doc-src/System/basics.tex
 author paulson Fri, 27 Nov 1998 13:13:22 +0100 changeset 5980 2e9314c07146 parent 5814 a3881c1f1d3c child 6412 9309bc455432 permissions -rw-r--r--


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\chapter{Basic concepts}

The \emph{Isabelle System Manual} describes Isabelle together with
related tools and user interfaces as seen from an outside (operating
system oriented) view.  See the \emph{Isabelle Reference Manual} for
all internal {\ML} level user commands, on the other hand.

\medskip The Isabelle system level environment is based on a few
general concepts:
\begin{itemize}
\item The \emph{Isabelle settings mechanism}, which provides
environment variables to all Isabelle programs (including tools and
user interfaces).
\item \emph{Isabelle proper} (\ttindex{isabelle}), which runs logic
sessions, both interactively or in batch mode. In particular,
\texttt{isabelle} abstracts over the invocation of the actual {\ML}
system to be used.
\item The \emph{Isabelle tools wrapper} (\ttindex{isatool}), which
provides a generic startup platform for Isabelle related utilities.
Thus tools automatically benefit from the settings mechanism.
Furthermore, the shell's search path is kept clean from many small
programs.
\item The \emph{Isabelle interface wrapper}
(\ttindex{Isabelle}\footnote{Note the capital \texttt{I}!}), which
provides some abstraction over the actual user interface to be used.
\end{itemize}

\medskip The beginning user would probably just run one of the
interfaces (by invoking the capital \texttt{Isabelle}), and maybe some
basic tools like \texttt{doc} (see \S\ref{sec:tool-doc}).  This
assumes that the system has already been installed properly, of
course.\footnote{In case you have to do this yourself, see the
\ttindex{INSTALL} file in the top-level directory of the
distribution. The information provided there should be sufficient as
a start.}

\section{Isabelle settings} \label{sec:settings}

The Isabelle system heavily depends on the \emph{settings
mechanism}\indexbold{settings}. Basically, this is just a collection
of environment variables, e.g.\ \texttt{ISABELLE_HOME},
\texttt{ML_SYSTEM}, \texttt{ML_HOME}.  These variables are \emph{not}
intended to be set directly from the shell!

Isabelle employs a somewhat more sophisticated scheme of
\emph{settings files} --- one for site-wide defaults, another for
optional user-specific modifications.  With all configuration
variables in just a few places, this is much more maintainable and
user-friendly than ordinary shell environment variables.

In particular, we avoid the typical situation where prospective users
of a software package are told to put this and that in their shell
startup scripts, before being able to actually run it. Isabelle
requires none such administrative chores of its end-users --- the
executables can be invoked straight away. Usually, users would just
want to put the Isabelle \texttt{bin} directory into their shell's
search path, of course.

\subsection{Building the environment}

Whenever any of the Isabelle executables is run, their settings
environment is built as follows:

\begin{enumerate}
\item The special variable \settdx{ISABELLE_HOME} is determined
automatically from the location of the binary that has been run.

You should not try to set \texttt{ISABELLE_HOME} manually. Also note
that the Isabelle executables have to be run from their original
location in the distribution directory --- copying or linking them
somewhere else just won't work!

\item The file \texttt{\$ISABELLE_HOME/etc/settings} ist run as a shell script with the auto-export option for variables enabled. This file typically contains a rather long list of shell variable assigments, thus providing the site-wide default settings. The Isabelle distribution already contains a global settings file with sensible defaults for most variables. When installing the system, only a few of these have to be adapted (most likely \texttt{ML_SYSTEM} etc.). \item The file \texttt{\$ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings} (if it
exists) is run the same way as the site default settings. The
variable \texttt{ISABELLE_HOME_USER} has already been set before ---
usually to \texttt{\~\relax/isabelle}.

file \texttt{etc/user-settings.sample} in the distribution.
Typically, a user settings file would contain only a few lines, just
the assigments that are really needed.  One should definitely
\texttt{\$ISABELLE_HOME/etc/settings}. This could cause very annoying maintainance problems later, when the Isabelle installation is updated or changed otherwise. \end{enumerate} Note that settings files are actually full GNU bash scripts. So one may use complex shell commands, say \texttt{if} or \texttt{case} statements to set variables depending on the system architecture or other environment variables, for example. Such advanced features should be added only with great care, though. In particular, external environment references should be kept at a minimum. \medskip A few variables are somewhat special: \begin{itemize} \item \settdx{ISABELLE} and \settdx{ISATOOL} are set automatically to the absolute path names of the \texttt{isabelle} and \texttt{isatool} executables, respectively. \item \settdx{ISABELLE_PATH} and \settdx{ISABELLE_OUTPUT} will have the {\ML} system identifier (as specified by \texttt{ML_SYSTEM}) automatically appended to their values. \end{itemize} \medskip The Isabelle settings scheme is basically quite simple, but non-trivial. For debugging purposes, the resulting environment may be inspected with the \texttt{getenv} utility, see \S\ref{sec:tool-getenv}. \subsection{Common variables} Below is a reference of common Isabelle settings variables. Note that the list is somewhat open-ended. Third-party utilities or interfaces may add their own selection. Variables that are special in some sense are marked with *. \begin{description} \item[\settdx{ISABELLE_HOME}*] is the location of the top-level Isabelle distribution directory. This is automatically determined from the Isabelle executable that has been invoked. Do not try to set \texttt{ISABELLE_HOME} yourself from the shell. \item[\settdx{ISABELLE_HOME_USER}] is the user-specific counterpart of \texttt{ISABELLE_HOME}. The default value is \texttt{\~\relax/isabelle}, under rare circumstances this may be changed in the global setting file. Typically, the \texttt{ISABELLE_HOME_USER} directory mimics \texttt{ISABELLE_HOME} to some extend. In particular, site-wide defaults may be overridden by a private \texttt{etc/settings}. \item[\settdx{ISABELLE}*, \settdx{ISATOOL}*] are automatically set to the full paths of the \texttt{isabelle} and \texttt{isatool} executables, respectively. Thus other tools and scripts need not assume that the Isabelle \texttt{bin} directory is on the current search path of the shell. \item[\settdx{ML_SYSTEM}, \settdx{ML_HOME}, \settdx{ML_OPTIONS}] specify the underlying {\ML} system to be used for Isabelle. The choice of \texttt{ML_SYSTEM} identifiers is quite fixed, see the global \texttt{etc/settings} file for some examples. The actual compiler binary will be run from directory \texttt{ML_HOME}, with \texttt{ML_OPTIONS} as first arguments on the command line. \item[\settdx{ISABELLE_PATH}*] is a list of directories (separated by colons) where Isabelle logic images may reside. Note that the \texttt{ML_SYSTEM} identifier is appended to each component automatically. \item[\settdx{ISABELLE_OUTPUT}*] is a directory where output heap files should be stored by default. The \texttt{ML_SYSTEM} identifier is appended here, too. \item[\settdx{ISABELLE_BROWSER_INFO}] is the directory where theory browser information (HTML and graph data) is stored (see also \S\ref{sec:info}). The default value is \texttt{\$ISABELLE_HOME_USER/browser_info}.

\item[\settdx{ISABELLE_LOGIC}] specifies the default logic to load if
none is given explicitely by the user --- e.g.\ when running
\texttt{isabelle} directly, or some user interface.

\item[\settdx{ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS}] is implicitly prefixed to the
\S\ref{sec:tool-usedir}). This typically contains compilation
options for object-logics --- \texttt{usedir} is the basic utility
that builds them (cf.\ the \texttt{IsaMakefile}s in the
distribution).

\item[\settdx{ISABELLE_TOOLS}] is a colon separated list of
directories that are scanned by \texttt{isatool} for utility

\item[\settdx{ISABELLE_DOCS}] is a colon separated list of directories
with documentation files.

\item[\settdx{DVI_VIEWER}] specifies the command to be used for
displaying \texttt{dvi} files.

\item[\settdx{ISABELLE_INSTALL_FONTS}] determines the way that the
Isabelle symbol fonts are installed into your currently running X11
display server. X11 fonts are a non-trivial issue, see

\item[\settdx{ISABELLE_TMP_PREFIX}] is the prefix from which any
\texttt{isabelle} session derives an individual directory for
temporary files.  The default is somewhere in \texttt{/tmp}.

\item[\settdx{ISABELLE_INTERFACE}] is an identifier that specifies the
actual user interface that the capital \texttt{Isabelle} should
invoke.  Currently available are \texttt{none}, \texttt{xterm} and
\texttt{emacs}. See \S\ref{sec:interface} for more details.

\end{description}

\section{Isabelle proper --- \texttt{isabelle}}

The \ttindex{isabelle} executable runs logic sessions --- either
interactively or in batch mode. It provides an abstraction over the
underlying {\ML} system, and over the actual heap file locations. Its
usage is:
\begin{ttbox}
Usage: isabelle [OPTIONS] [INPUT] [OUTPUT]

Options are:
-I           startup Isar interaction mode
-e MLTEXT    pass MLTEXT to the ML session
-m MODE      add print mode for output
-q           non-interactive session
-u           pass 'use"ROOT.ML";' to the ML session
-w           reset write permissions on OUTPUT

INPUT (default "\\$ISABELLE_LOGIC") and OUTPUT specify in/out heaps.
These are either names to be searched in the Isabelle path, or actual
file names (containing at least one /).
If INPUT is "RAW_ML_SYSTEM", just start the bare bones ML system.
\end{ttbox}
Input files without path specifications are looked up in the
\texttt{ISABELLE_PATH} setting, which may consist of multiple
components separated by colons --- these are tried in order.
Likewise, base names are relative to the directory specified by
\texttt{ISABELLE_OUTPUT}.  In any case, actual file locations may also
be given by including at least one \texttt{/} in the name (hint: use
\texttt{./} to refer to the current directory).

\subsection*{Options}

If the input heap file does not have write permission bits set, or the
\texttt{-r} option is given explicitely, then the session will be
read-only. That is, the {\ML} world cannot be committed back into the
logic image.  Otherwise, a writable session enables commits into
either the input file, or into an alternative output heap file (in
case this is given as the second argument on the command line).

The read-write state of sessions is determined at startup only, it
cannot be changed intermediately. Also note that heap images may
require considerable amounts of disk space. Users are responsible
themselves to dispose their heap files when they are no longer needed.

\medskip The \texttt{-w} option makes the output heap file read-only
after terminating.  Thus subsequent invocations cause the logic image

\medskip Using the \texttt{-e} option, arbitrary {\ML} code may be
passed to the Isabelle session from the command line. Multiple
\texttt{-e}'s are evaluated in order. Strange things may happen when
errorneous {\ML} code is given. Also make sure that the {\ML} commands
are terminated properly by semicolon.

\medskip The \texttt{-u} option is a shortcut for \texttt{-e}, passing
\texttt{use"ROOT.ML";}'' to the {\ML} session.

\medskip The \texttt{-m} option adds identifiers of print modes to be
made active for this session. Typically, this is used by some user
interface, for example to enable output of mathematical symbols from a
special screen font.

\medskip Isabelle normally enters an interactice top-level loop (after
processing the \texttt{-e} texts). The \texttt{-q} option inhibits this, thus
providing a pure batch mode facility.

\medskip The \texttt{-I} option makes Isabelle enter Isar interaction mode on
startup, instead of the primitive {\ML} top-level.  This flag is usually
enabled by default when running Isabelle via some user interface, but it is
\emph{not} for the basic \texttt{isabelle} program.

\subsection*{Examples}

Run an interactive session of the default object-logic (as specified
by the \texttt{ISABELLE_LOGIC} setting) like this:
\begin{ttbox}
isabelle
\end{ttbox}
Usually \texttt{ISABELLE_LOGIC} refers to one of the standard logic
images, which are read-only by default.  A writable session --- based
on \texttt{FOL}, but output to \texttt{Foo} (in the directory
specified by the \texttt{ISABELLE_OUTPUT} setting) --- may be invoked
as follows:
\begin{ttbox}
isabelle FOL Foo
\end{ttbox}
Ending this session normally (e.g.\ by typing control-D) dumps the
whole {\ML} system state into \texttt{Foo}. Be prepared for several
megabytes!

The \texttt{Foo} session may be continued later (still in writable
state) by:
\begin{ttbox}
isabelle Foo
\end{ttbox}
A read-only \texttt{Foo} session may be started by:
\begin{ttbox}
isabelle -r Foo
\end{ttbox}

\medskip The next example demonstrates batch execution of Isabelle. We
print a certain theorem of \texttt{FOL}:
\begin{ttbox}
isabelle -e "prth allE;" -q -r FOL
\end{ttbox}
Note that the output text will be usually interspersed with some
garbage produced by the {\ML} compiler.

\section{The Isabelle tools wrapper --- \texttt{isatool}} \label{sec:isatool}

All Isabelle related utilities are called via a common wrapper ---
\ttindex{isatool}:
\begin{ttbox}
Usage: isatool TOOL [ARGS ...]

Start Isabelle utility program TOOL with ARGS. Pass "-?" to TOOL
for more specific help.

Available tools are:

browser - Isabelle theory graph browser
doc - view Isabelle documentation
\dots
\end{ttbox}
Basically, Isabelle tools are ordinary executable scripts.  These are
run within the same settings environment as Isabelle proper, see
\S\ref{sec:settings}.  The set of available tools is collected by
isatool from the directories listed in the \texttt{ISABELLE_TOOLS}
setting.  Do not try to call the scripts directly. Neither should you

\medskip See chapter~\ref{ch:tools} for descriptions of most utilities
that come with the Isabelle distributions. Third-parties may add their
own, of course.

\section{The Isabelle interface wrapper --- \texttt{Isabelle}} \label{sec:interface}

Isabelle is a generic theorem prover, even w.r.t.\ its user interface.
The \ttindex{Isabelle} command (note the capital \texttt{I}) provides
a uniform way for end-users to invoke a certain interface. Which one
to actually start is determined by the \settdx{ISABELLE_INTERFACE}
setting variable. Currently, the following are recognized:
\begin{ttdescription}
\item[none] is just a pass-through to \texttt{isabelle}. Thus
\texttt{Isabelle} basically becomes an alias for \texttt{isabelle}.

\item[xterm] refers to a simple xterm based interface which is part of
the Isabelle distribution.

\item[emacs] refers to David Aspinall's \emph{Isamode} for emacs.
Isabelle just provides a wrapper for this, the actual Isamode
distribution is available elsewhere.
\end{ttdescription}

The factory default for \texttt{ISABELLE_INTERFACE} is \texttt{xterm}.
This interface runs \texttt{isabelle} within its own xterm window.
Usually, display of mathematical symbols from the Isabelle font is
also enabled (see \S\ref{sec:tool-installfonts} for font configuration
issues).  Furthermore, different kinds of identifiers in logical terms
are highlighted appropriately, e.g.\ free variables in bold and bound
variables underlined.

There are some more options available.  Just pass \texttt{-?} to the
\texttt{xterm} interface to have its usage printed.

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