   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2137   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2138   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2139   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2140   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2141   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2142   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2143   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2144   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2145   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2146   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2147   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2148   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2149   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2150   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2151   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2152   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2153   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2154   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2155   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2156   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2157   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2158   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2159   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2160   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2161   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2162   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2163   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2164   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2165   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2166   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2167   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2168   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2169   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2170   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2171   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2172   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2173   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2174   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2175   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2176   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2177   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2178   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2179   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2180   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2181   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2182   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2183   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2184   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2185   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2186   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2187   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2188   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2189   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2190   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2191   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2192   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2193   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2194   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2195   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2196   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2197   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2198   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2199   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2200   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2201   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2202   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2203   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2204   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2205   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2206   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2207   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2208   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2209   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2210   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2211   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2212   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2213   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2214   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2215   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2216   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2217   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2218   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2219   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2220   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2221   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2222   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2223   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2224   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2225   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2226   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2227   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2228   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2229   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2230   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2231   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2232   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2233   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2234   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2235   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2236   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2237   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2238   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2239   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2240 
  2241 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2242 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2243 
  2244 
  2245 *** FOL ***
  2246 
  2247 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2248 
  2249 
  2250 *** ZF ***
  2251 
  2252 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2253 analysis.
  2254 
  2255 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2256 
  2257 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2258 
  2259 
  2260 *** ML ***
  2261 
  2262 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2263 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2264 
  2265 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2266 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2267 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2268 
  2269 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2270 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2271 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2272 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2273 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2274 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2275 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2276 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2277 
  2278 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2279 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2280 
  2281 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2282 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2283 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2284 
  2285 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2286 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2287 
  2288 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2289 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2290 context as well.
  2291 
  2292 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2293 
  2294   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2295   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2296   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2297   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2298   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2299   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2300   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2301   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2302   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2303   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2304   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2305   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2306 
  2307 
  2308 *** System ***
  2309 
  2310 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2311 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2312 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2313 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2314 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2315 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2316 the generic user home was intended.
  2317 
  2318 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2319 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2320 
  2321 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2322 (not just JRE).
  2323 
  2324 
  2325 
  2326 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2327 ------------------------------------
  2328 
  2329 *** General ***
  2330 
  2331 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2332 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2333 
  2334   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2335     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2336     files for checking).
  2337 
  2338   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2339     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2340     positions.
  2341 
  2342   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2343     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2344     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2345 
  2346   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2347     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2348     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2349 
  2350   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2351     cores.
  2352 
  2353   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2354     versions (garbage collection).
  2355 
  2356 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2357 including some remaining limitations.
  2358 
  2359 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2360 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2361 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2362 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2363 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2364 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2365 
  2366 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2367 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2368 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2369 
  2370 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2371 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2372 usedir option -Q.
  2373 
  2374 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2375 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2376 
  2377   long_names   ~> names_long
  2378   short_names  ~> names_short
  2379   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2380 
  2381 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2382 
  2383   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2384 
  2385 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2386 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2387 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2388 
  2389 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2390 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2391 
  2392 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2393   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2394   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2395   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2396     "Classical Reasoner".
  2397 
  2398 
  2399 *** HOL ***
  2400 
  2401 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2402 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2403 
  2404 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2405 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2406 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2407 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2408 class complete_linorder.
  2409 
  2410 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2411 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2412 
  2413 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2414 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2415 
  2416   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2417   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2418   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2419   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2420   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2421   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2422   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2423   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2424   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2425   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2426   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2427 
  2428 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2429 
  2430   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2431   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2432   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2433   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2434   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2435   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2436   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2437   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2438   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2439   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2440   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2441   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2442   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2443   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2444   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2445   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2446 
  2447 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2448 
  2449 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2450 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2451 
  2452 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2453 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2454 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2455 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2456 
  2457 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2458 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2459 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2460 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2461 
  2462 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2463 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2464 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2465 
  2466 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2467 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2468 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2469 
  2470 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2471 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2472 
  2473 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2474 
  2475     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2476     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2477 
  2478 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2479 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2480 
  2481 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2482 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2483 
  2484 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2485 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2486 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2487 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2488 
  2489   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2490   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2491   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2492   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2493   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2494   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2495   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2496 
  2497 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2498 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2499 
  2500   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2501   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2502   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2503   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2504   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2505   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2506   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2507   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2508   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2509   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2510   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2511   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2512   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2513   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2514   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2515   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2516   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2517   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2518   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2519   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2520   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2521   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2522   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2523   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2524   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2525   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2526   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2527   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2528   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2529   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2530   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2531   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2532   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2533   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2534   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2535   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2536   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2537   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2538   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2539   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2540   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2541   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2542   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2543   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2544   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2545   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2546   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2547   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2548   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2549   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2550   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2551   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2552   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2553   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2554   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2555   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2556   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2557   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2558   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2559   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2560   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2561   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2562   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2563   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2564   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2565   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2566   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2567   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2568   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2569   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2570   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2571   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2572   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2573   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2574   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2575   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2576   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2577   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2578   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2579   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2580   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2581   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2582 
  2583 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2584 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2585 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2586 
  2587 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2588 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2589 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2590 
  2591 * Code generation:
  2592 
  2593   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2594     characters in the target language.
  2595 
  2596   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2597     instead.
  2598 
  2599   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2600 
  2601   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2602     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2603 
  2604       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2605 
  2606 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2607 
  2608 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2609 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2610 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2611 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2612 syntax.
  2613 
  2614 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2615 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2616 
  2617 * Nitpick:
  2618   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2619   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2620   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2621     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2622 
  2623 * Sledgehammer:
  2624   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2625   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2626     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2627   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2628     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2629   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2630     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2631   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2632     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2633   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2634     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2635 
  2636 * Metis:
  2637   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2638   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2639     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2640 
  2641 * Command 'try':
  2642   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2643     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2644   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2645     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2646 
  2647 * Quickcheck:
  2648   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2649     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2650   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2651     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2652   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2653     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2654     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2655     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2656   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2657     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2658 
  2659 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2660 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2661 
  2662 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2663 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2664 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2665 
  2666 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2667 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2668 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2669 
  2670 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2671 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2672 
  2673 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2674 arithmetic.
  2675 
  2676 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2677 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2678 and lattice type classes.
  2679 
  2680 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2681 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2682 
  2683 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2684 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2685 
  2686 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2687 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2688 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2689 
  2690   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2691   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2692   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2693   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2694 
  2695 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2696 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2697 constants:
  2698 
  2699   type inat   ~> type enat
  2700   Fin         ~> enat
  2701   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2702   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2703   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2704 
  2705 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2706 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2707 
  2708 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2709 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2710 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2711 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2712 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2713 
  2714 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2715 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2716 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2717 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2718 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2719 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2720 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2721 
  2722   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2723   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2724   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2725   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2726 
  2727 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2728 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2729 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2730 
  2731   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2732   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2733   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2734   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2735   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2736   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2737   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2738   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2739   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2740   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2741   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2742   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2743   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2744   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2745   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2746   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2747   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2748   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2749   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2750   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2751   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2752   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2753   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2754   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2755   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2756   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2757   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2758   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2759   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2760   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2761   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2762   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2763   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2764   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2765   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2766   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2767   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2768   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2769   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2770   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2771   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2772   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2773   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2774   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2775   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2776   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2777   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2778   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2779   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2780   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2781   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2782 
  2783 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2784   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2785   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2786   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2787   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2788     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2789 
  2790 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2791 
  2792   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2793   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2794   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2795   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2796   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2797   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2798   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2799   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2800   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2801   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2802   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2803   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2804   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2805   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2806   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2807   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2808   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2809   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2810   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2811   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2812   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2813   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2814   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2815   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2816   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2817 
  2818 
  2819 *** Document preparation ***
  2820 
  2821 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2822 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2823 same.
  2824 
  2825 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2826 result.
  2827 
  2828 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2829 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2830 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2831 
  2832 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2833 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2834 
  2835 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2836 like this:
  2837 
  2838   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2839   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2840 
  2841 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2842 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2843 layouts.
  2844 
  2845 
  2846 *** ML ***
  2847 
  2848 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2849 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2850 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2851 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2852 under external program control.
  2853 
  2854 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2855 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2856 
  2857 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2858 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2859 (better known as Proof General).
  2860 
  2861 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2862 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2863 
  2864 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2865 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2866 
  2867 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2868 (including quotes etc.).
  2869 
  2870 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2871 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2872 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2873 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2874 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2875 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2876 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2877 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2878 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2879 
  2880 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2881 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2882 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2883 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2884 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2885 
  2886 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2887 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2888 
  2889 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2890 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2891 
  2892 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2893 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2894 
  2895 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2896 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2897 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2898 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2899 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2900 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2901 proper Proof.context.
  2902 
  2903 
  2904 *** System ***
  2905 
  2906 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2907 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2908 
  2909 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2910 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2911 
  2912 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2913 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2914 
  2915   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2916   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2917   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2918   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2919   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2920 
  2921 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2922 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2923 
  2924 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2925 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2926 example:
  2927 
  2928   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2929 
  2930 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2931 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2932 
  2933 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2934 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2935 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2936 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2937 
  2938 
  2939 
  2940 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2941 ----------------------------------
  2942 
  2943 *** General ***
  2944 
  2945 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2946 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2947 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2948 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2949 like this:
  2950 
  2951   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2952 
  2953 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2954 
  2955 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2956 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2957 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2958 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2959 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2960 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2961 
  2962 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2963 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2964 the following package declarations:
  2965 
  2966   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2967   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2968 
  2969 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2970 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2971 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2972 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2973 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2974 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2975 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2976 
  2977 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2978 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2979 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2980 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2981 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2982 
  2983 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2984 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2985 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2986 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2987 
  2988 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2989 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2990 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2991 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2992 
  2993   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2994 
  2995   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2996   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2997   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2998   show_types                    show_types
  2999   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  3000   show_consts                   show_consts
  3001   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  3002 
  3003   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  3004   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  3005   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  3006 
  3007   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  3008   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  3009 
  3010   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  3011 
  3012   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  3013   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  3014   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  3015   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  3016   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  3017 
  3018 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  3019 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  3020 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  3021 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  3022 
  3023 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  3024 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3025 
  3026   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  3027   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  3028 
  3029 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  3030 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  3031 float_token.
  3032 
  3033 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  3034 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  3035 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3036 
  3037 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  3038 DejaVu Sans.
  3039 
  3040 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  3041 
  3042 
  3043 *** Pure ***
  3044 
  3045 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  3046 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  3047 time.
  3048 
  3049 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  3050 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3051 
  3052 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  3053 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3054 
  3055 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  3056 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  3057 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  3058 command already provided this functionality.
  3059 
  3060 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  3061 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  3062 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  3063 without interpretations.
  3064 
  3065 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  3066 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  3067 
  3068 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  3069 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  3070 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  3071 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  3072 
  3073 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3074 'definition' instead.
  3075 
  3076 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  3077 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  3078 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  3079 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  3080 
  3081 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  3082 constructors.
  3083 
  3084 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  3085 the local file system.
  3086 
  3087 
  3088 *** HOL ***
  3089 
  3090 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3091 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3092 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3093 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3094 
  3095   declare [[coercion f]]
  3096 
  3097 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3098 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3099 
  3100   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3101 
  3102 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3103 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3104 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3105 other theories like this:
  3106 
  3107   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3108 
  3109 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3110 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3111 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3112 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3113 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3114 for examples.
  3115 
  3116 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3117 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3118 
  3119 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3120 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3121 
  3122 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3123 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3124 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3125 
  3126 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3127 functorial structure of types.
  3128 
  3129 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3130 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3131 
  3132 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3133 languages.
  3134 
  3135 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3136 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3137 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3138 
  3139 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3140 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3141 
  3142 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3143 combinators any longer.
  3144 
  3145 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3146 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3147 
  3148 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3149 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3150 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3151 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3152 
  3153   record 'a foo = ...
  3154   ...
  3155   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3156 
  3157 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3158 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3159 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3160 
  3161 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3162 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3163 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3164 
  3165 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3166 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3167 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3168 
  3169 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3170 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3171 
  3172 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3173 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3174 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3175 independently.
  3176 
  3177 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3178 counter example search.
  3179 
  3180 * Sledgehammer:
  3181   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3182     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3183     sledgehammer").
  3184   - Renamed commands:
  3185     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3186     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3187     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3188     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3189   - Renamed options:
  3190     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3191     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3192     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3193     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3194     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3195 
  3196 * Nitpick:
  3197   - Renamed options:
  3198     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3199     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3200     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3201   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3202   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3203   - Added "whack" option.
  3204   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3205   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3206   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3207   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3208     higher cardinalities.
  3209   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3210 
  3211 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3212 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3213 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3214 
  3215     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3216 
  3217 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3218 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3219 
  3220 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3221 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3222 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3223 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3224 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3225 "smt_solver".
  3226 
  3227 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3228 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3229 
  3230 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3231 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3232 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3233 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3234 
  3235 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3236   - Renamed:
  3237     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3238     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3239     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3240   - Added:
  3241     smt_verbose
  3242     smt_random_seed
  3243     smt_datatypes
  3244     smt_infer_triggers
  3245     smt_monomorph_limit
  3246     cvc3_options
  3247     remote_cvc3_options
  3248     remote_z3_options
  3249     yices_options
  3250 
  3251 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3252 header.
  3253 
  3254 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3255 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3256 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3257 
  3258   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3259 
  3260 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3261 
  3262 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3263 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3264 
  3265 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3266 
  3267 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3268 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3269 
  3270 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3271 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3272 
  3273 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3274 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3275 
  3276 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3277 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3278 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3279 
  3280 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3281 
  3282 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3283 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3284 
  3285 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3286 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3287 
  3288 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3289 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3290 for congruent(2)).
  3291 
  3292 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3293 
  3294   types
  3295     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3296     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3297 
  3298   constants
  3299     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3300     True ~> HOL.True
  3301     False ~> HOL.False
  3302     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3303     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3304     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3305     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3306     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3307     The ~> HOL.The
  3308     All ~> HOL.All
  3309     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3310     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3311     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3312     If ~> HOL.If
  3313     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3314     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3315     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3316     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3317     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3318     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3319     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3320     op : ~> Set.member
  3321     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3322 
  3323 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3324 
  3325 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3326 
  3327     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3328     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3329     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3330     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3331     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3332     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3333     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3334     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3335 
  3336 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3337 
  3338 * More stylized fact names:
  3339 
  3340   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3341   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3342   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3343   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3344 
  3345 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3346 
  3347 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3348 
  3349   constants
  3350     null ~> List.null
  3351 
  3352   facts
  3353     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3354     null_empty ~> null_def
  3355 
  3356 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3357 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3358 generation.
  3359 
  3360 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3361 Haskell code.
  3362 
  3363 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3364 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3365 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3366 
  3367 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3368 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3369 
  3370 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3371 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3372 
  3373 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3374 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3375 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3376 
  3377 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3378 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3379 
  3380 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3381 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3382 
  3383 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3384 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3385 referred to by its qualified name.
  3386 
  3387   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3388   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3389   product ~>  Enum.product
  3390 
  3391 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3392 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3393 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3394 
  3395 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3396 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3397 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3398 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3399 
  3400 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3401 sort_key.
  3402 
  3403 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3404 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3405 
  3406 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3407 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3408 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3409 
  3410   types
  3411     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3412               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3413               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3414         (depends on your needs)
  3415 
  3416   constants
  3417      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3418      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3419      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3420 
  3421 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3422 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3423 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3424 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3425 
  3426 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3427 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3428 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3429 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3430 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3431 
  3432 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3433 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3434 
  3435 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3436 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3437 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3438 
  3439 
  3440 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3441 
  3442 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3443 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3444 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3445 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3446 compatibility.
  3447 
  3448 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3449 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3450 
  3451 
  3452 *** HOLCF ***
  3453 
  3454 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3455 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3456 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3457 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3458 
  3459 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3460 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3461 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3462 
  3463   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3464   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3465   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3466 
  3467 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3468 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3469 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3470 
  3471 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3472 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3473 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3474 domain definition now works:
  3475 
  3476   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3477 
  3478 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3479 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3480 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3481 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3482 
  3483   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3484     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3485 
  3486   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3487 
  3488 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3489 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3490 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3491 
  3492 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3493 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3494 
  3495 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3496 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3497 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3498 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3499 
  3500 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3501 
  3502 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3503 
  3504 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3505 
  3506 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3507 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3508 
  3509 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3510 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3511 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3512 
  3513 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3514 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3515 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3516 
  3517 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3518 still supported as an input translation.
  3519 
  3520 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3521 
  3522   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3523   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3524   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3525   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3526   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3527   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3528   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3529 
  3530 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3531 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3532 
  3533   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3534   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3535   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3536   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3537   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3538   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3539 
  3540 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3541 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3542 
  3543 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3544 
  3545   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3546   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3547   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3548   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3549 
  3550 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3551 
  3552 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3553 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3554 
  3555 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3556 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3557 
  3558   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3559   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3560   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3561   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3562   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3563   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3564   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3565   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3566   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3567   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3568   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3569   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3570   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3571   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3572   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3573   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3574   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3575   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3576   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3577   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3578 
  3579 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3580 
  3581   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3582   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3583   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3584   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3585   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3586   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3587   box_less             ~> box_below
  3588   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3589   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3590   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3591   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3592   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3593   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3594   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3595   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3596   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3597   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3598   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3599   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3600   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3601   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3602   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3603   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3604   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3605   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3606   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3607   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3608   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3609   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3610   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3611   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3612   up_less              ~> up_below
  3613   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3614   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3615   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3616   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3617   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3618   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3619   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3620   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3621   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3622   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3623   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3624   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3625   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3626 
  3627 
  3628 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3629 
  3630 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3631 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3632 
  3633 
  3634 *** ML ***
  3635 
  3636 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3637 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3638 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3639 
  3640 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3641 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3642 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3643 
  3644 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3645 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3646 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3647 
  3648 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3649 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3650 
  3651 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3652 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3653 
  3654 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3655 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3656 
  3657 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3658 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3659 
  3660 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3661 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3662 almost all situations.
  3663 
  3664 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3665 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3666 Isabelle/ML.
  3667 
  3668 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3669 meaning.
  3670 
  3671 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3672 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3673 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3674 
  3675 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3676 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3677 
  3678 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3679 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3680 
  3681 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3682 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3683 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3684 
  3685 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3686 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3687 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3688 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3689 configuration options.
  3690 
  3691 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3692 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3693 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3694 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3695 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3696 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3697 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3698 
  3699 
  3700 
  3701 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3702 ---------------------------------
  3703 
  3704 *** General ***
  3705 
  3706 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3707 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3708 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3709 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3710 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3711 their full internal name.
  3712 
  3713 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3714 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3715 Some hints on upgrading:
  3716 
  3717   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3718     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3719     which are independent of this issue.
  3720 
  3721   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3722     provides the following special forms:
  3723 
  3724       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3725       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3726       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3727 
  3728     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3729     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3730     extra variables".
  3731 
  3732     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3733     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3734     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3735     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3736     "logic".
  3737 
  3738   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3739     antiquotations:
  3740 
  3741       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3742       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3743       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3744       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3745 
  3746   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3747     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3748     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3749     antiquotations.
  3750 
  3751 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3752 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3753 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3754 diagnose syntax problems.
  3755 
  3756 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3757 
  3758 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3759 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3760 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3761 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3762 
  3763 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3764 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3765 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3766 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3767 
  3768 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3769 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3770 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3771 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3772 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3773 
  3774 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3775 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3776 
  3777 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3778 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3779 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3780 
  3781   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3782 
  3783 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3784 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3785 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3786 
  3787 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3788 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3789 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3790 
  3791 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3792 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3793 
  3794 
  3795 *** Pure ***
  3796 
  3797 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3798 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3799 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3800 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3801 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3802 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3803 inspect proof terms.
  3804 
  3805 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3806 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3807 are added internally.  For example:
  3808 
  3809   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3810 
  3811 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3812 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3813 
  3814 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3815 
  3816 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3817 'class' instead.
  3818 
  3819 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3820 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3821 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3822 
  3823 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3824 invariants.
  3825 
  3826 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3827 user space functionality any longer.
  3828 
  3829 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3830 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3831 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3832 
  3833 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3834 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3835 
  3836 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3837 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3838 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3839 
  3840 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3841 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3842 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3843 
  3844 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3845 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3846 
  3847 
  3848 *** HOL ***
  3849 
  3850 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3851 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3852 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3853 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3854 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3855 
  3856 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3857 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3858 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3859 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3860 
  3861   fun
  3862     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3863   where
  3864     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3865 
  3866   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3867     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3868 
  3869   quotient_definition
  3870     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3871 
  3872 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3873 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3874 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3875 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3876 
  3877 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3878 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3879 
  3880 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3881 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3882 
  3883 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3884 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3885 
  3886 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3887 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3888 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3889 
  3890 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3891 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3892 
  3893 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3894 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3895 
  3896 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3897 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3898 
  3899 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3900 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3901 
  3902 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3903 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3904 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3905 
  3906   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3907   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3908   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3909   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3910   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3911   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3912   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3913   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3914   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3915   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3916   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3917   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3918   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3919   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3920   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3921   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3922   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3923   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3924   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3925   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3926   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3927   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3928   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3929   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3930   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3931   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3932   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3933   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3934   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3935   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3936 
  3937 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3938 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3939 
  3940 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3941 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3942 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3943 
  3944 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3945 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3946 
  3947 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3948 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3949 
  3950 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3951 
  3952 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3953 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3954 
  3955 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3956 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3957 
  3958 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3959 
  3960 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3961 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3962 
  3963 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3964 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3965 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3966 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3967 
  3968 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3969   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3970   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3971   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3972 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3973 
  3974 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3975 lattices):
  3976 
  3977     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3978     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3979 
  3980     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3981 
  3982     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3983     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3984     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3985     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3986     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3987     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3988     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3989     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3990     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3991     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3992     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3993     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3994     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3995 
  3996     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3997     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3998     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3999     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  4000     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  4001     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  4002     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  4003     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  4004     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  4005     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  4006     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  4007     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  4008     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  4009     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  4010     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  4011     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  4012     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  4013     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  4014 
  4015   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  4016   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  4017 
  4018     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  4019     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  4020     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  4021     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  4022     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  4023 
  4024 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4025 
  4026 * Refined field classes:
  4027   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  4028     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  4029     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  4030   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  4031 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4032 
  4033 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  4034   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  4035   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  4036   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  4037     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  4038   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  4039     equal_neg_zero.
  4040 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4041 
  4042 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  4043 sets to lattices:
  4044 
  4045   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  4046   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  4047   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  4048   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  4049   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  4050   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  4051   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  4052   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  4053   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  4054   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  4055 
  4056 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  4057 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  4058 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  4059 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  4060 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  4061 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4062 
  4063 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  4064 multiset order:
  4065 
  4066   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  4067     <= and <;
  4068   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  4069     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  4070     multiset_order;
  4071   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  4072     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  4073     generation;
  4074   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  4075     if needed.
  4076 
  4077 Renamed:
  4078 
  4079   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  4080   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  4081   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  4082 
  4083 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4084 
  4085 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4086 
  4087 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4088 
  4089 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4090 
  4091 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4092 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4093 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4094 
  4095   Constants:
  4096   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4097   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4098   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4099   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4100   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4101   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4102   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4103   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4104   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4105   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4106   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4107   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4108   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4109 
  4110   Lemmas:
  4111   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4112   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4113   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4114   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4115   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4116   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4117   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4118   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4119   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4120   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4121   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4122   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4123   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4124 
  4125 * Sledgehammer:
  4126   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4127     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4128     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4129     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4130     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4131     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4132     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4133   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4134   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4135     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4136   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4137     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4138     is still experimental.)
  4139   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4140     full-typed mode.
  4141   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4142 
  4143 * Nitpick:
  4144   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4145   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4146   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4147     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4148   - Added support for quotient types.
  4149   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4150     constructs.
  4151   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4152     "termination" proofs).
  4153   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4154   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4155   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4156   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4157     record getters.
  4158   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4159   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4160   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4161   - Added "atoms" option.
  4162   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4163     problems.
  4164   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4165     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4166     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4167   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4168     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4169   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4170 
  4171 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4172   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4173   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4174   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4175   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4176   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4177   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4178   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4179   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4180   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4181 
  4182 
  4183 *** HOLCF ***
  4184 
  4185 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4186 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4187 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4188 
  4189 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4190 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4191 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4192 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4193 
  4194 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4195 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4196 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4197 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4198 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4199 
  4200 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4201 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4202 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4203 
  4204 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4205 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4206 
  4207   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4208   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4209 
  4210 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4211 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4212 
  4213   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4214   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4215   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4216   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4217   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4218 
  4219 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4220 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4221 
  4222   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4223   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4224   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4225 
  4226 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4227 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4228 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4229 
  4230 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4231 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4232 
  4233 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4234 
  4235 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4236 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4237 
  4238 
  4239 *** ML ***
  4240 
  4241 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4242 
  4243     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4244     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4245 
  4246     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4247     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4248     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4249     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4250 
  4251     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4252     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4253     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4254 
  4255 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4256 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4257 
  4258 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4259 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4260 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4261 
  4262 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4263 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4264 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4265 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4266 
  4267 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4268 the context or even global references.
  4269 
  4270 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4271 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4272 
  4273 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4274 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4275 
  4276   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4277   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4278   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4279   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4280   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4281   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4282   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4283   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4284   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4285   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4286 
  4287 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4288 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4289 
  4290 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4291 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4292 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4293 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4294 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4295 
  4296 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4297 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4298 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4299 Theory_Data version.
  4300 
  4301 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4302 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4303 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4304 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4305 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4306 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4307 explicitly in rare situations.
  4308 
  4309 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4310 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4311 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4312 
  4313 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4314 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4315 
  4316 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4317 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4318 quite rare).
  4319 
  4320 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4321 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4322 
  4323 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4324 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4325 terms.
  4326 
  4327 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4328 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4329 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4330 
  4331 
  4332 *** System ***
  4333 
  4334 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4335 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4336 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4337 
  4338 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4339 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4340 respectively.
  4341 
  4342 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4343 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4344 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4345 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4346 
  4347   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4348 
  4349 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4350 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4351 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4352 component.
  4353 
  4354 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4355 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4356 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4357 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4358 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4359 the user for manual installation.
  4360 
  4361 
  4362 
  4363 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4364 -------------------------------------
  4365 
  4366 *** General ***
  4367 
  4368 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4369 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4370 
  4371 
  4372 *** Pure ***
  4373 
  4374 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4375 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4376 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4377 
  4378 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4379 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4380 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4381 
  4382 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4383 interpretation.
  4384 
  4385 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4386 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4387 
  4388 
  4389 *** Document preparation ***
  4390 
  4391 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4392 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4393 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4394 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4395 
  4396 
  4397 *** HOL ***
  4398 
  4399 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4400 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4401 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4402 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4403 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4404 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4405 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4406 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4407 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4408 
  4409 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4410 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4411 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4412 
  4413 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4414 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4415 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4416 
  4417 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4418 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4419 
  4420 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4421 
  4422 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4423 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4424 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4425 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4426 
  4427 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4428 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4429 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4430 "mirabelle" utility.
  4431 
  4432 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4433 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4434 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4435 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4436 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4437 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4438 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4439 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4440 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4441 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4442 
  4443 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4444 procedure only.
  4445 
  4446 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4447 
  4448 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4449 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4450 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4451 that fail later.
  4452 
  4453 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4454 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4455 
  4456 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4457 the same method as the approximation method.
  4458 
  4459 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4460 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4461 series expansion.
  4462 
  4463 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4464 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4465 
  4466 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4467 reals.
  4468 
  4469 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4470 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4471 
  4472 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4473 fixpoint theorem.
  4474 
  4475 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4476   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4477     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4478   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4479     accordingly
  4480   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4481     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4482   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4483     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4484 
  4485 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4486 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4487 lattice.
  4488 
  4489 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4490 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4491 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4492 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4493 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4494 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4495 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4496 
  4497 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4498   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4499     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4500   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4501     le_inf_iff
  4502   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4503     sup_aci)
  4504   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4505   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4506   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4507     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4508     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4509     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4510     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4511     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4512     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4513     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4514     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4515     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4516     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4517   - authentic syntax for
  4518     Set.Pow
  4519     Set.image
  4520   - mere abbreviations:
  4521     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4522     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4523     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4524     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4525     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4526     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4527     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4528     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4529   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4530 
  4531 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4532 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4533 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4534 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4535 
  4536 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4537 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4538 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4539 
  4540 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4541 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4542 
  4543 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4544 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4545 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4546 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4547 
  4548 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4549 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4550 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4551 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4552 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4553 
  4554 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4555 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4556 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4557 
  4558 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4559 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4560 
  4561 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4562 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4563 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4564 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4565 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4566 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4567 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4568 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4569 
  4570 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4571     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4572     code_post       replaces    code post
  4573     etc.
  4574   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4575 
  4576 * Renamed methods:
  4577     sizechange -> size_change
  4578     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4579   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4580 
  4581 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4582 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4583 
  4584 * Renamed theorems:
  4585     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4586     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4587     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4588     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4589     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4590   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4591 
  4592 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4593 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4594 
  4595 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4596 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4597 
  4598 
  4599 *** HOLCF ***
  4600 
  4601 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4602 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4603 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4604 
  4605 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4606 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4607 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4608 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4609 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4610 
  4611 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4612 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4613 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4614 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4615 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4616 
  4617 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4618 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4619 constructor are pre-configured.
  4620 
  4621 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4622 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4623 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4624 
  4625 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4626 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4627 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4628 as well.)
  4629 
  4630 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4631 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4632 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4633 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4634 examples.
  4635 
  4636 
  4637 *** ML ***
  4638 
  4639 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4640 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4641 
  4642 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4643 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4644 position, logical grouping etc.
  4645 
  4646 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4647 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4648 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4649 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4650 
  4651 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4652 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4653 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4654 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4655 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4656 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4657 
  4658 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4659 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4660 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4661 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4662 experiments with references.
  4663 
  4664 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4665 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4666 
  4667 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4668 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4669 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4670 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4671 
  4672 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4673 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4674 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4675 
  4676 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4677 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4678 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4679 
  4680 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4681 
  4682 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4683 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4684 
  4685 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4686 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4687 
  4688 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4689 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4690 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4691 
  4692 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4693 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4694 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4695 
  4696 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4697 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4698 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4699 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4700 
  4701 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4702 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4703 instead of global theory.
  4704 
  4705 
  4706 *** System ***
  4707 
  4708 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4709 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4710 usedir option -q.
  4711 
  4712 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4713 also the system manual.
  4714 
  4715 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4716 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4717 
  4718 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4719 this is always enabled.
  4720 
  4721 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4722 
  4723 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4724 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4725 currently supported on Linux only.
  4726 
  4727 
  4728 
  4729 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4730 --------------------------------
  4731 
  4732 *** General ***
  4733 
  4734 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4735 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4736 
  4737   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4738     "isatool."
  4739 
  4740   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4741     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4742 
  4743   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4744     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4745 
  4746 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4747 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4748 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4749 
  4750 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4751 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4752 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4753 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4754 via "isabelle emacs".
  4755 
  4756 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4757 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4758 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4759 
  4760 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4761 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4762 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4763 
  4764 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4765 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4766 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4767 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4768 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4769 
  4770 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4771 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4772 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4773 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4774 
  4775 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4776 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4777 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4778 
  4779 
  4780 *** Pure ***
  4781 
  4782 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4783 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4784 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4785 
  4786 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4787 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4788 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4789 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4790 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4791 
  4792 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4793 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4794 useful in locale declarations.
  4795 
  4796 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4797 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4798 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4799 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4800 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4801 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4802 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4803 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4804 no longer generated.
  4805 
  4806 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4807 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4808 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4809 
  4810 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4811 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4812 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4813 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4814 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4815 
  4816 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4817 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4818 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4819 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4820 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4821 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4822 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4823 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4824 
  4825 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4826 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4827 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4828 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4829 
  4830 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4831 
  4832 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4833 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4834 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4835 
  4836 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4837 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4838 
  4839 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4840 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4841 in HOL, write
  4842 
  4843     class foo = ...
  4844 
  4845 instead of
  4846 
  4847     class foo = type + ...
  4848 
  4849 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4850 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4851 
  4852 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4853 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4854 
  4855 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4856 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4857 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4858 
  4859 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4860 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4861 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4862 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4863 directly in regular applications.
  4864 
  4865 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4866 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4867 
  4868 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4869 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4870 
  4871 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4872 theory context.
  4873 
  4874 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4875 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4876 
  4877 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4878 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4879 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4880 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4881 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4882 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4883 
  4884   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4885 
  4886 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4887 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4888 normalization.
  4889 
  4890 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4891 addressing etc.
  4892 
  4893 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4894 
  4895   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4896   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4897 
  4898 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4899 
  4900   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4901      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4902      parts of the code generator framework).
  4903 
  4904   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4905      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4906      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4907 
  4908 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4909 
  4910 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4911 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4912 
  4913 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4914 patterns, e.g.
  4915 
  4916     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4917 
  4918 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4919 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4920 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4921 hyphen:
  4922 
  4923     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4924 
  4925 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4926 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4927 
  4928 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4929 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4930 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4931 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4932 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4933 higher-order unification.
  4934 
  4935 
  4936 *** Document preparation ***
  4937 
  4938 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4939 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4940 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4941 
  4942 
  4943 *** HOL ***
  4944 
  4945 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4946 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4947 
  4948 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4949 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4950 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4951 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4952 Main, as before.
  4953 
  4954 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4955 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4956 
  4957 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4958 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4959 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4960 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4961 
  4962 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4963 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4964 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4965 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4966 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4967 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4968 
  4969 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4970 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4971 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4972 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4973 
  4974 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4975 menu.
  4976 
  4977 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4978 (contains the empty clause).
  4979 
  4980 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4981 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4982 
  4983 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4984 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4985 
  4986 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4987 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4988 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4989 
  4990 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4991 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4992 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4993 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4994 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4995 
  4996 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4997 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4998 
  4999 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  5000 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  5001 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  5002 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  5003 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  5004 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  5005 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  5006 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  5007 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  5008 
  5009 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  5010 
  5011 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  5012 
  5013 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  5014 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5015 
  5016 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  5017 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  5018 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  5019 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  5020 
  5021 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  5022 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5023 
  5024     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  5025     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  5026     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  5027     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  5028     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  5029     Union ~>    Set.Union
  5030     {} ~>       Set.empty
  5031     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  5032 
  5033 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  5034 theory Set.
  5035 
  5036 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  5037 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  5038 
  5039 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  5040 
  5041 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  5042 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  5043 
  5044 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  5045 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  5046 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  5047 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  5048 allowed. For examples see
  5049 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  5050 
  5051 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  5052 
  5053 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  5054 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5055 
  5056 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  5057 structure:
  5058 
  5059     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  5060     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5061     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5062     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5063     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5064     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5065     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5066     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5067     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5068     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5069     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5070     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5071     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5072     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5073     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5074     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5075     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5076     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5077     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5078     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5079     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5080     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5081     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5082     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5083     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5084     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5085     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5086     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5087     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5088     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5089     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5090     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5091     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5092 
  5093     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5094     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5095     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5096     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5097     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5098     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5099     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5100     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5101     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5102     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5103 
  5104     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5105     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5106     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5107     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5108     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5109     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5110 
  5111 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5112 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5113 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5114 
  5115 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5116 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5117 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5118 
  5119 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5120 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5121 
  5122 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5123 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5124 
  5125 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5126 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5127 proofs, e.g.
  5128 
  5129   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5130 
  5131 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5132 
  5133 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5134 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5135 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5136 
  5137 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5138 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5139 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5140 
  5141 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5142 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5143 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5144 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5145 
  5146 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5147 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5148 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5149 preorder_class.*.
  5150 
  5151 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5152 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5153 
  5154 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5155 
  5156   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5157 
  5158 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5159 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5160 fold_image.
  5161 
  5162 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5163 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5164 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5165 the former will disappear at some point.
  5166 
  5167 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5168 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5169 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5170 
  5171 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5172 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5173 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5174 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5175 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5176 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5177 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5178 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5179 
  5180 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5181 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5182 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5183 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5184 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5185 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5186 
  5187     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5188     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5189     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5190     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5191     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5192     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5193     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5194 
  5195 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5196 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5197 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5198 
  5199 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5200 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5201 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5202 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5203 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5204 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5205 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5206 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5207 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5208 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5209 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5210 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5211 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5212 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5213 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5214 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5215 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5216 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5217 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5218 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5219 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5220 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5221 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5222 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5223 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5224 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5225 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5226 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5227 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5228 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5229 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5230 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5231 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5232 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5233 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5234 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5235 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5236 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5237 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5238 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5239 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5240 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5241 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5242 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5243 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5244 
  5245 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5246 
  5247 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5248 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5249 
  5250 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5251 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5252 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5253 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5254 
  5255 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5256 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5257 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5258 theory RealVector.
  5259 
  5260 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5261 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5262 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5263 and inner products are included.
  5264 
  5265 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5266 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5267 supported.
  5268 
  5269 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5270 first diagonalization argument.
  5271 
  5272 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5273 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5274 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5275 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5276 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5277 
  5278     hide (open) const gcd
  5279     abbreviation gcd where
  5280       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5281     notation (output)
  5282       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5283 
  5284 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5285 
  5286 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5287 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5288 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5289 
  5290 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5291 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5292 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5293 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5294 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5295 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5296 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5297 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5298 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5299 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5300 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5301 cases.
  5302 
  5303 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5304 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5305 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5306 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5307 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5308 
  5309     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5310     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5311     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5312     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5313     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5314 
  5315 
  5316 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5317 
  5318 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5319 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5320 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5321 
  5322 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5323 
  5324 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5325 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5326 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5327 
  5328 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5329 
  5330 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5331 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5332 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5333 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5334 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5335 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5336 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5337 
  5338 
  5339 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5340 
  5341 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5342 
  5343 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5344 theory targets.
  5345 
  5346 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5347 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5348 'inductive' etc.
  5349 
  5350 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5351 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5352 
  5353 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5354 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5355 
  5356 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5357 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5358 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5359 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5360 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5361 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5362 the algorithm W:
  5363 
  5364  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5365  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5366          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5367 
  5368 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5369 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5370 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5371 
  5372 
  5373 *** HOLCF ***
  5374 
  5375 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5376 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5377 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5378 
  5379 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5380 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5381 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5382 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5383 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5384 
  5385 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5386 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5387 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5388 
  5389 
  5390 *** ZF ***
  5391 
  5392 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5393 
  5394 
  5395 *** ML ***
  5396 
  5397 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5398 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5399 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5400 5.2.1!
  5401 
  5402 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5403 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5404 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5405 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5406 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5407 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5408 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5409 
  5410 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5411 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5412 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5413 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5414 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5415 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5416 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5417 
  5418 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5419 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5420 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5421 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5422 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5423 
  5424 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5425 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5426 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5427 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5428 Method.add_method.
  5429 
  5430 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5431 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5432 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5433 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5434 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5435 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5436 
  5437 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5438 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5439 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5440 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5441 examples.
  5442 
  5443 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5444 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5445 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5446 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5447 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5448 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5449 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5450 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5451 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5452 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5453 
  5454 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5455 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5456 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5457 
  5458 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5459 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5460 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5461 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5462 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5463 resort for legacy applications.
  5464 
  5465 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5466 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5467 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5468 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5469 explicit runtime argument.
  5470 
  5471 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5472 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5473 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5474 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5475 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5476 
  5477 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5478 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5479 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5480 theory state.
  5481 
  5482 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5483 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5484 
  5485   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5486   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5487   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5488   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5489   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5490   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5491   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5492   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5493   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5494   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5495 
  5496 
  5497 *** System ***
  5498 
  5499 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5500 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5501 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5502 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5503 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5504 
  5505 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5506 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5507 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5508 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5509 
  5510 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5511 
  5512 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5513 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5514 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5515 prover operations.
  5516 
  5517 
  5518 
  5519 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5520 -------------------------------
  5521 
  5522 *** General ***
  5523 
  5524 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5525 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5526 
  5527 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5528 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5529 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5530 provides a proper context already.
  5531 
  5532 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5533 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5534 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5535 
  5536 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5537 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5538 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5539 swap theory imports.
  5540 
  5541 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5542 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5543 
  5544 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5545 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5546 white space without escapes.
  5547 
  5548 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5549 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5550 "foo_bar".
  5551 
  5552 
  5553 *** Pure ***
  5554 
  5555 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5556 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5557 
  5558 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5559 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5560 
  5561 (1) unused_thms
  5562      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5563 
  5564 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5565      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5566      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5567 
  5568 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5569      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5570      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5571      their ancestors.
  5572 
  5573 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5574 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5575 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5576 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5577 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5578 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5579 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5580 
  5581 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5582 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5583 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5584 
  5585 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5586 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5587 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5588 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5589 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5590 
  5591 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5592 
  5593 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5594 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5595 update of theories within ML code.
  5596 
  5597 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5598 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5599 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5600 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5601 
  5602 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5603 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5604 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5605 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5606 
  5607 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5608 
  5609 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5610 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5611 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5612 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5613 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5614 
  5615 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5616 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5617 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5618 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5619 situations.
  5620 
  5621 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5622 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5623 proof text.
  5624 
  5625 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5626 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5627 
  5628 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5629 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5630 predicates.
  5631 
  5632 
  5633 *** Document preparation ***
  5634 
  5635 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5636 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5637 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5638 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5639 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5640 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5641 
  5642 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5643 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5644 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5645 
  5646 
  5647 *** HOL ***
  5648 
  5649 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5650 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5651 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5652 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5653 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5654 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5655 
  5656 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5657 with multithreading.
  5658 
  5659 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5660 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5661 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5662 
  5663 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5664 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5665 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5666 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5667 
  5668 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5669 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5670 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5671 and makes them available separately.  See
  5672 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5673 
  5674 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5675 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5676 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5677 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5678 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5679 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5680 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5681 the declared rules.
  5682 
  5683 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5684 
  5685   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5686 
  5687 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5688 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5689 
  5690 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5691 
  5692   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5693 
  5694   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5695     definitions on => and bool.
  5696 
  5697   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5698     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5699     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5700 
  5701       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5702       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5703       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5704       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5705       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5706       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5707       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5708       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5709 
  5710   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5711     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5712     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5713 
  5714   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5715     The proof pattern
  5716 
  5717       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5718       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5719 
  5720     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5721     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5722 
  5723       have "EX S. P S"
  5724       proof
  5725         show "P S" <...>
  5726       qed
  5727 
  5728   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5729     The proof pattern
  5730 
  5731       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5732       also have "S = T" <...>
  5733       finally have "P T" .
  5734 
  5735     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5736     must be replaced by something like
  5737 
  5738       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5739       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5740       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5741 
  5742   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5743     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5744 
  5745       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5746 
  5747     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5748     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5749     type of the form
  5750 
  5751       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5752 
  5753     rather than
  5754 
  5755       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5756 
  5757 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5758 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5759 
  5760 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5761 
  5762 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5763 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5764 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5765 
  5766 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5767 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5768 
  5769 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5770 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5771 
  5772 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5773 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5774 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5775 
  5776 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5777 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5778 
  5779   less_trans
  5780   less_linear
  5781   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5782   le_less_trans
  5783   less_le_trans
  5784   less_not_sym
  5785   less_asym
  5786 
  5787 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5788 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5789 and different variable names.
  5790 
  5791 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5792 
  5793 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5794 finite maps.
  5795 
  5796 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5797 
  5798 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5799 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5800 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5801 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5802 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5803 accordingly.
  5804 
  5805 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5806 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5807 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5808 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5809 
  5810 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5811 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5812 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5813 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5814 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5815 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5816 
  5817 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5818 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5819 
  5820 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5821 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5822 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5823 
  5824 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5825 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5826 
  5827 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5828 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5829 
  5830 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5831 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5832 
  5833 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5834 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5835 
  5836 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5837 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5838 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5839 
  5840 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5841 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5842 
  5843 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5844 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5845 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5846 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5847 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5848 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5849 
  5850 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5851 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5852 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5853 
  5854 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5855 
  5856 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5857 
  5858 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5859 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5860 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5861 
  5862 
  5863 *** ZF ***
  5864 
  5865 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5866 same session:
  5867 
  5868   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5869   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5870   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5871   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5872   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5873   List      -> List_ZF
  5874   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5875 
  5876 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5877 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5878 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5879 
  5880 
  5881 *** ML ***
  5882 
  5883 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5884 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5885 
  5886 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5887 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5888 
  5889 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5890 
  5891 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5892 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5893 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5894 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5895 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5896 
  5897 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5898 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5899 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5900 
  5901 
  5902 *** System ***
  5903 
  5904 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5905 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5906 
  5907 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5908 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5909 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5910 
  5911 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5912 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5913 
  5914 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5915 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5916 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5917 
  5918 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5919 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5920 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5921 
  5922 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5923 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5924 
  5925 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5926 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5927 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5928 script.
  5929 
  5930 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5931 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5932 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5933 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5934 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5935 
  5936 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5937 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5938 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5939 
  5940 
  5941 
  5942 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5943 -----------------------------------
  5944 
  5945 *** General ***
  5946 
  5947 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5948 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5949 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5950 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5951 
  5952 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5953 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5954 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5955 
  5956 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5957 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5958 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5959 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5960 
  5961 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5962 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5963 quotes.
  5964 
  5965 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5966 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5967 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5968 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5969 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5970 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5971 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5972 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5973 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5974 
  5975 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5976 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5977 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5978 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5979 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5980 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5981 
  5982 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5983 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5984 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5985 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5986 
  5987 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5988 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5989 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5990 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5991 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5992 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5993 
  5994 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5995 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5996 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5997 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5998 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5999 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  6000 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  6001 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  6002 
  6003 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  6004 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  6005 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  6006 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  6007 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  6008 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  6009 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  6010 
  6011 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  6012 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  6013 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  6014 
  6015 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  6016 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  6017 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  6018 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  6019 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  6020 limit is imposed.
  6021 
  6022 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  6023 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  6024 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  6025 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  6026 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  6027 and scalability.
  6028 
  6029 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  6030 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  6031 
  6032 
  6033 *** Document preparation ***
  6034 
  6035 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  6036 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  6037 current context.
  6038 
  6039 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  6040 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  6041 
  6042 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  6043 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  6044 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  6045 
  6046 
  6047 *** Pure ***
  6048 
  6049 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  6050 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  6051 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  6052 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  6053 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  6054 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  6055 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  6056 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  6057 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  6058 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  6059 
  6060 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  6061 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  6062 sketch:
  6063 
  6064     internal compilation:
  6065         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  6066     writing SML code to a file:
  6067         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  6068     writing OCaml code to a file:
  6069         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  6070     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  6071         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  6072 
  6073     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  6074         method ``eval''
  6075 
  6076 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  6077 
  6078 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  6079 
  6080     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  6081     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  6082     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  6083     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  6084 
  6085 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  6086 
  6087     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  6088       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  6089 
  6090     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  6091       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  6092 
  6093     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  6094       {(target)}+
  6095         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  6096 
  6097     code_class <and_list of classes>
  6098       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  6099         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  6100 
  6101 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  6102 
  6103 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  6104 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  6105 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  6106 codegen".
  6107 
  6108 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  6109 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  6110 annotations).
  6111 
  6112 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  6113 syntax.
  6114 
  6115 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  6116 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  6117 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  6118 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  6119 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  6120 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  6121 
  6122 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  6123 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  6124 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  6125 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  6126 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  6127 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  6128 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  6129 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  6130 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  6131 equations, see section "definitions".
  6132 
  6133 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  6134 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  6135 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  6136 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  6137 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  6138 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  6139 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  6140 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  6141 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  6142 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  6143 
  6144 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  6145 configuration options:
  6146 
  6147   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  6148   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  6149   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  6150   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  6151   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  6152   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  6153   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  6154   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  6155   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  6156 
  6157 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  6158 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  6159 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  6160 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  6161 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  6162 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  6163 order.
  6164 
  6165 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  6166 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  6167 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  6168 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  6169 context encountered later on.
  6170 
  6171 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  6172 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  6173 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  6174 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  6175 
  6176 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  6177 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  6178 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  6179 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  6180 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  6181 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  6182 
  6183 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  6184 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  6185 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  6186 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  6187 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  6188 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  6189 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  6190 more permissive.
  6191 
  6192 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  6193 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  6194 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  6195 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  6196 maintainability of proof texts.
  6197 
  6198 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  6199 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  6200 
  6201   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  6202   then guess x and y by clarify
  6203 
  6204 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  6205 proof tools being involved here.
  6206 
  6207 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  6208 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  6209 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  6210 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  6211 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  6212 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  6213 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  6214 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  6215 
  6216 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  6217 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  6218 certain special cases of literal facts:
  6219 
  6220   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  6221   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  6222   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  6223   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  6224 
  6225 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  6226 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  6227 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  6228 
  6229 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  6230 both named and unnamed ones.
  6231 
  6232 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  6233 
  6234   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  6235 
  6236 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  6237 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  6238 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  6239 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  6240 
  6241 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  6242 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  6243 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  6244 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  6245 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  6246 
  6247 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  6248 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  6249 
  6250 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  6251 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  6252 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  6253 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  6254 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  6255 originally first one.
  6256 
  6257 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  6258 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  6259 expected.
  6260 
  6261 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  6262 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'