NEWS
author boehmes
Sun Jan 19 22:38:17 2014 +0100 (2014-01-19)
changeset 55049 327eafb594ba
parent 55029 61a6bf7d4b02
child 55098 01869d711567
child 55108 0b7a0c1fdf7e
permissions -rw-r--r--
removed obsolete remote_cvc3 and remote_z3
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    10 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    11 
    12 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    13 not check existence within the file-system.
    14 
    15 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary Isabelle/ML
    16 workaround in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    17 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.
    18 
    19 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
    20 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
    21 string token.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    22 
    23 
    24 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    25 
    26 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
    27 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
    28 
    29 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
    30 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
    31 
    32 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
    33 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
    34 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
    35 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
    36 
    37 
    38 *** Pure ***
    39 
    40 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
    41 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
    42 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
    43 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
    44 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
    45 
    46 
    47 *** HOL ***
    48 
    49 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
    50 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
    51 
    52 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
    53 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
    54 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
    55 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
    56 
    57 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
    58 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    59 
    60 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
    61 with the given constants.
    62 
    63 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
    64 
    65 Fact consolidations:
    66     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
    67     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
    68     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
    69     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
    70     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
    71     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
    72     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
    73     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
    74     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
    75     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
    76     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
    77     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
    78     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
    79     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
    80     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
    81     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
    82     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
    83     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
    84     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
    85     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
    86     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
    87     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
    88     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
    89     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
    90     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
    91     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
    92     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
    93     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
    94     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
    95     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
    96     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
    97     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
    98     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
    99     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
   100     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
   101     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
   102     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
   103     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
   104     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
   105     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
   106 
   107 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
   108 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
   109 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
   110 
   111 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1, min.cobounded2,
   112 max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
   113 
   114 For min_ac or max_ac, prefor more general collection ac_simps.
   115 
   116 INCOMPATBILITY. 
   117 
   118 * Word library: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
   119 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   120 
   121 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~> Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.
   122 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   123 
   124 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   125 operations on records.
   126 
   127 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
   128 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   129 
   130 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
   131     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   132 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   133 
   134 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
   135     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
   136     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
   137 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   138 
   139 * Abolished neg_numeral.
   140   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
   141   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
   142   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
   143     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
   144   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
   145     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
   146   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
   147 INCOMPATBILITY.
   148 
   149 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
   150     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
   151     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
   152     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
   153     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
   154 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   155 
   156 * Fact name consolidation:
   157     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   158     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
   159     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
   160     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
   161     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
   162 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   163 
   164 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
   165 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
   166 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
   167 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
   168 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
   169 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
   170 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
   171 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   172 
   173 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
   174 
   175 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
   176 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
   177 
   178 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
   179 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
   180 
   181 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
   182 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
   183 or the brute way with
   184 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
   185 
   186 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
   187 
   188 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
   189 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   190 
   191 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
   192 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
   193 
   194 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
   195 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
   196 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
   197 INCOMPATIBILITY
   198 
   199 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   200 
   201 * Nitpick:
   202   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
   203     infinite values.
   204 
   205 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   206   - type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces
   207   - changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   208     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   209     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   210     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   211     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-) open
   212     intervals.
   213 
   214 
   215 *** ML ***
   216 
   217 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   218 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   219 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   220 formal context.
   221 
   222 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   223 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   224 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   225 actually belongs to it).
   226 
   227 
   228 *** System ***
   229 
   230 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   231 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   232 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   233 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   234 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   235 
   236 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   237 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   238 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   239 
   240 
   241 
   242 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   243 -------------------------------------
   244 
   245 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   246 
   247 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   248 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   249 
   250 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   251 after edits surrounding the command location.
   252 
   253 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   254 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   255 e.g. out-of-memory).
   256 
   257 
   258 *** System ***
   259 
   260 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   261 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   262 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   263 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   264 
   265 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   266 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   267 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   268 
   269 
   270 
   271 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   272 -------------------------------------
   273 
   274 *** General ***
   275 
   276 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   277 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   278 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   279 
   280 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   281 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   282 
   283 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   284 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   285 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   286 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   287 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   288 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   289 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   290 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   291 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   292 syntax.
   293 
   294 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   295 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   296 
   297 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   298 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   299 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   300 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   301 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   302 
   303 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   304 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   305 
   306 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   307 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   308 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   309 
   310 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   311 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   312 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   313 
   314 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   315 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   316 
   317 
   318 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   319 
   320 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   321 Documentation panel.
   322 
   323 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   324 documentation.
   325 
   326 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   327 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   328 
   329 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   330 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   331 normal editing and checking process.
   332 
   333 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   334 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   335 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   336 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   337 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   338 
   339 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   340 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   341 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   342 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   343 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   344 
   345 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   346 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   347 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   348 
   349 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   350 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   351 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   352 to resolve conflict.
   353 
   354 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   355 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   356 
   357 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   358 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   359 such command executions while editing.
   360 
   361 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   362 document content.
   363 
   364 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   365 toplevel theorem statements.
   366 
   367 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   368 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   369 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   370 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   371 
   372 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   373 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   374 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   375 
   376 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   377 / Global Options / Appearance".
   378 
   379 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   380 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   381 
   382 
   383 *** Pure ***
   384 
   385 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   386 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   387 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   388 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   389 details.
   390 
   391 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   392 
   393 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   394 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   395 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   396 
   397 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   398 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   399 
   400 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   401 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   402 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   403 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   404 
   405 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   406 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   407 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   408 
   409 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   410 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   411 
   412 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   413 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   414 situations.
   415 
   416 
   417 *** HOL ***
   418 
   419 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   420 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   421 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   422 
   423 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   424 
   425 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   426 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   427 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   428 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   429 
   430   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   431 
   432 * Code generator:
   433   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   434     'code_instance'.
   435   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   436     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   437 
   438 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   439 examples.
   440 
   441 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   442 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   443 to distinguish both when desired.
   444 
   445 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   446 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   447 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   448 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   449 
   450 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   451 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   452 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   453 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   454 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   455 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   456 
   457 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   458 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   459 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   460 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   461 
   462 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   463 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   464 
   465 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   466 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   467 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   468 
   469 * Lifting:
   470   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   471     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
   472       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   473       transfer rules
   474     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   475       correspondence relation can be generated
   476     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   477       parametricity
   478     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   479   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   480   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   481     copies
   482   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   483     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   484     anonymous context)
   485   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
   486     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   487   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   488     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   489   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
   490     INCOMPATIBILITY
   491 
   492 * Transfer:
   493   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
   494     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   495   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   496   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   497     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   498   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   499 
   500 * Reification and reflection:
   501   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   502     "Reification".
   503   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   504   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   505 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   506 
   507 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   508   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   509     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   510     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   511   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   512     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   513   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   514     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   515     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   516     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   517     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   518     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   519     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   520     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   521   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   522     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   523   - Fact renames:
   524       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   525       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   526 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   527 
   528 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   529 
   530 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   531 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   532 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   533 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   534 
   535 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   536 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   537 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   538 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   539 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   540 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   541 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   542 lemmas.
   543 
   544 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   545 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   546 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   547 
   548 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
   549 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
   550 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   551 
   552 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   553 top and bottom elements.
   554 
   555 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   556 
   557 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   558 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   559 
   560  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
   561    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
   562    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
   563 
   564  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   565    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
   566    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   567 
   568    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
   569    arbitrary filter.
   570 
   571  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
   572    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   573    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
   574    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
   575    on a compact set.
   576 
   577  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   578    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   579    linear_continuum_topology).
   580 
   581  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   582    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
   583    on all sequences converging to x.
   584 
   585  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
   586    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
   587    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
   588    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
   589    left or right.
   590 
   591  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   592 
   593      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   594 
   595  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   596    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   597 
   598  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
   599    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
   600    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
   601    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
   602    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
   603    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
   604 
   605  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   606 
   607    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   608 
   609    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   610      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   611 
   612    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   613 
   614    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
   615      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
   616 
   617    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   618 
   619    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   620 
   621  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   622 
   623 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   624 
   625 * Nitpick:
   626   - Added option "spy"
   627   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors
   628 
   629 * Sledgehammer:
   630   - Renamed option:
   631       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   632     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   633   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy"
   634   - Better support for "isar_proofs"
   635   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server
   636 
   637 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   638 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   639 
   640 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   641   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   642   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
   643     generated code.
   644   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   645   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   646   - Fact renames:
   647     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   648     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
   649     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
   650 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   651 
   652 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
   653 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
   654 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
   655 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
   656 
   657 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
   658 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
   659 
   660 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   661 
   662 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   663 
   664     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   665     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   666 
   667 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   668 
   669 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
   670 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
   671 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
   672 
   673 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
   674 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
   675 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
   676 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   677 
   678 * HOL-BNF:
   679   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
   680     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
   681     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
   682     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
   683   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
   684     coinduct).
   685   - Renamed keywords:
   686     data ~> datatype_new
   687     codata ~> codatatype
   688     bnf_def ~> bnf
   689   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
   690     discs ~> disc
   691     map_comp' ~> map_comp
   692     map_id' ~> map_id
   693     sels ~> sel
   694     set_map' ~> set_map
   695     sets ~> set
   696 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   697 
   698 
   699 *** ML ***
   700 
   701 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
   702 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
   703 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
   704 Examples.thy in particular.
   705 
   706 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
   707 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
   708 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
   709 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
   710 
   711 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
   712 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
   713 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
   714 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
   715 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   716 
   717 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
   718 
   719     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
   720     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
   721 
   722 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   723 
   724 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
   725 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
   726 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
   727 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
   728 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
   729 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
   730 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
   731 
   732 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
   733 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
   734 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
   735 clasets separately from the context.
   736 
   737 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
   738 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
   739 
   740 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
   741 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
   742 
   743 
   744 *** System ***
   745 
   746 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
   747 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   748 
   749 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
   750 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   751 
   752 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
   753 settings variable.
   754 
   755 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
   756 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
   757 always pdf.
   758 
   759 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
   760 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
   761 
   762 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
   763 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
   764 
   765 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
   766 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
   767 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
   768 
   769 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
   770 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
   771 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
   772 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
   773 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   774 for HTML presentation of theories.
   775 
   776 
   777 
   778 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
   779 -----------------------------------
   780 
   781 *** General ***
   782 
   783 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
   784 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
   785 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
   786 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
   787 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
   788 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
   789 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
   790 
   791 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
   792 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
   793 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
   794 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
   795 
   796 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
   797 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
   798 
   799 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
   800 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
   801 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
   802 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
   803 dependencies properly.
   804 
   805 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
   806 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
   807 
   808 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
   809 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
   810 
   811 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
   812 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
   813 and "class ... context ...".
   814 
   815 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
   816 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
   817 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
   818 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
   819 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
   820 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
   821 
   822 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
   823 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
   824 
   825 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
   826 to name patterns (with clickable results).
   827 
   828 
   829 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   830 
   831 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
   832 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
   833 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
   834 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
   835 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
   836 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
   837 
   838 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
   839 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
   840 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
   841 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
   842 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
   843 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
   844 
   845 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
   846 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
   847 browser on demand.
   848 
   849 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
   850 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
   851 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
   852 that frequently occur in user interaction.
   853 
   854 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
   855 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
   856 
   857 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
   858 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
   859 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
   860 potentially infinite message streams.
   861 
   862 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
   863 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
   864 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
   865 schemes.
   866 
   867 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
   868 symbols.
   869 
   870 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
   871 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
   872 
   873 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
   874 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
   875 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
   876 
   877 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
   878 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
   879 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
   880 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
   881 
   882 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
   883 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
   884 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
   885 
   886 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
   887 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
   888 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
   889 Isabelle distribution.
   890 
   891 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
   892 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   893 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   894 
   895 
   896 *** Pure ***
   897 
   898 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   899 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   900 
   901 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
   902 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
   903 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   904 
   905 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   906 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   907 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   908 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   909 with some care where this is really required.
   910 
   911 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   912 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   913 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   914 
   915   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   916 
   917 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
   918 a Hasse diagram.
   919 
   920 
   921 *** HOL ***
   922 
   923 * Sledgehammer:
   924 
   925   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   926     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   927   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
   928   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   929   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
   930   - Renamed options:
   931       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   932       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   933       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   934       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   935 
   936 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
   937 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
   938 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   939 
   940 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
   941 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   942 
   943 * Lifting:
   944   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
   945   - quot_del attribute
   946   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
   947 
   948 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   949 expressions.
   950 
   951 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   952 pointfree expressions.
   953 
   954 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   955 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   956 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   957 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
   958 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   959 
   960 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   961 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   962 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   963 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   964 accordingly.
   965 
   966 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   967 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   968 
   969 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
   970 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   971 
   972 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   973 
   974 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   975 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   976 
   977 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   978 
   979 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
   980 
   981   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
   982   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
   983 
   984 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   985 
   986 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
   987 
   988   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   989   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   990 
   991 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   992 
   993 * Generalized the definition of limits:
   994 
   995   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
   996     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
   997     output f x converges to G.
   998 
   999   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  1000     infinity (at_bot).
  1001 
  1002   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  1003     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  1004 
  1005   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  1006     at_top".
  1007 
  1008 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1009 
  1010 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  1011 lattice type classes.
  1012 
  1013 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  1014 
  1015     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  1016     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  1017 
  1018 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1019 
  1020 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  1021 changes as follows.
  1022 
  1023   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  1024 
  1025       prefix ~> prefixeq
  1026       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  1027 
  1028   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  1029     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  1030     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  1031     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  1032 
  1033   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  1034     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  1035     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  1036 
  1037   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  1038     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  1039     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  1040     Library/Prefix_Order.
  1041 
  1042   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  1043     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  1044 
  1045       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  1046       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  1047       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  1048       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  1049       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  1050       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  1051       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  1052       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  1053       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  1054       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  1055       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  1056       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  1057       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  1058       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  1059       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  1060       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  1061 
  1062 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1063 
  1064 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  1065 
  1066 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  1067 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  1068 
  1069 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  1070 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  1071 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  1072 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  1073 
  1074   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  1075   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  1076   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  1077   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  1078   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  1079   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  1080   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  1081   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  1082   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  1083   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  1084 
  1085 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1086 
  1087 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  1088 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  1089 Data").
  1090 
  1091 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1092 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1093 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1094 code.
  1095 
  1096 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1097 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1098 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1099 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1100 
  1101 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1102 
  1103 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1104 
  1105 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1106 
  1107   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1108   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1109 
  1110 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1111 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1112 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1113 
  1114   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1115 
  1116     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1117     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1118     cart_base i  removed
  1119     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1120 
  1121   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1122 
  1123   Renamed lemmas:
  1124 
  1125     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1126     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1127     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1128     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1129     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1130     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1131     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1132     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1133     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1134     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1135 
  1136 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1137 
  1138 * HOL/Probability:
  1139 
  1140   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1141 
  1142   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1143     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1144     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1145 
  1146   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1147     projective family).
  1148 
  1149 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1150 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1151 
  1152 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1153 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1154 datatypes.
  1155 
  1156 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1157 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1158 
  1159 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1160 trees for the code generator.
  1161 
  1162 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1163 Lifting/Transfer.
  1164 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1165 
  1166 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1167 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1168 
  1169 
  1170 *** Document preparation ***
  1171 
  1172 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1173 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1174 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1175 
  1176 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1177 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1178 
  1179 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1180 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1181 document/root.tex.
  1182 
  1183 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1184 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1185 
  1186 
  1187 *** ML ***
  1188 
  1189 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1190 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1191 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1192 
  1193 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1194 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1195 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1196 
  1197 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1198 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1199 necessarily printing visible text.
  1200 
  1201 
  1202 *** System ***
  1203 
  1204 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1205 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1206 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1207 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1208 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1209 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1210 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1211 
  1212 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1213 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1214 
  1215   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1216 
  1217 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1218 
  1219 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1220 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1221 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1222 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1223 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1224 
  1225 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1226 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1227 
  1228 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1229 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1230 
  1231 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1232 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1233 
  1234 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1235 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1236 version of Isabelle.
  1237 
  1238 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1239 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1240 
  1241 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1242 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1243 for home-made settings.
  1244 
  1245 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1246 
  1247 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1248 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1249 configuration.
  1250 
  1251 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1252 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1253 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1254 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1255 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1256 
  1257 
  1258 
  1259 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1260 ------------------------------
  1261 
  1262 *** General ***
  1263 
  1264 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1265 
  1266   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1267     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1268   - markup for bound variables
  1269   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1270   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1271   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1272     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1273 
  1274 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1275 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1276 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1277 
  1278 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1279 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1280 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1281 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1282 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1283 
  1284   context
  1285     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1286     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1287   begin
  1288 
  1289   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1290 
  1291   end
  1292 
  1293   thm my_trans
  1294 
  1295 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1296 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1297 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1298 
  1299 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1300 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1301 
  1302 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1303 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1304 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1305 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1306 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1307 
  1308 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1309 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1310 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1311 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1312 indices of schematic variables.
  1313 
  1314 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1315 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1316 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1317 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1318 etc. was exploited.
  1319 
  1320 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1321 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1322 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1323 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1324 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1325 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1326 
  1327 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1328 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1329 manual.
  1330 
  1331 
  1332 *** Pure ***
  1333 
  1334 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1335 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1336 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1337 
  1338 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1339 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1340 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1341 undocumented feature.)
  1342 
  1343 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1344 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1345 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1346 
  1347   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1348 
  1349   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1350     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1351 
  1352 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1353 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1354 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1355 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1356 
  1357 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1358 
  1359     num ~> num_token
  1360     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1361     xstr ~> str_token
  1362 
  1363 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1364 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1365 position information via constraints).
  1366 
  1367 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1368 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1369 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1370 
  1371 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1372 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1373 
  1374 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1375 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1376 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1377 
  1378 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1379 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1380 
  1381 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1382 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1383 
  1384   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1385 
  1386 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1387 
  1388 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1389 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1390 
  1391 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1392 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1393 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1394 
  1395 
  1396 *** HOL ***
  1397 
  1398 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1399 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1400 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1401 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1402 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1403 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1404 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1405 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1406 possible.
  1407 
  1408 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1409 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1410 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1411 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1412 
  1413 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1414 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1415 
  1416 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1417 
  1418 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1419 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1420 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1421 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1422 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1423 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1424 
  1425   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1426     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1427 
  1428   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1429     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1430     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1431 
  1432   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1433     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1434 
  1435   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1436     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1437     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1438 
  1439   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1440     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1441 
  1442 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1443 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1444 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1445 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1446 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1447 
  1448   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1449     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1450     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1451     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1452     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1453 
  1454     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1455     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1456 
  1457   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1458     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1459     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1460     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1461     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1462     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1463     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1464     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1465 
  1466   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1467     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1468     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1469     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1470 
  1471   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1472     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1473     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1474     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1475 
  1476   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1477     from type nat to type int.
  1478 
  1479 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1480 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1481 
  1482   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1483     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1484     type.  Example syntax:
  1485 
  1486     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1487       is List.insert
  1488 
  1489     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1490     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1491     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1492     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1493     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1494     by the package.
  1495 
  1496   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1497     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1498     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1499     code generation for each constant.
  1500 
  1501   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1502     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1503     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1504     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1505     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1506 
  1507   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1508     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1509     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1510 
  1511 * Quotient package:
  1512 
  1513   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1514     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1515 
  1516   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1517     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1518 
  1519   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1520     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1521     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1522 
  1523   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1524     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1525 
  1526 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1527 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1528 
  1529 * Quickcheck:
  1530 
  1531   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1532     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1533     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1534     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1535     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1536 
  1537     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1538     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1539     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1540 
  1541     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1542     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1543 
  1544     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1545     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1546     show genuine counterexamples.
  1547 
  1548   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1549     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1550 
  1551     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1552     constructors of that type.
  1553 
  1554   - Support for multisets.
  1555 
  1556   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1557 
  1558   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1559     conjectures in a locale context.
  1560 
  1561 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1562 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1563 
  1564 * Sledgehammer:
  1565   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1566     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1567   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1568   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1569     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1570   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1571   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1572   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1573   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1574 
  1575 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1576 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1577 
  1578 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1579 
  1580 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1581 
  1582 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1583 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1584 
  1585   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1586 
  1587 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1588 a list and a nat.
  1589 
  1590 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1591 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1592 
  1593 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1594 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1595 default.
  1596 
  1597 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1598 
  1599   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1600 
  1601 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1602 
  1603 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1604 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1605 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1606 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1607 one_case.
  1608 
  1609 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1610 the result of the fact expression.
  1611 
  1612 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1613 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1614 of some relation theorems:
  1615 
  1616   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1617   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1618   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1619   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1620   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1621   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1622 
  1623 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1624 
  1625 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1626 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1627 
  1628 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1629 
  1630 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1631 to match the constant's name:
  1632 
  1633   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1634   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1635   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1636   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1637   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1638   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1639   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1640   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1641   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1642   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1643   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1644   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1645   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1646   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1647   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1648   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1649   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1650   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1651   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1652   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1653   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1654   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1655   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1656   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1657 
  1658 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1659 
  1660 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1661 and corresponding theorem names:
  1662 
  1663   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1664 
  1665   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1666 
  1667   - Renamed theorems:
  1668 
  1669     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1670     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1671     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1672     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1673     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1674     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1675     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1676     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1677     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1678     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1679     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1680     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1681     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1682     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1683     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1684     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1685     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1686     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1687     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1688     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1689     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1690     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1691     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1692 
  1693     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1694 
  1695     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1696 
  1697 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1698 
  1699 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1700 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1701 
  1702   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1703   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1704   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1705   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1706   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1707   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1708   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1709   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1710   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1711   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1712   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1713   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1714   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1715   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1716   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1717   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1718   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1719   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1720   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1721   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1722   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1723 
  1724 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1725 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1726 
  1727 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1728 
  1729 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1730 
  1731   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1732   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1733   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1734   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1735   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1736   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1737   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1738   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1739   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1740   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1741   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1742   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1743   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1744   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1745   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1746   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1747   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1748   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1749 
  1750 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1751 
  1752 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1753 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1754 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1755 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1756 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1757 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1758 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1759 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1760 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1761 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1762 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1763 
  1764 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1765 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1766 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1767 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1768 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1769 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1770 
  1771 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1772 through option types.
  1773 
  1774 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1775 relations.
  1776 
  1777 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1778 
  1779 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1780 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1781 
  1782   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1783   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1784   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1785   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1786   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1787   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1788   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1789   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1790   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1791   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1792   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1793   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1794   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1795   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1796   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1797   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1798   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1799   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1800   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1801   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1802   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1803   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1804   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1805   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1806   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1807   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1808   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1809   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1810   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1811   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1812   zless_le ~> less_le
  1813   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1814   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1815   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1816 
  1817 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1818 
  1819   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1820 
  1821 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1822 
  1823 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1824 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1825 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1826 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1827 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1828 
  1829 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1830 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1831 
  1832 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1833 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1834 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1835 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1836 follows:
  1837 
  1838   Operations:
  1839   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1840   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1841   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1842   del -> rbt_del
  1843   delete -> rbt_delete
  1844   ins -> rbt_ins
  1845   insert -> rbt_insert
  1846   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1847   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1848   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1849   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1850   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1851   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1852   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1853   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1854   union -> rbt_union
  1855   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1856   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1857 
  1858   Lemmas:
  1859   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1860   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1861   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1862   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1863   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1864   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1865   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1866   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1867   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1868   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1869   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1870   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1871   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1872   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1873   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1874   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1875   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1876   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1877   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1878   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1879   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1880   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1881   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1882   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1883   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1884   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1885   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1886   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1887   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1888   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1889   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1890   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1891   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1892   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1893   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1894   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1895   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1896   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1897   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1898   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1899   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1900   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1901   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1902   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1903   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1904   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1905   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1906   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1907   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1908   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1909   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1910   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1911   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1912   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1913   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1914   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1915   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1916   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1917   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1918   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1919   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1920   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1921   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1922   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1923   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1924   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1925   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1926   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1927   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1928   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1929   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1930   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1931   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1932   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1933   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1934   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1935   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1936   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1937   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1938   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1939   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1940   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1941   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1942 
  1943 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1944 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1945 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1946 
  1947   Changed Operations:
  1948   float_abs -> abs
  1949   float_nprt -> nprt
  1950   float_pprt -> pprt
  1951   pow2 -> use powr
  1952   round_down -> float_round_down
  1953   round_up -> float_round_up
  1954   scale -> exponent
  1955 
  1956   Removed Operations:
  1957   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1958 
  1959   Renamed Lemmas:
  1960   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1961   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1962   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1963   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1964   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1965   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1966   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1967   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1968   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1969   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1970   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1971   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1972   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1973   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1974   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1975   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1976   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1977   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1978   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1979   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1980   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1981   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1982   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1983   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1984   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1985   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1986   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1987   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1988   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1989   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1990   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1991   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1992   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1993   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1994   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1995   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1996 
  1997   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1998   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1999   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  2000   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  2001   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  2002   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  2003   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  2004   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  2005   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  2006   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  2007 
  2008 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  2009 association lists with distinct keys.
  2010 
  2011 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  2012 annotated commands.
  2013 
  2014 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  2015 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  2016 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  2017 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2018 
  2019 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  2020 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  2021 instead.
  2022 
  2023   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  2024   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  2025   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  2026   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  2027   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  2028   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  2029   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  2030   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2031   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2032   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2033   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  2034   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2035   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2036   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2037   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2038   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  2039   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2040   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  2041   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  2042   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  2043   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  2044   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  2045   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  2046   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  2047   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2048   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  2049   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  2050   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  2051   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  2052   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2053   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2054   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2055   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  2056   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  2057   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  2058   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  2059   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  2060   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  2061   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  2062   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  2063   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  2064 
  2065 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  2066 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  2067 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  2068 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  2069 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  2070 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  2071 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  2072 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  2073 
  2074 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  2075 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  2076 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  2077 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  2078 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  2079 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  2080 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  2081 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  2082 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  2083 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  2084 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  2085 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2086 
  2087   Renamed constants:
  2088   measure -> emeasure
  2089   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  2090   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  2091   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2092   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2093 
  2094   Removed locales:
  2095   completeable_measure_space
  2096   finite_measure_space
  2097   finite_prob_space
  2098   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2099   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2100   finite_sigma_algebra
  2101   measure_space
  2102   pair_finite_prob_space
  2103   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2104   pair_finite_space
  2105   pair_sigma_algebra
  2106   product_sigma_algebra
  2107 
  2108   Removed constants:
  2109   conditional_space
  2110   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2111   image_space
  2112   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2113   pair_measure_generator
  2114   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2115   subvimage
  2116 
  2117   Replacement theorems:
  2118   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2119   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2120   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2121   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2122   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2123   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2124   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2125   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2126   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2127   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2128   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2129   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2130   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2131   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2132   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2133   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2134   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2135   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2136   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2137   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2138   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2139   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2140   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2141   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2142   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2143   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2144   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2145   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2146   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2147   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2148   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2149   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2150   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2151   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2152   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2153   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2154   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2155   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2156   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2157   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2158   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2159   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2160   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2161   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2162   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2163   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2164   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2165   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2166   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2167   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2168   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2169   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2170   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2171   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2172   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2173   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2174   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2175   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2176   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2177   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2178   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2179   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2180   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2181   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2182   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2183   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2184   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2185   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2186   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2187   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2188   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2189   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2190   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2191   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2192   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2193   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2194   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2195   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2196   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2197   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2198   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2199   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2200   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2201   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2202   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2203   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2204   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2205   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2206   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2207   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2208   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2209   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2210   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2211   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2212   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2213   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2214   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2215   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2216   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2217   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2218   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2219   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2220   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2221   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2222   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2223   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2224   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2225   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2226   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2227   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2228   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2229   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2230   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2231   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2232   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2233   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2234   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2235   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2236   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2237   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2238   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2239   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2240   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2241   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2242   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2243   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2244   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2245   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2246 
  2247 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2248 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2249 
  2250 
  2251 *** FOL ***
  2252 
  2253 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2254 
  2255 
  2256 *** ZF ***
  2257 
  2258 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2259 analysis.
  2260 
  2261 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2262 
  2263 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2264 
  2265 
  2266 *** ML ***
  2267 
  2268 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2269 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2270 
  2271 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2272 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2273 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2274 
  2275 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2276 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2277 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2278 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2279 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2280 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2281 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2282 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2283 
  2284 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2285 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2286 
  2287 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2288 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2289 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2290 
  2291 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2292 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2293 
  2294 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2295 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2296 context as well.
  2297 
  2298 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2299 
  2300   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2301   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2302   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2303   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2304   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2305   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2306   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2307   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2308   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2309   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2310   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2311   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2312 
  2313 
  2314 *** System ***
  2315 
  2316 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2317 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2318 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2319 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2320 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2321 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2322 the generic user home was intended.
  2323 
  2324 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2325 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2326 
  2327 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2328 (not just JRE).
  2329 
  2330 
  2331 
  2332 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2333 ------------------------------------
  2334 
  2335 *** General ***
  2336 
  2337 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2338 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2339 
  2340   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2341     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2342     files for checking).
  2343 
  2344   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2345     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2346     positions.
  2347 
  2348   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2349     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2350     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2351 
  2352   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2353     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2354     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2355 
  2356   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2357     cores.
  2358 
  2359   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2360     versions (garbage collection).
  2361 
  2362 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2363 including some remaining limitations.
  2364 
  2365 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2366 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2367 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2368 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2369 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2370 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2371 
  2372 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2373 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2374 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2375 
  2376 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2377 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2378 usedir option -Q.
  2379 
  2380 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2381 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2382 
  2383   long_names   ~> names_long
  2384   short_names  ~> names_short
  2385   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2386 
  2387 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2388 
  2389   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2390 
  2391 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2392 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2393 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2394 
  2395 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2396 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2397 
  2398 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2399   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2400   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2401   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2402     "Classical Reasoner".
  2403 
  2404 
  2405 *** HOL ***
  2406 
  2407 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2408 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2409 
  2410 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2411 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2412 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2413 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2414 class complete_linorder.
  2415 
  2416 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2417 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2418 
  2419 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2420 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2421 
  2422   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2423   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2424   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2425   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2426   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2427   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2428   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2429   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2430   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2431   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2432   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2433 
  2434 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2435 
  2436   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2437   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2438   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2439   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2440   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2441   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2442   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2443   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2444   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2445   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2446   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2447   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2448   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2449   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2450   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2451   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2452 
  2453 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2454 
  2455 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2456 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2457 
  2458 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2459 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2460 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2461 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2462 
  2463 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2464 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2465 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2466 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2467 
  2468 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2469 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2470 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2471 
  2472 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2473 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2474 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2475 
  2476 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2477 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2478 
  2479 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2480 
  2481     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2482     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2483 
  2484 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2485 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2486 
  2487 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2488 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2489 
  2490 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2491 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2492 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2493 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2494 
  2495   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2496   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2497   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2498   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2499   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2500   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2501   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2502 
  2503 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2504 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2505 
  2506   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2507   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2508   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2509   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2510   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2511   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2512   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2513   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2514   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2515   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2516   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2517   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2518   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2519   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2520   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2521   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2522   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2523   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2524   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2525   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2526   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2527   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2528   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2529   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2530   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2531   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2532   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2533   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2534   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2535   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2536   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2537   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2538   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2539   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2540   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2541   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2542   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2543   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2544   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2545   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2546   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2547   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2548   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2549   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2550   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2551   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2552   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2553   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2554   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2555   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2556   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2557   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2558   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2559   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2560   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2561   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2562   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2563   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2564   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2565   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2566   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2567   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2568   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2569   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2570   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2571   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2572   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2573   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2574   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2575   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2576   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2577   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2578   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2579   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2580   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2581   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2582   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2583   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2584   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2585   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2586   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2587   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2588 
  2589 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2590 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2591 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2592 
  2593 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2594 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2595 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2596 
  2597 * Code generation:
  2598 
  2599   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2600     characters in the target language.
  2601 
  2602   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2603     instead.
  2604 
  2605   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2606 
  2607   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2608     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2609 
  2610       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2611 
  2612 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2613 
  2614 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2615 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2616 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2617 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2618 syntax.
  2619 
  2620 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2621 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2622 
  2623 * Nitpick:
  2624   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2625   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2626   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2627     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2628 
  2629 * Sledgehammer:
  2630   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2631   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2632     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2633   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2634     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2635   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2636     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2637   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2638     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2639   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2640     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2641 
  2642 * Metis:
  2643   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2644   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2645     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2646 
  2647 * Command 'try':
  2648   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2649     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2650   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2651     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2652 
  2653 * Quickcheck:
  2654   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2655     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2656   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2657     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2658   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2659     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2660     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2661     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2662   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2663     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2664 
  2665 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2666 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2667 
  2668 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2669 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2670 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2671 
  2672 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2673 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2674 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2675 
  2676 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2677 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2678 
  2679 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2680 arithmetic.
  2681 
  2682 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2683 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2684 and lattice type classes.
  2685 
  2686 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2687 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2688 
  2689 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2690 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2691 
  2692 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2693 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2694 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2695 
  2696   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2697   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2698   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2699   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2700 
  2701 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2702 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2703 constants:
  2704 
  2705   type inat   ~> type enat
  2706   Fin         ~> enat
  2707   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2708   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2709   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2710 
  2711 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2712 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2713 
  2714 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2715 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2716 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2717 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2718 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2719 
  2720 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2721 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2722 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2723 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2724 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2725 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2726 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2727 
  2728   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2729   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2730   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2731   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2732 
  2733 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2734 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2735 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2736 
  2737   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2738   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2739   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2740   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2741   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2742   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2743   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2744   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2745   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2746   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2747   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2748   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2749   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2750   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2751   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2752   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2753   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2754   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2755   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2756   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2757   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2758   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2759   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2760   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2761   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2762   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2763   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2764   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2765   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2766   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2767   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2768   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2769   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2770   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2771   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2772   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2773   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2774   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2775   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2776   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2777   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2778   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2779   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2780   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2781   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2782   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2783   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2784   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2785   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2786   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2787   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2788 
  2789 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2790   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2791   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2792   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2793   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2794     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2795 
  2796 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2797 
  2798   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2799   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2800   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2801   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2802   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2803   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2804   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2805   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2806   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2807   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2808   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2809   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2810   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2811   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2812   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2813   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2814   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2815   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2816   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2817   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2818   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2819   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2820   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2821   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2822   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2823 
  2824 
  2825 *** Document preparation ***
  2826 
  2827 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2828 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2829 same.
  2830 
  2831 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2832 result.
  2833 
  2834 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2835 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2836 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2837 
  2838 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2839 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2840 
  2841 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2842 like this:
  2843 
  2844   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2845   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2846 
  2847 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2848 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2849 layouts.
  2850 
  2851 
  2852 *** ML ***
  2853 
  2854 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2855 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2856 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2857 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2858 under external program control.
  2859 
  2860 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2861 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2862 
  2863 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2864 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2865 (better known as Proof General).
  2866 
  2867 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2868 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2869 
  2870 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2871 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2872 
  2873 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2874 (including quotes etc.).
  2875 
  2876 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2877 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2878 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2879 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2880 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2881 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2882 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2883 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2884 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2885 
  2886 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2887 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2888 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2889 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2890 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2891 
  2892 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2893 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2894 
  2895 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2896 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2897 
  2898 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2899 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2900 
  2901 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2902 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2903 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2904 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2905 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2906 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2907 proper Proof.context.
  2908 
  2909 
  2910 *** System ***
  2911 
  2912 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2913 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2914 
  2915 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2916 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2917 
  2918 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2919 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2920 
  2921   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2922   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2923   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2924   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2925   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2926 
  2927 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2928 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2929 
  2930 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2931 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2932 example:
  2933 
  2934   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2935 
  2936 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2937 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2938 
  2939 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2940 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2941 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2942 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2943 
  2944 
  2945 
  2946 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2947 ----------------------------------
  2948 
  2949 *** General ***
  2950 
  2951 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2952 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2953 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2954 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2955 like this:
  2956 
  2957   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2958 
  2959 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2960 
  2961 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2962 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2963 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2964 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2965 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2966 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2967 
  2968 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2969 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2970 the following package declarations:
  2971 
  2972   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2973   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2974 
  2975 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2976 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2977 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2978 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2979 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2980 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2981 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2982 
  2983 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2984 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2985 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2986 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2987 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2988 
  2989 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2990 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2991 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2992 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2993 
  2994 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2995 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2996 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2997 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2998 
  2999   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  3000 
  3001   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  3002   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  3003   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  3004   show_types                    show_types
  3005   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  3006   show_consts                   show_consts
  3007   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  3008 
  3009   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  3010   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  3011   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  3012 
  3013   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  3014   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  3015 
  3016   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  3017 
  3018   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  3019   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  3020   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  3021   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  3022   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  3023 
  3024 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  3025 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  3026 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  3027 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  3028 
  3029 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  3030 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3031 
  3032   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  3033   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  3034 
  3035 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  3036 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  3037 float_token.
  3038 
  3039 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  3040 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  3041 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3042 
  3043 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  3044 DejaVu Sans.
  3045 
  3046 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  3047 
  3048 
  3049 *** Pure ***
  3050 
  3051 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  3052 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  3053 time.
  3054 
  3055 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  3056 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3057 
  3058 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  3059 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3060 
  3061 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  3062 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  3063 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  3064 command already provided this functionality.
  3065 
  3066 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  3067 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  3068 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  3069 without interpretations.
  3070 
  3071 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  3072 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  3073 
  3074 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  3075 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  3076 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  3077 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  3078 
  3079 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3080 'definition' instead.
  3081 
  3082 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  3083 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  3084 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  3085 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  3086 
  3087 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  3088 constructors.
  3089 
  3090 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  3091 the local file system.
  3092 
  3093 
  3094 *** HOL ***
  3095 
  3096 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3097 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3098 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3099 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3100 
  3101   declare [[coercion f]]
  3102 
  3103 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3104 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3105 
  3106   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3107 
  3108 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3109 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3110 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3111 other theories like this:
  3112 
  3113   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3114 
  3115 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3116 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3117 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3118 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3119 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3120 for examples.
  3121 
  3122 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3123 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3124 
  3125 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3126 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3127 
  3128 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3129 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3130 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3131 
  3132 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3133 functorial structure of types.
  3134 
  3135 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3136 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3137 
  3138 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3139 languages.
  3140 
  3141 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3142 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3143 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3144 
  3145 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3146 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3147 
  3148 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3149 combinators any longer.
  3150 
  3151 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3152 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3153 
  3154 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3155 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3156 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3157 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3158 
  3159   record 'a foo = ...
  3160   ...
  3161   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3162 
  3163 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3164 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3165 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3166 
  3167 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3168 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3169 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3170 
  3171 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3172 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3173 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3174 
  3175 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3176 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3177 
  3178 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3179 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3180 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3181 independently.
  3182 
  3183 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3184 counter example search.
  3185 
  3186 * Sledgehammer:
  3187   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3188     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3189     sledgehammer").
  3190   - Renamed commands:
  3191     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3192     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3193     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3194     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3195   - Renamed options:
  3196     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3197     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3198     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3199     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3200     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3201 
  3202 * Nitpick:
  3203   - Renamed options:
  3204     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3205     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3206     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3207   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3208   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3209   - Added "whack" option.
  3210   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3211   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3212   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3213   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3214     higher cardinalities.
  3215   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3216 
  3217 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3218 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3219 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3220 
  3221     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3222 
  3223 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3224 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3225 
  3226 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3227 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3228 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3229 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3230 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3231 "smt_solver".
  3232 
  3233 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3234 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3235 
  3236 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3237 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3238 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3239 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3240 
  3241 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3242   - Renamed:
  3243     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3244     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3245     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3246   - Added:
  3247     smt_verbose
  3248     smt_random_seed
  3249     smt_datatypes
  3250     smt_infer_triggers
  3251     smt_monomorph_limit
  3252     cvc3_options
  3253     remote_cvc3_options
  3254     remote_z3_options
  3255     yices_options
  3256 
  3257 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3258 header.
  3259 
  3260 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3261 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3262 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3263 
  3264   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3265 
  3266 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3267 
  3268 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3269 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3270 
  3271 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3272 
  3273 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3274 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3275 
  3276 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3277 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3278 
  3279 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3280 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3281 
  3282 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3283 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3284 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3285 
  3286 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3287 
  3288 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3289 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3290 
  3291 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3292 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3293 
  3294 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3295 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3296 for congruent(2)).
  3297 
  3298 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3299 
  3300   types
  3301     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3302     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3303 
  3304   constants
  3305     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3306     True ~> HOL.True
  3307     False ~> HOL.False
  3308     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3309     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3310     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3311     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3312     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3313     The ~> HOL.The
  3314     All ~> HOL.All
  3315     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3316     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3317     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3318     If ~> HOL.If
  3319     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3320     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3321     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3322     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3323     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3324     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3325     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3326     op : ~> Set.member
  3327     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3328 
  3329 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3330 
  3331 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3332 
  3333     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3334     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3335     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3336     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3337     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3338     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3339     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3340     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3341 
  3342 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3343 
  3344 * More stylized fact names:
  3345 
  3346   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3347   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3348   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3349   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3350 
  3351 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3352 
  3353 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3354 
  3355   constants
  3356     null ~> List.null
  3357 
  3358   facts
  3359     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3360     null_empty ~> null_def
  3361 
  3362 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3363 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3364 generation.
  3365 
  3366 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3367 Haskell code.
  3368 
  3369 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3370 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3371 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3372 
  3373 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3374 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3375 
  3376 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3377 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3378 
  3379 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3380 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3381 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3382 
  3383 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3384 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3385 
  3386 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3387 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3388 
  3389 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3390 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3391 referred to by its qualified name.
  3392 
  3393   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3394   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3395   product ~>  Enum.product
  3396 
  3397 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3398 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3399 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3400 
  3401 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3402 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3403 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3404 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3405 
  3406 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3407 sort_key.
  3408 
  3409 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3410 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3411 
  3412 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3413 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3414 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3415 
  3416   types
  3417     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3418               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3419               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3420         (depends on your needs)
  3421 
  3422   constants
  3423      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3424      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3425      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3426 
  3427 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3428 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3429 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3430 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3431 
  3432 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3433 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3434 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3435 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3436 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3437 
  3438 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3439 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3440 
  3441 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3442 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3443 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3444 
  3445 
  3446 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3447 
  3448 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3449 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3450 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3451 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3452 compatibility.
  3453 
  3454 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3455 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3456 
  3457 
  3458 *** HOLCF ***
  3459 
  3460 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3461 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3462 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3463 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3464 
  3465 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3466 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3467 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3468 
  3469   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3470   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3471   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3472 
  3473 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3474 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3475 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3476 
  3477 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3478 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3479 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3480 domain definition now works:
  3481 
  3482   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3483 
  3484 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3485 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3486 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3487 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3488 
  3489   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3490     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3491 
  3492   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3493 
  3494 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3495 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3496 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3497 
  3498 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3499 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3500 
  3501 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3502 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3503 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3504 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3505 
  3506 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3507 
  3508 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3509 
  3510 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3511 
  3512 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3513 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3514 
  3515 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3516 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3517 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3518 
  3519 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3520 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3521 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3522 
  3523 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3524 still supported as an input translation.
  3525 
  3526 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3527 
  3528   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3529   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3530   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3531   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3532   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3533   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3534   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3535 
  3536 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3537 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3538 
  3539   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3540   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3541   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3542   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3543   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3544   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3545 
  3546 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3547 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3548 
  3549 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3550 
  3551   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3552   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3553   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3554   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3555 
  3556 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3557 
  3558 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3559 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3560 
  3561 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3562 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3563 
  3564   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3565   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3566   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3567   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3568   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3569   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3570   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3571   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3572   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3573   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3574   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3575   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3576   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3577   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3578   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3579   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3580   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3581   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3582   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3583   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3584 
  3585 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3586 
  3587   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3588   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3589   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3590   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3591   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3592   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3593   box_less             ~> box_below
  3594   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3595   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3596   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3597   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3598   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3599   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3600   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3601   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3602   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3603   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3604   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3605   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3606   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3607   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3608   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3609   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3610   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3611   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3612   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3613   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3614   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3615   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3616   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3617   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3618   up_less              ~> up_below
  3619   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3620   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3621   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3622   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3623   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3624   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3625   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3626   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3627   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3628   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3629   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3630   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3631   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3632 
  3633 
  3634 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3635 
  3636 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3637 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3638 
  3639 
  3640 *** ML ***
  3641 
  3642 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3643 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3644 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3645 
  3646 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3647 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3648 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3649 
  3650 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3651 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3652 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3653 
  3654 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3655 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3656 
  3657 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3658 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3659 
  3660 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3661 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3662 
  3663 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3664 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3665 
  3666 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3667 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3668 almost all situations.
  3669 
  3670 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3671 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3672 Isabelle/ML.
  3673 
  3674 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3675 meaning.
  3676 
  3677 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3678 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3679 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3680 
  3681 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3682 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3683 
  3684 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3685 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3686 
  3687 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3688 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3689 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3690 
  3691 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3692 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3693 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3694 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3695 configuration options.
  3696 
  3697 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3698 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3699 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3700 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3701 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3702 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3703 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3704 
  3705 
  3706 
  3707 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3708 ---------------------------------
  3709 
  3710 *** General ***
  3711 
  3712 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3713 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3714 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3715 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3716 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3717 their full internal name.
  3718 
  3719 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3720 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3721 Some hints on upgrading:
  3722 
  3723   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3724     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3725     which are independent of this issue.
  3726 
  3727   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3728     provides the following special forms:
  3729 
  3730       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3731       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3732       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3733 
  3734     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3735     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3736     extra variables".
  3737 
  3738     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3739     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3740     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3741     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3742     "logic".
  3743 
  3744   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3745     antiquotations:
  3746 
  3747       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3748       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3749       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3750       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3751 
  3752   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3753     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3754     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3755     antiquotations.
  3756 
  3757 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3758 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3759 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3760 diagnose syntax problems.
  3761 
  3762 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3763 
  3764 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3765 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3766 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3767 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3768 
  3769 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3770 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3771 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3772 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3773 
  3774 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3775 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3776 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3777 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3778 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3779 
  3780 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3781 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3782 
  3783 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3784 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3785 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3786 
  3787   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3788 
  3789 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3790 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3791 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3792 
  3793 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3794 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3795 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3796 
  3797 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3798 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3799 
  3800 
  3801 *** Pure ***
  3802 
  3803 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3804 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3805 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3806 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3807 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3808 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3809 inspect proof terms.
  3810 
  3811 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3812 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3813 are added internally.  For example:
  3814 
  3815   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3816 
  3817 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3818 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3819 
  3820 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3821 
  3822 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3823 'class' instead.
  3824 
  3825 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3826 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3827 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3828 
  3829 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3830 invariants.
  3831 
  3832 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3833 user space functionality any longer.
  3834 
  3835 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3836 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3837 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3838 
  3839 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3840 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3841 
  3842 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3843 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3844 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3845 
  3846 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3847 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3848 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3849 
  3850 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3851 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3852 
  3853 
  3854 *** HOL ***
  3855 
  3856 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3857 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3858 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3859 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3860 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3861 
  3862 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3863 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3864 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3865 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3866 
  3867   fun
  3868     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3869   where
  3870     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3871 
  3872   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3873     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3874 
  3875   quotient_definition
  3876     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3877 
  3878 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3879 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3880 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3881 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3882 
  3883 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3884 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3885 
  3886 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3887 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3888 
  3889 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3890 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3891 
  3892 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3893 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3894 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3895 
  3896 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3897 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3898 
  3899 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3900 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3901 
  3902 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3903 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3904 
  3905 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3906 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3907 
  3908 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3909 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3910 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3911 
  3912   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3913   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3914   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3915   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3916   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3917   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3918   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3919   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3920   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3921   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3922   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3923   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3924   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3925   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3926   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3927   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3928   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3929   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3930   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3931   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3932   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3933   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3934   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3935   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3936   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3937   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3938   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3939   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3940   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3941   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3942 
  3943 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3944 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3945 
  3946 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3947 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3948 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3949 
  3950 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3951 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3952 
  3953 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3954 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3955 
  3956 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3957 
  3958 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3959 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3960 
  3961 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3962 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3963 
  3964 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3965 
  3966 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3967 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3968 
  3969 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3970 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3971 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3972 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3973 
  3974 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3975   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3976   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3977   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3978 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3979 
  3980 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3981 lattices):
  3982 
  3983     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3984     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3985 
  3986     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3987 
  3988     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3989     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3990     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3991     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3992     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3993     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3994     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3995     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3996     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3997     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3998     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3999     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  4000     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  4001 
  4002     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  4003     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4004     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4005     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  4006     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  4007     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  4008     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  4009     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  4010     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  4011     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  4012     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  4013     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  4014     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  4015     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  4016     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  4017     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  4018     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  4019     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  4020 
  4021   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  4022   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  4023 
  4024     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  4025     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  4026     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  4027     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  4028     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  4029 
  4030 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4031 
  4032 * Refined field classes:
  4033   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  4034     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  4035     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  4036   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  4037 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4038 
  4039 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  4040   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  4041   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  4042   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  4043     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  4044   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  4045     equal_neg_zero.
  4046 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4047 
  4048 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  4049 sets to lattices:
  4050 
  4051   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  4052   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  4053   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  4054   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  4055   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  4056   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  4057   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  4058   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  4059   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  4060   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  4061 
  4062 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  4063 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  4064 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  4065 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  4066 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  4067 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4068 
  4069 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  4070 multiset order:
  4071 
  4072   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  4073     <= and <;
  4074   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  4075     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  4076     multiset_order;
  4077   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  4078     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  4079     generation;
  4080   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  4081     if needed.
  4082 
  4083 Renamed:
  4084 
  4085   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  4086   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  4087   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  4088 
  4089 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4090 
  4091 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4092 
  4093 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4094 
  4095 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4096 
  4097 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4098 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4099 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4100 
  4101   Constants:
  4102   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4103   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4104   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4105   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4106   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4107   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4108   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4109   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4110   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4111   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4112   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4113   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4114   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4115 
  4116   Lemmas:
  4117   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4118   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4119   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4120   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4121   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4122   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4123   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4124   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4125   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4126   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4127   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4128   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4129   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4130 
  4131 * Sledgehammer:
  4132   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4133     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4134     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4135     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4136     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4137     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4138     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4139   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4140   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4141     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4142   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4143     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4144     is still experimental.)
  4145   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4146     full-typed mode.
  4147   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4148 
  4149 * Nitpick:
  4150   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4151   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4152   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4153     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4154   - Added support for quotient types.
  4155   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4156     constructs.
  4157   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4158     "termination" proofs).
  4159   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4160   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4161   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4162   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4163     record getters.
  4164   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4165   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4166   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4167   - Added "atoms" option.
  4168   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4169     problems.
  4170   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4171     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4172     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4173   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4174     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4175   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4176 
  4177 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4178   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4179   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4180   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4181   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4182   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4183   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4184   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4185   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4186   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4187 
  4188 
  4189 *** HOLCF ***
  4190 
  4191 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4192 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4193 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4194 
  4195 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4196 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4197 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4198 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4199 
  4200 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4201 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4202 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4203 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4204 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4205 
  4206 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4207 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4208 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4209 
  4210 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4211 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4212 
  4213   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4214   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4215 
  4216 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4217 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4218 
  4219   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4220   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4221   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4222   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4223   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4224 
  4225 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4226 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4227 
  4228   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4229   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4230   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4231 
  4232 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4233 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4234 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4235 
  4236 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4237 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4238 
  4239 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4240 
  4241 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4242 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4243 
  4244 
  4245 *** ML ***
  4246 
  4247 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4248 
  4249     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4250     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4251 
  4252     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4253     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4254     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4255     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4256 
  4257     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4258     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4259     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4260 
  4261 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4262 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4263 
  4264 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4265 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4266 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4267 
  4268 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4269 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4270 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4271 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4272 
  4273 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4274 the context or even global references.
  4275 
  4276 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4277 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4278 
  4279 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4280 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4281 
  4282   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4283   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4284   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4285   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4286   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4287   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4288   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4289   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4290   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4291   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4292 
  4293 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4294 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4295 
  4296 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4297 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4298 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4299 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4300 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4301 
  4302 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4303 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4304 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4305 Theory_Data version.
  4306 
  4307 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4308 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4309 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4310 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4311 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4312 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4313 explicitly in rare situations.
  4314 
  4315 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4316 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4317 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4318 
  4319 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4320 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4321 
  4322 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4323 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4324 quite rare).
  4325 
  4326 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4327 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4328 
  4329 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4330 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4331 terms.
  4332 
  4333 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4334 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4335 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4336 
  4337 
  4338 *** System ***
  4339 
  4340 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4341 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4342 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4343 
  4344 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4345 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4346 respectively.
  4347 
  4348 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4349 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4350 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4351 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4352 
  4353   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4354 
  4355 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4356 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4357 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4358 component.
  4359 
  4360 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4361 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4362 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4363 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4364 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4365 the user for manual installation.
  4366 
  4367 
  4368 
  4369 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4370 -------------------------------------
  4371 
  4372 *** General ***
  4373 
  4374 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4375 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4376 
  4377 
  4378 *** Pure ***
  4379 
  4380 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4381 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4382 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4383 
  4384 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4385 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4386 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4387 
  4388 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4389 interpretation.
  4390 
  4391 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4392 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4393 
  4394 
  4395 *** Document preparation ***
  4396 
  4397 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4398 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4399 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4400 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4401 
  4402 
  4403 *** HOL ***
  4404 
  4405 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4406 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4407 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4408 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4409 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4410 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4411 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4412 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4413 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4414 
  4415 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4416 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4417 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4418 
  4419 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4420 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4421 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4422 
  4423 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4424 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4425 
  4426 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4427 
  4428 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4429 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4430 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4431 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4432 
  4433 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4434 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4435 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4436 "mirabelle" utility.
  4437 
  4438 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4439 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4440 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4441 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4442 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4443 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4444 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4445 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4446 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4447 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4448 
  4449 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4450 procedure only.
  4451 
  4452 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4453 
  4454 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4455 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4456 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4457 that fail later.
  4458 
  4459 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4460 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4461 
  4462 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4463 the same method as the approximation method.
  4464 
  4465 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4466 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4467 series expansion.
  4468 
  4469 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4470 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4471 
  4472 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4473 reals.
  4474 
  4475 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4476 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4477 
  4478 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4479 fixpoint theorem.
  4480 
  4481 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4482   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4483     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4484   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4485     accordingly
  4486   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4487     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4488   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4489     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4490 
  4491 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4492 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4493 lattice.
  4494 
  4495 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4496 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4497 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4498 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4499 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4500 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4501 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4502 
  4503 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4504   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4505     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4506   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4507     le_inf_iff
  4508   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4509     sup_aci)
  4510   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4511   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4512   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4513     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4514     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4515     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4516     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4517     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4518     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4519     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4520     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4521     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4522     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4523   - authentic syntax for
  4524     Set.Pow
  4525     Set.image
  4526   - mere abbreviations:
  4527     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4528     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4529     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4530     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4531     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4532     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4533     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4534     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4535   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4536 
  4537 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4538 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4539 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4540 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4541 
  4542 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4543 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4544 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4545 
  4546 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4547 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4548 
  4549 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4550 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4551 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4552 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4553 
  4554 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4555 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4556 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4557 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4558 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4559 
  4560 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4561 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4562 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4563 
  4564 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4565 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4566 
  4567 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4568 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4569 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4570 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4571 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4572 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4573 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4574 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4575 
  4576 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4577     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4578     code_post       replaces    code post
  4579     etc.
  4580   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4581 
  4582 * Renamed methods:
  4583     sizechange -> size_change
  4584     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4585   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4586 
  4587 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4588 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4589 
  4590 * Renamed theorems:
  4591     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4592     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4593     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4594     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4595     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4596   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4597 
  4598 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4599 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4600 
  4601 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4602 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4603 
  4604 
  4605 *** HOLCF ***
  4606 
  4607 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4608 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4609 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4610 
  4611 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4612 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4613 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4614 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4615 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4616 
  4617 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4618 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4619 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4620 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4621 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4622 
  4623 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4624 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4625 constructor are pre-configured.
  4626 
  4627 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4628 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4629 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4630 
  4631 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4632 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4633 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4634 as well.)
  4635 
  4636 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4637 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4638 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4639 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4640 examples.
  4641 
  4642 
  4643 *** ML ***
  4644 
  4645 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4646 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4647 
  4648 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4649 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4650 position, logical grouping etc.
  4651 
  4652 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4653 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4654 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4655 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4656 
  4657 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4658 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4659 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4660 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4661 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4662 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4663 
  4664 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4665 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4666 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4667 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4668 experiments with references.
  4669 
  4670 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4671 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4672 
  4673 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4674 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4675 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4676 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4677 
  4678 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4679 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4680 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4681 
  4682 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4683 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4684 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4685 
  4686 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4687 
  4688 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4689 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4690 
  4691 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4692 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4693 
  4694 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4695 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4696 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4697 
  4698 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4699 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4700 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4701 
  4702 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4703 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4704 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4705 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4706 
  4707 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4708 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4709 instead of global theory.
  4710 
  4711 
  4712 *** System ***
  4713 
  4714 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4715 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4716 usedir option -q.
  4717 
  4718 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4719 also the system manual.
  4720 
  4721 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4722 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4723 
  4724 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4725 this is always enabled.
  4726 
  4727 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4728 
  4729 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4730 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4731 currently supported on Linux only.
  4732 
  4733 
  4734 
  4735 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4736 --------------------------------
  4737 
  4738 *** General ***
  4739 
  4740 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4741 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4742 
  4743   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4744     "isatool."
  4745 
  4746   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4747     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4748 
  4749   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4750     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4751 
  4752 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4753 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4754 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4755 
  4756 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4757 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4758 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4759 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4760 via "isabelle emacs".
  4761 
  4762 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4763 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4764 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4765 
  4766 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4767 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4768 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4769 
  4770 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4771 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4772 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4773 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4774 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4775 
  4776 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4777 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4778 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4779 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4780 
  4781 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4782 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4783 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4784 
  4785 
  4786 *** Pure ***
  4787 
  4788 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4789 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4790 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4791 
  4792 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4793 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4794 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4795 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4796 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4797 
  4798 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4799 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4800 useful in locale declarations.
  4801 
  4802 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4803 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4804 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4805 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4806 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4807 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4808 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4809 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4810 no longer generated.
  4811 
  4812 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4813 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4814 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4815 
  4816 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4817 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4818 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4819 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4820 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4821 
  4822 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4823 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4824 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4825 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4826 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4827 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4828 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4829 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4830 
  4831 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4832 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4833 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4834 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4835 
  4836 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4837 
  4838 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4839 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4840 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4841 
  4842 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4843 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4844 
  4845 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4846 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4847 in HOL, write
  4848 
  4849     class foo = ...
  4850 
  4851 instead of
  4852 
  4853     class foo = type + ...
  4854 
  4855 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4856 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4857 
  4858 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4859 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4860 
  4861 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4862 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4863 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4864 
  4865 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4866 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4867 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4868 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4869 directly in regular applications.
  4870 
  4871 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4872 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4873 
  4874 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4875 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4876 
  4877 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4878 theory context.
  4879 
  4880 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4881 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4882 
  4883 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4884 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4885 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4886 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4887 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4888 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4889 
  4890   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4891 
  4892 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4893 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4894 normalization.
  4895 
  4896 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4897 addressing etc.
  4898 
  4899 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4900 
  4901   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4902   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4903 
  4904 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4905 
  4906   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4907      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4908      parts of the code generator framework).
  4909 
  4910   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4911      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4912      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4913 
  4914 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4915 
  4916 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4917 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4918 
  4919 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4920 patterns, e.g.
  4921 
  4922     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4923 
  4924 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4925 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4926 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4927 hyphen:
  4928 
  4929     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4930 
  4931 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4932 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4933 
  4934 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4935 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4936 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4937 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4938 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4939 higher-order unification.
  4940 
  4941 
  4942 *** Document preparation ***
  4943 
  4944 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4945 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4946 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4947 
  4948 
  4949 *** HOL ***
  4950 
  4951 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4952 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4953 
  4954 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4955 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4956 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4957 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4958 Main, as before.
  4959 
  4960 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4961 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4962 
  4963 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4964 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4965 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4966 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4967 
  4968 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4969 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4970 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4971 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4972 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4973 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4974 
  4975 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4976 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4977 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4978 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4979 
  4980 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4981 menu.
  4982 
  4983 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4984 (contains the empty clause).
  4985 
  4986 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4987 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4988 
  4989 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4990 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4991 
  4992 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4993 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4994 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4995 
  4996 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4997 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4998 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4999 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  5000 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  5001 
  5002 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  5003 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  5004 
  5005 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  5006 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  5007 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  5008 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  5009 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  5010 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  5011 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  5012 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  5013 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  5014 
  5015 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  5016 
  5017 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  5018 
  5019 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  5020 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5021 
  5022 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  5023 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  5024 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  5025 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  5026 
  5027 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  5028 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5029 
  5030     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  5031     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  5032     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  5033     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  5034     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  5035     Union ~>    Set.Union
  5036     {} ~>       Set.empty
  5037     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  5038 
  5039 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  5040 theory Set.
  5041 
  5042 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  5043 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  5044 
  5045 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  5046 
  5047 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  5048 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  5049 
  5050 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  5051 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  5052 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  5053 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  5054 allowed. For examples see
  5055 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  5056 
  5057 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  5058 
  5059 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  5060 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5061 
  5062 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  5063 structure:
  5064 
  5065     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  5066     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5067     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5068     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5069     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5070     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5071     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5072     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5073     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5074     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5075     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5076     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5077     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5078     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5079     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5080     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5081     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5082     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5083     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5084     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5085     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5086     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5087     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5088     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5089     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5090     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5091     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5092     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5093     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5094     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5095     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5096     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5097     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5098 
  5099     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5100     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5101     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5102     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5103     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5104     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5105     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5106     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5107     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5108     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5109 
  5110     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5111     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5112     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5113     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5114     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5115     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5116 
  5117 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5118 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5119 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5120 
  5121 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5122 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5123 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5124 
  5125 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5126 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5127 
  5128 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5129 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5130 
  5131 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5132 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5133 proofs, e.g.
  5134 
  5135   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5136 
  5137 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5138 
  5139 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5140 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5141 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5142 
  5143 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5144 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5145 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5146 
  5147 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5148 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5149 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5150 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5151 
  5152 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5153 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5154 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5155 preorder_class.*.
  5156 
  5157 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5158 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5159 
  5160 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5161 
  5162   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5163 
  5164 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5165 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5166 fold_image.
  5167 
  5168 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5169 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5170 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5171 the former will disappear at some point.
  5172 
  5173 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5174 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5175 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5176 
  5177 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5178 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5179 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5180 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5181 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5182 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5183 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5184 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5185 
  5186 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5187 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5188 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5189 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5190 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5191 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5192 
  5193     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5194     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5195     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5196     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5197     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5198     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5199     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5200 
  5201 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5202 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5203 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5204 
  5205 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5206 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5207 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5208 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5209 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5210 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5211 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5212 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5213 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5214 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5215 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5216 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5217 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5218 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5219 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5220 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5221 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5222 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5223 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5224 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5225 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5226 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5227 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5228 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5229 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5230 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5231 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5232 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5233 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5234 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5235 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5236 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5237 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5238 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5239 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5240 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5241 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5242 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5243 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5244 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5245 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5246 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5247 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5248 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5249 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5250 
  5251 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5252 
  5253 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5254 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5255 
  5256 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5257 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5258 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5259 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5260 
  5261 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5262 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5263 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5264 theory RealVector.
  5265 
  5266 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5267 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5268 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5269 and inner products are included.
  5270 
  5271 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5272 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5273 supported.
  5274 
  5275 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5276 first diagonalization argument.
  5277 
  5278 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5279 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5280 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5281 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5282 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5283 
  5284     hide (open) const gcd
  5285     abbreviation gcd where
  5286       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5287     notation (output)
  5288       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5289 
  5290 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5291 
  5292 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5293 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5294 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5295 
  5296 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5297 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5298 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5299 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5300 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5301 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5302 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5303 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5304 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5305 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5306 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5307 cases.
  5308 
  5309 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5310 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5311 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5312 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5313 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5314 
  5315     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5316     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5317     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5318     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5319     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5320 
  5321 
  5322 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5323 
  5324 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5325 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5326 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5327 
  5328 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5329 
  5330 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5331 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5332 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5333 
  5334 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5335 
  5336 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5337 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5338 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5339 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5340 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5341 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5342 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5343 
  5344 
  5345 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5346 
  5347 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5348 
  5349 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5350 theory targets.
  5351 
  5352 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5353 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5354 'inductive' etc.
  5355 
  5356 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5357 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5358 
  5359 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5360 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5361 
  5362 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5363 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5364 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5365 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5366 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5367 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5368 the algorithm W:
  5369 
  5370  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5371  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5372          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5373 
  5374 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5375 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5376 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5377 
  5378 
  5379 *** HOLCF ***
  5380 
  5381 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5382 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5383 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5384 
  5385 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5386 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5387 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5388 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5389 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5390 
  5391 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5392 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5393 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5394 
  5395 
  5396 *** ZF ***
  5397 
  5398 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5399 
  5400 
  5401 *** ML ***
  5402 
  5403 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5404 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5405 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5406 5.2.1!
  5407 
  5408 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5409 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5410 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5411 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5412 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5413 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5414 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5415 
  5416 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5417 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5418 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5419 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5420 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5421 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5422 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5423 
  5424 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5425 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5426 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5427 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5428 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5429 
  5430 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5431 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5432 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5433 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5434 Method.add_method.
  5435 
  5436 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5437 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5438 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5439 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5440 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5441 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5442 
  5443 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5444 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5445 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5446 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5447 examples.
  5448 
  5449 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5450 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5451 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5452 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5453 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5454 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5455 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5456 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5457 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5458 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5459 
  5460 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5461 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5462 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5463 
  5464 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5465 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5466 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5467 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5468 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5469 resort for legacy applications.
  5470 
  5471 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5472 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5473 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5474 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5475 explicit runtime argument.
  5476 
  5477 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5478 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5479 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5480 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5481 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5482 
  5483 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5484 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5485 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5486 theory state.
  5487 
  5488 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5489 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5490 
  5491   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5492   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5493   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5494   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5495   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5496   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5497   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5498   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5499   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5500   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5501 
  5502 
  5503 *** System ***
  5504 
  5505 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5506 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5507 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5508 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5509 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5510 
  5511 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5512 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5513 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5514 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5515 
  5516 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5517 
  5518 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5519 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5520 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5521 prover operations.
  5522 
  5523 
  5524 
  5525 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5526 -------------------------------
  5527 
  5528 *** General ***
  5529 
  5530 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5531 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5532 
  5533 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5534 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5535 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5536 provides a proper context already.
  5537 
  5538 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5539 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5540 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5541 
  5542 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5543 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5544 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5545 swap theory imports.
  5546 
  5547 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5548 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5549 
  5550 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5551 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5552 white space without escapes.
  5553 
  5554 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5555 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5556 "foo_bar".
  5557 
  5558 
  5559 *** Pure ***
  5560 
  5561 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5562 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5563 
  5564 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5565 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5566 
  5567 (1) unused_thms
  5568      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5569 
  5570 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5571      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5572      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5573 
  5574 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5575      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5576      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5577      their ancestors.
  5578 
  5579 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5580 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5581 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5582 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5583 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5584 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5585 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5586 
  5587 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5588 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5589 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5590 
  5591 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5592 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5593 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5594 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5595 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5596 
  5597 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5598 
  5599 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5600 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5601 update of theories within ML code.
  5602 
  5603 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5604 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5605 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5606 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5607 
  5608 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5609 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5610 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5611 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5612 
  5613 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5614 
  5615 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5616 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5617 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5618 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5619 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5620 
  5621 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5622 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5623 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5624 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5625 situations.
  5626 
  5627 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5628 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5629 proof text.
  5630 
  5631 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5632 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5633 
  5634 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5635 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5636 predicates.
  5637 
  5638 
  5639 *** Document preparation ***
  5640 
  5641 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5642 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5643 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5644 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5645 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5646 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5647 
  5648 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5649 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5650 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5651 
  5652 
  5653 *** HOL ***
  5654 
  5655 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5656 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5657 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5658 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5659 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5660 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5661 
  5662 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5663 with multithreading.
  5664 
  5665 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5666 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5667 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5668 
  5669 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5670 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5671 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5672 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5673 
  5674 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5675 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5676 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5677 and makes them available separately.  See
  5678 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5679 
  5680 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5681 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5682 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5683 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5684 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5685 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5686 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5687 the declared rules.
  5688 
  5689 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5690 
  5691   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5692 
  5693 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5694 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5695 
  5696 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5697 
  5698   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5699 
  5700   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5701     definitions on => and bool.
  5702 
  5703   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5704     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5705     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5706 
  5707       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5708       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5709       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5710       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5711       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5712       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5713       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5714       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5715 
  5716   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5717     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5718     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5719 
  5720   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5721     The proof pattern
  5722 
  5723       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5724       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5725 
  5726     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5727     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5728 
  5729       have "EX S. P S"
  5730       proof
  5731         show "P S" <...>
  5732       qed
  5733 
  5734   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5735     The proof pattern
  5736 
  5737       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5738       also have "S = T" <...>
  5739       finally have "P T" .
  5740 
  5741     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5742     must be replaced by something like
  5743 
  5744       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5745       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5746       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5747 
  5748   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5749     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5750 
  5751       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5752 
  5753     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5754     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5755     type of the form
  5756 
  5757       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5758 
  5759     rather than
  5760 
  5761       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5762 
  5763 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5764 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5765 
  5766 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5767 
  5768 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5769 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5770 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5771 
  5772 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5773 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5774 
  5775 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5776 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5777 
  5778 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5779 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5780 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5781 
  5782 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5783 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5784 
  5785   less_trans
  5786   less_linear
  5787   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5788   le_less_trans
  5789   less_le_trans
  5790   less_not_sym
  5791   less_asym
  5792 
  5793 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5794 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5795 and different variable names.
  5796 
  5797 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5798 
  5799 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5800 finite maps.
  5801 
  5802 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5803 
  5804 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5805 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5806 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5807 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5808 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5809 accordingly.
  5810 
  5811 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5812 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5813 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5814 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5815 
  5816 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5817 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5818 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5819 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5820 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5821 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5822 
  5823 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5824 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5825 
  5826 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5827 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5828 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5829 
  5830 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5831 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5832 
  5833 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5834 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5835 
  5836 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5837 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5838 
  5839 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5840 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5841 
  5842 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5843 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5844 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5845 
  5846 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5847 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5848 
  5849 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5850 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5851 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5852 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5853 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5854 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5855 
  5856 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5857 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5858 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5859 
  5860 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5861 
  5862 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5863 
  5864 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5865 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5866 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5867 
  5868 
  5869 *** ZF ***
  5870 
  5871 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5872 same session:
  5873 
  5874   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5875   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5876   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5877   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5878   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5879   List      -> List_ZF
  5880   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5881 
  5882 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5883 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5884 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5885 
  5886 
  5887 *** ML ***
  5888 
  5889 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5890 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5891 
  5892 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5893 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5894 
  5895 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5896 
  5897 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5898 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5899 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5900 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5901 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5902 
  5903 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5904 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5905 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5906 
  5907 
  5908 *** System ***
  5909 
  5910 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5911 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5912 
  5913 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5914 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5915 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5916 
  5917 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5918 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5919 
  5920 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5921 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5922 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5923 
  5924 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5925 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5926 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5927 
  5928 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5929 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5930 
  5931 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5932 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5933 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5934 script.
  5935 
  5936 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5937 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5938 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5939 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5940 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5941 
  5942 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5943 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5944 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5945 
  5946 
  5947 
  5948 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5949 -----------------------------------
  5950 
  5951 *** General ***
  5952 
  5953 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5954 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5955 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5956 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5957 
  5958 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5959 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5960 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5961 
  5962 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5963 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5964 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5965 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5966 
  5967 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5968 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5969 quotes.
  5970 
  5971 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5972 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5973 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5974 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5975 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5976 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5977 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5978 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5979 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5980 
  5981 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5982 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5983 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5984 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5985 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5986 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5987 
  5988 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5989 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5990 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5991 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5992 
  5993 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5994 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5995 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5996 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5997 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5998 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5999 
  6000 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  6001 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  6002 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  6003 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  6004 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  6005 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  6006 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  6007 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  6008 
  6009 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  6010 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  6011 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  6012 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  6013 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  6014 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  6015 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  6016 
  6017 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  6018 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  6019 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  6020 
  6021 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  6022 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  6023 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  6024 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  6025 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  6026 limit is imposed.
  6027 
  6028 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  6029 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  6030 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  6031 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  6032 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  6033 and scalability.
  6034 
  6035 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  6036 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  6037 
  6038 
  6039 *** Document preparation ***
  6040 
  6041 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  6042 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  6043 current context.
  6044 
  6045 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  6046 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  6047 
  6048 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  6049 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  6050 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  6051 
  6052 
  6053 *** Pure ***
  6054 
  6055 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  6056 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  6057 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  6058 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  6059 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  6060 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  6061 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  6062 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  6063 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  6064 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  6065 
  6066 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  6067 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  6068 sketch:
  6069 
  6070     internal compilation:
  6071         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  6072     writing SML code to a file:
  6073         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  6074     writing OCaml code to a file:
  6075         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  6076     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  6077         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  6078 
  6079     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  6080         method ``eval''
  6081 
  6082 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  6083 
  6084 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  6085 
  6086     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  6087     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  6088     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  6089     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  6090 
  6091 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  6092 
  6093     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  6094       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  6095 
  6096     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  6097       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  6098 
  6099     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  6100       {(target)}+
  6101         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  6102 
  6103     code_class <and_list of classes>
  6104       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  6105         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  6106 
  6107 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  6108 
  6109 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  6110 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  6111 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  6112 codegen".
  6113 
  6114 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  6115 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  6116 annotations).
  6117 
  6118 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  6119 syntax.
  6120 
  6121 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  6122 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  6123 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  6124 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  6125 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  6126 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  6127 
  6128 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  6129 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  6130 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  6131 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  6132 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  6133 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  6134 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  6135 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  6136 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  6137 equations, see section "definitions".
  6138 
  6139 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  6140 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  6141 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  6142 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  6143 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  6144 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  6145 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  6146 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  6147 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  6148 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  6149 
  6150 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  6151 configuration options:
  6152 
  6153   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  6154   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  6155   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  6156   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  6157   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  6158   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  6159   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  6160   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  6161   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  6162 
  6163 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  6164 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  6165 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  6166 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  6167 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  6168 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  6169 order.
  6170 
  6171 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  6172 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  6173 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  6174 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  6175 context encountered later on.
  6176 
  6177 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  6178 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  6179 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  6180 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  6181 
  6182 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  6183 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  6184 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  6185 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  6186 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  6187 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  6188 
  6189 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  6190 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  6191 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  6192 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  6193 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  6194 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  6195 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  6196 more permissive.
  6197 
  6198 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  6199 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  6200 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  6201 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  6202 maintainability of proof texts.
  6203 
  6204 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  6205 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  6206 
  6207   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  6208   then guess x and y by clarify
  6209 
  6210 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  6211 proof tools being involved here.
  6212 
  6213 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  6214 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  6215 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  6216 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  6217 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  6218 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  6219 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  6220 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  6221 
  6222 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  6223 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  6224 certain special cases of literal facts:
  6225 
  6226   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  6227   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  6228   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  6229   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  6230 
  6231 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  6232 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  6233 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  6234 
  6235 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  6236 both named and unnamed ones.
  6237 
  6238 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  6239 
  6240   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  6241 
  6242 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  6243 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  6244 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  6245 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  6246 
  6247 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  6248 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  6249 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  6250 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  6251 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  6252 
  6253 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  6254 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  6255 
  6256 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  6257 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  6258 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  6259 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  6260 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  6261 originally first one.