NEWS
author wenzelm
Wed Jan 01 12:57:26 2014 +0100 (2014-01-01)
changeset 54893 4061ec8adb1c
parent 54890 cb892d835803
child 55001 f26a7f06266d
permissions -rw-r--r--
avoid unicode text, which causes problems when recoding symbols (e.g. via UTF8-Isabelle in Isabelle/jEdit);
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    10 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    11 
    12 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    13 not check existence within the file-system.
    14 
    15 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary Isabelle/ML
    16 workaround in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    17 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.
    18 
    19 
    20 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    21 
    22 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
    23 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
    24 
    25 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
    26 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
    27 
    28 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
    29 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
    30 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
    31 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
    32 
    33 
    34 *** HOL ***
    35 
    36 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
    37 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    38 
    39 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
    40 with the given constants.
    41 
    42 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
    43 
    44 Fact consolidations:
    45     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
    46     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
    47     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
    48     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
    49     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
    50     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
    51     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
    52     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
    53     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
    54     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
    55     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
    56     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
    57     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
    58     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
    59     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
    60     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
    61     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
    62     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
    63     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
    64     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
    65     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
    66     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
    67     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
    68     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
    69     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
    70     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
    71     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
    72     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
    73     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
    74     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
    75     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
    76     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
    77     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
    78     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
    79     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
    80     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
    81     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
    82     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
    83     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
    84     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
    85 
    86 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
    87 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
    88 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
    89 
    90 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1, min.cobounded2,
    91 max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
    92 
    93 For min_ac or max_ac, prefor more general collection ac_simps.
    94 
    95 INCOMPATBILITY. 
    96 
    97 * Word library: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
    98 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    99 
   100 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~> Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.
   101 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   102 
   103 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   104 operations on records.
   105 
   106 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
   107 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   108 
   109 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
   110     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   111 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   112 
   113 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
   114     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
   115     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
   116 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   117 
   118 * Abolished neg_numeral.
   119   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
   120   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
   121   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
   122     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
   123   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
   124     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
   125   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
   126 INCOMPATBILITY.
   127 
   128 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
   129     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
   130     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
   131     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
   132     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
   133 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   134 
   135 * Fact name consolidation:
   136     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   137     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
   138     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
   139     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
   140     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
   141 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   142 
   143 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
   144 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
   145 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
   146 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
   147 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
   148 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
   149 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
   150 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   151 
   152 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
   153 
   154 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
   155 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
   156 
   157 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
   158 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
   159 
   160 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
   161 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
   162 or the brute way with
   163 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
   164 
   165 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
   166 
   167 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
   168 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   169 
   170 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
   171 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
   172 
   173 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
   174 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
   175 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
   176 INCOMPATIBILITY
   177 
   178 * Nitpick:
   179   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
   180     infinite values.
   181 
   182 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   183   - type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces
   184   - changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   185     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   186     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   187     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   188     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-) open
   189     intervals.
   190 
   191 
   192 *** ML ***
   193 
   194 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   195 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   196 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   197 formal context.
   198 
   199 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   200 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   201 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   202 actually belongs to it).
   203 
   204 
   205 *** System ***
   206 
   207 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   208 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   209 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   210 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   211 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   212 
   213 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   214 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   215 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   216 
   217 
   218 
   219 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   220 -------------------------------------
   221 
   222 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   223 
   224 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   225 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   226 
   227 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   228 after edits surrounding the command location.
   229 
   230 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   231 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   232 e.g. out-of-memory).
   233 
   234 
   235 *** System ***
   236 
   237 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   238 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   239 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   240 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   241 
   242 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   243 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   244 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   245 
   246 
   247 
   248 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   249 -------------------------------------
   250 
   251 *** General ***
   252 
   253 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   254 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   255 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   256 
   257 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   258 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   259 
   260 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   261 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   262 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   263 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   264 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   265 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   266 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   267 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   268 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   269 syntax.
   270 
   271 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   272 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   273 
   274 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   275 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   276 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   277 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   278 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   279 
   280 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   281 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   282 
   283 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   284 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   285 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   286 
   287 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   288 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   289 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   290 
   291 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   292 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   293 
   294 
   295 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   296 
   297 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   298 Documentation panel.
   299 
   300 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   301 documentation.
   302 
   303 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   304 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   305 
   306 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   307 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   308 normal editing and checking process.
   309 
   310 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   311 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   312 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   313 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   314 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   315 
   316 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   317 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   318 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   319 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   320 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   321 
   322 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   323 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   324 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   325 
   326 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   327 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   328 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   329 to resolve conflict.
   330 
   331 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   332 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   333 
   334 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   335 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   336 such command executions while editing.
   337 
   338 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   339 document content.
   340 
   341 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   342 toplevel theorem statements.
   343 
   344 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   345 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   346 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   347 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   348 
   349 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   350 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   351 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   352 
   353 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   354 / Global Options / Appearance".
   355 
   356 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   357 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   358 
   359 
   360 *** Pure ***
   361 
   362 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   363 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   364 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   365 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   366 details.
   367 
   368 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   369 
   370 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   371 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   372 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   373 
   374 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   375 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   376 
   377 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   378 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   379 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   380 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   381 
   382 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   383 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   384 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   385 
   386 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   387 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   388 
   389 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   390 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   391 situations.
   392 
   393 
   394 *** HOL ***
   395 
   396 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   397 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   398 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   399 
   400 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   401 
   402 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   403 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   404 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   405 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   406 
   407   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   408 
   409 * Code generator:
   410   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   411     'code_instance'.
   412   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   413     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   414 
   415 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   416 examples.
   417 
   418 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   419 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   420 to distinguish both when desired.
   421 
   422 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   423 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   424 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   425 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   426 
   427 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   428 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   429 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   430 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   431 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   432 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   433 
   434 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   435 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   436 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   437 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   438 
   439 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   440 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   441 
   442 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   443 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   444 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   445 
   446 * Lifting:
   447   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   448     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
   449       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   450       transfer rules
   451     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   452       correspondence relation can be generated
   453     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   454       parametricity
   455     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   456   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   457   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   458     copies
   459   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   460     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   461     anonymous context)
   462   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
   463     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   464   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   465     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   466   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
   467     INCOMPATIBILITY
   468 
   469 * Transfer:
   470   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
   471     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   472   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   473   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   474     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   475   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   476 
   477 * Reification and reflection:
   478   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   479     "Reification".
   480   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   481   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   482 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   483 
   484 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   485   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   486     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   487     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   488   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   489     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   490   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   491     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   492     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   493     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   494     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   495     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   496     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   497     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   498   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   499     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   500   - Fact renames:
   501       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   502       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   503 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   504 
   505 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   506 
   507 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   508 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   509 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   510 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   511 
   512 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   513 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   514 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   515 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   516 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   517 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   518 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   519 lemmas.
   520 
   521 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   522 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   523 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   524 
   525 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
   526 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
   527 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   528 
   529 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   530 top and bottom elements.
   531 
   532 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   533 
   534 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   535 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   536 
   537  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
   538    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
   539    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
   540 
   541  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   542    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
   543    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   544 
   545    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
   546    arbitrary filter.
   547 
   548  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
   549    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   550    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
   551    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
   552    on a compact set.
   553 
   554  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   555    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   556    linear_continuum_topology).
   557 
   558  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   559    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
   560    on all sequences converging to x.
   561 
   562  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
   563    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
   564    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
   565    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
   566    left or right.
   567 
   568  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   569 
   570      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   571 
   572  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   573    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   574 
   575  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
   576    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
   577    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
   578    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
   579    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
   580    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
   581 
   582  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   583 
   584    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   585 
   586    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   587      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   588 
   589    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   590 
   591    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
   592      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
   593 
   594    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   595 
   596    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   597 
   598  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   599 
   600 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   601 
   602 * Nitpick:
   603   - Added option "spy"
   604   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors
   605 
   606 * Sledgehammer:
   607   - Renamed option:
   608       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   609     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   610   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy"
   611   - Better support for "isar_proofs"
   612   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server
   613 
   614 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   615 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   616 
   617 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   618   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   619   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
   620     generated code.
   621   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   622   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   623   - Fact renames:
   624     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   625     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
   626     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
   627 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   628 
   629 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
   630 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
   631 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
   632 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
   633 
   634 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
   635 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
   636 
   637 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   638 
   639 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   640 
   641     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   642     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   643 
   644 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   645 
   646 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
   647 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
   648 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
   649 
   650 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
   651 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
   652 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
   653 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   654 
   655 * HOL-BNF:
   656   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
   657     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
   658     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
   659     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
   660   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
   661     coinduct).
   662   - Renamed keywords:
   663     data ~> datatype_new
   664     codata ~> codatatype
   665     bnf_def ~> bnf
   666   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
   667     discs ~> disc
   668     map_comp' ~> map_comp
   669     map_id' ~> map_id
   670     sels ~> sel
   671     set_map' ~> set_map
   672     sets ~> set
   673 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   674 
   675 
   676 *** ML ***
   677 
   678 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
   679 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
   680 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
   681 Examples.thy in particular.
   682 
   683 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
   684 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
   685 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
   686 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
   687 
   688 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
   689 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
   690 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
   691 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
   692 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   693 
   694 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
   695 
   696     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
   697     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
   698 
   699 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   700 
   701 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
   702 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
   703 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
   704 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
   705 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
   706 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
   707 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
   708 
   709 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
   710 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
   711 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
   712 clasets separately from the context.
   713 
   714 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
   715 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
   716 
   717 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
   718 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
   719 
   720 
   721 *** System ***
   722 
   723 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
   724 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   725 
   726 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
   727 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   728 
   729 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
   730 settings variable.
   731 
   732 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
   733 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
   734 always pdf.
   735 
   736 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
   737 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
   738 
   739 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
   740 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
   741 
   742 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
   743 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
   744 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
   745 
   746 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
   747 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
   748 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
   749 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
   750 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   751 for HTML presentation of theories.
   752 
   753 
   754 
   755 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
   756 -----------------------------------
   757 
   758 *** General ***
   759 
   760 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
   761 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
   762 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
   763 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
   764 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
   765 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
   766 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
   767 
   768 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
   769 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
   770 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
   771 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
   772 
   773 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
   774 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
   775 
   776 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
   777 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
   778 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
   779 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
   780 dependencies properly.
   781 
   782 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
   783 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
   784 
   785 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
   786 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
   787 
   788 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
   789 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
   790 and "class ... context ...".
   791 
   792 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
   793 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
   794 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
   795 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
   796 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
   797 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
   798 
   799 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
   800 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
   801 
   802 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
   803 to name patterns (with clickable results).
   804 
   805 
   806 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   807 
   808 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
   809 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
   810 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
   811 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
   812 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
   813 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
   814 
   815 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
   816 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
   817 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
   818 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
   819 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
   820 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
   821 
   822 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
   823 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
   824 browser on demand.
   825 
   826 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
   827 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
   828 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
   829 that frequently occur in user interaction.
   830 
   831 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
   832 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
   833 
   834 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
   835 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
   836 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
   837 potentially infinite message streams.
   838 
   839 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
   840 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
   841 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
   842 schemes.
   843 
   844 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
   845 symbols.
   846 
   847 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
   848 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
   849 
   850 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
   851 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
   852 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
   853 
   854 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
   855 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
   856 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
   857 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
   858 
   859 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
   860 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
   861 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
   862 
   863 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
   864 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
   865 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
   866 Isabelle distribution.
   867 
   868 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
   869 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   870 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   871 
   872 
   873 *** Pure ***
   874 
   875 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   876 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   877 
   878 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
   879 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
   880 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   881 
   882 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   883 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   884 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   885 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   886 with some care where this is really required.
   887 
   888 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   889 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   890 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   891 
   892   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   893 
   894 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
   895 a Hasse diagram.
   896 
   897 
   898 *** HOL ***
   899 
   900 * Sledgehammer:
   901 
   902   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   903     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   904   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
   905   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   906   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
   907   - Renamed options:
   908       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   909       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   910       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   911       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   912 
   913 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
   914 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
   915 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   916 
   917 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
   918 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   919 
   920 * Lifting:
   921   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
   922   - quot_del attribute
   923   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
   924 
   925 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   926 expressions.
   927 
   928 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   929 pointfree expressions.
   930 
   931 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   932 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   933 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   934 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
   935 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   936 
   937 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   938 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   939 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   940 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   941 accordingly.
   942 
   943 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   944 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   945 
   946 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
   947 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   948 
   949 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   950 
   951 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   952 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   953 
   954 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   955 
   956 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
   957 
   958   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
   959   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
   960 
   961 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   962 
   963 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
   964 
   965   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   966   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   967 
   968 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   969 
   970 * Generalized the definition of limits:
   971 
   972   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
   973     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
   974     output f x converges to G.
   975 
   976   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
   977     infinity (at_bot).
   978 
   979   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
   980     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
   981 
   982   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
   983     at_top".
   984 
   985 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   986 
   987 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
   988 lattice type classes.
   989 
   990 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
   991 
   992     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
   993     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
   994 
   995 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   996 
   997 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
   998 changes as follows.
   999 
  1000   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  1001 
  1002       prefix ~> prefixeq
  1003       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  1004 
  1005   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  1006     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  1007     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  1008     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  1009 
  1010   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  1011     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  1012     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  1013 
  1014   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  1015     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  1016     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  1017     Library/Prefix_Order.
  1018 
  1019   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  1020     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  1021 
  1022       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  1023       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  1024       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  1025       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  1026       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  1027       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  1028       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  1029       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  1030       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  1031       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  1032       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  1033       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  1034       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  1035       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  1036       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  1037       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  1038 
  1039 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1040 
  1041 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  1042 
  1043 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  1044 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  1045 
  1046 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  1047 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  1048 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  1049 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  1050 
  1051   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  1052   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  1053   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  1054   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  1055   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  1056   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  1057   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  1058   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  1059   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  1060   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  1061 
  1062 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1063 
  1064 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  1065 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  1066 Data").
  1067 
  1068 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1069 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1070 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1071 code.
  1072 
  1073 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1074 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1075 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1076 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1077 
  1078 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1079 
  1080 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1081 
  1082 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1083 
  1084   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1085   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1086 
  1087 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1088 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1089 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1090 
  1091   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1092 
  1093     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1094     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1095     cart_base i  removed
  1096     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1097 
  1098   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1099 
  1100   Renamed lemmas:
  1101 
  1102     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1103     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1104     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1105     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1106     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1107     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1108     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1109     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1110     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1111     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1112 
  1113 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1114 
  1115 * HOL/Probability:
  1116 
  1117   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1118 
  1119   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1120     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1121     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1122 
  1123   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1124     projective family).
  1125 
  1126 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1127 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1128 
  1129 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1130 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1131 datatypes.
  1132 
  1133 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1134 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1135 
  1136 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1137 trees for the code generator.
  1138 
  1139 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1140 Lifting/Transfer.
  1141 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1142 
  1143 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1144 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1145 
  1146 
  1147 *** Document preparation ***
  1148 
  1149 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1150 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1151 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1152 
  1153 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1154 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1155 
  1156 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1157 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1158 document/root.tex.
  1159 
  1160 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1161 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1162 
  1163 
  1164 *** ML ***
  1165 
  1166 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1167 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1168 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1169 
  1170 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1171 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1172 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1173 
  1174 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1175 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1176 necessarily printing visible text.
  1177 
  1178 
  1179 *** System ***
  1180 
  1181 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1182 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1183 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1184 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1185 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1186 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1187 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1188 
  1189 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1190 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1191 
  1192   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1193 
  1194 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1195 
  1196 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1197 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1198 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1199 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1200 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1201 
  1202 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1203 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1204 
  1205 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1206 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1207 
  1208 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1209 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1210 
  1211 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1212 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1213 version of Isabelle.
  1214 
  1215 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1216 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1217 
  1218 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1219 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1220 for home-made settings.
  1221 
  1222 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1223 
  1224 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1225 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1226 configuration.
  1227 
  1228 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1229 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1230 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1231 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1232 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1233 
  1234 
  1235 
  1236 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1237 ------------------------------
  1238 
  1239 *** General ***
  1240 
  1241 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1242 
  1243   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1244     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1245   - markup for bound variables
  1246   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1247   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1248   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1249     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1250 
  1251 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1252 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1253 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1254 
  1255 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1256 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1257 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1258 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1259 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1260 
  1261   context
  1262     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1263     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1264   begin
  1265 
  1266   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1267 
  1268   end
  1269 
  1270   thm my_trans
  1271 
  1272 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1273 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1274 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1275 
  1276 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1277 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1278 
  1279 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1280 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1281 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1282 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1283 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1284 
  1285 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1286 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1287 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1288 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1289 indices of schematic variables.
  1290 
  1291 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1292 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1293 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1294 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1295 etc. was exploited.
  1296 
  1297 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1298 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1299 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1300 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1301 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1302 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1303 
  1304 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1305 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1306 manual.
  1307 
  1308 
  1309 *** Pure ***
  1310 
  1311 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1312 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1313 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1314 
  1315 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1316 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1317 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1318 undocumented feature.)
  1319 
  1320 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1321 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1322 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1323 
  1324   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1325 
  1326   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1327     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1328 
  1329 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1330 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1331 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1332 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1333 
  1334 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1335 
  1336     num ~> num_token
  1337     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1338     xstr ~> str_token
  1339 
  1340 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1341 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1342 position information via constraints).
  1343 
  1344 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1345 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1346 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1347 
  1348 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1349 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1350 
  1351 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1352 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1353 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1354 
  1355 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1356 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1357 
  1358 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1359 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1360 
  1361   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1362 
  1363 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1364 
  1365 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1366 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1367 
  1368 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1369 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1370 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1371 
  1372 
  1373 *** HOL ***
  1374 
  1375 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1376 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1377 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1378 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1379 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1380 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1381 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1382 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1383 possible.
  1384 
  1385 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1386 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1387 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1388 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1389 
  1390 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1391 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1392 
  1393 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1394 
  1395 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1396 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1397 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1398 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1399 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1400 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1401 
  1402   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1403     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1404 
  1405   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1406     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1407     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1408 
  1409   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1410     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1411 
  1412   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1413     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1414     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1415 
  1416   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1417     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1418 
  1419 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1420 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1421 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1422 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1423 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1424 
  1425   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1426     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1427     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1428     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1429     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1430 
  1431     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1432     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1433 
  1434   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1435     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1436     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1437     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1438     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1439     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1440     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1441     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1442 
  1443   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1444     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1445     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1446     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1447 
  1448   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1449     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1450     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1451     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1452 
  1453   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1454     from type nat to type int.
  1455 
  1456 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1457 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1458 
  1459   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1460     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1461     type.  Example syntax:
  1462 
  1463     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1464       is List.insert
  1465 
  1466     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1467     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1468     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1469     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1470     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1471     by the package.
  1472 
  1473   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1474     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1475     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1476     code generation for each constant.
  1477 
  1478   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1479     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1480     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1481     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1482     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1483 
  1484   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1485     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1486     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1487 
  1488 * Quotient package:
  1489 
  1490   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1491     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1492 
  1493   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1494     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1495 
  1496   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1497     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1498     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1499 
  1500   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1501     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1502 
  1503 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1504 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1505 
  1506 * Quickcheck:
  1507 
  1508   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1509     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1510     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1511     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1512     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1513 
  1514     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1515     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1516     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1517 
  1518     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1519     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1520 
  1521     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1522     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1523     show genuine counterexamples.
  1524 
  1525   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1526     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1527 
  1528     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1529     constructors of that type.
  1530 
  1531   - Support for multisets.
  1532 
  1533   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1534 
  1535   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1536     conjectures in a locale context.
  1537 
  1538 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1539 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1540 
  1541 * Sledgehammer:
  1542   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1543     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1544   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1545   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1546     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1547   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1548   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1549   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1550   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1551 
  1552 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1553 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1554 
  1555 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1556 
  1557 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1558 
  1559 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1560 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1561 
  1562   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1563 
  1564 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1565 a list and a nat.
  1566 
  1567 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1568 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1569 
  1570 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1571 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1572 default.
  1573 
  1574 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1575 
  1576   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1577 
  1578 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1579 
  1580 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1581 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1582 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1583 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1584 one_case.
  1585 
  1586 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1587 the result of the fact expression.
  1588 
  1589 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1590 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1591 of some relation theorems:
  1592 
  1593   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1594   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1595   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1596   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1597   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1598   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1599 
  1600 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1601 
  1602 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1603 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1604 
  1605 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1606 
  1607 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1608 to match the constant's name:
  1609 
  1610   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1611   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1612   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1613   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1614   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1615   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1616   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1617   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1618   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1619   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1620   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1621   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1622   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1623   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1624   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1625   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1626   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1627   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1628   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1629   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1630   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1631   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1632   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1633   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1634 
  1635 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1636 
  1637 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1638 and corresponding theorem names:
  1639 
  1640   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1641 
  1642   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1643 
  1644   - Renamed theorems:
  1645 
  1646     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1647     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1648     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1649     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1650     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1651     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1652     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1653     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1654     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1655     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1656     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1657     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1658     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1659     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1660     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1661     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1662     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1663     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1664     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1665     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1666     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1667     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1668     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1669 
  1670     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1671 
  1672     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1673 
  1674 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1675 
  1676 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1677 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1678 
  1679   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1680   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1681   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1682   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1683   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1684   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1685   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1686   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1687   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1688   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1689   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1690   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1691   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1692   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1693   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1694   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1695   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1696   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1697   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1698   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1699   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1700 
  1701 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1702 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1703 
  1704 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1705 
  1706 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1707 
  1708   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1709   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1710   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1711   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1712   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1713   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1714   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1715   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1716   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1717   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1718   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1719   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1720   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1721   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1722   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1723   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1724   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1725   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1726 
  1727 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1728 
  1729 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1730 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1731 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1732 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1733 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1734 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1735 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1736 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1737 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1738 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1739 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1740 
  1741 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1742 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1743 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1744 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1745 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1746 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1747 
  1748 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1749 through option types.
  1750 
  1751 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1752 relations.
  1753 
  1754 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1755 
  1756 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1757 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1758 
  1759   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1760   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1761   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1762   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1763   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1764   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1765   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1766   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1767   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1768   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1769   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1770   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1771   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1772   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1773   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1774   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1775   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1776   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1777   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1778   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1779   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1780   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1781   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1782   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1783   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1784   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1785   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1786   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1787   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1788   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1789   zless_le ~> less_le
  1790   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1791   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1792   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1793 
  1794 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1795 
  1796   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1797 
  1798 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1799 
  1800 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1801 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1802 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1803 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1804 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1805 
  1806 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1807 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1808 
  1809 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1810 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1811 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1812 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1813 follows:
  1814 
  1815   Operations:
  1816   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1817   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1818   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1819   del -> rbt_del
  1820   delete -> rbt_delete
  1821   ins -> rbt_ins
  1822   insert -> rbt_insert
  1823   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1824   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1825   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1826   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1827   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1828   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1829   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1830   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1831   union -> rbt_union
  1832   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1833   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1834 
  1835   Lemmas:
  1836   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1837   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1838   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1839   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1840   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1841   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1842   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1843   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1844   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1845   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1846   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1847   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1848   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1849   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1850   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1851   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1852   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1853   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1854   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1855   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1856   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1857   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1858   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1859   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1860   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1861   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1862   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1863   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1864   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1865   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1866   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1867   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1868   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1869   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1870   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1871   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1872   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1873   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1874   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1875   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1876   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1877   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1878   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1879   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1880   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1881   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1882   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1883   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1884   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1885   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1886   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1887   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1888   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1889   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1890   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1891   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1892   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1893   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1894   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1895   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1896   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1897   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1898   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1899   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1900   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1901   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1902   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1903   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1904   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1905   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1906   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1907   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1908   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1909   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1910   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1911   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1912   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1913   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1914   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1915   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1916   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1917   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1918   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1919 
  1920 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1921 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1922 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1923 
  1924   Changed Operations:
  1925   float_abs -> abs
  1926   float_nprt -> nprt
  1927   float_pprt -> pprt
  1928   pow2 -> use powr
  1929   round_down -> float_round_down
  1930   round_up -> float_round_up
  1931   scale -> exponent
  1932 
  1933   Removed Operations:
  1934   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1935 
  1936   Renamed Lemmas:
  1937   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1938   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1939   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1940   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1941   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1942   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1943   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1944   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1945   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1946   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1947   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1948   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1949   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1950   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1951   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1952   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1953   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1954   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1955   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1956   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1957   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1958   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1959   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1960   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1961   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1962   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1963   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1964   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1965   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1966   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1967   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1968   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1969   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1970   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1971   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1972   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1973 
  1974   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1975   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1976   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1977   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1978   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1979   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1980   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1981   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1982   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1983   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1984 
  1985 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1986 association lists with distinct keys.
  1987 
  1988 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1989 annotated commands.
  1990 
  1991 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1992 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1993 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1994 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1995 
  1996 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1997 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1998 instead.
  1999 
  2000   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  2001   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  2002   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  2003   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  2004   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  2005   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  2006   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  2007   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2008   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2009   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2010   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  2011   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2012   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2013   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2014   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2015   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  2016   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2017   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  2018   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  2019   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  2020   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  2021   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  2022   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  2023   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  2024   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2025   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  2026   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  2027   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  2028   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  2029   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2030   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2031   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2032   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  2033   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  2034   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  2035   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  2036   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  2037   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  2038   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  2039   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  2040   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  2041 
  2042 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  2043 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  2044 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  2045 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  2046 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  2047 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  2048 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  2049 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  2050 
  2051 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  2052 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  2053 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  2054 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  2055 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  2056 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  2057 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  2058 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  2059 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  2060 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  2061 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  2062 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2063 
  2064   Renamed constants:
  2065   measure -> emeasure
  2066   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  2067   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  2068   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2069   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2070 
  2071   Removed locales:
  2072   completeable_measure_space
  2073   finite_measure_space
  2074   finite_prob_space
  2075   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2076   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2077   finite_sigma_algebra
  2078   measure_space
  2079   pair_finite_prob_space
  2080   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2081   pair_finite_space
  2082   pair_sigma_algebra
  2083   product_sigma_algebra
  2084 
  2085   Removed constants:
  2086   conditional_space
  2087   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2088   image_space
  2089   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2090   pair_measure_generator
  2091   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2092   subvimage
  2093 
  2094   Replacement theorems:
  2095   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2096   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2097   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2098   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2099   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2100   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2101   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2102   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2103   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2104   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2105   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2106   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2107   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2108   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2109   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2110   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2111   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2112   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2113   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2114   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2115   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2116   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2117   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2118   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2119   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2120   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2121   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2122   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2123   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2124   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2125   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2126   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2127   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2128   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2129   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2130   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2131   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2132   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2133   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2134   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2135   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2136   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2137   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2138   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2139   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2140   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2141   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2142   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2143   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2144   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2145   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2146   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2147   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2148   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2149   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2150   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2151   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2152   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2153   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2154   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2155   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2156   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2157   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2158   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2159   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2160   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2161   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2162   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2163   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2164   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2165   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2166   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2167   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2168   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2169   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2170   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2171   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2172   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2173   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2174   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2175   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2176   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2177   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2178   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2179   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2180   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2181   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2182   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2183   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2184   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2185   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2186   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2187   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2188   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2189   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2190   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2191   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2192   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2193   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2194   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2195   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2196   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2197   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2198   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2199   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2200   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2201   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2202   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2203   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2204   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2205   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2206   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2207   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2208   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2209   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2210   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2211   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2212   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2213   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2214   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2215   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2216   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2217   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2218   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2219   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2220   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2221   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2222   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2223 
  2224 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2225 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2226 
  2227 
  2228 *** FOL ***
  2229 
  2230 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2231 
  2232 
  2233 *** ZF ***
  2234 
  2235 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2236 analysis.
  2237 
  2238 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2239 
  2240 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2241 
  2242 
  2243 *** ML ***
  2244 
  2245 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2246 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2247 
  2248 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2249 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2250 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2251 
  2252 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2253 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2254 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2255 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2256 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2257 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2258 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2259 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2260 
  2261 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2262 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2263 
  2264 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2265 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2266 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2267 
  2268 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2269 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2270 
  2271 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2272 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2273 context as well.
  2274 
  2275 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2276 
  2277   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2278   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2279   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2280   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2281   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2282   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2283   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2284   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2285   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2286   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2287   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2288   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2289 
  2290 
  2291 *** System ***
  2292 
  2293 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2294 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2295 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2296 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2297 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2298 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2299 the generic user home was intended.
  2300 
  2301 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2302 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2303 
  2304 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2305 (not just JRE).
  2306 
  2307 
  2308 
  2309 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2310 ------------------------------------
  2311 
  2312 *** General ***
  2313 
  2314 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2315 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2316 
  2317   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2318     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2319     files for checking).
  2320 
  2321   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2322     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2323     positions.
  2324 
  2325   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2326     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2327     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2328 
  2329   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2330     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2331     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2332 
  2333   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2334     cores.
  2335 
  2336   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2337     versions (garbage collection).
  2338 
  2339 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2340 including some remaining limitations.
  2341 
  2342 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2343 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2344 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2345 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2346 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2347 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2348 
  2349 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2350 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2351 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2352 
  2353 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2354 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2355 usedir option -Q.
  2356 
  2357 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2358 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2359 
  2360   long_names   ~> names_long
  2361   short_names  ~> names_short
  2362   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2363 
  2364 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2365 
  2366   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2367 
  2368 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2369 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2370 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2371 
  2372 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2373 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2374 
  2375 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2376   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2377   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2378   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2379     "Classical Reasoner".
  2380 
  2381 
  2382 *** HOL ***
  2383 
  2384 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2385 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2386 
  2387 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2388 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2389 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2390 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2391 class complete_linorder.
  2392 
  2393 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2394 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2395 
  2396 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2397 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2398 
  2399   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2400   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2401   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2402   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2403   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2404   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2405   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2406   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2407   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2408   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2409   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2410 
  2411 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2412 
  2413   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2414   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2415   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2416   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2417   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2418   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2419   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2420   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2421   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2422   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2423   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2424   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2425   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2426   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2427   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2428   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2429 
  2430 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2431 
  2432 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2433 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2434 
  2435 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2436 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2437 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2438 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2439 
  2440 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2441 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2442 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2443 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2444 
  2445 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2446 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2447 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2448 
  2449 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2450 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2451 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2452 
  2453 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2454 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2455 
  2456 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2457 
  2458     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2459     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2460 
  2461 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2462 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2463 
  2464 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2465 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2466 
  2467 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2468 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2469 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2470 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2471 
  2472   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2473   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2474   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2475   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2476   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2477   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2478   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2479 
  2480 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2481 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2482 
  2483   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2484   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2485   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2486   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2487   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2488   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2489   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2490   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2491   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2492   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2493   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2494   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2495   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2496   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2497   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2498   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2499   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2500   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2501   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2502   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2503   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2504   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2505   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2506   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2507   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2508   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2509   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2510   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2511   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2512   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2513   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2514   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2515   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2516   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2517   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2518   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2519   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2520   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2521   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2522   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2523   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2524   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2525   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2526   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2527   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2528   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2529   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2530   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2531   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2532   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2533   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2534   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2535   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2536   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2537   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2538   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2539   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2540   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2541   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2542   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2543   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2544   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2545   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2546   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2547   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2548   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2549   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2550   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2551   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2552   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2553   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2554   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2555   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2556   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2557   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2558   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2559   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2560   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2561   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2562   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2563   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2564   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2565 
  2566 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2567 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2568 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2569 
  2570 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2571 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2572 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2573 
  2574 * Code generation:
  2575 
  2576   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2577     characters in the target language.
  2578 
  2579   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2580     instead.
  2581 
  2582   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2583 
  2584   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2585     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2586 
  2587       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2588 
  2589 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2590 
  2591 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2592 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2593 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2594 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2595 syntax.
  2596 
  2597 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2598 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2599 
  2600 * Nitpick:
  2601   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2602   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2603   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2604     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2605 
  2606 * Sledgehammer:
  2607   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2608   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2609     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2610   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2611     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2612   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2613     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2614   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2615     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2616   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2617     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2618 
  2619 * Metis:
  2620   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2621   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2622     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2623 
  2624 * Command 'try':
  2625   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2626     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2627   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2628     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2629 
  2630 * Quickcheck:
  2631   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2632     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2633   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2634     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2635   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2636     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2637     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2638     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2639   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2640     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2641 
  2642 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2643 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2644 
  2645 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2646 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2647 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2648 
  2649 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2650 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2651 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2652 
  2653 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2654 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2655 
  2656 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2657 arithmetic.
  2658 
  2659 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2660 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2661 and lattice type classes.
  2662 
  2663 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2664 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2665 
  2666 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2667 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2668 
  2669 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2670 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2671 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2672 
  2673   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2674   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2675   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2676   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2677 
  2678 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2679 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2680 constants:
  2681 
  2682   type inat   ~> type enat
  2683   Fin         ~> enat
  2684   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2685   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2686   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2687 
  2688 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2689 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2690 
  2691 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2692 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2693 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2694 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2695 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2696 
  2697 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2698 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2699 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2700 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2701 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2702 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2703 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2704 
  2705   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2706   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2707   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2708   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2709 
  2710 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2711 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2712 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2713 
  2714   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2715   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2716   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2717   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2718   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2719   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2720   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2721   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2722   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2723   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2724   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2725   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2726   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2727   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2728   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2729   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2730   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2731   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2732   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2733   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2734   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2735   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2736   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2737   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2738   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2739   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2740   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2741   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2742   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2743   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2744   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2745   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2746   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2747   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2748   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2749   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2750   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2751   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2752   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2753   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2754   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2755   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2756   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2757   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2758   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2759   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2760   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2761   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2762   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2763   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2764   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2765 
  2766 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2767   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2768   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2769   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2770   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2771     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2772 
  2773 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2774 
  2775   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2776   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2777   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2778   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2779   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2780   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2781   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2782   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2783   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2784   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2785   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2786   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2787   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2788   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2789   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2790   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2791   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2792   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2793   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2794   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2795   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2796   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2797   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2798   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2799   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2800 
  2801 
  2802 *** Document preparation ***
  2803 
  2804 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2805 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2806 same.
  2807 
  2808 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2809 result.
  2810 
  2811 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2812 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2813 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2814 
  2815 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2816 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2817 
  2818 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2819 like this:
  2820 
  2821   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2822   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2823 
  2824 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2825 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2826 layouts.
  2827 
  2828 
  2829 *** ML ***
  2830 
  2831 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2832 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2833 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2834 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2835 under external program control.
  2836 
  2837 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2838 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2839 
  2840 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2841 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2842 (better known as Proof General).
  2843 
  2844 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2845 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2846 
  2847 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2848 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2849 
  2850 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2851 (including quotes etc.).
  2852 
  2853 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2854 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2855 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2856 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2857 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2858 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2859 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2860 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2861 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2862 
  2863 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2864 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2865 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2866 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2867 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2868 
  2869 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2870 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2871 
  2872 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2873 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2874 
  2875 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2876 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2877 
  2878 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2879 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2880 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2881 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2882 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2883 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2884 proper Proof.context.
  2885 
  2886 
  2887 *** System ***
  2888 
  2889 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2890 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2891 
  2892 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2893 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2894 
  2895 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2896 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2897 
  2898   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2899   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2900   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2901   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2902   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2903 
  2904 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2905 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2906 
  2907 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2908 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2909 example:
  2910 
  2911   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2912 
  2913 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2914 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2915 
  2916 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2917 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2918 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2919 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2920 
  2921 
  2922 
  2923 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2924 ----------------------------------
  2925 
  2926 *** General ***
  2927 
  2928 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2929 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2930 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2931 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2932 like this:
  2933 
  2934   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2935 
  2936 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2937 
  2938 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2939 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2940 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2941 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2942 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2943 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2944 
  2945 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2946 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2947 the following package declarations:
  2948 
  2949   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2950   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2951 
  2952 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2953 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2954 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2955 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2956 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2957 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2958 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2959 
  2960 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2961 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2962 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2963 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2964 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2965 
  2966 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2967 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2968 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2969 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2970 
  2971 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2972 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2973 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2974 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2975 
  2976   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2977 
  2978   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2979   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2980   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2981   show_types                    show_types
  2982   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2983   show_consts                   show_consts
  2984   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2985 
  2986   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2987   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2988   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2989 
  2990   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2991   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2992 
  2993   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2994 
  2995   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2996   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2997   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2998   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2999   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  3000 
  3001 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  3002 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  3003 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  3004 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  3005 
  3006 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  3007 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3008 
  3009   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  3010   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  3011 
  3012 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  3013 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  3014 float_token.
  3015 
  3016 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  3017 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  3018 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3019 
  3020 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  3021 DejaVu Sans.
  3022 
  3023 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  3024 
  3025 
  3026 *** Pure ***
  3027 
  3028 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  3029 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  3030 time.
  3031 
  3032 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  3033 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3034 
  3035 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  3036 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3037 
  3038 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  3039 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  3040 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  3041 command already provided this functionality.
  3042 
  3043 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  3044 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  3045 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  3046 without interpretations.
  3047 
  3048 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  3049 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  3050 
  3051 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  3052 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  3053 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  3054 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  3055 
  3056 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3057 'definition' instead.
  3058 
  3059 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  3060 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  3061 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  3062 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  3063 
  3064 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  3065 constructors.
  3066 
  3067 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  3068 the local file system.
  3069 
  3070 
  3071 *** HOL ***
  3072 
  3073 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3074 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3075 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3076 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3077 
  3078   declare [[coercion f]]
  3079 
  3080 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3081 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3082 
  3083   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3084 
  3085 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3086 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3087 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3088 other theories like this:
  3089 
  3090   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3091 
  3092 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3093 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3094 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3095 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3096 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3097 for examples.
  3098 
  3099 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3100 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3101 
  3102 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3103 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3104 
  3105 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3106 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3107 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3108 
  3109 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3110 functorial structure of types.
  3111 
  3112 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3113 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3114 
  3115 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3116 languages.
  3117 
  3118 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3119 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3120 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3121 
  3122 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3123 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3124 
  3125 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3126 combinators any longer.
  3127 
  3128 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3129 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3130 
  3131 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3132 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3133 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3134 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3135 
  3136   record 'a foo = ...
  3137   ...
  3138   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3139 
  3140 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3141 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3142 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3143 
  3144 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3145 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3146 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3147 
  3148 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3149 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3150 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3151 
  3152 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3153 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3154 
  3155 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3156 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3157 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3158 independently.
  3159 
  3160 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3161 counter example search.
  3162 
  3163 * Sledgehammer:
  3164   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3165     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3166     sledgehammer").
  3167   - Renamed commands:
  3168     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3169     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3170     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3171     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3172   - Renamed options:
  3173     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3174     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3175     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3176     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3177     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3178 
  3179 * Nitpick:
  3180   - Renamed options:
  3181     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3182     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3183     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3184   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3185   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3186   - Added "whack" option.
  3187   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3188   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3189   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3190   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3191     higher cardinalities.
  3192   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3193 
  3194 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3195 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3196 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3197 
  3198     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3199 
  3200 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3201 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3202 
  3203 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3204 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3205 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3206 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3207 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3208 "smt_solver".
  3209 
  3210 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3211 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3212 
  3213 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3214 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3215 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3216 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3217 
  3218 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3219   - Renamed:
  3220     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3221     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3222     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3223   - Added:
  3224     smt_verbose
  3225     smt_random_seed
  3226     smt_datatypes
  3227     smt_infer_triggers
  3228     smt_monomorph_limit
  3229     cvc3_options
  3230     remote_cvc3_options
  3231     remote_z3_options
  3232     yices_options
  3233 
  3234 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3235 header.
  3236 
  3237 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3238 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3239 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3240 
  3241   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3242 
  3243 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3244 
  3245 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3246 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3247 
  3248 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3249 
  3250 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3251 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3252 
  3253 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3254 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3255 
  3256 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3257 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3258 
  3259 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3260 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3261 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3262 
  3263 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3264 
  3265 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3266 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3267 
  3268 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3269 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3270 
  3271 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3272 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3273 for congruent(2)).
  3274 
  3275 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3276 
  3277   types
  3278     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3279     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3280 
  3281   constants
  3282     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3283     True ~> HOL.True
  3284     False ~> HOL.False
  3285     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3286     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3287     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3288     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3289     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3290     The ~> HOL.The
  3291     All ~> HOL.All
  3292     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3293     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3294     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3295     If ~> HOL.If
  3296     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3297     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3298     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3299     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3300     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3301     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3302     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3303     op : ~> Set.member
  3304     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3305 
  3306 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3307 
  3308 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3309 
  3310     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3311     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3312     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3313     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3314     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3315     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3316     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3317     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3318 
  3319 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3320 
  3321 * More stylized fact names:
  3322 
  3323   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3324   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3325   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3326   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3327 
  3328 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3329 
  3330 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3331 
  3332   constants
  3333     null ~> List.null
  3334 
  3335   facts
  3336     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3337     null_empty ~> null_def
  3338 
  3339 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3340 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3341 generation.
  3342 
  3343 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3344 Haskell code.
  3345 
  3346 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3347 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3348 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3349 
  3350 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3351 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3352 
  3353 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3354 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3355 
  3356 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3357 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3358 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3359 
  3360 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3361 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3362 
  3363 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3364 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3365 
  3366 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3367 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3368 referred to by its qualified name.
  3369 
  3370   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3371   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3372   product ~>  Enum.product
  3373 
  3374 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3375 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3376 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3377 
  3378 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3379 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3380 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3381 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3382 
  3383 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3384 sort_key.
  3385 
  3386 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3387 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3388 
  3389 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3390 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3391 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3392 
  3393   types
  3394     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3395               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3396               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3397         (depends on your needs)
  3398 
  3399   constants
  3400      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3401      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3402      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3403 
  3404 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3405 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3406 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3407 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3408 
  3409 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3410 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3411 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3412 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3413 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3414 
  3415 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3416 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3417 
  3418 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3419 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3420 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3421 
  3422 
  3423 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3424 
  3425 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3426 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3427 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3428 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3429 compatibility.
  3430 
  3431 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3432 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3433 
  3434 
  3435 *** HOLCF ***
  3436 
  3437 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3438 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3439 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3440 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3441 
  3442 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3443 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3444 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3445 
  3446   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3447   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3448   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3449 
  3450 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3451 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3452 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3453 
  3454 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3455 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3456 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3457 domain definition now works:
  3458 
  3459   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3460 
  3461 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3462 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3463 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3464 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3465 
  3466   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3467     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3468 
  3469   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3470 
  3471 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3472 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3473 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3474 
  3475 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3476 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3477 
  3478 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3479 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3480 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3481 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3482 
  3483 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3484 
  3485 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3486 
  3487 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3488 
  3489 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3490 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3491 
  3492 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3493 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3494 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3495 
  3496 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3497 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3498 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3499 
  3500 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3501 still supported as an input translation.
  3502 
  3503 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3504 
  3505   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3506   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3507   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3508   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3509   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3510   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3511   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3512 
  3513 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3514 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3515 
  3516   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3517   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3518   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3519   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3520   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3521   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3522 
  3523 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3524 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3525 
  3526 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3527 
  3528   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3529   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3530   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3531   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3532 
  3533 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3534 
  3535 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3536 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3537 
  3538 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3539 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3540 
  3541   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3542   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3543   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3544   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3545   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3546   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3547   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3548   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3549   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3550   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3551   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3552   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3553   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3554   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3555   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3556   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3557   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3558   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3559   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3560   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3561 
  3562 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3563 
  3564   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3565   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3566   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3567   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3568   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3569   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3570   box_less             ~> box_below
  3571   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3572   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3573   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3574   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3575   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3576   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3577   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3578   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3579   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3580   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3581   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3582   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3583   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3584   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3585   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3586   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3587   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3588   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3589   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3590   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3591   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3592   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3593   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3594   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3595   up_less              ~> up_below
  3596   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3597   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3598   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3599   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3600   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3601   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3602   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3603   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3604   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3605   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3606   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3607   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3608   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3609 
  3610 
  3611 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3612 
  3613 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3614 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3615 
  3616 
  3617 *** ML ***
  3618 
  3619 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3620 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3621 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3622 
  3623 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3624 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3625 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3626 
  3627 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3628 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3629 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3630 
  3631 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3632 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3633 
  3634 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3635 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3636 
  3637 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3638 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3639 
  3640 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3641 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3642 
  3643 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3644 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3645 almost all situations.
  3646 
  3647 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3648 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3649 Isabelle/ML.
  3650 
  3651 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3652 meaning.
  3653 
  3654 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3655 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3656 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3657 
  3658 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3659 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3660 
  3661 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3662 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3663 
  3664 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3665 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3666 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3667 
  3668 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3669 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3670 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3671 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3672 configuration options.
  3673 
  3674 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3675 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3676 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3677 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3678 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3679 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3680 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3681 
  3682 
  3683 
  3684 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3685 ---------------------------------
  3686 
  3687 *** General ***
  3688 
  3689 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3690 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3691 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3692 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3693 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3694 their full internal name.
  3695 
  3696 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3697 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3698 Some hints on upgrading:
  3699 
  3700   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3701     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3702     which are independent of this issue.
  3703 
  3704   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3705     provides the following special forms:
  3706 
  3707       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3708       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3709       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3710 
  3711     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3712     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3713     extra variables".
  3714 
  3715     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3716     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3717     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3718     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3719     "logic".
  3720 
  3721   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3722     antiquotations:
  3723 
  3724       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3725       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3726       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3727       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3728 
  3729   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3730     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3731     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3732     antiquotations.
  3733 
  3734 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3735 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3736 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3737 diagnose syntax problems.
  3738 
  3739 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3740 
  3741 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3742 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3743 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3744 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3745 
  3746 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3747 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3748 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3749 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3750 
  3751 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3752 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3753 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3754 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3755 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3756 
  3757 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3758 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3759 
  3760 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3761 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3762 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3763 
  3764   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3765 
  3766 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3767 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3768 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3769 
  3770 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3771 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3772 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3773 
  3774 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3775 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3776 
  3777 
  3778 *** Pure ***
  3779 
  3780 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3781 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3782 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3783 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3784 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3785 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3786 inspect proof terms.
  3787 
  3788 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3789 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3790 are added internally.  For example:
  3791 
  3792   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3793 
  3794 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3795 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3796 
  3797 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3798 
  3799 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3800 'class' instead.
  3801 
  3802 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3803 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3804 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3805 
  3806 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3807 invariants.
  3808 
  3809 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3810 user space functionality any longer.
  3811 
  3812 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3813 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3814 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3815 
  3816 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3817 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3818 
  3819 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3820 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3821 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3822 
  3823 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3824 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3825 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3826 
  3827 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3828 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3829 
  3830 
  3831 *** HOL ***
  3832 
  3833 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3834 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3835 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3836 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3837 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3838 
  3839 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3840 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3841 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3842 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3843 
  3844   fun
  3845     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3846   where
  3847     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3848 
  3849   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3850     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3851 
  3852   quotient_definition
  3853     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3854 
  3855 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3856 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3857 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3858 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3859 
  3860 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3861 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3862 
  3863 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3864 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3865 
  3866 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3867 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3868 
  3869 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3870 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3871 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3872 
  3873 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3874 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3875 
  3876 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3877 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3878 
  3879 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3880 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3881 
  3882 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3883 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3884 
  3885 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3886 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3887 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3888 
  3889   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3890   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3891   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3892   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3893   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3894   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3895   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3896   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3897   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3898   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3899   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3900   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3901   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3902   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3903   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3904   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3905   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3906   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3907   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3908   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3909   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3910   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3911   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3912   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3913   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3914   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3915   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3916   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3917   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3918   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3919 
  3920 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3921 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3922 
  3923 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3924 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3925 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3926 
  3927 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3928 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3929 
  3930 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3931 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3932 
  3933 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3934 
  3935 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3936 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3937 
  3938 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3939 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3940 
  3941 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3942 
  3943 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3944 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3945 
  3946 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3947 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3948 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3949 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3950 
  3951 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3952   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3953   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3954   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3955 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3956 
  3957 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3958 lattices):
  3959 
  3960     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3961     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3962 
  3963     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3964 
  3965     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3966     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3967     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3968     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3969     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3970     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3971     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3972     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3973     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3974     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3975     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3976     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3977     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3978 
  3979     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3980     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3981     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3982     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3983     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3984     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3985     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3986     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3987     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3988     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3989     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3990     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3991     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3992     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3993     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3994     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3995     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3996     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3997 
  3998   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3999   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  4000 
  4001     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  4002     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  4003     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  4004     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  4005     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  4006 
  4007 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4008 
  4009 * Refined field classes:
  4010   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  4011     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  4012     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  4013   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  4014 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4015 
  4016 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  4017   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  4018   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  4019   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  4020     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  4021   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  4022     equal_neg_zero.
  4023 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4024 
  4025 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  4026 sets to lattices:
  4027 
  4028   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  4029   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  4030   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  4031   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  4032   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  4033   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  4034   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  4035   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  4036   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  4037   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  4038 
  4039 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  4040 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  4041 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  4042 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  4043 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  4044 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4045 
  4046 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  4047 multiset order:
  4048 
  4049   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  4050     <= and <;
  4051   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  4052     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  4053     multiset_order;
  4054   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  4055     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  4056     generation;
  4057   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  4058     if needed.
  4059 
  4060 Renamed:
  4061 
  4062   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  4063   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  4064   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  4065 
  4066 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4067 
  4068 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4069 
  4070 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4071 
  4072 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4073 
  4074 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4075 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4076 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4077 
  4078   Constants:
  4079   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4080   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4081   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4082   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4083   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4084   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4085   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4086   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4087   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4088   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4089   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4090   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4091   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4092 
  4093   Lemmas:
  4094   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4095   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4096   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4097   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4098   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4099   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4100   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4101   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4102   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4103   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4104   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4105   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4106   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4107 
  4108 * Sledgehammer:
  4109   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4110     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4111     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4112     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4113     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4114     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4115     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4116   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4117   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4118     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4119   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4120     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4121     is still experimental.)
  4122   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4123     full-typed mode.
  4124   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4125 
  4126 * Nitpick:
  4127   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4128   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4129   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4130     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4131   - Added support for quotient types.
  4132   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4133     constructs.
  4134   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4135     "termination" proofs).
  4136   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4137   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4138   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4139   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4140     record getters.
  4141   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4142   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4143   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4144   - Added "atoms" option.
  4145   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4146     problems.
  4147   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4148     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4149     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4150   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4151     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4152   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4153 
  4154 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4155   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4156   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4157   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4158   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4159   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4160   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4161   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4162   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4163   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4164 
  4165 
  4166 *** HOLCF ***
  4167 
  4168 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4169 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4170 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4171 
  4172 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4173 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4174 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4175 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4176 
  4177 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4178 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4179 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4180 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4181 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4182 
  4183 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4184 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4185 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4186 
  4187 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4188 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4189 
  4190   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4191   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4192 
  4193 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4194 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4195 
  4196   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4197   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4198   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4199   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4200   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4201 
  4202 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4203 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4204 
  4205   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4206   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4207   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4208 
  4209 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4210 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4211 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4212 
  4213 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4214 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4215 
  4216 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4217 
  4218 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4219 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4220 
  4221 
  4222 *** ML ***
  4223 
  4224 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4225 
  4226     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4227     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4228 
  4229     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4230     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4231     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4232     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4233 
  4234     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4235     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4236     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4237 
  4238 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4239 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4240 
  4241 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4242 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4243 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4244 
  4245 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4246 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4247 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4248 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4249 
  4250 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4251 the context or even global references.
  4252 
  4253 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4254 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4255 
  4256 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4257 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4258 
  4259   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4260   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4261   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4262   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4263   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4264   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4265   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4266   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4267   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4268   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4269 
  4270 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4271 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4272 
  4273 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4274 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4275 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4276 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4277 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4278 
  4279 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4280 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4281 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4282 Theory_Data version.
  4283 
  4284 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4285 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4286 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4287 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4288 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4289 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4290 explicitly in rare situations.
  4291 
  4292 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4293 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4294 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4295 
  4296 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4297 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4298 
  4299 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4300 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4301 quite rare).
  4302 
  4303 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4304 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4305 
  4306 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4307 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4308 terms.
  4309 
  4310 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4311 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4312 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4313 
  4314 
  4315 *** System ***
  4316 
  4317 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4318 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4319 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4320 
  4321 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4322 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4323 respectively.
  4324 
  4325 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4326 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4327 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4328 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4329 
  4330   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4331 
  4332 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4333 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4334 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4335 component.
  4336 
  4337 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4338 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4339 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4340 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4341 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4342 the user for manual installation.
  4343 
  4344 
  4345 
  4346 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4347 -------------------------------------
  4348 
  4349 *** General ***
  4350 
  4351 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4352 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4353 
  4354 
  4355 *** Pure ***
  4356 
  4357 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4358 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4359 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4360 
  4361 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4362 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4363 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4364 
  4365 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4366 interpretation.
  4367 
  4368 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4369 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4370 
  4371 
  4372 *** Document preparation ***
  4373 
  4374 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4375 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4376 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4377 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4378 
  4379 
  4380 *** HOL ***
  4381 
  4382 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4383 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4384 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4385 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4386 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4387 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4388 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4389 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4390 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4391 
  4392 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4393 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4394 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4395 
  4396 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4397 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4398 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4399 
  4400 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4401 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4402 
  4403 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4404 
  4405 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4406 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4407 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4408 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4409 
  4410 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4411 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4412 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4413 "mirabelle" utility.
  4414 
  4415 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4416 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4417 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4418 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4419 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4420 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4421 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4422 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4423 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4424 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4425 
  4426 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4427 procedure only.
  4428 
  4429 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4430 
  4431 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4432 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4433 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4434 that fail later.
  4435 
  4436 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4437 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4438 
  4439 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4440 the same method as the approximation method.
  4441 
  4442 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4443 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4444 series expansion.
  4445 
  4446 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4447 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4448 
  4449 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4450 reals.
  4451 
  4452 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4453 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4454 
  4455 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4456 fixpoint theorem.
  4457 
  4458 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4459   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4460     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4461   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4462     accordingly
  4463   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4464     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4465   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4466     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4467 
  4468 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4469 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4470 lattice.
  4471 
  4472 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4473 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4474 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4475 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4476 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4477 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4478 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4479 
  4480 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4481   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4482     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4483   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4484     le_inf_iff
  4485   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4486     sup_aci)
  4487   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4488   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4489   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4490     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4491     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4492     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4493     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4494     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4495     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4496     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4497     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4498     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4499     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4500   - authentic syntax for
  4501     Set.Pow
  4502     Set.image
  4503   - mere abbreviations:
  4504     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4505     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4506     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4507     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4508     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4509     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4510     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4511     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4512   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4513 
  4514 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4515 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4516 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4517 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4518 
  4519 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4520 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4521 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4522 
  4523 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4524 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4525 
  4526 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4527 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4528 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4529 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4530 
  4531 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4532 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4533 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4534 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4535 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4536 
  4537 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4538 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4539 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4540 
  4541 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4542 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4543 
  4544 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4545 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4546 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4547 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4548 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4549 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4550 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4551 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4552 
  4553 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4554     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4555     code_post       replaces    code post
  4556     etc.
  4557   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4558 
  4559 * Renamed methods:
  4560     sizechange -> size_change
  4561     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4562   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4563 
  4564 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4565 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4566 
  4567 * Renamed theorems:
  4568     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4569     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4570     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4571     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4572     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4573   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4574 
  4575 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4576 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4577 
  4578 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4579 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4580 
  4581 
  4582 *** HOLCF ***
  4583 
  4584 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4585 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4586 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4587 
  4588 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4589 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4590 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4591 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4592 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4593 
  4594 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4595 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4596 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4597 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4598 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4599 
  4600 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4601 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4602 constructor are pre-configured.
  4603 
  4604 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4605 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4606 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4607 
  4608 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4609 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4610 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4611 as well.)
  4612 
  4613 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4614 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4615 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4616 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4617 examples.
  4618 
  4619 
  4620 *** ML ***
  4621 
  4622 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4623 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4624 
  4625 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4626 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4627 position, logical grouping etc.
  4628 
  4629 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4630 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4631 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4632 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4633 
  4634 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4635 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4636 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4637 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4638 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4639 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4640 
  4641 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4642 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4643 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4644 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4645 experiments with references.
  4646 
  4647 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4648 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4649 
  4650 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4651 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4652 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4653 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4654 
  4655 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4656 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4657 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4658 
  4659 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4660 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4661 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4662 
  4663 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4664 
  4665 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4666 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4667 
  4668 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4669 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4670 
  4671 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4672 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4673 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4674 
  4675 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4676 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4677 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4678 
  4679 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4680 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4681 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4682 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4683 
  4684 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4685 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4686 instead of global theory.
  4687 
  4688 
  4689 *** System ***
  4690 
  4691 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4692 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4693 usedir option -q.
  4694 
  4695 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4696 also the system manual.
  4697 
  4698 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4699 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4700 
  4701 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4702 this is always enabled.
  4703 
  4704 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4705 
  4706 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4707 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4708 currently supported on Linux only.
  4709 
  4710 
  4711 
  4712 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4713 --------------------------------
  4714 
  4715 *** General ***
  4716 
  4717 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4718 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4719 
  4720   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4721     "isatool."
  4722 
  4723   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4724     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4725 
  4726   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4727     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4728 
  4729 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4730 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4731 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4732 
  4733 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4734 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4735 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4736 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4737 via "isabelle emacs".
  4738 
  4739 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4740 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4741 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4742 
  4743 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4744 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4745 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4746 
  4747 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4748 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4749 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4750 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4751 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4752 
  4753 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4754 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4755 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4756 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4757 
  4758 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4759 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4760 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4761 
  4762 
  4763 *** Pure ***
  4764 
  4765 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4766 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4767 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4768 
  4769 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4770 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4771 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4772 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4773 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4774 
  4775 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4776 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4777 useful in locale declarations.
  4778 
  4779 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4780 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4781 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4782 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4783 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4784 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4785 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4786 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4787 no longer generated.
  4788 
  4789 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4790 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4791 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4792 
  4793 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4794 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4795 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4796 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4797 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4798 
  4799 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4800 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4801 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4802 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4803 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4804 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4805 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4806 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4807 
  4808 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4809 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4810 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4811 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4812 
  4813 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4814 
  4815 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4816 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4817 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4818 
  4819 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4820 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4821 
  4822 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4823 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4824 in HOL, write
  4825 
  4826     class foo = ...
  4827 
  4828 instead of
  4829 
  4830     class foo = type + ...
  4831 
  4832 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4833 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4834 
  4835 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4836 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4837 
  4838 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4839 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4840 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4841 
  4842 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4843 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4844 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4845 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4846 directly in regular applications.
  4847 
  4848 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4849 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4850 
  4851 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4852 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4853 
  4854 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4855 theory context.
  4856 
  4857 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4858 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4859 
  4860 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4861 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4862 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4863 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4864 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4865 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4866 
  4867   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4868 
  4869 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4870 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4871 normalization.
  4872 
  4873 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4874 addressing etc.
  4875 
  4876 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4877 
  4878   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4879   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4880 
  4881 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4882 
  4883   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4884      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4885      parts of the code generator framework).
  4886 
  4887   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4888      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4889      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4890 
  4891 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4892 
  4893 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4894 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4895 
  4896 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4897 patterns, e.g.
  4898 
  4899     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4900 
  4901 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4902 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4903 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4904 hyphen:
  4905 
  4906     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4907 
  4908 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4909 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4910 
  4911 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4912 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4913 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4914 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4915 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4916 higher-order unification.
  4917 
  4918 
  4919 *** Document preparation ***
  4920 
  4921 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4922 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4923 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4924 
  4925 
  4926 *** HOL ***
  4927 
  4928 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4929 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4930 
  4931 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4932 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4933 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4934 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4935 Main, as before.
  4936 
  4937 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4938 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4939 
  4940 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4941 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4942 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4943 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4944 
  4945 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4946 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4947 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4948 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4949 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4950 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4951 
  4952 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4953 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4954 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4955 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4956 
  4957 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4958 menu.
  4959 
  4960 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4961 (contains the empty clause).
  4962 
  4963 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4964 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4965 
  4966 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4967 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4968 
  4969 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4970 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4971 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4972 
  4973 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4974 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4975 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4976 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4977 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4978 
  4979 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4980 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4981 
  4982 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4983 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4984 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4985 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4986 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4987 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4988 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4989 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4990 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4991 
  4992 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4993 
  4994 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4995 
  4996 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4997 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4998 
  4999 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  5000 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  5001 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  5002 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  5003 
  5004 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  5005 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5006 
  5007     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  5008     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  5009     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  5010     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  5011     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  5012     Union ~>    Set.Union
  5013     {} ~>       Set.empty
  5014     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  5015 
  5016 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  5017 theory Set.
  5018 
  5019 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  5020 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  5021 
  5022 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  5023 
  5024 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  5025 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  5026 
  5027 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  5028 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  5029 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  5030 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  5031 allowed. For examples see
  5032 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  5033 
  5034 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  5035 
  5036 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  5037 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5038 
  5039 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  5040 structure:
  5041 
  5042     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  5043     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5044     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5045     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5046     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5047     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5048     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5049     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5050     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5051     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5052     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5053     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5054     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5055     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5056     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5057     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5058     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5059     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5060     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5061     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5062     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5063     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5064     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5065     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5066     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5067     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5068     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5069     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5070     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5071     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5072     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5073     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5074     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5075 
  5076     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5077     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5078     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5079     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5080     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5081     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5082     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5083     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5084     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5085     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5086 
  5087     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5088     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5089     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5090     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5091     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5092     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5093 
  5094 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5095 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5096 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5097 
  5098 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5099 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5100 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5101 
  5102 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5103 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5104 
  5105 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5106 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5107 
  5108 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5109 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5110 proofs, e.g.
  5111 
  5112   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5113 
  5114 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5115 
  5116 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5117 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5118 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5119 
  5120 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5121 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5122 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5123 
  5124 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5125 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5126 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5127 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5128 
  5129 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5130 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5131 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5132 preorder_class.*.
  5133 
  5134 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5135 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5136 
  5137 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5138 
  5139   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5140 
  5141 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5142 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5143 fold_image.
  5144 
  5145 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5146 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5147 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5148 the former will disappear at some point.
  5149 
  5150 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5151 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5152 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5153 
  5154 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5155 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5156 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5157 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5158 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5159 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5160 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5161 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5162 
  5163 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5164 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5165 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5166 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5167 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5168 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5169 
  5170     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5171     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5172     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5173     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5174     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5175     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5176     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5177 
  5178 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5179 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5180 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5181 
  5182 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5183 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5184 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5185 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5186 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5187 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5188 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5189 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5190 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5191 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5192 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5193 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5194 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5195 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5196 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5197 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5198 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5199 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5200 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5201 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5202 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5203 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5204 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5205 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5206 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5207 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5208 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5209 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5210 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5211 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5212 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5213 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5214 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5215 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5216 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5217 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5218 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5219 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5220 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5221 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5222 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5223 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5224 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5225 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5226 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5227 
  5228 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5229 
  5230 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5231 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5232 
  5233 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5234 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5235 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5236 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5237 
  5238 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5239 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5240 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5241 theory RealVector.
  5242 
  5243 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5244 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5245 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5246 and inner products are included.
  5247 
  5248 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5249 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5250 supported.
  5251 
  5252 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5253 first diagonalization argument.
  5254 
  5255 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5256 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5257 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5258 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5259 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5260 
  5261     hide (open) const gcd
  5262     abbreviation gcd where
  5263       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5264     notation (output)
  5265       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5266 
  5267 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5268 
  5269 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5270 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5271 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5272 
  5273 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5274 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5275 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5276 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5277 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5278 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5279 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5280 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5281 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5282 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5283 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5284 cases.
  5285 
  5286 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5287 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5288 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5289 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5290 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5291 
  5292     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5293     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5294     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5295     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5296     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5297 
  5298 
  5299 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5300 
  5301 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5302 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5303 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5304 
  5305 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5306 
  5307 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5308 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5309 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5310 
  5311 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5312 
  5313 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5314 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5315 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5316 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5317 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5318 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5319 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5320 
  5321 
  5322 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5323 
  5324 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5325 
  5326 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5327 theory targets.
  5328 
  5329 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5330 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5331 'inductive' etc.
  5332 
  5333 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5334 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5335 
  5336 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5337 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5338 
  5339 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5340 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5341 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5342 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5343 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5344 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5345 the algorithm W:
  5346 
  5347  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5348  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5349          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5350 
  5351 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5352 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5353 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5354 
  5355 
  5356 *** HOLCF ***
  5357 
  5358 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5359 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5360 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5361 
  5362 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5363 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5364 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5365 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5366 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5367 
  5368 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5369 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5370 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5371 
  5372 
  5373 *** ZF ***
  5374 
  5375 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5376 
  5377 
  5378 *** ML ***
  5379 
  5380 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5381 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5382 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5383 5.2.1!
  5384 
  5385 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5386 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5387 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5388 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5389 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5390 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5391 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5392 
  5393 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5394 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5395 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5396 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5397 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5398 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5399 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5400 
  5401 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5402 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5403 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5404 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5405 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5406 
  5407 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5408 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5409 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5410 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5411 Method.add_method.
  5412 
  5413 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5414 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5415 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5416 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5417 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5418 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5419 
  5420 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5421 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5422 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5423 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5424 examples.
  5425 
  5426 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5427 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5428 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5429 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5430 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5431 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5432 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5433 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5434 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5435 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5436 
  5437 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5438 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5439 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5440 
  5441 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5442 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5443 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5444 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5445 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5446 resort for legacy applications.
  5447 
  5448 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5449 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5450 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5451 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5452 explicit runtime argument.
  5453 
  5454 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5455 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5456 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5457 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5458 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5459 
  5460 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5461 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5462 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5463 theory state.
  5464 
  5465 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5466 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5467 
  5468   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5469   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5470   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5471   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5472   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5473   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5474   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5475   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5476   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5477   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5478 
  5479 
  5480 *** System ***
  5481 
  5482 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5483 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5484 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5485 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5486 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5487 
  5488 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5489 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5490 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5491 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5492 
  5493 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5494 
  5495 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5496 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5497 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5498 prover operations.
  5499 
  5500 
  5501 
  5502 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5503 -------------------------------
  5504 
  5505 *** General ***
  5506 
  5507 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5508 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5509 
  5510 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5511 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5512 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5513 provides a proper context already.
  5514 
  5515 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5516 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5517 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5518 
  5519 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5520 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5521 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5522 swap theory imports.
  5523 
  5524 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5525 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5526 
  5527 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5528 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5529 white space without escapes.
  5530 
  5531 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5532 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5533 "foo_bar".
  5534 
  5535 
  5536 *** Pure ***
  5537 
  5538 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5539 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5540 
  5541 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5542 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5543 
  5544 (1) unused_thms
  5545      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5546 
  5547 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5548      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5549      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5550 
  5551 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5552      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5553      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5554      their ancestors.
  5555 
  5556 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5557 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5558 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5559 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5560 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5561 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5562 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5563 
  5564 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5565 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5566 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5567 
  5568 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5569 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5570 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5571 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5572 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5573 
  5574 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5575 
  5576 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5577 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5578 update of theories within ML code.
  5579 
  5580 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5581 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5582 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5583 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5584 
  5585 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5586 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5587 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5588 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5589 
  5590 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5591 
  5592 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5593 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5594 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5595 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5596 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5597 
  5598 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5599 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5600 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5601 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5602 situations.
  5603 
  5604 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5605 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5606 proof text.
  5607 
  5608 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5609 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5610 
  5611 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5612 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5613 predicates.
  5614 
  5615 
  5616 *** Document preparation ***
  5617 
  5618 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5619 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5620 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5621 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5622 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5623 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5624 
  5625 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5626 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5627 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5628 
  5629 
  5630 *** HOL ***
  5631 
  5632 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5633 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5634 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5635 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5636 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5637 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5638 
  5639 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5640 with multithreading.
  5641 
  5642 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5643 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5644 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5645 
  5646 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5647 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5648 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5649 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5650 
  5651 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5652 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5653 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5654 and makes them available separately.  See
  5655 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5656 
  5657 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5658 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5659 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5660 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5661 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5662 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5663 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5664 the declared rules.
  5665 
  5666 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5667 
  5668   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5669 
  5670 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5671 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5672 
  5673 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5674 
  5675   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5676 
  5677   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5678     definitions on => and bool.
  5679 
  5680   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5681     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5682     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5683 
  5684       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5685       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5686       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5687       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5688       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5689       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5690       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5691       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5692 
  5693   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5694     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5695     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5696 
  5697   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5698     The proof pattern
  5699 
  5700       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5701       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5702 
  5703     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5704     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5705 
  5706       have "EX S. P S"
  5707       proof
  5708         show "P S" <...>
  5709       qed
  5710 
  5711   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5712     The proof pattern
  5713 
  5714       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5715       also have "S = T" <...>
  5716       finally have "P T" .
  5717 
  5718     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5719     must be replaced by something like
  5720 
  5721       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5722       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5723       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5724 
  5725   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5726     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5727 
  5728       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5729 
  5730     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5731     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5732     type of the form
  5733 
  5734       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5735 
  5736     rather than
  5737 
  5738       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5739 
  5740 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5741 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5742 
  5743 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5744 
  5745 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5746 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5747 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5748 
  5749 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5750 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5751 
  5752 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5753 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5754 
  5755 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5756 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5757 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5758 
  5759 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5760 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5761 
  5762   less_trans
  5763   less_linear
  5764   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5765   le_less_trans
  5766   less_le_trans
  5767   less_not_sym
  5768   less_asym
  5769 
  5770 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5771 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5772 and different variable names.
  5773 
  5774 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5775 
  5776 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5777 finite maps.
  5778 
  5779 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5780 
  5781 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5782 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5783 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5784 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5785 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5786 accordingly.
  5787 
  5788 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5789 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5790 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5791 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5792 
  5793 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5794 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5795 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5796 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5797 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5798 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5799 
  5800 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5801 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5802 
  5803 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5804 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5805 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5806 
  5807 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5808 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5809 
  5810 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5811 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5812 
  5813 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5814 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5815 
  5816 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5817 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5818 
  5819 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5820 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5821 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5822 
  5823 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5824 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5825 
  5826 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5827 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5828 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5829 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5830 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5831 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5832 
  5833 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5834 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5835 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5836 
  5837 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5838 
  5839 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5840 
  5841 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5842 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5843 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5844 
  5845 
  5846 *** ZF ***
  5847 
  5848 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5849 same session:
  5850 
  5851   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5852   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5853   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5854   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5855   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5856   List      -> List_ZF
  5857   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5858 
  5859 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5860 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5861 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5862 
  5863 
  5864 *** ML ***
  5865 
  5866 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5867 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5868 
  5869 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5870 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5871 
  5872 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5873 
  5874 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5875 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5876 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5877 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5878 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5879 
  5880 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5881 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5882 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5883 
  5884 
  5885 *** System ***
  5886 
  5887 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5888 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5889 
  5890 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5891 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5892 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5893 
  5894 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5895 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5896 
  5897 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5898 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5899 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5900 
  5901 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5902 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5903 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5904 
  5905 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5906 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5907 
  5908 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5909 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5910 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5911 script.
  5912 
  5913 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5914 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5915 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5916 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5917 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5918 
  5919 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5920 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5921 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5922 
  5923 
  5924 
  5925 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5926 -----------------------------------
  5927 
  5928 *** General ***
  5929 
  5930 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5931 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5932 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5933 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5934 
  5935 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5936 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5937 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5938 
  5939 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5940 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5941 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5942 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5943 
  5944 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5945 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5946 quotes.
  5947 
  5948 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5949 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5950 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5951 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5952 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5953 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5954 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5955 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5956 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5957 
  5958 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5959 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5960 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5961 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5962 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5963 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5964 
  5965 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5966 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5967 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5968 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5969 
  5970 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5971 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5972 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5973 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5974 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5975 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5976 
  5977 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5978 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5979 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5980 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5981 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5982 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5983 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5984 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5985 
  5986 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5987 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5988 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5989 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5990 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5991 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5992 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5993 
  5994 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5995 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5996 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5997 
  5998 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5999 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  6000 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  6001 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  6002 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  6003 limit is imposed.
  6004 
  6005 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  6006 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  6007 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  6008 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  6009 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  6010 and scalability.
  6011 
  6012 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  6013 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  6014 
  6015 
  6016 *** Document preparation ***
  6017 
  6018 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  6019 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  6020 current context.
  6021 
  6022 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  6023 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  6024 
  6025 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  6026 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  6027 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  6028 
  6029 
  6030 *** Pure ***
  6031 
  6032 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  6033 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  6034 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  6035 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  6036 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  6037 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  6038 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  6039 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  6040 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  6041 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  6042 
  6043 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  6044 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  6045 sketch:
  6046 
  6047     internal compilation:
  6048         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  6049     writing SML code to a file:
  6050         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  6051     writing OCaml code to a file:
  6052         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  6053     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  6054         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  6055 
  6056     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  6057         method ``eval''
  6058 
  6059 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  6060 
  6061 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  6062 
  6063     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  6064     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  6065     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  6066     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  6067 
  6068 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  6069 
  6070     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  6071       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  6072 
  6073     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  6074       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  6075 
  6076     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  6077       {(target)}+
  6078         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  6079 
  6080     code_class <and_list of classes>
  6081       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  6082         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  6083 
  6084 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  6085 
  6086 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  6087 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  6088 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  6089 codegen".
  6090 
  6091 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  6092 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  6093 annotations).
  6094 
  6095 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  6096 syntax.
  6097 
  6098 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  6099 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  6100 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  6101 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  6102 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  6103 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  6104 
  6105 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  6106 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  6107 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  6108 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  6109 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  6110 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  6111 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  6112 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  6113 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  6114 equations, see section "definitions".
  6115 
  6116 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  6117 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  6118 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  6119 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  6120 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  6121 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  6122 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  6123 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  6124 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  6125 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  6126 
  6127 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  6128 configuration options:
  6129 
  6130   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  6131   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  6132   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  6133   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  6134   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  6135   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  6136   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  6137   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  6138   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  6139 
  6140 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  6141 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  6142 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  6143 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  6144 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  6145 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  6146 order.
  6147 
  6148 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  6149 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  6150 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  6151 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  6152 context encountered later on.
  6153 
  6154 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  6155 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  6156 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  6157 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  6158 
  6159 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  6160 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  6161 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  6162 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  6163 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  6164 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  6165 
  6166 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  6167 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  6168 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  6169 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  6170 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  6171 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  6172 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  6173 more permissive.
  6174 
  6175 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  6176 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  6177 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  6178 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  6179 maintainability of proof texts.
  6180 
  6181 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  6182 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  6183 
  6184   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  6185   then guess x and y by clarify
  6186 
  6187 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  6188 proof tools being involved here.
  6189 
  6190 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  6191 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  6192 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  6193 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  6194 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  6195 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  6196 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  6197 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  6198 
  6199 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  6200 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  6201 certain special cases of literal facts:
  6202 
  6203   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  6204   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  6205   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  6206   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  6207 
  6208 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  6209 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  6210 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  6211 
  6212 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  6213 both named and unnamed ones.
  6214 
  6215 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  6216 
  6217   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  6218 
  6219 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  6220 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  6221 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  6222 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  6223 
  6224 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  6225 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  6226 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  6227 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  6228 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  6229 
  6230 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  6231 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  6232 
  6233 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  6234 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  6235 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  6236 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  6237 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  6238 originally first one.
  6239 
  6240 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  6241 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  6242 expected.
  6243 
  6244 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  6245 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  6246 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  6247 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  6248 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  6249 
  6250   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6251     assumes "EX x. P x"
  6252     obtains x where "P x"
  6253 
  6254   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6255     assumes "A & B"
  6256     obtains A and B
  6257 
  6258   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6259     assumes "A | B"
  6260     obtains
  6261       A
  6262     | B