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NEWS

author | haftmann |

Sat Sep 15 19:27:42 2007 +0200 (2007-09-15) | |

changeset 24587 | 4f2cbf6e563f |

parent 24507 | ac22a2a67100 |

child 24606 | 7acbb982fc77 |

permissions | -rw-r--r-- |

multi-functional value keyword

1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes

2 ==============================================

4 New in this Isabelle version

5 ----------------------------

7 *** General ***

9 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a

10 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the

11 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:

12 legacy features will disappear eventually.

14 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been

15 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''. Use isatool

16 fixheaders to convert existing theory files. INCOMPATIBILITY.

18 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been

19 discontinued altogether. Note that ML proof scripts may still be used

20 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML

21 function use_legacy_bindings. INCOMPATIBILITY.

23 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',

24 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords. INCOMPATIBILITY, use double

25 quotes.

27 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory

28 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the

29 accidental file locations of previously successful loads. The strict

30 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by

31 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several

32 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header

33 specification, but without merging the results. Potential

34 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands

35 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.

37 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file

38 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical

39 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting

40 (cf. the system manual). The new scheme allows to work with

41 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source

42 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.

44 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy

45 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy

46 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader no

47 longer maintains dependencies on such files.

49 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is now

50 limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous

51 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the

52 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and

53 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit

54 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.

56 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required

57 to keep existing proof scripts running. Most other user-level

58 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open

59 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).

60 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because

61 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being

62 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().

64 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"

65 criterion; "with_dups" option. Certain ProofGeneral versions might

66 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).

68 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1

69 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are

70 suppressed from proof state output. Note that the ProofGeneral

71 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but

72 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems

73 limit is imposed.

75 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of

76 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''. The body may

77 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism

78 that has been implemented on top of these primitives. This concept

79 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility

80 and scalability.

82 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;

83 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).

86 *** Document preparation ***

88 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,

89 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the

90 current context.

92 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which

93 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.

95 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation

96 "c args == rhs" given in the current context. (Any number of

97 arguments may be given on the LHS.)

101 *** Pure ***

103 * code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now referred

104 to by usual term syntax (including optional type annotations).

106 * code generator:

107 - Isar 'definition's, 'constdef's and primitive instance definitions are added

108 explicitly to the table of defining equations

109 - primitive definitions are not used as defining equations by default any longer

110 - defining equations are now definitly restricted to meta "==" and object

111 equality "="

112 - HOL theories have been adopted accordingly

114 * class_package.ML offers a combination of axclasses and locales to

115 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle. See

116 HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples.

118 * Yet another code generator framework allows to generate executable

119 code for ML and Haskell (including "class"es). A short usage sketch:

121 internal compilation:

122 code_gen <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML

123 writing SML code to a file:

124 code_gen <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>

125 writing OCaml code to a file:

126 code_gen <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>

127 writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:

128 code_gen <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>

130 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL/Main.

132 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:

134 [code fun]: select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant

135 [code fun del]: deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant

136 [code inline]: select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place

137 [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place

139 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):

141 code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>

142 {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+

144 code_type <and-list of type constructors>

145 {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+

147 code_instance <and-list of instances>

148 {(target)}+

149 where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>

151 code_class <and_list of classes>

152 {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+

153 where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?

155 code_instance and code_class only apply to target Haskell.

157 See HOL theories and HOL/ex/Codegenerator*.thy for usage examples.

158 Doc/Isar/Advanced/Codegen/ provides a tutorial.

160 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory

161 syntax.

163 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic

164 dependencies. The overloading scheme is slightly more general than

165 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact

166 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.

167 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more

168 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!

170 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the

171 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general

172 declaration given in the signature. For example, with the declaration

173 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented

174 as c(nat). Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural

175 recursion over such type arguments. Incomplete specification patterns

176 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the

177 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.

178 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive

179 equations, see section "definitions".

181 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof

182 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple

183 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data. Tools may

184 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to

185 these values using Config.get etc. Users may change options via an

186 associated attribute of the same name. This form of context

187 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or

188 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''. Thus it has become

189 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar

190 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.

192 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into

193 configuration options:

195 Unify.search_bound unify_search_bound

196 Unify.trace_bound unify_trace_bound

197 Unify.trace_simp unify_trace_simp

198 Unify.trace_types unify_trace_types

199 Simplifier.simp_depth_limit simp_depth_limit

200 Blast.depth_limit blast_depth_limit

201 DatatypeProp.dtK datatype_distinctness_limit

202 fast_arith_neq_limit fast_arith_neq_limit

203 fast_arith_split_limit fast_arith_split_limit

205 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context

206 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see

207 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML). The user may add or delete facts via

208 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command. This facility is

209 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way

210 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical

211 order.

213 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic

214 declaration functions written in ML. This enables arbitrary content

215 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the

216 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application

217 context encountered later on.

219 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures. Command

220 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body

221 text in ML). Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current

222 context. ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.

224 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations

225 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,

226 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on

227 the background context will persist. This form of in-place

228 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and

229 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.

231 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now

232 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying

233 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic

234 assumption steps. This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'

235 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",

236 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the

237 Isar proof context. POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is

238 more permissive.

240 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is

241 considered a legacy feature. Common applications like ``have A .''

242 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''. In general,

243 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and

244 maintainability of proof texts.

246 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives

247 the obtained context from the course of reasoning! For example:

249 assume "EX x y. A x & B y" -- "any previous fact"

250 then guess x and y by clarify

252 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and

253 proof tools being involved here.

255 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal

256 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax. This works wherever

257 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof

258 methods, attributes etc. Literal facts are retrieved from the context

259 according to unification of type and term parameters. For example,

260 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known

261 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:

262 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.

264 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition

265 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with

266 certain special cases of literal facts:

268 have "A" by fact == note `A`

269 have "A ==> B" by fact == note `A ==> B`

270 have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact == note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`

271 have "P a ==> Q a" by fact == note `P a ==> Q a`

273 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in

274 outer syntax. Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without

275 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.

277 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,

278 both named and unnamed ones.

280 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:

282 def x == "t" and y == "u"

284 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to

285 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given

286 rewrite rules. Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or

287 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.

289 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',

290 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities

291 (potentially conditional). The underlying notion of rewrite rule is

292 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the

293 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).

295 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the

296 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.

298 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a

299 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N

300 sub-goals, which need to exist. For example, ``simp_all [3]''

301 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]

302 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the

303 originally first one.

305 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order

306 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as

307 expected.

309 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either

310 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'

311 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and

312 assumptions). The latter allows to express general elimination rules

313 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:

315 lemma exE: -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

316 assumes "EX x. P x"

317 obtains x where "P x"

319 lemma conjE: -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

320 assumes "A & B"

321 obtains A and B

323 lemma disjE: -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

324 assumes "A | B"

325 obtains

326 A

327 | B

329 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"

330 explicitly:

332 lemma classical: -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

333 obtains "~ thesis"

335 lemma Peirce's_Law: -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

336 obtains "thesis ==> something"

338 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the

339 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.

340 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be

341 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the

342 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute

343 case_names).

345 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as

346 "assms" fact in the proof context. This is more appropriate than the

347 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current

348 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.

350 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or

351 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a

352 top-level lemma.

354 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context

355 introduction rule (default "that").

357 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

358 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens

359 to occur.

361 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant

362 according to the current context. This is particularly useful for

363 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant

364 representations independently of name spaces.

366 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"

367 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist

368 in the same context. INCOMPATIBILITY.

370 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'

371 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and

372 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic

373 representation of given constants retrieved from the context.

375 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',

376 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit

377 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence). See also the

378 isar-ref manual. Examples:

380 axiomatization

381 eq (infix "===" 50) where

382 eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"

384 definition "f x y = x + y + 1"

385 definition g where "g x = f x x"

387 abbreviation

388 neq (infix "=!=" 50) where

389 "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"

391 These specifications may be also used in a locale context. Then the

392 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the

393 constant name is qualified by the locale base name. An internal

394 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the

395 parameters implicit and using the original short name. See also

396 HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic

397 entities from a monomorphic theory.

399 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but

400 not inherited by general import expressions. Also note that

401 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +

402 'translations' in common applications.

404 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,

405 independently of name spaces. The parse tree representation is

406 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and

407 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.

409 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of

410 the current context. Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of

411 abbreviations on output.

413 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling:

414 - use of locales "var" and "struct" no longer necessary;

415 - parameter renamings are no longer required to be injective.

416 This enables, for example, to define a locale for endomorphisms thus:

417 locale endom = homom mult mult h.

419 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.

420 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is

421 now an interpretation. INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of

422 locale expressions. In particular, in interpretations of locales with

423 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not

424 removed automatically. Use methods `intro_locales' and

425 `unfold_locales'; see below.

427 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'

428 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates. The methods are

429 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.

430 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not

431 unfold predicates to assumptions.

433 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated

434 has changed. This enables to override declarations from fragments due

435 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.

437 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been

438 extended. One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are

439 unfolded in interpreted theorems. This is useful for replacing

440 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by

441 concepts already existing in the target context. Example:

443 interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]

444 where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"

446 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a definition

447 specification element in the context of locale partial_order.

449 * Provers/induct: improved internal context management to support

450 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level

451 connectives !! and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals

452 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long

453 obsolete anyway). The subsequent proof patterns illustrate advanced

454 techniques of natural induction; general datatypes and inductive sets

455 work analogously (see also src/HOL/Lambda for realistic examples).

457 (1) This is how to ``strengthen'' an inductive goal wrt. certain

458 parameters:

460 lemma

461 fixes n :: nat and x :: 'a

462 assumes a: "A n x"

463 shows "P n x"

464 using a -- {* make induct insert fact a *}

465 proof (induct n arbitrary: x) -- {* generalize goal to "!!x. A n x ==> P n x" *}

466 case 0

467 show ?case sorry

468 next

469 case (Suc n)

470 note `!!x. A n x ==> P n x` -- {* induction hypothesis, according to induction rule *}

471 note `A (Suc n) x` -- {* induction premise, stemming from fact a *}

472 show ?case sorry

473 qed

475 (2) This is how to perform induction over ``expressions of a certain

476 form'', using a locally defined inductive parameter n == "a x"

477 together with strengthening (the latter is usually required to get

478 sufficiently flexible induction hypotheses):

480 lemma

481 fixes a :: "'a => nat"

482 assumes a: "A (a x)"

483 shows "P (a x)"

484 using a

485 proof (induct n == "a x" arbitrary: x)

486 ...

488 See also HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy for an application of the this

489 particular technique.

491 (3) This is how to perform existential reasoning ('obtains' or

492 'obtain') by induction, while avoiding explicit object-logic

493 encodings:

495 lemma

496 fixes n :: nat

497 obtains x :: 'a where "P n x" and "Q n x"

498 proof (induct n arbitrary: thesis)

499 case 0

500 obtain x where "P 0 x" and "Q 0 x" sorry

501 then show thesis by (rule 0)

502 next

503 case (Suc n)

504 obtain x where "P n x" and "Q n x" by (rule Suc.hyps)

505 obtain x where "P (Suc n) x" and "Q (Suc n) x" sorry

506 then show thesis by (rule Suc.prems)

507 qed

509 Here the 'arbitrary: thesis' specification essentially modifies the

510 scope of the formal thesis parameter, in order to the get the whole

511 existence statement through the induction as expected.

513 * Provers/induct: mutual induction rules are now specified as a list

514 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually

515 provide foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar

516 (e.g. inductive sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to

517 specify mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:

519 (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)

520 (induct set: foo bar)

521 (induct type: foo bar)

523 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the

524 new format.

526 * Provers/induct: improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of

527 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into

528 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are

529 nested accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured

530 explicitly. For example:

532 lemma

533 fixes n :: nat

534 shows "P n" and "Q n"

535 proof (induct n)

536 case 0 case 1

537 show "P 0" sorry

538 next

539 case 0 case 2

540 show "Q 0" sorry

541 next

542 case (Suc n) case 1

543 note `P n` and `Q n`

544 show "P (Suc n)" sorry

545 next

546 case (Suc n) case 2

547 note `P n` and `Q n`

548 show "Q (Suc n)" sorry

549 qed

551 The split into subcases may be deferred as follows -- this is

552 particularly relevant for goal statements with local premises.

554 lemma

555 fixes n :: nat

556 shows "A n ==> P n" and "B n ==> Q n"

557 proof (induct n)

558 case 0

559 {

560 case 1

561 note `A 0`

562 show "P 0" sorry

563 next

564 case 2

565 note `B 0`

566 show "Q 0" sorry

567 }

568 next

569 case (Suc n)

570 note `A n ==> P n` and `B n ==> Q n`

571 {

572 case 1

573 note `A (Suc n)`

574 show "P (Suc n)" sorry

575 next

576 case 2

577 note `B (Suc n)`

578 show "Q (Suc n)" sorry

579 }

580 qed

582 If simultaneous goals are to be used with mutual rules, the statement

583 needs to be structured carefully as a two-level conjunction, using

584 lists of propositions separated by 'and':

586 lemma

587 shows "a : A ==> P1 a"

588 "a : A ==> P2 a"

589 and "b : B ==> Q1 b"

590 "b : B ==> Q2 b"

591 "b : B ==> Q3 b"

592 proof (induct set: A B)

594 * Provers/induct: support coinduction as well. See

595 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.

597 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic

598 variables (index 0). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

600 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level

601 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by

602 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The

603 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.

605 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format

606 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when

607 manipulating the claset.

609 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,

610 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at

611 least one premise.

613 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional

614 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions). Weights are

615 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single

616 rule steps.

618 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",

619 where the body does not mention the bound variable. Note that dummy

620 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes

621 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected. Potential

622 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic

623 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.

625 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated

626 parse translation. INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,

627 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".

629 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using

630 the graph browser tool.

632 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses entities with internal name

633 (trailing "_") by default; use '!' option for full details.

636 *** HOL ***

638 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration with new

639 class dense_linear_order.

641 * theory Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice, Linorder etc.

642 have disappeared; operations defined in terms of fold_set now are named

643 Inf_fin, Sup_fin. INCOMPATIBILITY.

645 * HOL-Word:

646 New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size machine

647 words, with arithemtic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating operations,

648 reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for linear

649 arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including

650 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity. Instantiated to all appropriate

651 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of

652 numerals on all operations. Jointly developed by NICTA, Galois, and

653 PSU.

655 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.

657 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).

659 * Code generator library theories:

660 * Pretty_Int represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target

661 languages.

662 * Pretty_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target

663 languages.

664 * Pretty_Char_chr like Pretty_Char, but also offers treatment of character

665 codes; includes Pretty_Int.

666 * Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.

667 * Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,

668 denominator).

669 * Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those

670 representable by rational numbers.

671 * Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will

672 result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;

673 includes Pretty_Int.

674 * ML_String provides an additional datatype ml_string; in the HOL default

675 setup, strings in HOL are mapped to lists of HOL characters in SML; values

676 of type ml_string are mapped to strings in SML.

677 * ML_Int provides an additional datatype ml_int which is mapped to to SML

678 built-in integers.

680 * New package for inductive predicates

682 An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via

684 inductive

685 p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

686 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

687 where

688 rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"

689 | ...

691 rather than

693 consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

695 abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

696 where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

698 inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"

699 intros

700 rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

701 ...

703 For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive

704 sets to be defined with the new package via

706 inductive_set

707 s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

708 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

709 where

710 rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

711 | ...

713 or

715 inductive_set

716 s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

717 and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

718 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

719 where

720 "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

721 | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"

722 | ...

724 if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.

726 Many examples can be found in the subdirectories Auth, Bali, Induct,

727 or MicroJava.

729 INCOMPATIBILITIES:

731 - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates

732 is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly introduced

733 sets or predicates must be specified together with the introduction

734 rules after the "where" keyword (see example above), rather than before

735 the actual inductive definition.

737 - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now quantified

738 in the order of their occurrence in the introduction rules, rather than

739 in alphabetical order. Since this may break some proofs, these proofs

740 either have to be repaired, e.g. by reordering the variables

741 a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar "case" statements of the form

743 case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})

745 or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding

746 meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.

748 | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"

750 - The format of the elimination rules is now

752 p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>

753 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)

754 ==> ... ==> P

756 for predicates and

758 (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>

759 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)

760 ==> ... ==> P

762 for sets rather than

764 x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>

765 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)

766 ==> ... ==> P

768 This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples (e.g. using case_tac

769 or simplification with the split_paired_all rule) before the above elimination

770 rule is applicable.

772 - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive sets or

773 predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The list of rules

774 "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.

776 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose

777 resolution prover. Examples are in the directory MetisExamples. See

778 also http://gilith.com/software/metis/

780 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as

781 background processes. It generates calls to the "metis" method if

782 successful. These can be pasted into the proof. Users do not have to

783 wait for the automatic provers to return.

785 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including "_") and

786 take their order into account, like in functional programming.

787 Internally, this is translated into nested case-expressions; missing cases

788 are added and mapped to the predefined constant "undefined". In complicated

789 cases printing may no longer show the original input but the internal

790 form. Lambda-abstractions allow the same form of pattern matching:

791 "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an abbreviation for

792 "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new variable.

794 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"

795 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification rules

796 for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did previously.

797 (potential INCOMPATIBILITY)

798 - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"

799 - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules

801 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using

802 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and

803 the tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the

804 method for a specific type involves instantiating the locale and

805 possibly adding declarations for computation on the coefficients.

806 The method is already instantiated for natural numbers and for the

807 axiomatic class of idoms with numerals. See also the paper by

808 Chaieb and Wenzel at CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles

809 underlying this architecture of context-aware proof-tools.

811 * constant "List.op @" now named "List.append". Use ML antiquotations

812 @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to circumvent

813 possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.

815 * Constant renames due to introduction of canonical name prefixing for

816 class package:

818 HOL.abs ~> HOL.minus_class.abs

819 HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide

820 Nat.power ~> Nat.power_class.power

821 Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size

822 Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of

823 FixedPoint.Inf ~> FixedPoint.complete_lattice_class.Inf

824 FixedPoint.Sup ~> FixedPoint.complete_lattice_class.Sup

826 * Rudimentary class target mechanism involves constant renames:

828 Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min

829 Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max

831 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary"

833 * new constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined"

835 * new class "default" with associated constant "default"

837 * new function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.

838 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)

840 * new (input only) syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension, eg

841 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y]

842 For details see List.thy.

844 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x : xs. P] to

845 [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list comprehension syntax,

846 and for uniformity. INCOMPATIBILITY

848 * Lemma "set_take_whileD" renamed to "set_takeWhileD"

850 * function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex

851 (and other numeric types).

852 The details: new class "sgn" with function "sgn";

853 two possible defs of sgn in the classes sgn_if and sgn_div_norm

854 (as equational assumptions);

855 ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if - INCOMPATIBILITY.

857 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps)

858 for manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies

859 with all denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations)

860 or positive/negative (in inequations).

862 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib

863 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and ring_distribs.

864 Removed lemmas field_xyz in Ring_and_Field

865 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.

866 INCOMPATIBILITY.

868 * Library/Pretty_Int.thy: maps HOL numerals on target language integer literals

869 when generating code.

871 * Library/Pretty_Char.thy: maps HOL characters on target language character literals

872 when generating code.

874 * Library/Commutative_Ring.thy: switched from recdef to function package;

875 constants add, mul, pow now curried. Infix syntax for algebraic operations.

877 * Some steps towards more uniform lattice theory development in HOL.

879 constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"

880 constant "Meet" now named "Inf"

882 classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named

883 "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"

884 class "lorder" now named "lattice"

885 class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"

887 Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions

888 for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).

890 INCOMPATIBILITY. Theorem renames:

892 meet_left_le ~> inf_le1

893 meet_right_le ~> inf_le2

894 join_left_le ~> sup_ge1

895 join_right_le ~> sup_ge2

896 meet_join_le ~> inf_sup_ord

897 le_meetI ~> le_infI

898 join_leI ~> le_supI

899 le_meet ~> le_inf_iff

900 le_join ~> ge_sup_conv

901 meet_idempotent ~> inf_idem

902 join_idempotent ~> sup_idem

903 meet_comm ~> inf_commute

904 join_comm ~> sup_commute

905 meet_leI1 ~> le_infI1

906 meet_leI2 ~> le_infI2

907 le_joinI1 ~> le_supI1

908 le_joinI2 ~> le_supI2

909 meet_assoc ~> inf_assoc

910 join_assoc ~> sup_assoc

911 meet_left_comm ~> inf_left_commute

912 meet_left_idempotent ~> inf_left_idem

913 join_left_comm ~> sup_left_commute

914 join_left_idempotent ~> sup_left_idem

915 meet_aci ~> inf_aci

916 join_aci ~> sup_aci

917 le_def_meet ~> le_iff_inf

918 le_def_join ~> le_iff_sup

919 join_absorp2 ~> sup_absorb2

920 join_absorp1 ~> sup_absorb1

921 meet_absorp1 ~> inf_absorb1

922 meet_absorp2 ~> inf_absorb2

923 meet_join_absorp ~> inf_sup_absorb

924 join_meet_absorp ~> sup_inf_absorb

925 distrib_join_le ~> distrib_sup_le

926 distrib_meet_le ~> distrib_inf_le

928 add_meet_distrib_left ~> add_inf_distrib_left

929 add_join_distrib_left ~> add_sup_distrib_left

930 is_join_neg_meet ~> is_join_neg_inf

931 is_meet_neg_join ~> is_meet_neg_sup

932 add_meet_distrib_right ~> add_inf_distrib_right

933 add_join_distrib_right ~> add_sup_distrib_right

934 add_meet_join_distribs ~> add_sup_inf_distribs

935 join_eq_neg_meet ~> sup_eq_neg_inf

936 meet_eq_neg_join ~> inf_eq_neg_sup

937 add_eq_meet_join ~> add_eq_inf_sup

938 meet_0_imp_0 ~> inf_0_imp_0

939 join_0_imp_0 ~> sup_0_imp_0

940 meet_0_eq_0 ~> inf_0_eq_0

941 join_0_eq_0 ~> sup_0_eq_0

942 neg_meet_eq_join ~> neg_inf_eq_sup

943 neg_join_eq_meet ~> neg_sup_eq_inf

944 join_eq_if ~> sup_eq_if

946 mono_meet ~> mono_inf

947 mono_join ~> mono_sup

948 meet_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_eq

949 join_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_eq

950 meet_fun_eq ~> inf_fun_eq

951 join_fun_eq ~> sup_fun_eq

952 meet_set_eq ~> inf_set_eq

953 join_set_eq ~> sup_set_eq

954 meet1_iff ~> inf1_iff

955 meet2_iff ~> inf2_iff

956 meet1I ~> inf1I

957 meet2I ~> inf2I

958 meet1D1 ~> inf1D1

959 meet2D1 ~> inf2D1

960 meet1D2 ~> inf1D2

961 meet2D2 ~> inf2D2

962 meet1E ~> inf1E

963 meet2E ~> inf2E

964 join1_iff ~> sup1_iff

965 join2_iff ~> sup2_iff

966 join1I1 ~> sup1I1

967 join2I1 ~> sup2I1

968 join1I1 ~> sup1I1

969 join2I2 ~> sup1I2

970 join1CI ~> sup1CI

971 join2CI ~> sup2CI

972 join1E ~> sup1E

973 join2E ~> sup2E

975 is_meet_Meet ~> is_meet_Inf

976 Meet_bool_def ~> Inf_bool_def

977 Meet_fun_def ~> Inf_fun_def

978 Meet_greatest ~> Inf_greatest

979 Meet_lower ~> Inf_lower

980 Meet_set_def ~> Inf_set_def

982 Sup_def ~> Sup_Inf

983 Sup_bool_eq ~> Sup_bool_def

984 Sup_fun_eq ~> Sup_fun_def

985 Sup_set_eq ~> Sup_set_def

987 listsp_meetI ~> listsp_infI

988 listsp_meet_eq ~> listsp_inf_eq

990 meet_min ~> inf_min

991 join_max ~> sup_max

993 * Classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and

994 "cases" renamed ro "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to

995 avoid clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans". INCOMPATIBILITY.

997 * Classes "order" and "linorder":

998 potential INCOMPATIBILITY: order of proof goals in order/linorder instance

999 proofs changed.

1001 * Dropped lemma duplicate def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.

1002 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1004 * Dropped lemma duplicate if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.

1005 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1007 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has

1008 type "'a::size ==> bool"

1010 * Renamed constants "Divides.op div", "Divides.op mod" and "Divides.op

1011 dvd" to "Divides.div_class.div", "Divides.div_class.mod" and "Divides.dvd". INCOMPATIBILITY.

1013 * Added method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes

1014 termination relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures

1015 -- 'function' package.

1017 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the

1018 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update

1019 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.

1020 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be

1021 adapted.

1023 * axclass "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and

1024 0 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring. Richer structures do

1025 not inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a

1026 theorem there, not an axiom. INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of

1027 semiring_0, there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.

1029 * axclass "recpower" was generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just

1030 commutative semirings. INCOMPATIBILITY: If you use recpower and need

1031 commutativity or a semiring property, add the corresponding classes.

1033 * Unified locale partial_order with class definition (cf. theory

1034 Orderings), added parameter ``less''. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1036 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.

1037 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong. On

1038 Isar level, use abbreviations instead.

1040 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.memberl" INCOMPATIBILITY:

1041 rarely occuring name references (e.g. ``List.op mem.simps'') require

1042 renaming (e.g. ``List.memberl.simps'').

1044 * Renamed constants "0" to "HOL.zero_class.zero" and "1" to "HOL.one_class.one".

1045 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1047 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic equality.

1049 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has

1050 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'. INCOMPATIBILITY --

1051 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:

1053 - new constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead

1054 of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.

1055 - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.

1056 - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.

1057 - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.

1059 See HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.

1061 * New top level command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a

1062 term that may contain free variables. For example ``normal_form

1063 "rev[a,b,c]"'' produces ``[b,c,a]'' (without proof). This command is

1064 suitable for heavy-duty computations because the functions are

1065 compiled to ML first.

1067 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority

1068 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is

1069 "A = B" (with priority 50).

1071 * Renamed constants in HOL.thy and Orderings.thy:

1072 op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus

1073 op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus

1074 uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus

1075 abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs

1076 op * ~> HOL.times_class.times

1077 op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less

1078 op <= ~> HOL.ord_class.less_eq

1080 Adaptions may be required in the following cases:

1082 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus", "times",

1083 "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for "+", "-" and "*"

1084 may go wrong.

1085 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.

1087 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"

1088 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.

1090 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")

1091 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative

1092 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows that

1093 this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle

1094 distribution).

1095 INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs

1097 d) ML code directly refering to constant names

1098 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and so on.

1099 INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names. Consider use

1100 of const_name ML antiquotations.

1102 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.

1103 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,

1104 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".

1106 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).

1108 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds

1109 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1111 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been

1112 removed. Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.

1114 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites

1115 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq_simproc"). For backward

1116 compatibility this can be disabled by ML "reset use_neq_simproc".

1118 * "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to True/False by

1119 simp.

1121 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as ``simp''.

1123 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.

1125 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the

1126 ``rule'' method.

1128 * Reimplemented methods ``sat'' and ``satx'', with several

1129 improvements: goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==>

1130 False", equivalences (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable

1131 names of the form "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant

1132 speedup.

1134 * Methods ``sat'' and ``satx'' can now replay MiniSat proof traces.

1135 zChaff is still supported as well.

1137 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,

1138 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;

1140 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to

1141 Library.

1143 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.

1145 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists

1146 as greatest fixed-point.

1148 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as

1149 association lists.

1151 * Added proof method ``evaluation'' for efficiently solving a goal

1152 (i.e. a boolean expression) by compiling it to ML. The goal is

1153 "proved" (via an oracle) if it evaluates to True.

1155 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)

1156 also when invoked by the simplifier. This results in the simplifier

1157 being more powerful on arithmetic goals. INCOMPATIBILITY. Set

1158 fast_arith_split_limit to 0 to obtain the old behavior.

1160 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.

1162 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an

1163 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional

1164 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the

1165 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The

1166 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs

1167 s. If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.

1169 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)

1170 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,

1171 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code

1172 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then

1173 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =

1174 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the

1175 subgoal. An Example is available in HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.

1177 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example

1178 is available in HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy

1181 *** HOL-Algebra ***

1183 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.

1185 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.

1186 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1188 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->

1189 greatest_closed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1191 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute. For examples see

1192 Ring.thy. INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations

1193 of algebraic structures.

1195 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.

1198 *** HOL-Complex ***

1200 * Theory Real: new method ferrack implements quantifier elimination

1201 for linear arithmetic over the reals. The quantifier elimination

1202 feature is used only for decision, for compatibility with arith. This

1203 means a goal is either solved or left unchanged, no simplification.

1205 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real

1206 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.

1207 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so

1208 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential

1209 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1211 * Real: New axiomatic classes formalize real normed vector spaces and

1212 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a

1213 and norm :: 'a => real.

1215 * Real: New constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects

1216 from reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set

1217 is now defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

1219 * Real: ML code generation is supported now and hence also quickcheck.

1220 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.

1222 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the

1223 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector

1224 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential

1225 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1227 Infinitesimal :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

1228 HFinite :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

1229 HInfinite :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

1230 approx :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool

1231 monad :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set

1232 galaxy :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set

1233 (NS)LIMSEQ :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool

1234 (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

1235 (NS)Bseq :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

1236 (NS)Cauchy :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

1237 (NS)LIM :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool

1238 is(NS)Cont :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool

1239 deriv :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool

1240 sgn :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a

1241 exp :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a

1243 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for

1244 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =

1245 hnorm. Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the

1246 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):

1248 approx <-- capprox

1249 HFinite <-- CFinite

1250 HInfinite <-- CInfinite

1251 Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal

1252 monad <-- cmonad

1253 galaxy <-- cgalaxy

1254 (NS)LIM <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM

1255 is(NS)Cont <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR

1256 (ns)deriv <-- (ns)cderiv

1259 *** ML ***

1261 * Generic arithmetic modules: Tools/integer.ML, Tools/rat.ML, Tools/float.ML

1263 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed

1264 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,

1265 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really

1266 need to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)

1268 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked

1269 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at

1270 compile-time. For example:

1272 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}

1273 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}

1274 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}

1275 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}

1276 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}

1277 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}

1278 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}

1279 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}

1280 ML {* @{const_name c} *}

1281 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}

1282 ML {* @{context} *}

1283 ML {* @{theory} *}

1284 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}

1285 ML {* @{simpset} *}

1286 ML {* @{claset} *}

1287 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}

1289 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.

1291 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with

1292 Toplevel.debug enabled.

1294 * Pure/library:

1296 val burrow: ('a list -> 'b list) -> 'a list list -> 'b list list

1297 val fold_burrow: ('a list -> 'c -> 'b list * 'd) -> 'a list list -> 'c -> 'b list list * 'd

1299 The semantics of "burrow" is: "take a function with *simulatanously*

1300 transforms a list of value, and apply it *simulatanously* to a list of

1301 list of values of the appropriate type". Compare this with "map" which

1302 would *not* apply its argument function simulatanously but in

1303 sequence; "fold_burrow" has an additional context.

1305 * Pure/library: functions map2 and fold2 with curried syntax for

1306 simultanous mapping and folding:

1308 val map2: ('a -> 'b -> 'c) -> 'a list -> 'b list -> 'c list

1309 val fold2: ('a -> 'b -> 'c -> 'c) -> 'a list -> 'b list -> 'c -> 'c

1311 * Pure/library: indexed lists - some functions in the Isabelle library

1312 treating lists over 'a as finite mappings from [0...n] to 'a have been

1313 given more convenient names and signatures reminiscent of similar

1314 functions for alists, tables, etc:

1316 val nth: 'a list -> int -> 'a

1317 val nth_map: int -> ('a -> 'a) -> 'a list -> 'a list

1318 val fold_index: (int * 'a -> 'b -> 'b) -> 'a list -> 'b -> 'b

1320 Note that fold_index starts counting at index 0, not 1 like foldln

1321 used to.

1323 * Pure/library: added general ``divide_and_conquer'' combinator on

1324 lists.

1326 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions

1327 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and

1328 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.

1330 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and

1331 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of

1332 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.

1334 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now

1335 use Context.generic instead of just theory.

1337 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always

1338 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory)

1339 vs. local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while

1340 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and

1341 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also

1342 structure Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably

1343 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type

1344 declarations and definitions.

1346 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in

1347 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the

1348 logic, but only for type inference.) IMPORTANT INTERNAL CHANGE,

1349 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

1351 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with

1352 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed

1353 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --

1354 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and

1355 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supercede

1356 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.

1358 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --

1359 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been

1360 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted

1361 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for

1362 attributes, methods, etc.

1364 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."

1365 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to

1366 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and

1367 fold_map combinators.

1369 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional

1370 comments (tags) are now strictly separate. Name hints -- which are

1371 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the

1372 derivation.

1374 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an

1375 actual goal state (thm). Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to

1376 achieve the old behaviour.

1378 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a

1379 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule

1380 statements.

1382 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now

1383 enforced instead of silently assumed. INCOMPATIBILITY, may use

1384 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.

1386 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating

1387 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc. This replaces

1388 some popular functions from term.ML:

1390 Term.variant -> Name.variant

1391 Term.variantlist -> Name.variant_list (*canonical argument order*)

1392 Term.invent_names -> Name.invent_list

1394 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations

1395 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).

1397 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper

1398 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context. For example,

1399 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and

1400 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces

1401 various freeze_thaw operations.

1403 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for

1404 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former

1405 Tactic.prove). Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results

1406 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for

1407 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard. Note that

1408 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is

1409 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or

1410 in a locale context).

1412 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception

1413 ERROR of string uniformly. Function error now merely raises ERROR,

1414 without any side effect on output channels. The Isar toplevel takes

1415 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions. ML code may use plain

1416 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:

1418 ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."

1420 Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be

1421 embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like

1422 this:

1424 Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)

1426 INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed

1427 obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,

1428 Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)

1429 -- use plain ERROR instead.

1431 * Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a

1432 list. INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.

1434 * Isar: installed ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context,

1435 subject to ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.

1437 * Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the

1438 theory before entering a proof state. Transactions now always see a

1439 quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and

1440 batch mode.

1442 * Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now

1443 contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the

1444 very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by

1445 simpset_of/local_simpset_of). Consequently, all plug-in components

1446 (solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.

1448 * Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the

1449 local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc

1450 etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this! Removed

1451 former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --

1452 INCOMPATIBILITY. Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to

1453 specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.

1455 * Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces

1456 change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a

1457 theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --

1458 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1460 * Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired

1461 "Trueprop" etc.

1464 *** System ***

1466 * settings: ML_IDENTIFIER -- which is appended to user specific heap

1467 locations -- now includes the Isabelle version identifier as well.

1468 This simplifies use of multiple Isabelle installations.

1470 * isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical

1471 operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source

1472 code.

1474 * Support for multithreading, using Poly/ML 5.1 (internal version from

1475 CVS). The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing independent

1476 theories, following the header specifications. The maximum number of

1477 worker threads is specified via usedir option -M or the "max-threads"

1478 setting in Proof General. A speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected

1479 on a 4-core machine, and up to 6 on a 8-core machine. User-code needs to

1480 observe certain guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A

1481 in the Isar Implementation manual.

1484 New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)

1485 ----------------------------------

1487 *** General ***

1489 * Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is

1491 theory <name>

1492 imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>

1493 uses <file1> ... <fileM>

1494 begin

1496 where the 'uses' part is optional. The previous syntax

1498 theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:

1500 will disappear in the next release. Use isatool fixheaders to convert

1501 existing theory files. Note that there is no change in ancient

1502 non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.

1504 * Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via

1505 relative and absolute paths.

1507 * Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a

1508 list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,

1509 simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select

1510 theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that

1511 match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified

1512 name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose

1513 lhs match term. Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects

1514 all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under

1515 'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f. Example:

1517 C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."

1519 prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",

1520 matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."

1521 in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).

1523 * Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of

1524 'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.

1526 * Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that

1527 Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both

1528 formal and informal parts). Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof

1529 General interface. Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):

1531 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html

1532 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html

1534 * Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the

1535 Classical Reasoner. Typical big applications run around 2 times

1536 faster.

1539 *** Document preparation ***

1541 * Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output

1542 of raw sources. Only those symbols that do not require additional

1543 LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are

1544 displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim. isatool display

1545 and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the

1546 DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).

1548 * Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,

1549 notably folding and hiding. Predefined tags include "theory" (for

1550 theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for

1551 commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and

1552 "invisible" are unused by default. Users may give explicit tag

1553 specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''. The

1554 interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document

1555 preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of

1556 isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,

1557 \isadroptag.

1559 Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool

1560 usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them). Typical

1561 specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present

1562 theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold

1563 proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit

1564 these parts without any formal replacement text. The Isabelle site

1565 default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as

1566 specified above.

1568 * Several new antiquotations:

1570 @{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;

1572 @{typeof term} prints the type of a term;

1574 @{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the

1575 argument is a known logical constant;

1577 @{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or

1578 theorem applying a "style" to it

1580 @{ML text}

1582 Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of

1583 definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the

1584 conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem19'

1585 to print the specified premise. TermStyle.add_style provides an ML

1586 interface for introducing further styles. See also the "LaTeX Sugar"

1587 document practical applications. The ML antiquotation prints

1588 type-checked ML expressions verbatim.

1590 * Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',

1591 and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which

1592 specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations. For

1593 example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.

1595 * Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative

1596 context interpreting the subsequent argument. For example: @{thm

1597 [locale=lattice] inf_assoc}.

1599 * Proper output of proof terms (@{prf ...} and @{full_prf ...}) within

1600 a proof context.

1602 * Proper output of antiquotations for theory commands involving a

1603 proof context (such as 'locale' or 'theorem (in loc) ...').

1605 * Delimiters of outer tokens (string etc.) now produce separate LaTeX

1606 macros (\isachardoublequoteopen, isachardoublequoteclose etc.).

1608 * isatool usedir: new option -C (default true) controls whether option

1609 -D should include a copy of the original document directory; -C false

1610 prevents unwanted effects such as copying of administrative CVS data.

1613 *** Pure ***

1615 * Considerably improved version of 'constdefs' command. Now performs

1616 automatic type-inference of declared constants; additional support for

1617 local structure declarations (cf. locales and HOL records), see also

1618 isar-ref manual. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to observe strictly

1619 sequential dependencies of definitions within a single 'constdefs'

1620 section; moreover, the declared name needs to be an identifier. If

1621 all fails, consider to fall back on 'consts' and 'defs' separately.

1623 * Improved indexed syntax and implicit structures. First of all,

1624 indexed syntax provides a notational device for subscripted

1625 application, using the new syntax \<^bsub>term\<^esub> for arbitrary

1626 expressions. Secondly, in a local context with structure

1627 declarations, number indexes \<^sub>n or the empty index (default

1628 number 1) refer to a certain fixed variable implicitly; option

1629 show_structs controls printing of implicit structures. Typical

1630 applications of these concepts involve record types and locales.

1632 * New command 'no_syntax' removes grammar declarations (and

1633 translations) resulting from the given syntax specification, which is

1634 interpreted in the same manner as for the 'syntax' command.

1636 * 'Advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) may depend

1637 on the signature of the theory context being presently used for

1638 parsing/printing, see also isar-ref manual.

1640 * Improved 'oracle' command provides a type-safe interface to turn an

1641 ML expression of type theory -> T -> term into a primitive rule of

1642 type theory -> T -> thm (i.e. the functionality of Thm.invoke_oracle

1643 is already included here); see also FOL/ex/IffExample.thy;

1644 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1646 * axclass: name space prefix for class "c" is now "c_class" (was "c"

1647 before); "cI" is no longer bound, use "c.intro" instead.

1648 INCOMPATIBILITY. This change avoids clashes of fact bindings for

1649 axclasses vs. locales.

1651 * Improved internal renaming of symbolic identifiers -- attach primes

1652 instead of base 26 numbers.

1654 * New flag show_question_marks controls printing of leading question

1655 marks in schematic variable names.

1657 * In schematic variable names, *any* symbol following \<^isub> or

1658 \<^isup> is now treated as part of the base name. For example, the

1659 following works without printing of awkward ".0" indexes:

1661 lemma "x\<^isub>1 = x\<^isub>2 ==> x\<^isub>2 = x\<^isub>1"

1662 by simp

1664 * Inner syntax includes (*(*nested*) comments*).

1666 * Pretty printer now supports unbreakable blocks, specified in mixfix

1667 annotations as "(00...)".

1669 * Clear separation of logical types and nonterminals, where the latter

1670 may only occur in 'syntax' specifications or type abbreviations.

1671 Before that distinction was only partially implemented via type class

1672 "logic" vs. "{}". Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare cases of improper

1673 use of 'types'/'consts' instead of 'nonterminals'/'syntax'. Some very

1674 exotic syntax specifications may require further adaption

1675 (e.g. Cube/Cube.thy).

1677 * Removed obsolete type class "logic", use the top sort {} instead.

1678 Note that non-logical types should be declared as 'nonterminals'

1679 rather than 'types'. INCOMPATIBILITY for new object-logic

1680 specifications.

1682 * Attributes 'induct' and 'cases': type or set names may now be

1683 locally fixed variables as well.

1685 * Simplifier: can now control the depth to which conditional rewriting

1686 is traced via the PG menu Isabelle -> Settings -> Trace Simp Depth

1687 Limit.

1689 * Simplifier: simplification procedures may now take the current

1690 simpset into account (cf. Simplifier.simproc(_i) / mk_simproc

1691 interface), which is very useful for calling the Simplifier

1692 recursively. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: the 'prems' argument of simprocs

1693 is gone -- use prems_of_ss on the simpset instead. Moreover, the

1694 low-level mk_simproc no longer applies Logic.varify internally, to

1695 allow for use in a context of fixed variables.

1697 * thin_tac now works even if the assumption being deleted contains !!

1698 or ==>. More generally, erule now works even if the major premise of

1699 the elimination rule contains !! or ==>.

1701 * Method 'rules' has been renamed to 'iprover'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1703 * Reorganized bootstrapping of the Pure theories; CPure is now derived

1704 from Pure, which contains all common declarations already. Both

1705 theories are defined via plain Isabelle/Isar .thy files.

1706 INCOMPATIBILITY: elements of CPure (such as the CPure.intro /

1707 CPure.elim / CPure.dest attributes) now appear in the Pure name space;

1708 use isatool fixcpure to adapt your theory and ML sources.

1710 * New syntax 'name(i-j, i-, i, ...)' for referring to specific

1711 selections of theorems in named facts via index ranges.

1713 * 'print_theorems': in theory mode, really print the difference

1714 wrt. the last state (works for interactive theory development only),

1715 in proof mode print all local facts (cf. 'print_facts');

1717 * 'hide': option '(open)' hides only base names.

1719 * More efficient treatment of intermediate checkpoints in interactive

1720 theory development.

1722 * Code generator is now invoked via code_module (incremental code

1723 generation) and code_library (modular code generation, ML structures

1724 for each theory). INCOMPATIBILITY: new keywords 'file' and 'contains'

1725 must be quoted when used as identifiers.

1727 * New 'value' command for reading, evaluating and printing terms using

1728 the code generator. INCOMPATIBILITY: command keyword 'value' must be

1729 quoted when used as identifier.

1732 *** Locales ***

1734 * New commands for the interpretation of locale expressions in

1735 theories (1), locales (2) and proof contexts (3). These generate

1736 proof obligations from the expression specification. After the

1737 obligations have been discharged, theorems of the expression are added

1738 to the theory, target locale or proof context. The synopsis of the

1739 commands is a follows:

1741 (1) interpretation expr inst

1742 (2) interpretation target < expr

1743 (3) interpret expr inst

1745 Interpretation in theories and proof contexts require a parameter

1746 instantiation of terms from the current context. This is applied to

1747 specifications and theorems of the interpreted expression.

1748 Interpretation in locales only permits parameter renaming through the

1749 locale expression. Interpretation is smart in that interpretations

1750 that are active already do not occur in proof obligations, neither are

1751 instantiated theorems stored in duplicate. Use 'print_interps' to

1752 inspect active interpretations of a particular locale. For details,

1753 see the Isar Reference manual. Examples can be found in

1754 HOL/Finite_Set.thy and HOL/Algebra/UnivPoly.thy.

1756 INCOMPATIBILITY: former 'instantiate' has been withdrawn, use

1757 'interpret' instead.

1759 * New context element 'constrains' for adding type constraints to

1760 parameters.

1762 * Context expressions: renaming of parameters with syntax

1763 redeclaration.

1765 * Locale declaration: 'includes' disallowed.

1767 * Proper static binding of attribute syntax -- i.e. types / terms /

1768 facts mentioned as arguments are always those of the locale definition

1769 context, independently of the context of later invocations. Moreover,

1770 locale operations (renaming and type / term instantiation) are applied

1771 to attribute arguments as expected.

1773 INCOMPATIBILITY of the ML interface: always pass Attrib.src instead of

1774 actual attributes; rare situations may require Attrib.attribute to

1775 embed those attributes into Attrib.src that lack concrete syntax.

1776 Attribute implementations need to cooperate properly with the static

1777 binding mechanism. Basic parsers Args.XXX_typ/term/prop and

1778 Attrib.XXX_thm etc. already do the right thing without further

1779 intervention. Only unusual applications -- such as "where" or "of"

1780 (cf. src/Pure/Isar/attrib.ML), which process arguments depending both

1781 on the context and the facts involved -- may have to assign parsed

1782 values to argument tokens explicitly.

1784 * Changed parameter management in theorem generation for long goal

1785 statements with 'includes'. INCOMPATIBILITY: produces a different

1786 theorem statement in rare situations.

1788 * Locale inspection command 'print_locale' omits notes elements. Use

1789 'print_locale!' to have them included in the output.

1792 *** Provers ***

1794 * Provers/hypsubst.ML: improved version of the subst method, for

1795 single-step rewriting: it now works in bound variable contexts. New is

1796 'subst (asm)', for rewriting an assumption. INCOMPATIBILITY: may

1797 rewrite a different subterm than the original subst method, which is

1798 still available as 'simplesubst'.

1800 * Provers/quasi.ML: new transitivity reasoners for transitivity only

1801 and quasi orders.

1803 * Provers/trancl.ML: new transitivity reasoner for transitive and

1804 reflexive-transitive closure of relations.

1806 * Provers/blast.ML: new reference depth_limit to make blast's depth

1807 limit (previously hard-coded with a value of 20) user-definable.

1809 * Provers/simplifier.ML has been moved to Pure, where Simplifier.setup

1810 is peformed already. Object-logics merely need to finish their

1811 initial simpset configuration as before. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1814 *** HOL ***

1816 * Symbolic syntax of Hilbert Choice Operator is now as follows:

1818 syntax (epsilon)

1819 "_Eps" :: "[pttrn, bool] => 'a" ("(3\<some>_./ _)" [0, 10] 10)

1821 The symbol \<some> is displayed as the alternative epsilon of LaTeX

1822 and x-symbol; use option '-m epsilon' to get it actually printed.

1823 Moreover, the mathematically important symbolic identifier \<epsilon>

1824 becomes available as variable, constant etc. INCOMPATIBILITY,

1826 * "x > y" abbreviates "y < x" and "x >= y" abbreviates "y <= x".

1827 Similarly for all quantifiers: "ALL x > y" etc. The x-symbol for >=

1828 is \<ge>. New transitivity rules have been added to HOL/Orderings.thy to

1829 support corresponding Isar calculations.

1831 * "{x:A. P}" abbreviates "{x. x:A & P}", and similarly for "\<in>"

1832 instead of ":".

1834 * theory SetInterval: changed the syntax for open intervals:

1836 Old New

1837 {..n(} {..<n}

1838 {)n..} {n<..}

1839 {m..n(} {m..<n}

1840 {)m..n} {m<..n}

1841 {)m..n(} {m<..<n}

1843 The old syntax is still supported but will disappear in the next

1844 release. For conversion use the following Emacs search and replace

1845 patterns (these are not perfect but work quite well):

1847 {)\([^\.]*\)\.\. -> {\1<\.\.}

1848 \.\.\([^(}]*\)(} -> \.\.<\1}

1850 * Theory Commutative_Ring (in Library): method comm_ring for proving

1851 equalities in commutative rings; method 'algebra' provides a generic

1852 interface.

1854 * Theory Finite_Set: changed the syntax for 'setsum', summation over

1855 finite sets: "setsum (%x. e) A", which used to be "\<Sum>x:A. e", is

1856 now either "SUM x:A. e" or "\<Sum>x \<in> A. e". The bound variable can

1857 be a tuple pattern.

1859 Some new syntax forms are available:

1861 "\<Sum>x | P. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {x. P}"

1862 "\<Sum>x = a..b. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {a..b}"

1863 "\<Sum>x = a..<b. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {a..<b}"

1864 "\<Sum>x < k. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {..<k}"

1866 The latter form "\<Sum>x < k. e" used to be based on a separate

1867 function "Summation", which has been discontinued.

1869 * theory Finite_Set: in structured induction proofs, the insert case

1870 is now 'case (insert x F)' instead of the old counterintuitive 'case

1871 (insert F x)'.

1873 * The 'refute' command has been extended to support a much larger

1874 fragment of HOL, including axiomatic type classes, constdefs and

1875 typedefs, inductive datatypes and recursion.

1877 * New tactics 'sat' and 'satx' to prove propositional tautologies.

1878 Requires zChaff with proof generation to be installed. See

1879 HOL/ex/SAT_Examples.thy for examples.

1881 * Datatype induction via method 'induct' now preserves the name of the

1882 induction variable. For example, when proving P(xs::'a list) by

1883 induction on xs, the induction step is now P(xs) ==> P(a#xs) rather

1884 than P(list) ==> P(a#list) as previously. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY

1885 in unstructured proof scripts.

1887 * Reworked implementation of records. Improved scalability for

1888 records with many fields, avoiding performance problems for type

1889 inference. Records are no longer composed of nested field types, but

1890 of nested extension types. Therefore the record type only grows linear

1891 in the number of extensions and not in the number of fields. The

1892 top-level (users) view on records is preserved. Potential

1893 INCOMPATIBILITY only in strange cases, where the theory depends on the

1894 old record representation. The type generated for a record is called

1895 <record_name>_ext_type.

1897 Flag record_quick_and_dirty_sensitive can be enabled to skip the

1898 proofs triggered by a record definition or a simproc (if

1899 quick_and_dirty is enabled). Definitions of large records can take

1900 quite long.

1902 New simproc record_upd_simproc for simplification of multiple record

1903 updates enabled by default. Moreover, trivial updates are also

1904 removed: r(|x := x r|) = r. INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break

1905 occasionally, since simplification is more powerful by default.

1907 * typedef: proper support for polymorphic sets, which contain extra

1908 type-variables in the term.

1910 * Simplifier: automatically reasons about transitivity chains

1911 involving "trancl" (r^+) and "rtrancl" (r^*) by setting up tactics

1912 provided by Provers/trancl.ML as additional solvers. INCOMPATIBILITY:

1913 old proofs break occasionally as simplification may now solve more

1914 goals than previously.

1916 * Simplifier: converts x <= y into x = y if assumption y <= x is

1917 present. Works for all partial orders (class "order"), in particular

1918 numbers and sets. For linear orders (e.g. numbers) it treats ~ x < y

1919 just like y <= x.

1921 * Simplifier: new simproc for "let x = a in f x". If a is a free or

1922 bound variable or a constant then the let is unfolded. Otherwise

1923 first a is simplified to b, and then f b is simplified to g. If

1924 possible we abstract b from g arriving at "let x = b in h x",

1925 otherwise we unfold the let and arrive at g. The simproc can be

1926 enabled/disabled by the reference use_let_simproc. Potential

1927 INCOMPATIBILITY since simplification is more powerful by default.

1929 * Classical reasoning: the meson method now accepts theorems as arguments.

1931 * Prover support: pre-release of the Isabelle-ATP linkup, which runs background

1932 jobs to provide advice on the provability of subgoals.

1934 * Theory OrderedGroup and Ring_and_Field: various additions and

1935 improvements to faciliate calculations involving equalities and

1936 inequalities.

1938 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

1939 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

1941 abs_eq now named abs_of_nonneg

1942 abs_of_ge_0 now named abs_of_nonneg

1943 abs_minus_eq now named abs_of_nonpos

1944 imp_abs_id now named abs_of_nonneg

1945 imp_abs_neg_id now named abs_of_nonpos

1946 mult_pos now named mult_pos_pos

1947 mult_pos_le now named mult_nonneg_nonneg

1948 mult_pos_neg_le now named mult_nonneg_nonpos

1949 mult_pos_neg2_le now named mult_nonneg_nonpos2

1950 mult_neg now named mult_neg_neg

1951 mult_neg_le now named mult_nonpos_nonpos

1953 * The following lemmas in Ring_and_Field have been added to the simplifier:

1955 zero_le_square

1956 not_square_less_zero

1958 The following lemmas have been deleted from Real/RealPow:

1960 realpow_zero_zero

1961 realpow_two

1962 realpow_less

1963 zero_le_power

1964 realpow_two_le

1965 abs_realpow_two

1966 realpow_two_abs

1968 * Theory Parity: added rules for simplifying exponents.

1970 * Theory List:

1972 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

1973 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

1975 list_all_Nil now named list_all.simps(1)

1976 list_all_Cons now named list_all.simps(2)

1977 list_all_conv now named list_all_iff

1978 set_mem_eq now named mem_iff

1980 * Theories SetsAndFunctions and BigO (see HOL/Library) support

1981 asymptotic "big O" calculations. See the notes in BigO.thy.

1984 *** HOL-Complex ***

1986 * Theory RealDef: better support for embedding natural numbers and

1987 integers in the reals.

1989 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

1990 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

1992 exp_ge_add_one_self now requires no hypotheses

1993 real_of_int_add reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

1994 real_of_int_minus reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

1995 real_of_int_diff reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

1996 real_of_int_mult reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

1998 * Theory RComplete: expanded support for floor and ceiling functions.

2000 * Theory Ln is new, with properties of the natural logarithm

2002 * Hyperreal: There is a new type constructor "star" for making

2003 nonstandard types. The old type names are now type synonyms:

2005 hypreal = real star

2006 hypnat = nat star

2007 hcomplex = complex star

2009 * Hyperreal: Many groups of similarly-defined constants have been

2010 replaced by polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):

2012 star_of <-- hypreal_of_real, hypnat_of_nat, hcomplex_of_complex

2014 starset <-- starsetNat, starsetC

2015 *s* <-- *sNat*, *sc*

2016 starset_n <-- starsetNat_n, starsetC_n

2017 *sn* <-- *sNatn*, *scn*

2018 InternalSets <-- InternalNatSets, InternalCSets

2020 starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

2021 *f* <-- *fNat*, *fNat2*, *fc*, *fRc*, *fcR*

2022 starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n

2023 *fn* <-- *fNatn*, *fNat2n*, *fcn*, *fRcn*, *fcRn*

2024 InternalFuns <-- InternalNatFuns, InternalNatFuns2, Internal{C,RC,CR}Funs

2026 * Hyperreal: Many type-specific theorems have been removed in favor of

2027 theorems specific to various axiomatic type classes (INCOMPATIBILITY):

2029 add_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_commute

2030 add_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_assocs

2031 OrderedGroup.add_0 <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_zero_left

2032 OrderedGroup.add_0_right <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_zero_right

2033 right_minus <-- hypreal_add_minus

2034 left_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_minus_left

2035 mult_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_commute

2036 mult_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_assoc

2037 mult_1_left <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_1, hcomplex_mult_one_left

2038 mult_1_right <-- hcomplex_mult_one_right

2039 mult_zero_left <-- hcomplex_mult_zero_left

2040 left_distrib <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_mult_distrib

2041 right_distrib <-- hypnat_add_mult_distrib2

2042 zero_neq_one <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_not_eq_one

2043 right_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse

2044 left_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse_left, hcomplex_mult_inv_left

2045 order_refl <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_refl

2046 order_trans <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_trans

2047 order_antisym <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_anti_sym

2048 order_less_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less_le

2049 linorder_linear <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_linear

2050 add_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_add_left_mono

2051 mult_strict_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_less_mono2

2052 add_nonneg_nonneg <-- hypreal_le_add_order

2054 * Hyperreal: Separate theorems having to do with type-specific

2055 versions of constants have been merged into theorems that apply to the

2056 new polymorphic constants (INCOMPATIBILITY):

2058 STAR_UNIV_set <-- {STAR_real,NatStar_real,STARC_complex}_set

2059 STAR_empty_set <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_empty_set

2060 STAR_Un <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Un

2061 STAR_Int <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Int

2062 STAR_Compl <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Compl

2063 STAR_subset <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_subset

2064 STAR_mem <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_mem

2065 STAR_mem_Compl <-- {STAR,STARC}_mem_Compl

2066 STAR_diff <-- {STAR,STARC}_diff

2067 STAR_star_of_image_subset <-- {STAR_hypreal_of_real, NatStar_hypreal_of_real,

2068 STARC_hcomplex_of_complex}_image_subset

2069 starset_n_Un <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Un

2070 starset_n_Int <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Int

2071 starset_n_Compl <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Compl

2072 starset_n_diff <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_diff

2073 InternalSets_Un <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Un

2074 InternalSets_Int <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Int

2075 InternalSets_Compl <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Compl

2076 InternalSets_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_diff

2077 InternalSets_UNIV_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_UNIV_diff

2078 InternalSets_starset_n <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_starset{Nat,C}_n

2079 starset_starset_n_eq <-- starset{Nat,C}_starset{Nat,C}_n_eq

2080 starset_n_starset <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_starset{Nat,C}

2081 starfun_n_starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n_starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

2082 starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

2083 starfun_mult <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_mult

2084 starfun_add <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_add

2085 starfun_minus <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_minus

2086 starfun_diff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_diff

2087 starfun_o <-- starfun{NatNat2,Nat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o

2088 starfun_o2 <-- starfun{NatNat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o2

2089 starfun_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_const_fun

2090 starfun_inverse <-- starfun{Nat,C,RC,CR}_inverse

2091 starfun_eq <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_eq

2092 starfun_eq_iff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_eq_iff

2093 starfun_Id <-- starfunC_Id

2094 starfun_approx <-- starfun{Nat,CR}_approx

2095 starfun_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_capprox

2096 starfun_abs <-- starfunNat_rabs

2097 starfun_lambda_cancel <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel

2098 starfun_lambda_cancel2 <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel2

2099 starfun_mult_HFinite_approx <-- starfunCR_mult_HFinite_capprox

2100 starfun_mult_CFinite_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_mult_CFinite_capprox

2101 starfun_add_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_add_capprox

2102 starfun_add_approx <-- starfunCR_add_approx

2103 starfun_inverse_inverse <-- starfunC_inverse_inverse

2104 starfun_divide <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_divide

2105 starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n

2106 starfun_n_mult <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_mult

2107 starfun_n_add <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_add

2108 starfun_n_add_minus <-- starfunNat_n_add_minus

2109 starfun_n_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_const_fun

2110 starfun_n_minus <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_minus

2111 starfun_n_eq <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_eq

2113 star_n_add <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add

2114 star_n_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_minus

2115 star_n_diff <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_diff

2116 star_n_mult <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_mult

2117 star_n_inverse <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_inverse

2118 star_n_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le

2119 star_n_less <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less

2120 star_n_zero_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_num

2121 star_n_one_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_one_num

2122 star_n_abs <-- hypreal_hrabs

2123 star_n_divide <-- hcomplex_divide

2125 star_of_add <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_add

2126 star_of_minus <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_minus

2127 star_of_diff <-- hypreal_of_real_diff

2128 star_of_mult <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_mult

2129 star_of_one <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_one

2130 star_of_zero <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_zero

2131 star_of_le <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_le_iff

2132 star_of_less <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_less_iff

2133 star_of_eq <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_eq_iff

2134 star_of_inverse <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_inverse

2135 star_of_divide <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_divide

2136 star_of_of_nat <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_nat

2137 star_of_of_int <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_int

2138 star_of_number_of <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_number_of

2139 star_of_number_less <-- number_of_less_hypreal_of_real_iff

2140 star_of_number_le <-- number_of_le_hypreal_of_real_iff

2141 star_of_eq_number <-- hypreal_of_real_eq_number_of_iff

2142 star_of_less_number <-- hypreal_of_real_less_number_of_iff

2143 star_of_le_number <-- hypreal_of_real_le_number_of_iff

2144 star_of_power <-- hypreal_of_real_power

2145 star_of_eq_0 <-- hcomplex_of_complex_zero_iff

2147 * Hyperreal: new method "transfer" that implements the transfer

2148 principle of nonstandard analysis. With a subgoal that mentions

2149 nonstandard types like "'a star", the command "apply transfer"

2150 replaces it with an equivalent one that mentions only standard types.

2151 To be successful, all free variables must have standard types; non-

2152 standard variables must have explicit universal quantifiers.

2154 * Hyperreal: A theory of Taylor series.

2157 *** HOLCF ***

2159 * Discontinued special version of 'constdefs' (which used to support

2160 continuous functions) in favor of the general Pure one with full

2161 type-inference.

2163 * New simplification procedure for solving continuity conditions; it

2164 is much faster on terms with many nested lambda abstractions (cubic

2165 instead of exponential time).

2167 * New syntax for domain package: selector names are now optional.

2168 Parentheses should be omitted unless argument is lazy, for example:

2170 domain 'a stream = cons "'a" (lazy "'a stream")

2172 * New command 'fixrec' for defining recursive functions with pattern

2173 matching; defining multiple functions with mutual recursion is also

2174 supported. Patterns may include the constants cpair, spair, up, sinl,

2175 sinr, or any data constructor defined by the domain package. The given

2176 equations are proven as rewrite rules. See HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for

2177 syntax and examples.

2179 * New commands 'cpodef' and 'pcpodef' for defining predicate subtypes

2180 of cpo and pcpo types. Syntax is exactly like the 'typedef' command,

2181 but the proof obligation additionally includes an admissibility

2182 requirement. The packages generate instances of class cpo or pcpo,

2183 with continuity and strictness theorems for Rep and Abs.

2185 * HOLCF: Many theorems have been renamed according to a more standard naming

2186 scheme (INCOMPATIBILITY):

2188 foo_inject: "foo$x = foo$y ==> x = y"

2189 foo_eq: "(foo$x = foo$y) = (x = y)"

2190 foo_less: "(foo$x << foo$y) = (x << y)"

2191 foo_strict: "foo$UU = UU"

2192 foo_defined: "... ==> foo$x ~= UU"

2193 foo_defined_iff: "(foo$x = UU) = (x = UU)"

2196 *** ZF ***

2198 * ZF/ex: theories Group and Ring provide examples in abstract algebra,

2199 including the First Isomorphism Theorem (on quotienting by the kernel

2200 of a homomorphism).

2202 * ZF/Simplifier: install second copy of type solver that actually

2203 makes use of TC rules declared to Isar proof contexts (or locales);

2204 the old version is still required for ML proof scripts.

2207 *** Cube ***

2209 * Converted to Isar theory format; use locales instead of axiomatic

2210 theories.

2213 *** ML ***

2215 * Pure/library.ML: added ##>, ##>>, #>> -- higher-order counterparts

2216 for ||>, ||>>, |>>,

2218 * Pure/library.ML no longer defines its own option datatype, but uses

2219 that of the SML basis, which has constructors NONE and SOME instead of

2220 None and Some, as well as exception Option.Option instead of OPTION.

2221 The functions the, if_none, is_some, is_none have been adapted

2222 accordingly, while Option.map replaces apsome.

2224 * Pure/library.ML: the exception LIST has been given up in favour of

2225 the standard exceptions Empty and Subscript, as well as

2226 Library.UnequalLengths. Function like Library.hd and Library.tl are

2227 superceded by the standard hd and tl functions etc.

2229 A number of basic list functions are no longer exported to the ML

2230 toplevel, as they are variants of predefined functions. The following

2231 suggests how one can translate existing code:

2233 rev_append xs ys = List.revAppend (xs, ys)

2234 nth_elem (i, xs) = List.nth (xs, i)

2235 last_elem xs = List.last xs

2236 flat xss = List.concat xss

2237 seq fs = List.app fs

2238 partition P xs = List.partition P xs

2239 mapfilter f xs = List.mapPartial f xs

2241 * Pure/library.ML: several combinators for linear functional

2242 transformations, notably reverse application and composition:

2244 x |> f f #> g

2245 (x, y) |-> f f #-> g

2247 * Pure/library.ML: introduced/changed precedence of infix operators:

2249 infix 1 |> |-> ||> ||>> |>> |>>> #> #->;

2250 infix 2 ?;

2251 infix 3 o oo ooo oooo;

2252 infix 4 ~~ upto downto;

2254 Maybe INCOMPATIBILITY when any of those is used in conjunction with other

2255 infix operators.

2257 * Pure/library.ML: natural list combinators fold, fold_rev, and

2258 fold_map support linear functional transformations and nesting. For

2259 example:

2261 fold f [x1, ..., xN] y =

2262 y |> f x1 |> ... |> f xN

2264 (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] y =

2265 y |> fold f xs1 |> ... |> fold f xsN

2267 fold f [x1, ..., xN] =

2268 f x1 #> ... #> f xN

2270 (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] =

2271 fold f xs1 #> ... #> fold f xsN

2273 * Pure/library.ML: the following selectors on type 'a option are

2274 available:

2276 the: 'a option -> 'a (*partial*)

2277 these: 'a option -> 'a where 'a = 'b list

2278 the_default: 'a -> 'a option -> 'a

2279 the_list: 'a option -> 'a list

2281 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides

2282 basic operations for association lists, following natural argument

2283 order; moreover the explicit equality predicate passed here avoids

2284 potentially expensive polymorphic runtime equality checks.

2285 The old functions may be expressed as follows:

2287 assoc = uncurry (AList.lookup (op =))

2288 assocs = these oo AList.lookup (op =)

2289 overwrite = uncurry (AList.update (op =)) o swap

2291 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides

2293 val make: ('a -> 'b) -> 'a list -> ('a * 'b) list

2294 val find: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> ('c * 'b) list -> 'a -> 'c list

2296 replacing make_keylist and keyfilter (occassionally used)

2297 Naive rewrites:

2299 make_keylist = AList.make

2300 keyfilter = AList.find (op =)

2302 * eq_fst and eq_snd now take explicit equality parameter, thus

2303 avoiding eqtypes. Naive rewrites:

2305 eq_fst = eq_fst (op =)

2306 eq_snd = eq_snd (op =)

2308 * Removed deprecated apl and apr (rarely used).

2309 Naive rewrites:

2311 apl (n, op) =>>= curry op n

2312 apr (op, m) =>>= fn n => op (n, m)

2314 * Pure/General: structure OrdList (cf. Pure/General/ord_list.ML)

2315 provides a reasonably efficient light-weight implementation of sets as

2316 lists.

2318 * Pure/General: generic tables (cf. Pure/General/table.ML) provide a

2319 few new operations; existing lookup and update are now curried to

2320 follow natural argument order (for use with fold etc.);

2321 INCOMPATIBILITY, use (uncurry Symtab.lookup) etc. as last resort.

2323 * Pure/General: output via the Isabelle channels of

2324 writeln/warning/error etc. is now passed through Output.output, with a

2325 hook for arbitrary transformations depending on the print_mode

2326 (cf. Output.add_mode -- the first active mode that provides a output

2327 function wins). Already formatted output may be embedded into further

2328 text via Output.raw; the result of Pretty.string_of/str_of and derived

2329 functions (string_of_term/cterm/thm etc.) is already marked raw to

2330 accommodate easy composition of diagnostic messages etc. Programmers

2331 rarely need to care about Output.output or Output.raw at all, with

2332 some notable exceptions: Output.output is required when bypassing the

2333 standard channels (writeln etc.), or in token translations to produce

2334 properly formatted results; Output.raw is required when capturing

2335 already output material that will eventually be presented to the user

2336 a second time. For the default print mode, both Output.output and

2337 Output.raw have no effect.

2339 * Pure/General: Output.time_accumulator NAME creates an operator ('a

2340 -> 'b) -> 'a -> 'b to measure runtime and count invocations; the

2341 cumulative results are displayed at the end of a batch session.

2343 * Pure/General: File.sysify_path and File.quote_sysify path have been

2344 replaced by File.platform_path and File.shell_path (with appropriate

2345 hooks). This provides a clean interface for unusual systems where the

2346 internal and external process view of file names are different.

2348 * Pure: more efficient orders for basic syntactic entities: added

2349 fast_string_ord, fast_indexname_ord, fast_term_ord; changed sort_ord

2350 and typ_ord to use fast_string_ord and fast_indexname_ord (term_ord is

2351 NOT affected); structures Symtab, Vartab, Typtab, Termtab use the fast

2352 orders now -- potential INCOMPATIBILITY for code that depends on a

2353 particular order for Symtab.keys, Symtab.dest, etc. (consider using

2354 Library.sort_strings on result).

2356 * Pure/term.ML: combinators fold_atyps, fold_aterms, fold_term_types,

2357 fold_types traverse types/terms from left to right, observing natural

2358 argument order. Supercedes previous foldl_XXX versions, add_frees,

2359 add_vars etc. have been adapted as well: INCOMPATIBILITY.

2361 * Pure: name spaces have been refined, with significant changes of the

2362 internal interfaces -- INCOMPATIBILITY. Renamed cond_extern(_table)

2363 to extern(_table). The plain name entry path is superceded by a

2364 general 'naming' context, which also includes the 'policy' to produce

2365 a fully qualified name and external accesses of a fully qualified

2366 name; NameSpace.extend is superceded by context dependent

2367 Sign.declare_name. Several theory and proof context operations modify

2368 the naming context. Especially note Theory.restore_naming and

2369 ProofContext.restore_naming to get back to a sane state; note that

2370 Theory.add_path is no longer sufficient to recover from

2371 Theory.absolute_path in particular.

2373 * Pure: new flags short_names (default false) and unique_names

2374 (default true) for controlling output of qualified names. If

2375 short_names is set, names are printed unqualified. If unique_names is

2376 reset, the name prefix is reduced to the minimum required to achieve

2377 the original result when interning again, even if there is an overlap

2378 with earlier declarations.

2380 * Pure/TheoryDataFun: change of the argument structure; 'prep_ext' is

2381 now 'extend', and 'merge' gets an additional Pretty.pp argument

2382 (useful for printing error messages). INCOMPATIBILITY.

2384 * Pure: major reorganization of the theory context. Type Sign.sg and

2385 Theory.theory are now identified, referring to the universal

2386 Context.theory (see Pure/context.ML). Actual signature and theory

2387 content is managed as theory data. The old code and interfaces were

2388 spread over many files and structures; the new arrangement introduces

2389 considerable INCOMPATIBILITY to gain more clarity:

2391 Context -- theory management operations (name, identity, inclusion,

2392 parents, ancestors, merge, etc.), plus generic theory data;

2394 Sign -- logical signature and syntax operations (declaring consts,

2395 types, etc.), plus certify/read for common entities;

2397 Theory -- logical theory operations (stating axioms, definitions,

2398 oracles), plus a copy of logical signature operations (consts,

2399 types, etc.); also a few basic management operations (Theory.copy,

2400 Theory.merge, etc.)

2402 The most basic sign_of operations (Theory.sign_of, Thm.sign_of_thm

2403 etc.) as well as the sign field in Thm.rep_thm etc. have been retained

2404 for convenience -- they merely return the theory.

2406 * Pure: type Type.tsig is superceded by theory in most interfaces.

2408 * Pure: the Isar proof context type is already defined early in Pure

2409 as Context.proof (note that ProofContext.context and Proof.context are

2410 aliases, where the latter is the preferred name). This enables other

2411 Isabelle components to refer to that type even before Isar is present.

2413 * Pure/sign/theory: discontinued named name spaces (i.e. classK,

2414 typeK, constK, axiomK, oracleK), but provide explicit operations for

2415 any of these kinds. For example, Sign.intern typeK is now

2416 Sign.intern_type, Theory.hide_space Sign.typeK is now

2417 Theory.hide_types. Also note that former

2418 Theory.hide_classes/types/consts are now

2419 Theory.hide_classes_i/types_i/consts_i, while the non '_i' versions

2420 internalize their arguments! INCOMPATIBILITY.

2422 * Pure: get_thm interface (of PureThy and ProofContext) expects

2423 datatype thmref (with constructors Name and NameSelection) instead of

2424 plain string -- INCOMPATIBILITY;

2426 * Pure: cases produced by proof methods specify options, where NONE

2427 means to remove case bindings -- INCOMPATIBILITY in

2428 (RAW_)METHOD_CASES.

2430 * Pure: the following operations retrieve axioms or theorems from a

2431 theory node or theory hierarchy, respectively:

2433 Theory.axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list

2434 Theory.all_axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list

2435 PureThy.thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list

2436 PureThy.all_thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list

2438 * Pure: print_tac now outputs the goal through the trace channel.

2440 * Isar toplevel: improved diagnostics, mostly for Poly/ML only.

2441 Reference Toplevel.debug (default false) controls detailed printing

2442 and tracing of low-level exceptions; Toplevel.profiling (default 0)

2443 controls execution profiling -- set to 1 for time and 2 for space

2444 (both increase the runtime).

2446 * Isar session: The initial use of ROOT.ML is now always timed,

2447 i.e. the log will show the actual process times, in contrast to the

2448 elapsed wall-clock time that the outer shell wrapper produces.

2450 * Simplifier: improved handling of bound variables (nameless

2451 representation, avoid allocating new strings). Simprocs that invoke

2452 the Simplifier recursively should use Simplifier.inherit_bounds to

2453 avoid local name clashes. Failure to do so produces warnings

2454 "Simplifier: renamed bound variable ..."; set Simplifier.debug_bounds

2455 for further details.

2457 * ML functions legacy_bindings and use_legacy_bindings produce ML fact

2458 bindings for all theorems stored within a given theory; this may help

2459 in porting non-Isar theories to Isar ones, while keeping ML proof

2460 scripts for the time being.

2462 * ML operator HTML.with_charset specifies the charset begin used for

2463 generated HTML files. For example:

2465 HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Hebrew";

2466 HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Chinese";

2469 *** System ***

2471 * Allow symlinks to all proper Isabelle executables (Isabelle,

2472 isabelle, isatool etc.).

2474 * ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT setting specifies preferred document format (for

2475 isatool doc, isatool mkdir, display_drafts etc.).

2477 * isatool usedir: option -f allows specification of the ML file to be

2478 used by Isabelle; default is ROOT.ML.

2480 * New isatool version outputs the version identifier of the Isabelle

2481 distribution being used.

2483 * HOL: new isatool dimacs2hol converts files in DIMACS CNF format

2484 (containing Boolean satisfiability problems) into Isabelle/HOL

2485 theories.

2489 New in Isabelle2004 (April 2004)

2490 --------------------------------

2492 *** General ***

2494 * Provers/order.ML: new efficient reasoner for partial and linear orders.

2495 Replaces linorder.ML.

2497 * Pure: Greek letters (except small lambda, \<lambda>), as well as Gothic

2498 (\<aa>...\<zz>\<AA>...\<ZZ>), calligraphic (\<A>...\<Z>), and Euler

2499 (\<a>...\<z>), are now considered normal letters, and can therefore

2500 be used anywhere where an ASCII letter (a...zA...Z) has until

2501 now. COMPATIBILITY: This obviously changes the parsing of some

2502 terms, especially where a symbol has been used as a binder, say

2503 '\<Pi>x. ...', which is now a type error since \<Pi>x will be parsed

2504 as an identifier. Fix it by inserting a space around former

2505 symbols. Call 'isatool fixgreek' to try to fix parsing errors in

2506 existing theory and ML files.

2508 * Pure: Macintosh and Windows line-breaks are now allowed in theory files.

2510 * Pure: single letter sub/superscripts (\<^isub> and \<^isup>) are now

2511 allowed in identifiers. Similar to Greek letters \<^isub> is now considered

2512 a normal (but invisible) letter. For multiple letter subscripts repeat

2513 \<^isub> like this: x\<^isub>1\<^isub>2.

2515 * Pure: There are now sub-/superscripts that can span more than one

2516 character. Text between \<^bsub> and \<^esub> is set in subscript in

2517 ProofGeneral and LaTeX, text between \<^bsup> and \<^esup> in

2518 superscript. The new control characters are not identifier parts.

2520 * Pure: Control-symbols of the form \<^raw:...> will literally print the

2521 content of "..." to the latex file instead of \isacntrl... . The "..."

2522 may consist of any printable characters excluding the end bracket >.

2524 * Pure: Using new Isar command "finalconsts" (or the ML functions

2525 Theory.add_finals or Theory.add_finals_i) it is now possible to

2526 declare constants "final", which prevents their being given a definition

2527 later. It is useful for constants whose behaviour is fixed axiomatically

2528 rather than definitionally, such as the meta-logic connectives.

2530 * Pure: 'instance' now handles general arities with general sorts

2531 (i.e. intersections of classes),

2533 * Presentation: generated HTML now uses a CSS style sheet to make layout

2534 (somewhat) independent of content. It is copied from lib/html/isabelle.css.

2535 It can be changed to alter the colors/layout of generated pages.

2538 *** Isar ***

2540 * Tactic emulation methods rule_tac, erule_tac, drule_tac, frule_tac,

2541 cut_tac, subgoal_tac and thin_tac:

2542 - Now understand static (Isar) contexts. As a consequence, users of Isar

2543 locales are no longer forced to write Isar proof scripts.

2544 For details see Isar Reference Manual, paragraph 4.3.2: Further tactic

2545 emulations.

2546 - INCOMPATIBILITY: names of variables to be instantiated may no

2547 longer be enclosed in quotes. Instead, precede variable name with `?'.

2548 This is consistent with the instantiation attribute "where".

2550 * Attributes "where" and "of":

2551 - Now take type variables of instantiated theorem into account when reading

2552 the instantiation string. This fixes a bug that caused instantiated

2553 theorems to have too special types in some circumstances.

2554 - "where" permits explicit instantiations of type variables.

2556 * Calculation commands "moreover" and "also" no longer interfere with

2557 current facts ("this"), admitting arbitrary combinations with "then"

2558 and derived forms.

2560 * Locales:

2561 - Goal statements involving the context element "includes" no longer

2562 generate theorems with internal delta predicates (those ending on

2563 "_axioms") in the premise.

2564 Resolve particular premise with <locale>.intro to obtain old form.

2565 - Fixed bug in type inference ("unify_frozen") that prevented mix of target

2566 specification and "includes" elements in goal statement.

2567 - Rule sets <locale>.intro and <locale>.axioms no longer declared as

2568 [intro?] and [elim?] (respectively) by default.

2569 - Experimental command for instantiation of locales in proof contexts:

2570 instantiate <label>[<attrs>]: <loc>

2571 Instantiates locale <loc> and adds all its theorems to the current context

2572 taking into account their attributes. Label and attrs are optional

2573 modifiers, like in theorem declarations. If present, names of

2574 instantiated theorems are qualified with <label>, and the attributes

2575 <attrs> are applied after any attributes these theorems might have already.

2576 If the locale has assumptions, a chained fact of the form

2577 "<loc> t1 ... tn" is expected from which instantiations of the parameters

2578 are derived. The command does not support old-style locales declared

2579 with "locale (open)".

2580 A few (very simple) examples can be found in FOL/ex/LocaleInst.thy.

2582 * HOL: Tactic emulation methods induct_tac and case_tac understand static

2583 (Isar) contexts.

2586 *** HOL ***

2588 * Proof import: new image HOL4 contains the imported library from

2589 the HOL4 system with about 2500 theorems. It is imported by

2590 replaying proof terms produced by HOL4 in Isabelle. The HOL4 image

2591 can be used like any other Isabelle image. See

2592 HOL/Import/HOL/README for more information.

2594 * Simplifier:

2595 - Much improved handling of linear and partial orders.

2596 Reasoners for linear and partial orders are set up for type classes

2597 "linorder" and "order" respectively, and are added to the default simpset

2598 as solvers. This means that the simplifier can build transitivity chains

2599 to solve goals from the assumptions.

2600 - INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break occasionally. Typically, applications

2601 of blast or auto after simplification become unnecessary because the goal

2602 is solved by simplification already.

2604 * Numerics: new theory Ring_and_Field contains over 250 basic numerical laws,

2605 all proved in axiomatic type classes for semirings, rings and fields.

2607 * Numerics:

2608 - Numeric types (nat, int, and in HOL-Complex rat, real, complex, etc.) are

2609 now formalized using the Ring_and_Field theory mentioned above.

2610 - INCOMPATIBILITY: simplification and arithmetic behaves somewhat differently

2611 than before, because now they are set up once in a generic manner.

2612 - INCOMPATIBILITY: many type-specific arithmetic laws have gone.

2613 Look for the general versions in Ring_and_Field (and Power if they concern

2614 exponentiation).

2616 * Type "rat" of the rational numbers is now available in HOL-Complex.

2618 * Records:

2619 - Record types are now by default printed with their type abbreviation

2620 instead of the list of all field types. This can be configured via

2621 the reference "print_record_type_abbr".

2622 - Simproc "record_upd_simproc" for simplification of multiple updates added

2623 (not enabled by default).

2624 - Simproc "record_ex_sel_eq_simproc" to simplify EX x. sel r = x resp.

2625 EX x. x = sel r to True (not enabled by default).

2626 - Tactic "record_split_simp_tac" to split and simplify records added.

2628 * 'specification' command added, allowing for definition by

2629 specification. There is also an 'ax_specification' command that

2630 introduces the new constants axiomatically.

2632 * arith(_tac) is now able to generate counterexamples for reals as well.

2634 * HOL-Algebra: new locale "ring" for non-commutative rings.

2636 * HOL-ex: InductiveInvariant_examples illustrates advanced recursive function

2637 definitions, thanks to Sava Krsti\'{c} and John Matthews.

2639 * HOL-Matrix: a first theory for matrices in HOL with an application of

2640 matrix theory to linear programming.

2642 * Unions and Intersections:

2643 The latex output syntax of UN and INT has been changed

2644 from "\Union x \in A. B" to "\Union_{x \in A} B"

2645 i.e. the index formulae has become a subscript.

2646 Similarly for "\Union x. B", and for \Inter instead of \Union.

2648 * Unions and Intersections over Intervals:

2649 There is new short syntax "UN i<=n. A" for "UN i:{0..n}. A". There is

2650 also an x-symbol version with subscripts "\<Union>\<^bsub>i <= n\<^esub>. A"

2651 like in normal math, and corresponding versions for < and for intersection.

2653 * HOL/List: Ordering "lexico" is renamed "lenlex" and the standard

2654 lexicographic dictonary ordering has been added as "lexord".

2656 * ML: the legacy theory structures Int and List have been removed. They had

2657 conflicted with ML Basis Library structures having the same names.

2659 * 'refute' command added to search for (finite) countermodels. Only works

2660 for a fragment of HOL. The installation of an external SAT solver is

2661 highly recommended. See "HOL/Refute.thy" for details.

2663 * 'quickcheck' command: Allows to find counterexamples by evaluating

2664 formulae under an assignment of free variables to random values.

2665 In contrast to 'refute', it can deal with inductive datatypes,

2666 but cannot handle quantifiers. See "HOL/ex/Quickcheck_Examples.thy"

2667 for examples.

2670 *** HOLCF ***

2672 * Streams now come with concatenation and are part of the HOLCF image

2676 New in Isabelle2003 (May 2003)

2677 ------------------------------

2679 *** General ***

2681 * Provers/simplifier:

2683 - Completely reimplemented method simp (ML: Asm_full_simp_tac):

2684 Assumptions are now subject to complete mutual simplification,

2685 not just from left to right. The simplifier now preserves

2686 the order of assumptions.

2688 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:

2690 -- simp sometimes diverges where the old version did

2691 not, e.g. invoking simp on the goal

2693 [| P (f x); y = x; f x = f y |] ==> Q

2695 now gives rise to the infinite reduction sequence

2697 P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> P(f y) --(y = x)--> P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> ...

2699 Using "simp (asm_lr)" (ML: Asm_lr_simp_tac) instead often solves this

2700 kind of problem.

2702 -- Tactics combining classical reasoner and simplification (such as auto)

2703 are also affected by this change, because many of them rely on

2704 simp. They may sometimes diverge as well or yield a different numbers

2705 of subgoals. Try to use e.g. force, fastsimp, or safe instead of auto

2706 in case of problems. Sometimes subsequent calls to the classical

2707 reasoner will fail because a preceeding call to the simplifier too

2708 eagerly simplified the goal, e.g. deleted redundant premises.

2710 - The simplifier trace now shows the names of the applied rewrite rules

2712 - You can limit the number of recursive invocations of the simplifier

2713 during conditional rewriting (where the simplifie tries to solve the

2714 conditions before applying the rewrite rule):

2715 ML "simp_depth_limit := n"

2716 where n is an integer. Thus you can force termination where previously

2717 the simplifier would diverge.

2719 - Accepts free variables as head terms in congruence rules. Useful in Isar.

2721 - No longer aborts on failed congruence proof. Instead, the

2722 congruence is ignored.

2724 * Pure: New generic framework for extracting programs from constructive

2725 proofs. See HOL/Extraction.thy for an example instantiation, as well

2726 as HOL/Extraction for some case studies.

2728 * Pure: The main goal of the proof state is no longer shown by default, only

2729 the subgoals. This behaviour is controlled by a new flag.

2730 PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Settings -> Show Main Goal

2731 (ML: Proof.show_main_goal).

2733 * Pure: You can find all matching introduction rules for subgoal 1, i.e. all

2734 rules whose conclusion matches subgoal 1:

2735 PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Show me -> matching rules

2736 The rules are ordered by how closely they match the subgoal.

2737 In particular, rules that solve a subgoal outright are displayed first

2738 (or rather last, the way they are printed).

2739 (ML: ProofGeneral.print_intros())

2741 * Pure: New flag trace_unify_fail causes unification to print

2742 diagnostic information (PG: in trace buffer) when it fails. This is

2743 useful for figuring out why single step proofs like rule, erule or

2744 assumption failed.

2746 * Pure: Locale specifications now produce predicate definitions

2747 according to the body of text (covering assumptions modulo local

2748 definitions); predicate "loc_axioms" covers newly introduced text,

2749 while "loc" is cumulative wrt. all included locale expressions; the

2750 latter view is presented only on export into the global theory

2751 context; potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use "(open)" option to fall back

2752 on the old view without predicates;

2754 * Pure: predefined locales "var" and "struct" are useful for sharing

2755 parameters (as in CASL, for example); just specify something like

2756 ``var x + var y + struct M'' as import;

2758 * Pure: improved thms_containing: proper indexing of facts instead of

2759 raw theorems; check validity of results wrt. current name space;

2760 include local facts of proof configuration (also covers active

2761 locales), cover fixed variables in index; may use "_" in term

2762 specification; an optional limit for the number of printed facts may

2763 be given (the default is 40);

2765 * Pure: disallow duplicate fact bindings within new-style theory files

2766 (batch-mode only);

2768 * Provers: improved induct method: assumptions introduced by case

2769 "foo" are split into "foo.hyps" (from the rule) and "foo.prems" (from

2770 the goal statement); "foo" still refers to all facts collectively;

2772 * Provers: the function blast.overloaded has been removed: all constants

2773 are regarded as potentially overloaded, which improves robustness in exchange

2774 for slight decrease in efficiency;

2776 * Provers/linorder: New generic prover for transitivity reasoning over

2777 linear orders. Note: this prover is not efficient!

2779 * Isar: preview of problems to finish 'show' now produce an error

2780 rather than just a warning (in interactive mode);

2783 *** HOL ***

2785 * arith(_tac)

2787 - Produces a counter example if it cannot prove a goal.

2788 Note that the counter example may be spurious if the goal is not a formula

2789 of quantifier-free linear arithmetic.

2790 In ProofGeneral the counter example appears in the trace buffer.

2792 - Knows about div k and mod k where k is a numeral of type nat or int.

2794 - Calls full Presburger arithmetic (by Amine Chaieb) if quantifier-free

2795 linear arithmetic fails. This takes account of quantifiers and divisibility.

2796 Presburger arithmetic can also be called explicitly via presburger(_tac).

2798 * simp's arithmetic capabilities have been enhanced a bit: it now

2799 takes ~= in premises into account (by performing a case split);

2801 * simp reduces "m*(n div m) + n mod m" to n, even if the two summands

2802 are distributed over a sum of terms;

2804 * New tactic "trans_tac" and method "trans" instantiate

2805 Provers/linorder.ML for axclasses "order" and "linorder" (predicates

2806 "<=", "<" and "=").

2808 * function INCOMPATIBILITIES: Pi-sets have been redefined and moved from main

2809 HOL to Library/FuncSet; constant "Fun.op o" is now called "Fun.comp";

2811 * 'typedef' command has new option "open" to suppress the set

2812 definition;

2814 * functions Min and Max on finite sets have been introduced (theory

2815 Finite_Set);

2817 * attribute [symmetric] now works for relations as well; it turns

2818 (x,y) : R^-1 into (y,x) : R, and vice versa;

2820 * induct over a !!-quantified statement (say !!x1..xn):

2821 each "case" automatically performs "fix x1 .. xn" with exactly those names.

2823 * Map: `empty' is no longer a constant but a syntactic abbreviation for

2824 %x. None. Warning: empty_def now refers to the previously hidden definition

2825 of the empty set.

2827 * Algebra: formalization of classical algebra. Intended as base for

2828 any algebraic development in Isabelle. Currently covers group theory

2829 (up to Sylow's theorem) and ring theory (Universal Property of

2830 Univariate Polynomials). Contributions welcome;

2832 * GroupTheory: deleted, since its material has been moved to Algebra;

2834 * Complex: new directory of the complex numbers with numeric constants,

2835 nonstandard complex numbers, and some complex analysis, standard and

2836 nonstandard (Jacques Fleuriot);

2838 * HOL-Complex: new image for analysis, replacing HOL-Real and HOL-Hyperreal;

2840 * Hyperreal: introduced Gauge integration and hyperreal logarithms (Jacques

2841 Fleuriot);

2843 * Real/HahnBanach: updated and adapted to locales;

2845 * NumberTheory: added Gauss's law of quadratic reciprocity (by Avigad,

2846 Gray and Kramer);

2848 * UNITY: added the Meier-Sanders theory of progress sets;

2850 * MicroJava: bytecode verifier and lightweight bytecode verifier

2851 as abstract algorithms, instantiated to the JVM;

2853 * Bali: Java source language formalization. Type system, operational

2854 semantics, axiomatic semantics. Supported language features:

2855 classes, interfaces, objects,virtual methods, static methods,

2856 static/instance fields, arrays, access modifiers, definite

2857 assignment, exceptions.

2860 *** ZF ***

2862 * ZF/Constructible: consistency proof for AC (Gdel's constructible

2863 universe, etc.);

2865 * Main ZF: virtually all theories converted to new-style format;

2868 *** ML ***

2870 * Pure: Tactic.prove provides sane interface for internal proofs;

2871 omits the infamous "standard" operation, so this is more appropriate

2872 than prove_goalw_cterm in many situations (e.g. in simprocs);

2874 * Pure: improved error reporting of simprocs;

2876 * Provers: Simplifier.simproc(_i) provides sane interface for setting

2877 up simprocs;

2880 *** Document preparation ***

2882 * uses \par instead of \\ for line breaks in theory text. This may

2883 shift some page breaks in large documents. To get the old behaviour

2884 use \renewcommand{\isanewline}{\mbox{}\\\mbox{}} in root.tex.

2886 * minimized dependencies of isabelle.sty and isabellesym.sty on

2887 other packages

2889 * \<euro> now needs package babel/greek instead of marvosym (which

2890 broke \Rightarrow)

2892 * normal size for \<zero>...\<nine> (uses \mathbf instead of

2893 textcomp package)

2897 New in Isabelle2002 (March 2002)

2898 --------------------------------

2900 *** Document preparation ***

2902 * greatly simplified document preparation setup, including more

2903 graceful interpretation of isatool usedir -i/-d/-D options, and more

2904 instructive isatool mkdir; users should basically be able to get

2905 started with "isatool mkdir HOL Test && isatool make"; alternatively,

2906 users may run a separate document processing stage manually like this:

2907 "isatool usedir -D output HOL Test && isatool document Test/output";

2909 * theory dependency graph may now be incorporated into documents;

2910 isatool usedir -g true will produce session_graph.eps/.pdf for use

2911 with \includegraphics of LaTeX;

2913 * proper spacing of consecutive markup elements, especially text

2914 blocks after section headings;

2916 * support bold style (for single symbols only), input syntax is like

2917 this: "\<^bold>\<alpha>" or "\<^bold>A";

2919 * \<bullet> is now output as bold \cdot by default, which looks much

2920 better in printed text;

2922 * added default LaTeX bindings for \<tturnstile> and \<TTurnstile>;

2923 note that these symbols are currently unavailable in Proof General /

2924 X-Symbol; new symbols \<zero>, \<one>, ..., \<nine>, and \<euro>;

2926 * isatool latex no longer depends on changed TEXINPUTS, instead

2927 isatool document copies the Isabelle style files to the target

2928 location;

2931 *** Isar ***

2933 * Pure/Provers: improved proof by cases and induction;

2934 - 'case' command admits impromptu naming of parameters (such as

2935 "case (Suc n)");

2936 - 'induct' method divinates rule instantiation from the inductive

2937 claim; no longer requires excessive ?P bindings for proper

2938 instantiation of cases;

2939 - 'induct' method properly enumerates all possibilities of set/type

2940 rules; as a consequence facts may be also passed through *type*

2941 rules without further ado;

2942 - 'induct' method now derives symbolic cases from the *rulified*

2943 rule (before it used to rulify cases stemming from the internal

2944 atomized version); this means that the context of a non-atomic

2945 statement becomes is included in the hypothesis, avoiding the

2946 slightly cumbersome show "PROP ?case" form;

2947 - 'induct' may now use elim-style induction rules without chaining

2948 facts, using ``missing'' premises from the goal state; this allows

2949 rules stemming from inductive sets to be applied in unstructured

2950 scripts, while still benefitting from proper handling of non-atomic

2951 statements; NB: major inductive premises need to be put first, all

2952 the rest of the goal is passed through the induction;

2953 - 'induct' proper support for mutual induction involving non-atomic

2954 rule statements (uses the new concept of simultaneous goals, see

2955 below);

2956 - append all possible rule selections, but only use the first

2957 success (no backtracking);

2958 - removed obsolete "(simplified)" and "(stripped)" options of methods;

2959 - undeclared rule case names default to numbers 1, 2, 3, ...;

2960 - added 'print_induct_rules' (covered by help item in recent Proof

2961 General versions);

2962 - moved induct/cases attributes to Pure, methods to Provers;

2963 - generic method setup instantiated for FOL and HOL;

2965 * Pure: support multiple simultaneous goal statements, for example

2966 "have a: A and b: B" (same for 'theorem' etc.); being a pure

2967 meta-level mechanism, this acts as if several individual goals had

2968 been stated separately; in particular common proof methods need to be

2969 repeated in order to cover all claims; note that a single elimination

2970 step is *not* sufficient to establish the two conjunctions, so this

2971 fails:

2973 assume "A & B" then have A and B .. (*".." fails*)

2975 better use "obtain" in situations as above; alternative refer to

2976 multi-step methods like 'auto', 'simp_all', 'blast+' etc.;

2978 * Pure: proper integration with ``locales''; unlike the original

2979 version by Florian Kammller, Isar locales package high-level proof

2980 contexts rather than raw logical ones (e.g. we admit to include

2981 attributes everywhere); operations on locales include merge and

2982 rename; support for implicit arguments (``structures''); simultaneous

2983 type-inference over imports and text; see also HOL/ex/Locales.thy for

2984 some examples;

2986 * Pure: the following commands have been ``localized'', supporting a

2987 target locale specification "(in name)": 'lemma', 'theorem',

2988 'corollary', 'lemmas', 'theorems', 'declare'; the results will be

2989 stored both within the locale and at the theory level (exported and

2990 qualified by the locale name);

2992 * Pure: theory goals may now be specified in ``long'' form, with

2993 ad-hoc contexts consisting of arbitrary locale elements. for example

2994 ``lemma foo: fixes x assumes "A x" shows "B x"'' (local syntax and

2995 definitions may be given, too); the result is a meta-level rule with

2996 the context elements being discharged in the obvious way;

2998 * Pure: new proof command 'using' allows to augment currently used

2999 facts after a goal statement ('using' is syntactically analogous to

3000 'apply', but acts on the goal's facts only); this allows chained facts

3001 to be separated into parts given before and after a claim, as in

3002 ``from a and b have C using d and e <proof>'';

3004 * Pure: renamed "antecedent" case to "rule_context";

3006 * Pure: new 'judgment' command records explicit information about the

3007 object-logic embedding (used by several tools internally); no longer

3008 use hard-wired "Trueprop";

3010 * Pure: added 'corollary' command;

3012 * Pure: fixed 'token_translation' command;

3014 * Pure: removed obsolete 'exported' attribute;

3016 * Pure: dummy pattern "_" in is/let is now automatically lifted over

3017 bound variables: "ALL x. P x --> Q x" (is "ALL x. _ --> ?C x")

3018 supersedes more cumbersome ... (is "ALL x. _ x --> ?C x");

3020 * Pure: method 'atomize' presents local goal premises as object-level

3021 statements (atomic meta-level propositions); setup controlled via

3022 rewrite rules declarations of 'atomize' attribute; example

3023 application: 'induct' method with proper rule statements in improper

3024 proof *scripts*;

3026 * Pure: emulation of instantiation tactics (rule_tac, cut_tac, etc.)

3027 now consider the syntactic context of assumptions, giving a better

3028 chance to get type-inference of the arguments right (this is

3029 especially important for locales);

3031 * Pure: "sorry" no longer requires quick_and_dirty in interactive

3032 mode;

3034 * Pure/obtain: the formal conclusion "thesis", being marked as

3035 ``internal'', may no longer be reference directly in the text;

3036 potential INCOMPATIBILITY, may need to use "?thesis" in rare

3037 situations;

3039 * Pure: generic 'sym' attribute which declares a rule both as pure

3040 'elim?' and for the 'symmetric' operation;

3042 * Pure: marginal comments ``--'' may now occur just anywhere in the

3043 text; the fixed correlation with particular command syntax has been

3044 discontinued;

3046 * Pure: new method 'rules' is particularly well-suited for proof

3047 search in intuitionistic logic; a bit slower than 'blast' or 'fast',

3048 but often produces more compact proof terms with less detours;

3050 * Pure/Provers/classical: simplified integration with pure rule

3051 attributes and methods; the classical "intro?/elim?/dest?"

3052 declarations coincide with the pure ones; the "rule" method no longer

3053 includes classically swapped intros; "intro" and "elim" methods no

3054 longer pick rules from the context; also got rid of ML declarations

3055 AddXIs/AddXEs/AddXDs; all of this has some potential for

3056 INCOMPATIBILITY;

3058 * Provers/classical: attribute 'swapped' produces classical inversions

3059 of introduction rules;

3061 * Provers/simplifier: 'simplified' attribute may refer to explicit

3062 rules instead of full simplifier context; 'iff' attribute handles

3063 conditional rules;

3065 * HOL: 'typedef' now allows alternative names for Rep/Abs morphisms;

3067 * HOL: 'recdef' now fails on unfinished automated proofs, use

3068 "(permissive)" option to recover old behavior;

3070 * HOL: 'inductive' no longer features separate (collective) attributes

3071 for 'intros' (was found too confusing);

3073 * HOL: properly declared induction rules less_induct and

3074 wf_induct_rule;

3077 *** HOL ***

3079 * HOL: moved over to sane numeral syntax; the new policy is as

3080 follows:

3082 - 0 and 1 are polymorphic constants, which are defined on any

3083 numeric type (nat, int, real etc.);

3085 - 2, 3, 4, ... and -1, -2, -3, ... are polymorphic numerals, based

3086 binary representation internally;

3088 - type nat has special constructor Suc, and generally prefers Suc 0

3089 over 1::nat and Suc (Suc 0) over 2::nat;

3091 This change may cause significant problems of INCOMPATIBILITY; here

3092 are some hints on converting existing sources:

3094 - due to the new "num" token, "-0" and "-1" etc. are now atomic

3095 entities, so expressions involving "-" (unary or binary minus) need

3096 to be spaced properly;

3098 - existing occurrences of "1" may need to be constraint "1::nat" or

3099 even replaced by Suc 0; similar for old "2";

3101 - replace "#nnn" by "nnn", and "#-nnn" by "-nnn";

3103 - remove all special provisions on numerals in proofs;

3105 * HOL: simp rules nat_number expand numerals on nat to Suc/0

3106 representation (depends on bin_arith_simps in the default context);

3108 * HOL: symbolic syntax for x^2 (numeral 2);

3110 * HOL: the class of all HOL types is now called "type" rather than

3111 "term"; INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt references to this type class

3112 in axclass/classes, instance/arities, and (usually rare) occurrences

3113 in typings (of consts etc.); internally the class is called

3114 "HOL.type", ML programs should refer to HOLogic.typeS;

3116 * HOL/record package improvements:

3117 - new derived operations "fields" to build a partial record section,

3118 "extend" to promote a fixed record to a record scheme, and

3119 "truncate" for the reverse; cf. theorems "xxx.defs", which are *not*

3120 declared as simp by default;

3121 - shared operations ("more", "fields", etc.) now need to be always

3122 qualified) --- potential INCOMPATIBILITY;

3123 - removed "make_scheme" operations (use "make" with "extend") --

3124 INCOMPATIBILITY;

3125 - removed "more" class (simply use "term") -- INCOMPATIBILITY;

3126 - provides cases/induct rules for use with corresponding Isar

3127 methods (for concrete records, record schemes, concrete more

3128 parts, and schematic more parts -- in that order);

3129 - internal definitions directly based on a light-weight abstract

3130 theory of product types over typedef rather than datatype;

3132 * HOL: generic code generator for generating executable ML code from

3133 specifications; specific support for HOL constructs such as inductive

3134 datatypes and sets, as well as recursive functions; can be invoked

3135 via 'generate_code' theory section;

3137 * HOL: canonical cases/induct rules for n-tuples (n = 3..7);

3139 * HOL: consolidated and renamed several theories. In particular:

3140 Ord.thy has been absorbed into HOL.thy

3141 String.thy has been absorbed into List.thy

3143 * HOL: concrete setsum syntax "\<Sum>i:A. b" == "setsum (%i. b) A"

3144 (beware of argument permutation!);

3146 * HOL: linorder_less_split superseded by linorder_cases;

3148 * HOL/List: "nodups" renamed to "distinct";

3150 * HOL: added "The" definite description operator; move Hilbert's "Eps"

3151 to peripheral theory "Hilbert_Choice"; some INCOMPATIBILITIES:

3152 - Ex_def has changed, now need to use some_eq_ex

3154 * HOL: made split_all_tac safe; EXISTING PROOFS MAY FAIL OR LOOP, so

3155 in this (rare) case use:

3157 delSWrapper "split_all_tac"

3158 addSbefore ("unsafe_split_all_tac", unsafe_split_all_tac)

3160 * HOL: added safe wrapper "split_conv_tac" to claset; EXISTING PROOFS

3161 MAY FAIL;

3163 * HOL: introduced f^n = f o ... o f; warning: due to the limits of

3164 Isabelle's type classes, ^ on functions and relations has too general

3165 a domain, namely ('a * 'b) set and 'a => 'b; this means that it may be

3166 necessary to attach explicit type constraints;

3168 * HOL/Relation: the prefix name of the infix "O" has been changed from

3169 "comp" to "rel_comp"; INCOMPATIBILITY: a few theorems have been

3170 renamed accordingly (eg "compI" -> "rel_compI").

3172 * HOL: syntax translations now work properly with numerals and records

3173 expressions;

3175 * HOL: bounded abstraction now uses syntax "%" / "\<lambda>" instead

3176 of "lam" -- INCOMPATIBILITY;

3178 * HOL: got rid of some global declarations (potential INCOMPATIBILITY

3179 for ML tools): const "()" renamed "Product_Type.Unity", type "unit"

3180 renamed "Product_Type.unit";

3182 * HOL: renamed rtrancl_into_rtrancl2 to converse_rtrancl_into_rtrancl

3184 * HOL: removed obsolete theorem "optionE" (use "option.exhaust", or

3185 the "cases" method);

3187 * HOL/GroupTheory: group theory examples including Sylow's theorem (by

3188 Florian Kammller);

3190 * HOL/IMP: updated and converted to new-style theory format; several

3191 parts turned into readable document, with proper Isar proof texts and

3192 some explanations (by Gerwin Klein);

3194 * HOL-Real: added Complex_Numbers (by Gertrud Bauer);

3196 * HOL-Hyperreal is now a logic image;

3199 *** HOLCF ***

3201 * Isar: consts/constdefs supports mixfix syntax for continuous

3202 operations;

3204 * Isar: domain package adapted to new-style theory format, e.g. see

3205 HOLCF/ex/Dnat.thy;

3207 * theory Lift: proper use of rep_datatype lift instead of ML hacks --

3208 potential INCOMPATIBILITY; now use plain induct_tac instead of former

3209 lift.induct_tac, always use UU instead of Undef;

3211 * HOLCF/IMP: updated and converted to new-style theory;

3214 *** ZF ***

3216 * Isar: proper integration of logic-specific tools and packages,

3217 including theory commands '(co)inductive', '(co)datatype',

3218 'rep_datatype', 'inductive_cases', as well as methods 'ind_cases',

3219 'induct_tac', 'case_tac', and 'typecheck' (with attribute 'TC');

3221 * theory Main no longer includes AC; for the Axiom of Choice, base

3222 your theory on Main_ZFC;

3224 * the integer library now covers quotients and remainders, with many

3225 laws relating division to addition, multiplication, etc.;

3227 * ZF/UNITY: Chandy and Misra's UNITY is now available in ZF, giving a

3228 typeless version of the formalism;

3230 * ZF/AC, Coind, IMP, Resid: updated and converted to new-style theory

3231 format;

3233 * ZF/Induct: new directory for examples of inductive definitions,

3234 including theory Multiset for multiset orderings; converted to

3235 new-style theory format;

3237 * ZF: many new theorems about lists, ordinals, etc.;

3240 *** General ***

3242 * Pure/kernel: meta-level proof terms (by Stefan Berghofer); reference

3243 variable proof controls level of detail: 0 = no proofs (only oracle

3244 dependencies), 1 = lemma dependencies, 2 = compact proof terms; see

3245 also ref manual for further ML interfaces;

3247 * Pure/axclass: removed obsolete ML interface

3248 goal_subclass/goal_arity;

3250 * Pure/syntax: new token syntax "num" for plain numerals (without "#"

3251 of "xnum"); potential INCOMPATIBILITY, since -0, -1 etc. are now

3252 separate tokens, so expressions involving minus need to be spaced

3253 properly;

3255 * Pure/syntax: support non-oriented infixes, using keyword "infix"

3256 rather than "infixl" or "infixr";

3258 * Pure/syntax: concrete syntax for dummy type variables admits genuine

3259 sort constraint specifications in type inference; e.g. "x::_::foo"

3260 ensures that the type of "x" is of sort "foo" (but not necessarily a

3261 type variable);

3263 * Pure/syntax: print modes "type_brackets" and "no_type_brackets"

3264 control output of nested => (types); the default behavior is

3265 "type_brackets";

3267 * Pure/syntax: builtin parse translation for "_constify" turns valued

3268 tokens into AST constants;

3270 * Pure/syntax: prefer later declarations of translations and print

3271 translation functions; potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to reverse

3272 multiple declarations for same syntax element constant;

3274 * Pure/show_hyps reset by default (in accordance to existing Isar

3275 practice);

3277 * Provers/classical: renamed addaltern to addafter, addSaltern to

3278 addSafter;

3280 * Provers/clasimp: ``iff'' declarations now handle conditional rules

3281 as well;

3283 * system: tested support for MacOS X; should be able to get Isabelle +

3284 Proof General to work in a plain Terminal after installing Poly/ML

3285 (e.g. from the Isabelle distribution area) and GNU bash alone

3286 (e.g. from http://www.apple.com); full X11, XEmacs and X-Symbol

3287 support requires further installations, e.g. from

3288 http://fink.sourceforge.net/);

3290 * system: support Poly/ML 4.1.1 (able to manage larger heaps);

3292 * system: reduced base memory usage by Poly/ML (approx. 20 MB instead

3293 of 40 MB), cf. ML_OPTIONS;

3295 * system: Proof General keywords specification is now part of the

3296 Isabelle distribution (see etc/isar-keywords.el);

3298 * system: support for persistent Proof General sessions (refrain from

3299 outdating all loaded theories on startup); user may create writable

3300 logic images like this: ``isabelle -q HOL Test'';

3302 * system: smart selection of Isabelle process versus Isabelle

3303 interface, accommodates case-insensitive file systems (e.g. HFS+); may

3304 run both "isabelle" and "Isabelle" even if file names are badly

3305 damaged (executable inspects the case of the first letter of its own

3306 name); added separate "isabelle-process" and "isabelle-interface";

3308 * system: refrain from any attempt at filtering input streams; no

3309 longer support ``8bit'' encoding of old isabelle font, instead proper

3310 iso-latin characters may now be used; the related isatools

3311 "symbolinput" and "nonascii" have disappeared as well;

3313 * system: removed old "xterm" interface (the print modes "xterm" and

3314 "xterm_color" are still available for direct use in a suitable

3315 terminal);

3319 New in Isabelle99-2 (February 2001)

3320 -----------------------------------

3322 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES ***

3324 * HOL: please note that theories in the Library and elsewhere often use the

3325 new-style (Isar) format; to refer to their theorems in an ML script you must

3326 bind them to ML identifers by e.g. val thm_name = thm "thm_name";

3328 * HOL: inductive package no longer splits induction rule aggressively,

3329 but only as far as specified by the introductions given; the old

3330 format may be recovered via ML function complete_split_rule or attribute

3331 'split_rule (complete)';

3333 * HOL: induct renamed to lfp_induct, lfp_Tarski to lfp_unfold,

3334 gfp_Tarski to gfp_unfold;

3336 * HOL: contrapos, contrapos2 renamed to contrapos_nn, contrapos_pp;

3338 * HOL: infix "dvd" now has priority 50 rather than 70 (because it is a

3339 relation); infix "^^" has been renamed "``"; infix "``" has been

3340 renamed "`"; "univalent" has been renamed "single_valued";

3342 * HOL/Real: "rinv" and "hrinv" replaced by overloaded "inverse"

3343 operation;

3345 * HOLCF: infix "`" has been renamed "$"; the symbol syntax is \<cdot>;

3347 * Isar: 'obtain' no longer declares "that" fact as simp/intro;

3349 * Isar/HOL: method 'induct' now handles non-atomic goals; as a

3350 consequence, it is no longer monotonic wrt. the local goal context

3351 (which is now passed through the inductive cases);

3353 * Document preparation: renamed standard symbols \<ll> to \<lless> and

3354 \<gg> to \<ggreater>;

3357 *** Document preparation ***

3359 * \isabellestyle{NAME} selects version of Isabelle output (currently

3360 available: are "it" for near math-mode best-style output, "sl" for

3361 slanted text style, and "tt" for plain type-writer; if no

3362 \isabellestyle command is given, output is according to slanted

3363 type-writer);

3365 * support sub/super scripts (for single symbols only), input syntax is

3366 like this: "A\<^sup>*" or "A\<^sup>\<star>";

3368 * some more standard symbols; see Appendix A of the system manual for

3369 the complete list of symbols defined in isabellesym.sty;

3371 * improved isabelle style files; more abstract symbol implementation

3372 (should now use \isamath{...} and \isatext{...} in custom symbol

3373 definitions);

3375 * antiquotation @{goals} and @{subgoals} for output of *dynamic* goals

3376 state; Note that presentation of goal states does not conform to

3377 actual human-readable proof documents. Please do not include goal

3378 states into document output unless you really know what you are doing!

3380 * proper indentation of antiquoted output with proportional LaTeX

3381 fonts;

3383 * no_document ML operator temporarily disables LaTeX document

3384 generation;

3386 * isatool unsymbolize tunes sources for plain ASCII communication;

3389 *** Isar ***

3391 * Pure: Isar now suffers initial goal statements to contain unbound

3392 schematic variables (this does not conform to actual readable proof

3393 documents, due to unpredictable outcome and non-compositional proof

3394 checking); users who know what they are doing may use schematic goals

3395 for Prolog-style synthesis of proven results;

3397 * Pure: assumption method (an implicit finishing) now handles actual

3398 rules as well;

3400 * Pure: improved 'obtain' --- moved to Pure, insert "that" into

3401 initial goal, declare "that" only as Pure intro (only for single

3402 steps); the "that" rule assumption may now be involved in implicit

3403 finishing, thus ".." becomes a feasible for trivial obtains;

3405 * Pure: default proof step now includes 'intro_classes'; thus trivial

3406 instance proofs may be performed by "..";

3408 * Pure: ?thesis / ?this / "..." now work for pure meta-level

3409 statements as well;

3411 * Pure: more robust selection of calculational rules;

3413 * Pure: the builtin notion of 'finished' goal now includes the ==-refl

3414 rule (as well as the assumption rule);

3416 * Pure: 'thm_deps' command visualizes dependencies of theorems and

3417 lemmas, using the graph browser tool;

3419 * Pure: predict failure of "show" in interactive mode;

3421 * Pure: 'thms_containing' now takes actual terms as arguments;

3423 * HOL: improved method 'induct' --- now handles non-atomic goals

3424 (potential INCOMPATIBILITY); tuned error handling;

3426 * HOL: cases and induct rules now provide explicit hints about the

3427 number of facts to be consumed (0 for "type" and 1 for "set" rules);

3428 any remaining facts are inserted into the goal verbatim;

3430 * HOL: local contexts (aka cases) may now contain term bindings as

3431 well; the 'cases' and 'induct' methods new provide a ?case binding for

3432 the result to be shown in each case;

3434 * HOL: added 'recdef_tc' command;

3436 * isatool convert assists in eliminating legacy ML scripts;

3439 *** HOL ***

3441 * HOL/Library: a collection of generic theories to be used together

3442 with main HOL; the theory loader path already includes this directory

3443 by default; the following existing theories have been moved here:

3444 HOL/Induct/Multiset, HOL/Induct/Acc (as Accessible_Part), HOL/While

3445 (as While_Combinator), HOL/Lex/Prefix (as List_Prefix);

3447 * HOL/Unix: "Some aspects of Unix file-system security", a typical

3448 modelling and verification task performed in Isabelle/HOL +

3449 Isabelle/Isar + Isabelle document preparation (by Markus Wenzel).

3451 * HOL/Algebra: special summation operator SUM no longer exists, it has

3452 been replaced by setsum; infix 'assoc' now has priority 50 (like

3453 'dvd'); axiom 'one_not_zero' has been moved from axclass 'ring' to

3454 'domain', this makes the theory consistent with mathematical

3455 literature;

3457 * HOL basics: added overloaded operations "inverse" and "divide"

3458 (infix "/"), syntax for generic "abs" operation, generic summation

3459 operator \<Sum>;

3461 * HOL/typedef: simplified package, provide more useful rules (see also

3462 HOL/subset.thy);

3464 * HOL/datatype: induction rule for arbitrarily branching datatypes is

3465 now expressed as a proper nested rule (old-style tactic scripts may

3466 require atomize_strip_tac to cope with non-atomic premises);

3468 * HOL: renamed theory "Prod" to "Product_Type", renamed "split" rule

3469 to "split_conv" (old name still available for compatibility);

3471 * HOL: improved concrete syntax for strings (e.g. allows translation

3472 rules with string literals);

3474 * HOL-Real-Hyperreal: this extends HOL-Real with the hyperreals

3475 and Fleuriot's mechanization of analysis, including the transcendental

3476 functions for the reals;

3478 * HOL/Real, HOL/Hyperreal: improved arithmetic simplification;

3481 *** CTT ***

3483 * CTT: x-symbol support for Pi, Sigma, -->, : (membership); note that

3484 "lam" is displayed as TWO lambda-symbols

3486 * CTT: theory Main now available, containing everything (that is, Bool

3487 and Arith);

3490 *** General ***

3492 * Pure: the Simplifier has been implemented properly as a derived rule

3493 outside of the actual kernel (at last!); the overall performance

3494 penalty in practical applications is about 50%, while reliability of

3495 the Isabelle inference kernel has been greatly improved;

3497 * print modes "brackets" and "no_brackets" control output of nested =>

3498 (types) and ==> (props); the default behaviour is "brackets";

3500 * Provers: fast_tac (and friends) now handle actual object-logic rules

3501 as assumptions as well;

3503 * system: support Poly/ML 4.0;

3505 * system: isatool install handles KDE version 1 or 2;

3509 New in Isabelle99-1 (October 2000)

3510 ----------------------------------

3512 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES ***

3514 * HOL: simplification of natural numbers is much changed; to partly

3515 recover the old behaviour (e.g. to prevent n+n rewriting to #2*n)

3516 issue the following ML commands:

3518 Delsimprocs Nat_Numeral_Simprocs.cancel_numerals;

3519 Delsimprocs [Nat_Numeral_Simprocs.combine_numerals];

3521 * HOL: simplification no longer dives into case-expressions; this is

3522 controlled by "t.weak_case_cong" for each datatype t;

3524 * HOL: nat_less_induct renamed to less_induct;

3526 * HOL: systematic renaming of the SOME (Eps) rules, may use isatool

3527 fixsome to patch .thy and .ML sources automatically;

3529 select_equality -> some_equality

3530 select_eq_Ex -> some_eq_ex

3531 selectI2EX -> someI2_ex

3532 selectI2 -> someI2

3533 selectI -> someI

3534 select1_equality -> some1_equality

3535 Eps_sym_eq -> some_sym_eq_trivial

3536 Eps_eq -> some_eq_trivial

3538 * HOL: exhaust_tac on datatypes superceded by new generic case_tac;

3540 * HOL: removed obsolete theorem binding expand_if (refer to split_if

3541 instead);

3543 * HOL: the recursion equations generated by 'recdef' are now called

3544 f.simps instead of f.rules;

3546 * HOL: qed_spec_mp now also handles bounded ALL as well;

3548 * HOL: 0 is now overloaded, so the type constraint ":: nat" may

3549 sometimes be needed;

3551 * HOL: the constant for "f``x" is now "image" rather than "op ``";

3553 * HOL: the constant for "f-``x" is now "vimage" rather than "op -``";

3555 * HOL: the disjoint sum is now "<+>" instead of "Plus"; the cartesian

3556 product is now "<*>" instead of "Times"; the lexicographic product is

3557 now "<*lex*>" instead of "**";

3559 * HOL: theory Sexp is now in HOL/Induct examples (it used to be part

3560 of main HOL, but was unused); better use HOL's datatype package;

3562 * HOL: removed "symbols" syntax for constant "override" of theory Map;

3563 the old syntax may be recovered as follows:

3565 syntax (symbols)

3566 override :: "('a ~=> 'b) => ('a ~=> 'b) => ('a ~=> 'b)"

3567 (infixl "\\<oplus>" 100)

3569 * HOL/Real: "rabs" replaced by overloaded "abs" function;

3571 * HOL/ML: even fewer consts are declared as global (see theories Ord,

3572 Lfp, Gfp, WF); this only affects ML packages that refer to const names

3573 internally;

3575 * HOL and ZF: syntax for quotienting wrt an equivalence relation

3576 changed from A/r to A//r;

3578 * ZF: new treatment of arithmetic (nat & int) may break some old

3579 proofs;

3581 * Isar: renamed some attributes (RS -> THEN, simplify -> simplified,

3582 rulify -> rule_format, elimify -> elim_format, ...);

3584 * Isar/Provers: intro/elim/dest attributes changed; renamed

3585 intro/intro!/intro!! flags to intro!/intro/intro? (in most cases, one

3586 should have to change intro!! to intro? only); replaced "delrule" by

3587 "rule del";

3589 * Isar/HOL: renamed "intrs" to "intros" in inductive definitions;

3591 * Provers: strengthened force_tac by using new first_best_tac;

3593 * LaTeX document preparation: several changes of isabelle.sty (see

3594 lib/texinputs);

3597 *** Document preparation ***

3599 * formal comments (text blocks etc.) in new-style theories may now

3600 contain antiquotations of thm/prop/term/typ/text to be presented

3601 according to latex print mode; concrete syntax is like this:

3602 @{term[show_types] "f(x) = a + x"};

3604 * isatool mkdir provides easy setup of Isabelle session directories,

3605 including proper document sources;

3607 * generated LaTeX sources are now deleted after successful run

3608 (isatool document -c); may retain a copy somewhere else via -D option

3609 of isatool usedir;

3611 * isatool usedir -D now lets isatool latex -o sty update the Isabelle

3612 style files, achieving self-contained LaTeX sources and simplifying

3613 LaTeX debugging;

3615 * old-style theories now produce (crude) LaTeX output as well;

3617 * browser info session directories are now self-contained (may be put

3618 on WWW server seperately); improved graphs of nested sessions; removed

3619 graph for 'all sessions';

3621 * several improvements in isabelle style files; \isabellestyle{it}

3622 produces fake math mode output; \isamarkupheader is now \section by

3623 default; see lib/texinputs/isabelle.sty etc.;

3626 *** Isar ***

3628 * Isar/Pure: local results and corresponding term bindings are now

3629 subject to Hindley-Milner polymorphism (similar to ML); this

3630 accommodates incremental type-inference very nicely;

3632 * Isar/Pure: new derived language element 'obtain' supports

3633 generalized existence reasoning;

3635 * Isar/Pure: new calculational elements 'moreover' and 'ultimately'

3636 support accumulation of results, without applying any rules yet;

3637 useful to collect intermediate results without explicit name

3638 references, and for use with transitivity rules with more than 2

3639 premises;

3641 * Isar/Pure: scalable support for case-analysis type proofs: new

3642 'case' language element refers to local contexts symbolically, as

3643 produced by certain proof methods; internally, case names are attached

3644 to theorems as "tags";

3646 * Isar/Pure: theory command 'hide' removes declarations from

3647 class/type/const name spaces;

3649 * Isar/Pure: theory command 'defs' supports option "(overloaded)" to

3650 indicate potential overloading;

3652 * Isar/Pure: changed syntax of local blocks from {{ }} to { };

3654 * Isar/Pure: syntax of sorts made 'inner', i.e. have to write

3655 "{a,b,c}" instead of {a,b,c};

3657 * Isar/Pure now provides its own version of intro/elim/dest

3658 attributes; useful for building new logics, but beware of confusion

3659 with the version in Provers/classical;

3661 * Isar/Pure: the local context of (non-atomic) goals is provided via

3662 case name 'antecedent';

3664 * Isar/Pure: removed obsolete 'transfer' attribute (transfer of thms

3665 to the current context is now done automatically);

3667 * Isar/Pure: theory command 'method_setup' provides a simple interface

3668 for definining proof methods in ML;

3670 * Isar/Provers: intro/elim/dest attributes changed; renamed

3671 intro/intro!/intro!! flags to intro!/intro/intro? (INCOMPATIBILITY, in

3672 most cases, one should have to change intro!! to intro? only);

3673 replaced "delrule" by "rule del";

3675 * Isar/Provers: new 'hypsubst' method, plain 'subst' method and

3676 'symmetric' attribute (the latter supercedes [RS sym]);

3678 * Isar/Provers: splitter support (via 'split' attribute and 'simp'

3679 method modifier); 'simp' method: 'only:' modifier removes loopers as

3680 well (including splits);

3682 * Isar/Provers: Simplifier and Classical methods now support all kind

3683 of modifiers used in the past, including 'cong', 'iff', etc.

3685 * Isar/Provers: added 'fastsimp' and 'clarsimp' methods (combination

3686 of Simplifier and Classical reasoner);

3688 * Isar/HOL: new proof method 'cases' and improved version of 'induct'

3689 now support named cases; major packages (inductive, datatype, primrec,

3690 recdef) support case names and properly name parameters;

3692 * Isar/HOL: new transitivity rules for substitution in inequalities --

3693 monotonicity conditions are extracted to be proven at end of

3694 calculations;

3696 * Isar/HOL: removed 'case_split' thm binding, should use 'cases' proof

3697 method anyway;

3699 * Isar/HOL: removed old expand_if = split_if; theorems if_splits =

3700 split_if split_if_asm; datatype package provides theorems foo.splits =

3701 foo.split foo.split_asm for each datatype;

3703 * Isar/HOL: tuned inductive package, rename "intrs" to "intros"

3704 (potential INCOMPATIBILITY), emulation of mk_cases feature for proof

3705 scripts: new 'inductive_cases' command and 'ind_cases' method; (Note:

3706 use "(cases (simplified))" method in proper proof texts);

3708 * Isar/HOL: added global 'arith_split' attribute for 'arith' method;

3710 * Isar: names of theorems etc. may be natural numbers as well;

3712 * Isar: 'pr' command: optional arguments for goals_limit and

3713 ProofContext.prems_limit; no longer prints theory contexts, but only

3714 proof states;

3716 * Isar: diagnostic commands 'pr', 'thm', 'prop', 'term', 'typ' admit

3717 additional print modes to be specified; e.g. "pr(latex)" will print

3718 proof state according to the Isabelle LaTeX style;

3720 * Isar: improved support for emulating tactic scripts, including proof

3721 methods 'rule_tac' etc., 'cut_tac', 'thin_tac', 'subgoal_tac',

3722 'rename_tac', 'rotate_tac', 'tactic', and 'case_tac' / 'induct_tac'

3723 (for HOL datatypes);

3725 * Isar: simplified (more robust) goal selection of proof methods: 1st

3726 goal, all goals, or explicit goal specifier (tactic emulation); thus

3727 'proof method scripts' have to be in depth-first order;

3729 * Isar: tuned 'let' syntax: replaced 'as' keyword by 'and';

3731 * Isar: removed 'help' command, which hasn't been too helpful anyway;

3732 should instead use individual commands for printing items

3733 (print_commands, print_methods etc.);

3735 * Isar: added 'nothing' --- the empty list of theorems;

3738 *** HOL ***

3740 * HOL/MicroJava: formalization of a fragment of Java, together with a

3741 corresponding virtual machine and a specification of its bytecode

3742 verifier and a lightweight bytecode verifier, including proofs of

3743 type-safety; by Gerwin Klein, Tobias Nipkow, David von Oheimb, and

3744 Cornelia Pusch (see also the homepage of project Bali at

3745 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/Bali/);

3747 * HOL/Algebra: new theory of rings and univariate polynomials, by

3748 Clemens Ballarin;

3750 * HOL/NumberTheory: fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic, Chinese

3751 Remainder Theorem, Fermat/Euler Theorem, Wilson's Theorem, by Thomas M

3752 Rasmussen;

3754 * HOL/Lattice: fundamental concepts of lattice theory and order

3755 structures, including duals, properties of bounds versus algebraic

3756 laws, lattice operations versus set-theoretic ones, the Knaster-Tarski

3757 Theorem for complete lattices etc.; may also serve as a demonstration

3758 for abstract algebraic reasoning using axiomatic type classes, and

3759 mathematics-style proof in Isabelle/Isar; by Markus Wenzel;

3761 * HOL/Prolog: a (bare-bones) implementation of Lambda-Prolog, by David

3762 von Oheimb;

3764 * HOL/IMPP: extension of IMP with local variables and mutually

3765 recursive procedures, by David von Oheimb;

3767 * HOL/Lambda: converted into new-style theory and document;

3769 * HOL/ex/Multiquote: example of multiple nested quotations and

3770 anti-quotations -- basically a generalized version of de-Bruijn

3771 representation; very useful in avoiding lifting of operations;

3773 * HOL/record: added general record equality rule to simpset; fixed

3774 select-update simplification procedure to handle extended records as

3775 well; admit "r" as field name;

3777 * HOL: 0 is now overloaded over the new sort "zero", allowing its use with

3778 other numeric types and also as the identity of groups, rings, etc.;

3780 * HOL: new axclass plus_ac0 for addition with the AC-laws and 0 as identity.

3781 Types nat and int belong to this axclass;

3783 * HOL: greatly improved simplification involving numerals of type nat, int, real:

3784 (i + #8 + j) = Suc k simplifies to #7 + (i + j) = k

3785 i*j + k + j*#3*i simplifies to #4*(i*j) + k

3786 two terms #m*u and #n*u are replaced by #(m+n)*u

3787 (where #m, #n and u can implicitly be 1; this is simproc combine_numerals)

3788 and the term/formula #m*u+x ~~ #n*u+y simplifies simplifies to #(m-n)+x ~~ y

3789 or x ~~ #(n-m)+y, where ~~ is one of = < <= or - (simproc cancel_numerals);

3791 * HOL: meson_tac is available (previously in ex/meson.ML); it is a

3792 powerful prover for predicate logic but knows nothing of clasets; see

3793 ex/mesontest.ML and ex/mesontest2.ML for example applications;

3795 * HOL: new version of "case_tac" subsumes both boolean case split and

3796 "exhaust_tac" on datatypes; INCOMPATIBILITY: exhaust_tac no longer

3797 exists, may define val exhaust_tac = case_tac for ad-hoc portability;

3799 * HOL: simplification no longer dives into case-expressions: only the

3800 selector expression is simplified, but not the remaining arms; to

3801 enable full simplification of case-expressions for datatype t, you may

3802 remove t.weak_case_cong from the simpset, either globally (Delcongs

3803 [thm"t.weak_case_cong"];) or locally (delcongs [...]).

3805 * HOL/recdef: the recursion equations generated by 'recdef' for

3806 function 'f' are now called f.simps instead of f.rules; if all

3807 termination conditions are proved automatically, these simplification

3808 rules are added to the simpset, as in primrec; rules may be named

3809 individually as well, resulting in a separate list of theorems for

3810 each equation;

3812 * HOL/While is a new theory that provides a while-combinator. It

3813 permits the definition of tail-recursive functions without the

3814 provision of a termination measure. The latter is necessary once the

3815 invariant proof rule for while is applied.

3817 * HOL: new (overloaded) notation for the set of elements below/above

3818 some element: {..u}, {..u(}, {l..}, {)l..}. See theory SetInterval.

3820 * HOL: theorems impI, allI, ballI bound as "strip";

3822 * HOL: new tactic induct_thm_tac: thm -> string -> int -> tactic

3823 induct_tac th "x1 ... xn" expects th to have a conclusion of the form

3824 P v1 ... vn and abbreviates res_inst_tac [("v1","x1"),...,("vn","xn")] th;

3826 * HOL/Real: "rabs" replaced by overloaded "abs" function;

3828 * HOL: theory Sexp now in HOL/Induct examples (it used to be part of

3829 main HOL, but was unused);

3831 * HOL: fewer consts declared as global (e.g. have to refer to

3832 "Lfp.lfp" instead of "lfp" internally; affects ML packages only);

3834 * HOL: tuned AST representation of nested pairs, avoiding bogus output

3835 in case of overlap with user translations (e.g. judgements over

3836 tuples); (note that the underlying logical represenation is still

3837 bogus);

3840 *** ZF ***

3842 * ZF: simplification automatically cancels common terms in arithmetic

3843 expressions over nat and int;

3845 * ZF: new treatment of nat to minimize type-checking: all operators

3846 coerce their operands to a natural number using the function natify,

3847 making the algebraic laws unconditional;

3849 * ZF: as above, for int: operators coerce their operands to an integer

3850 using the function intify;

3852 * ZF: the integer library now contains many of the usual laws for the

3853 orderings, including $<=, and monotonicity laws for $+ and $*;

3855 * ZF: new example ZF/ex/NatSum to demonstrate integer arithmetic

3856 simplification;

3858 * FOL and ZF: AddIffs now available, giving theorems of the form P<->Q

3859 to the simplifier and classical reasoner simultaneously;

3862 *** General ***

3864 * Provers: blast_tac now handles actual object-logic rules as

3865 assumptions; note that auto_tac uses blast_tac internally as well;

3867 * Provers: new functions rulify/rulify_no_asm: thm -> thm for turning

3868 outer -->/All/Ball into ==>/!!; qed_spec_mp now uses rulify_no_asm;

3870 * Provers: delrules now handles destruct rules as well (no longer need

3871 explicit make_elim);

3873 * Provers: Blast_tac now warns of and ignores "weak elimination rules" e.g.

3874 [| inj ?f; ?f ?x = ?f ?y; ?x = ?y ==> ?W |] ==> ?W

3875 use instead the strong form,

3876 [| inj ?f; ~ ?W ==> ?f ?x = ?f ?y; ?x = ?y ==> ?W |] ==> ?W

3877 in HOL, FOL and ZF the function cla_make_elim will create such rules

3878 from destruct-rules;

3880 * Provers: Simplifier.easy_setup provides a fast path to basic

3881 Simplifier setup for new object-logics;

3883 * Pure: AST translation rules no longer require constant head on LHS;

3885 * Pure: improved name spaces: ambiguous output is qualified; support

3886 for hiding of names;

3888 * system: smart setup of canonical ML_HOME, ISABELLE_INTERFACE, and

3889 XSYMBOL_HOME; no longer need to do manual configuration in most

3890 situations;

3892 * system: compression of ML heaps images may now be controlled via -c

3893 option of isabelle and isatool usedir (currently only observed by

3894 Poly/ML);

3896 * system: isatool installfonts may handle X-Symbol fonts as well (very

3897 useful for remote X11);

3899 * system: provide TAGS file for Isabelle sources;

3901 * ML: infix 'OF' is a version of 'MRS' with more appropriate argument

3902 order;

3904 * ML: renamed flags Syntax.trace_norm_ast to Syntax.trace_ast; global

3905 timing flag supersedes proof_timing and Toplevel.trace;

3907 * ML: new combinators |>> and |>>> for incremental transformations

3908 with secondary results (e.g. certain theory extensions):

3910 * ML: PureThy.add_defs gets additional argument to indicate potential

3911 overloading (usually false);

3913 * ML: PureThy.add_thms/add_axioms/add_defs now return theorems as

3914 results;

3918 New in Isabelle99 (October 1999)

3919 --------------------------------

3921 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES (see below for more details) ***

3923 * HOL: The THEN and ELSE parts of conditional expressions (if P then x else y)

3924 are no longer simplified. (This allows the simplifier to unfold recursive

3925 functional programs.) To restore the old behaviour, declare

3927 Delcongs [if_weak_cong];

3929 * HOL: Removed the obsolete syntax "Compl A"; use -A for set

3930 complement;

3932 * HOL: the predicate "inj" is now defined by translation to "inj_on";

3934 * HOL/datatype: mutual_induct_tac no longer exists --

3935 use induct_tac "x_1 ... x_n" instead of mutual_induct_tac ["x_1", ..., "x_n"]

3937 * HOL/typedef: fixed type inference for representing set; type

3938 arguments now have to occur explicitly on the rhs as type constraints;

3940 * ZF: The con_defs part of an inductive definition may no longer refer

3941 to constants declared in the same theory;

3943 * HOL, ZF: the function mk_cases, generated by the inductive

3944 definition package, has lost an argument. To simplify its result, it

3945 uses the default simpset instead of a supplied list of theorems.

3947 * HOL/List: the constructors of type list are now Nil and Cons;

3949 * Simplifier: the type of the infix ML functions

3950 setSSolver addSSolver setSolver addSolver

3951 is now simpset * solver -> simpset where `solver' is a new abstract type

3952 for packaging solvers. A solver is created via

3953 mk_solver: string -> (thm list -> int -> tactic) -> solver

3954 where the string argument is only a comment.

3957 *** Proof tools ***

3959 * Provers/Arith/fast_lin_arith.ML contains a functor for creating a

3960 decision procedure for linear arithmetic. Currently it is used for

3961 types `nat', `int', and `real' in HOL (see below); it can, should and

3962 will be instantiated for other types and logics as well.

3964 * The simplifier now accepts rewrite rules with flexible heads, eg

3965 hom ?f ==> ?f(?x+?y) = ?f ?x + ?f ?y

3966 They are applied like any rule with a non-pattern lhs, i.e. by first-order

3967 matching.

3970 *** General ***

3972 * New Isabelle/Isar subsystem provides an alternative to traditional

3973 tactical theorem proving; together with the ProofGeneral/isar user

3974 interface it offers an interactive environment for developing human

3975 readable proof documents (Isar == Intelligible semi-automated

3976 reasoning); for further information see isatool doc isar-ref,

3977 src/HOL/Isar_examples and http://isabelle.in.tum.de/Isar/

3979 * improved and simplified presentation of theories: better HTML markup

3980 (including colors), graph views in several sizes; isatool usedir now

3981 provides a proper interface for user theories (via -P option); actual

3982 document preparation based on (PDF)LaTeX is available as well (for

3983 new-style theories only); see isatool doc system for more information;

3985 * native support for Proof General, both for classic Isabelle and

3986 Isabelle/Isar;

3988 * ML function thm_deps visualizes dependencies of theorems and lemmas,

3989 using the graph browser tool;

3991 * Isabelle manuals now also available as PDF;

3993 * theory loader rewritten from scratch (may not be fully

3994 bug-compatible); old loadpath variable has been replaced by show_path,

3995 add_path, del_path, reset_path functions; new operations such as

3996 update_thy, touch_thy, remove_thy, use/update_thy_only (see also

3997 isatool doc ref);

3999 * improved isatool install: option -k creates KDE application icon,

4000 option -p DIR installs standalone binaries;

4002 * added ML_PLATFORM setting (useful for cross-platform installations);

4003 more robust handling of platform specific ML images for SML/NJ;

4005 * the settings environment is now statically scoped, i.e. it is never

4006 created again in sub-processes invoked from isabelle, isatool, or

4007 Isabelle;

4009 * path element specification '~~' refers to '$ISABELLE_HOME';

4011 * in locales, the "assumes" and "defines" parts may be omitted if

4012 empty;

4014 * new print_mode "xsymbols" for extended symbol support (e.g. genuine

4015 long arrows);

4017 * new print_mode "HTML";

4019 * new flag show_tags controls display of tags of theorems (which are

4020 basically just comments that may be attached by some tools);

4022 * Isamode 2.6 requires patch to accomodate change of Isabelle font

4023 mode and goal output format:

4025 diff -r Isamode-2.6/elisp/isa-load.el Isamode/elisp/isa-load.el

4026 244c244

4027 < (list (isa-getenv "ISABELLE") "-msymbols" logic-name)

4028 ---

4029 > (list (isa-getenv "ISABELLE") "-misabelle_font" "-msymbols" logic-name)

4030 diff -r Isabelle-2.6/elisp/isa-proofstate.el Isamode/elisp/isa-proofstate.el

4031 181c181

4032 < (defconst proofstate-proofstart-regexp "^Level [0-9]+$"

4033 ---

4034 > (defconst proofstate-proofstart-regexp "^Level [0-9]+"

4036 * function bind_thms stores lists of theorems (cf. bind_thm);

4038 * new shorthand tactics ftac, eatac, datac, fatac;

4040 * qed (and friends) now accept "" as result name; in that case the

4041 theorem is not stored, but proper checks and presentation of the

4042 result still apply;

4044 * theorem database now also indexes constants "Trueprop", "all",

4045 "==>", "=="; thus thms_containing, findI etc. may retrieve more rules;

4048 *** HOL ***

4050 ** HOL arithmetic **

4052 * There are now decision procedures for linear arithmetic over nat and

4053 int:

4055 1. arith_tac copes with arbitrary formulae involving `=', `<', `<=',

4056 `+', `-', `Suc', `min', `max' and numerical constants; other subterms

4057 are treated as atomic; subformulae not involving type `nat' or `int'

4058 are ignored; quantified subformulae are ignored unless they are

4059 positive universal or negative existential. The tactic has to be

4060 invoked by hand and can be a little bit slow. In particular, the

4061 running time is exponential in the number of occurrences of `min' and

4062 `max', and `-' on `nat'.

4064 2. fast_arith_tac is a cut-down version of arith_tac: it only takes

4065 (negated) (in)equalities among the premises and the conclusion into

4066 account (i.e. no compound formulae) and does not know about `min' and

4067 `max', and `-' on `nat'. It is fast and is used automatically by the

4068 simplifier.

4070 NB: At the moment, these decision procedures do not cope with mixed

4071 nat/int formulae where the two parts interact, such as `m < n ==>

4072 int(m) < int(n)'.

4074 * HOL/Numeral provides a generic theory of numerals (encoded

4075 efficiently as bit strings); setup for types nat/int/real is in place;

4076 INCOMPATIBILITY: since numeral syntax is now polymorphic, rather than

4077 int, existing theories and proof scripts may require a few additional

4078 type constraints;

4080 * integer division and remainder can now be performed on constant

4081 arguments;

4083 * many properties of integer multiplication, division and remainder

4084 are now available;

4086 * An interface to the Stanford Validity Checker (SVC) is available through the

4087 tactic svc_tac. Propositional tautologies and theorems of linear arithmetic

4088 are proved automatically. SVC must be installed separately, and its results

4089 must be TAKEN ON TRUST (Isabelle does not check the proofs, but tags any

4090 invocation of the underlying oracle). For SVC see

4091 http://verify.stanford.edu/SVC

4093 * IsaMakefile: the HOL-Real target now builds an actual image;

4096 ** HOL misc **

4098 * HOL/Real/HahnBanach: the Hahn-Banach theorem for real vector spaces

4099 (in Isabelle/Isar) -- by Gertrud Bauer;

4101 * HOL/BCV: generic model of bytecode verification, i.e. data-flow

4102 analysis for assembly languages with subtypes;

4104 * HOL/TLA (Lamport's Temporal Logic of Actions): major reorganization

4105 -- avoids syntactic ambiguities and treats state, transition, and

4106 temporal levels more uniformly; introduces INCOMPATIBILITIES due to

4107 changed syntax and (many) tactics;

4109 * HOL/inductive: Now also handles more general introduction rules such

4110 as "ALL y. (y, x) : r --> y : acc r ==> x : acc r"; monotonicity

4111 theorems are now maintained within the theory (maintained via the

4112 "mono" attribute);

4114 * HOL/datatype: Now also handles arbitrarily branching datatypes

4115 (using function types) such as

4117 datatype 'a tree = Atom 'a | Branch "nat => 'a tree"

4119 * HOL/record: record_simproc (part of the default simpset) takes care

4120 of selectors applied to updated records; record_split_tac is no longer

4121 part of the default claset; update_defs may now be removed from the

4122 simpset in many cases; COMPATIBILITY: old behavior achieved by

4124 claset_ref () := claset() addSWrapper record_split_wrapper;

4125 Delsimprocs [record_simproc]

4127 * HOL/typedef: fixed type inference for representing set; type

4128 arguments now have to occur explicitly on the rhs as type constraints;

4130 * HOL/recdef (TFL): 'congs' syntax now expects comma separated list of theorem

4131 names rather than an ML expression;

4133 * HOL/defer_recdef (TFL): like recdef but the well-founded relation can be

4134 supplied later. Program schemes can be defined, such as

4135 "While B C s = (if B s then While B C (C s) else s)"

4136 where the well-founded relation can be chosen after B and C have been given.

4138 * HOL/List: the constructors of type list are now Nil and Cons;

4139 INCOMPATIBILITY: while [] and infix # syntax is still there, of

4140 course, ML tools referring to List.list.op # etc. have to be adapted;

4142 * HOL_quantifiers flag superseded by "HOL" print mode, which is

4143 disabled by default; run isabelle with option -m HOL to get back to

4144 the original Gordon/HOL-style output;

4146 * HOL/Ord.thy: new bounded quantifier syntax (input only): ALL x<y. P,

4147 ALL x<=y. P, EX x<y. P, EX x<=y. P;

4149 * HOL basic syntax simplified (more orthogonal): all variants of

4150 All/Ex now support plain / symbolic / HOL notation; plain syntax for

4151 Eps operator is provided as well: "SOME x. P[x]";

4153 * HOL/Sum.thy: sum_case has been moved to HOL/Datatype;

4155 * HOL/Univ.thy: infix syntax <*>, <+>, <**>, <+> eliminated and made

4156 thus available for user theories;

4158 * HOLCF/IOA/Sequents: renamed 'Cons' to 'Consq' to avoid clash with

4159 HOL/List; hardly an INCOMPATIBILITY since '>>' syntax is used all the

4160 time;

4162 * HOL: new tactic smp_tac: int -> int -> tactic, which applies spec

4163 several times and then mp;

4166 *** LK ***

4168 * the notation <<...>> is now available as a notation for sequences of

4169 formulas;

4171 * the simplifier is now installed

4173 * the axiom system has been generalized (thanks to Soren Heilmann)

4175 * the classical reasoner now has a default rule database

4178 *** ZF ***

4180 * new primrec section allows primitive recursive functions to be given

4181 directly (as in HOL) over datatypes and the natural numbers;

4183 * new tactics induct_tac and exhaust_tac for induction (or case

4184 analysis) over datatypes and the natural numbers;

4186 * the datatype declaration of type T now defines the recursor T_rec;

4188 * simplification automatically does freeness reasoning for datatype

4189 constructors;

4191 * automatic type-inference, with AddTCs command to insert new

4192 type-checking rules;

4194 * datatype introduction rules are now added as Safe Introduction rules

4195 to the claset;

4197 * the syntax "if P then x else y" is now available in addition to

4198 if(P,x,y);

4201 *** Internal programming interfaces ***

4203 * tuned simplifier trace output; new flag debug_simp;

4205 * structures Vartab / Termtab (instances of TableFun) offer efficient

4206 tables indexed by indexname_ord / term_ord (compatible with aconv);

4208 * AxClass.axclass_tac lost the theory argument;

4210 * tuned current_goals_markers semantics: begin / end goal avoids

4211 printing empty lines;

4213 * removed prs and prs_fn hook, which was broken because it did not

4214 include \n in its semantics, forcing writeln to add one

4215 uncoditionally; replaced prs_fn by writeln_fn; consider std_output:

4216 string -> unit if you really want to output text without newline;

4218 * Symbol.output subject to print mode; INCOMPATIBILITY: defaults to

4219 plain output, interface builders may have to enable 'isabelle_font'

4220 mode to get Isabelle font glyphs as before;

4222 * refined token_translation interface; INCOMPATIBILITY: output length

4223 now of type real instead of int;

4225 * theory loader actions may be traced via new ThyInfo.add_hook

4226 interface (see src/Pure/Thy/thy_info.ML); example application: keep

4227 your own database of information attached to *whole* theories -- as

4228 opposed to intra-theory data slots offered via TheoryDataFun;

4230 * proper handling of dangling sort hypotheses (at last!);

4231 Thm.strip_shyps and Drule.strip_shyps_warning take care of removing

4232 extra sort hypotheses that can be witnessed from the type signature;

4233 the force_strip_shyps flag is gone, any remaining shyps are simply

4234 left in the theorem (with a warning issued by strip_shyps_warning);

4238 New in Isabelle98-1 (October 1998)

4239 ----------------------------------

4241 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES (see below for more details) ***

4243 * several changes of automated proof tools;

4245 * HOL: major changes to the inductive and datatype packages, including

4246 some minor incompatibilities of theory syntax;

4248 * HOL: renamed r^-1 to 'converse' from 'inverse'; 'inj_onto' is now

4249 called `inj_on';

4251 * HOL: removed duplicate thms in Arith:

4252 less_imp_add_less should be replaced by trans_less_add1

4253 le_imp_add_le should be replaced by trans_le_add1

4255 * HOL: unary minus is now overloaded (new type constraints may be

4256 required);

4258 * HOL and ZF: unary minus for integers is now #- instead of #~. In

4259 ZF, expressions such as n#-1 must be changed to n#- 1, since #-1 is

4260 now taken as an integer constant.

4262 * Pure: ML function 'theory_of' renamed to 'theory';

4265 *** Proof tools ***

4267 * Simplifier:

4268 1. Asm_full_simp_tac is now more aggressive.

4269 1. It will sometimes reorient premises if that increases their power to

4270 simplify.

4271 2. It does no longer proceed strictly from left to right but may also

4272 rotate premises to achieve further simplification.

4273 For compatibility reasons there is now Asm_lr_simp_tac which is like the

4274 old Asm_full_simp_tac in that it does not rotate premises.

4275 2. The simplifier now knows a little bit about nat-arithmetic.

4277 * Classical reasoner: wrapper mechanism for the classical reasoner now

4278 allows for selected deletion of wrappers, by introduction of names for

4279 wrapper functionals. This implies that addbefore, addSbefore,

4280 addaltern, and addSaltern now take a pair (name, tactic) as argument,

4281 and that adding two tactics with the same name overwrites the first

4282 one (emitting a warning).

4283 type wrapper = (int -> tactic) -> (int -> tactic)

4284 setWrapper, setSWrapper, compWrapper and compSWrapper are replaced by

4285 addWrapper, addSWrapper: claset * (string * wrapper) -> claset

4286 delWrapper, delSWrapper: claset * string -> claset

4287 getWrapper is renamed to appWrappers, getSWrapper to appSWrappers;

4289 * Classical reasoner: addbefore/addSbefore now have APPEND/ORELSE

4290 semantics; addbefore now affects only the unsafe part of step_tac

4291 etc.; this affects addss/auto_tac/force_tac, so EXISTING PROOFS MAY

4292 FAIL, but proofs should be fixable easily, e.g. by replacing Auto_tac

4293 by Force_tac;

4295 * Classical reasoner: setwrapper to setWrapper and compwrapper to

4296 compWrapper; added safe wrapper (and access functions for it);

4298 * HOL/split_all_tac is now much faster and fails if there is nothing

4299 to split. Some EXISTING PROOFS MAY REQUIRE ADAPTION because the order

4300 and the names of the automatically generated variables have changed.

4301 split_all_tac has moved within claset() from unsafe wrappers to safe

4302 wrappers, which means that !!-bound variables are split much more

4303 aggressively, and safe_tac and clarify_tac now split such variables.

4304 If this splitting is not appropriate, use delSWrapper "split_all_tac".

4305 Note: the same holds for record_split_tac, which does the job of

4306 split_all_tac for record fields.

4308 * HOL/Simplifier: Rewrite rules for case distinctions can now be added

4309 permanently to the default simpset using Addsplits just like

4310 Addsimps. They can be removed via Delsplits just like

4311 Delsimps. Lower-case versions are also available.

4313 * HOL/Simplifier: The rule split_if is now part of the default

4314 simpset. This means that the simplifier will eliminate all occurrences

4315 of if-then-else in the conclusion of a goal. To prevent this, you can

4316 either remove split_if completely from the default simpset by

4317 `Delsplits [split_if]' or remove it in a specific call of the

4318 simplifier using `... delsplits [split_if]'. You can also add/delete

4319 other case splitting rules to/from the default simpset: every datatype

4320 generates suitable rules `split_t_case' and `split_t_case_asm' (where

4321 t is the name of the datatype).

4323 * Classical reasoner / Simplifier combination: new force_tac (and

4324 derivatives Force_tac, force) combines rewriting and classical

4325 reasoning (and whatever other tools) similarly to auto_tac, but is

4326 aimed to solve the given subgoal completely.

4329 *** General ***

4331 * new top-level commands `Goal' and `Goalw' that improve upon `goal'

4332 and `goalw': the theory is no longer needed as an explicit argument -

4333 the current theory context is used; assumptions are no longer returned

4334 at the ML-level unless one of them starts with ==> or !!; it is

4335 recommended to convert to these new commands using isatool fixgoal

4336 (backup your sources first!);

4338 * new top-level commands 'thm' and 'thms' for retrieving theorems from

4339 the current theory context, and 'theory' to lookup stored theories;

4341 * new theory section 'locale' for declaring constants, assumptions and

4342 definitions that have local scope;

4344 * new theory section 'nonterminals' for purely syntactic types;

4346 * new theory section 'setup' for generic ML setup functions

4347 (e.g. package initialization);

4349 * the distribution now includes Isabelle icons: see

4350 lib/logo/isabelle-{small,tiny}.xpm;

4352 * isatool install - install binaries with absolute references to

4353 ISABELLE_HOME/bin;

4355 * isatool logo -- create instances of the Isabelle logo (as EPS);

4357 * print mode 'emacs' reserved for Isamode;

4359 * support multiple print (ast) translations per constant name;

4361 * theorems involving oracles are now printed with a suffixed [!];

4364 *** HOL ***

4366 * there is now a tutorial on Isabelle/HOL (do 'isatool doc tutorial');

4368 * HOL/inductive package reorganized and improved: now supports mutual

4369 definitions such as

4371 inductive EVEN ODD

4372 intrs

4373 null "0 : EVEN"

4374 oddI "n : EVEN ==> Suc n : ODD"

4375 evenI "n : ODD ==> Suc n : EVEN"

4377 new theorem list "elims" contains an elimination rule for each of the

4378 recursive sets; inductive definitions now handle disjunctive premises

4379 correctly (also ZF);

4381 INCOMPATIBILITIES: requires Inductive as an ancestor; component

4382 "mutual_induct" no longer exists - the induction rule is always

4383 contained in "induct";

4386 * HOL/datatype package re-implemented and greatly improved: now

4387 supports mutually recursive datatypes such as

4389 datatype

4390 'a aexp = IF_THEN_ELSE ('a bexp) ('a aexp) ('a aexp)

4391 | SUM ('a aexp) ('a aexp)

4392 | DIFF ('a aexp) ('a aexp)

4393 | NUM 'a

4394 and

4395 'a bexp = LESS ('a aexp) ('a aexp)

4396 | AND ('a bexp) ('a bexp)

4397 | OR ('a bexp) ('a bexp)

4399 as well as indirectly recursive datatypes such as

4401 datatype

4402 ('a, 'b) term = Var 'a

4403 | App 'b ((('a, 'b) term) list)

4405 The new tactic mutual_induct_tac [<var_1>, ..., <var_n>] i performs

4406 induction on mutually / indirectly recursive datatypes.

4408 Primrec equations are now stored in theory and can be accessed via

4409 <function_name>.simps.

4411 INCOMPATIBILITIES:

4413 - Theories using datatypes must now have theory Datatype as an

4414 ancestor.

4415 - The specific <typename>.induct_tac no longer exists - use the

4416 generic induct_tac instead.

4417 - natE has been renamed to nat.exhaust - use exhaust_tac

4418 instead of res_inst_tac ... natE. Note that the variable

4419 names in nat.exhaust differ from the names in natE, this

4420 may cause some "fragile" proofs to fail.

4421 - The theorems split_<typename>_case and split_<typename>_case_asm

4422 have been renamed to <typename>.split and <typename>.split_asm.

4423 - Since default sorts of type variables are now handled correctly,

4424 some datatype definitions may have to be annotated with explicit

4425 sort constraints.

4426 - Primrec definitions no longer require function name and type

4427 of recursive argument.

4429 Consider using isatool fixdatatype to adapt your theories and proof

4430 scripts to the new package (backup your sources first!).

4433 * HOL/record package: considerably improved implementation; now

4434 includes concrete syntax for record types, terms, updates; theorems

4435 for surjective pairing and splitting !!-bound record variables; proof

4436 support is as follows:

4438 1) standard conversions (selectors or updates applied to record

4439 constructor terms) are part of the standard simpset;

4441 2) inject equations of the form ((x, y) = (x', y')) == x=x' & y=y' are

4442 made part of standard simpset and claset via addIffs;

4444 3) a tactic for record field splitting (record_split_tac) is part of

4445 the standard claset (addSWrapper);

4447 To get a better idea about these rules you may retrieve them via

4448 something like 'thms "foo.simps"' or 'thms "foo.iffs"', where "foo" is

4449 the name of your record type.

4451 The split tactic 3) conceptually simplifies by the following rule:

4453 "(!!x. PROP ?P x) == (!!a b. PROP ?P (a, b))"

4455 Thus any record variable that is bound by meta-all will automatically

4456 blow up into some record constructor term, consequently the

4457 simplifications of 1), 2) apply. Thus force_tac, auto_tac etc. shall

4458 solve record problems automatically.

4461 * reorganized the main HOL image: HOL/Integ and String loaded by

4462 default; theory Main includes everything;

4464 * automatic simplification of integer sums and comparisons, using cancellation;

4466 * added option_map_eq_Some and not_Some_eq to the default simpset and claset;

4468 * added disj_not1 = "(~P | Q) = (P --> Q)" to the default simpset;

4470 * many new identities for unions, intersections, set difference, etc.;

4472 * expand_if, expand_split, expand_sum_case and expand_nat_case are now

4473 called split_if, split_split, split_sum_case and split_nat_case (to go

4474 with add/delsplits);

4476 * HOL/Prod introduces simplification procedure unit_eq_proc rewriting

4477 (?x::unit) = (); this is made part of the default simpset, which COULD

4478 MAKE EXISTING PROOFS FAIL under rare circumstances (consider

4479 'Delsimprocs [unit_eq_proc];' as last resort); also note that

4480 unit_abs_eta_conv is added in order to counter the effect of

4481 unit_eq_proc on (%u::unit. f u), replacing it by f rather than by

4482 %u.f();

4484 * HOL/Fun INCOMPATIBILITY: `inj_onto' is now called `inj_on' (which

4485 makes more sense);

4487 * HOL/Set INCOMPATIBILITY: rule `equals0D' is now a well-formed destruct rule;

4488 It and 'sym RS equals0D' are now in the default claset, giving automatic

4489 disjointness reasoning but breaking a few old proofs.

4491 * HOL/Relation INCOMPATIBILITY: renamed the relational operator r^-1

4492 to 'converse' from 'inverse' (for compatibility with ZF and some

4493 literature);

4495 * HOL/recdef can now declare non-recursive functions, with {} supplied as

4496 the well-founded relation;

4498 * HOL/Set INCOMPATIBILITY: the complement of set A is now written -A instead of

4499 Compl A. The "Compl" syntax remains available as input syntax for this

4500 release ONLY.

4502 * HOL/Update: new theory of function updates:

4503 f(a:=b) == %x. if x=a then b else f x

4504 may also be iterated as in f(a:=b,c:=d,...);

4506 * HOL/Vimage: new theory for inverse image of a function, syntax f-``B;

4508 * HOL/List:

4509 - new function list_update written xs[i:=v] that updates the i-th

4510 list position. May also be iterated as in xs[i:=a,j:=b,...].

4511 - new function `upt' written [i..j(] which generates the list

4512 [i,i+1,...,j-1], i.e. the upper bound is excluded. To include the upper

4513 bound write [i..j], which is a shorthand for [i..j+1(].

4514 - new lexicographic orderings and corresponding wellfoundedness theorems.

4516 * HOL/Arith:

4517 - removed 'pred' (predecessor) function;

4518 - generalized some theorems about n-1;

4519 - many new laws about "div" and "mod";

4520 - new laws about greatest common divisors (see theory ex/Primes);

4522 * HOL/Relation: renamed the relational operator r^-1 "converse"

4523 instead of "inverse";

4525 * HOL/Induct/Multiset: a theory of multisets, including the wellfoundedness

4526 of the multiset ordering;

4528 * directory HOL/Real: a construction of the reals using Dedekind cuts

4529 (not included by default);

4531 * directory HOL/UNITY: Chandy and Misra's UNITY formalism;

4533 * directory HOL/Hoare: a new version of Hoare logic which permits many-sorted

4534 programs, i.e. different program variables may have different types.

4536 * calling (stac rew i) now fails if "rew" has no effect on the goal

4537 [previously, this check worked only if the rewrite rule was unconditional]

4538 Now rew can involve either definitions or equalities (either == or =).

4541 *** ZF ***

4543 * theory Main includes everything; INCOMPATIBILITY: theory ZF.thy contains

4544 only the theorems proved on ZF.ML;

4546 * ZF INCOMPATIBILITY: rule `equals0D' is now a well-formed destruct rule;

4547 It and 'sym RS equals0D' are now in the default claset, giving automatic

4548 disjointness reasoning but breaking a few old proofs.

4550 * ZF/Update: new theory of function updates

4551 with default rewrite rule f(x:=y) ` z = if(z=x, y, f`z)

4552 may also be iterated as in f(a:=b,c:=d,...);

4554 * in let x=t in u(x), neither t nor u(x) has to be an FOL term.

4556 * calling (stac rew i) now fails if "rew" has no effect on the goal

4557 [previously, this check worked only if the rewrite rule was unconditional]

4558 Now rew can involve either definitions or equalities (either == or =).

4560 * case_tac provided for compatibility with HOL

4561 (like the old excluded_middle_tac, but with subgoals swapped)

4564 *** Internal programming interfaces ***

4566 * Pure: several new basic modules made available for general use, see

4567 also src/Pure/README;

4569 * improved the theory data mechanism to support encapsulation (data

4570 kind name replaced by private Object.kind, acting as authorization

4571 key); new type-safe user interface via functor TheoryDataFun; generic

4572 print_data function becomes basically useless;

4574 * removed global_names compatibility flag -- all theory declarations

4575 are qualified by default;

4577 * module Pure/Syntax now offers quote / antiquote translation

4578 functions (useful for Hoare logic etc. with implicit dependencies);

4579 see HOL/ex/Antiquote for an example use;

4581 * Simplifier now offers conversions (asm_)(full_)rewrite: simpset ->

4582 cterm -> thm;

4584 * new tactical CHANGED_GOAL for checking that a tactic modifies a

4585 subgoal;

4587 * Display.print_goals function moved to Locale.print_goals;

4589 * standard print function for goals supports current_goals_markers

4590 variable for marking begin of proof, end of proof, start of goal; the

4591 default is ("", "", ""); setting current_goals_markers := ("<proof>",

4592 "</proof>", "<goal>") causes SGML like tagged proof state printing,

4593 for example;

4597 New in Isabelle98 (January 1998)

4598 --------------------------------

4600 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES (see below for more details) ***

4602 * changed lexical syntax of terms / types: dots made part of long

4603 identifiers, e.g. "%x.x" no longer possible, should be "%x. x";

4605 * simpset (and claset) reference variable replaced by functions

4606 simpset / simpset_ref;

4608 * no longer supports theory aliases (via merge) and non-trivial

4609 implicit merge of thms' signatures;

4611 * most internal names of constants changed due to qualified names;

4613 * changed Pure/Sequence interface (see Pure/seq.ML);

4616 *** General Changes ***

4618 * hierachically structured name spaces (for consts, types, axms, thms

4619 etc.); new lexical class 'longid' (e.g. Foo.bar.x) may render much of

4620 old input syntactically incorrect (e.g. "%x.x"); COMPATIBILITY:

4621 isatool fixdots ensures space after dots (e.g. "%x. x"); set

4622 long_names for fully qualified output names; NOTE: ML programs

4623 (special tactics, packages etc.) referring to internal names may have

4624 to be adapted to cope with fully qualified names; in case of severe

4625 backward campatibility problems try setting 'global_names' at compile

4626 time to have enrything declared within a flat name space; one may also

4627 fine tune name declarations in theories via the 'global' and 'local'

4628 section;

4630 * reimplemented the implicit simpset and claset using the new anytype

4631 data filed in signatures; references simpset:simpset ref etc. are

4632 replaced by functions simpset:unit->simpset and

4633 simpset_ref:unit->simpset ref; COMPATIBILITY: use isatool fixclasimp

4634 to patch your ML files accordingly;

4636 * HTML output now includes theory graph data for display with Java

4637 applet or isatool browser; data generated automatically via isatool

4638 usedir (see -i option, ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS);

4640 * defs may now be conditional; improved rewrite_goals_tac to handle

4641 conditional equations;

4643 * defs now admits additional type arguments, using TYPE('a) syntax;

4645 * theory aliases via merge (e.g. M=A+B+C) no longer supported, always

4646 creates a new theory node; implicit merge of thms' signatures is

4647 restricted to 'trivial' ones; COMPATIBILITY: one may have to use

4648 transfer:theory->thm->thm in (rare) cases;

4650 * improved handling of draft signatures / theories; draft thms (and

4651 ctyps, cterms) are automatically promoted to real ones;

4653 * slightly changed interfaces for oracles: admit many per theory, named

4654 (e.g. oracle foo = mlfun), additional name argument for invoke_oracle;

4656 * print_goals: optional output of const types (set show_consts and

4657 show_types);

4659 * improved output of warnings (###) and errors (***);

4661 * subgoal_tac displays a warning if the new subgoal has type variables;

4663 * removed old README and Makefiles;

4665 * replaced print_goals_ref hook by print_current_goals_fn and result_error_fn;

4667 * removed obsolete init_pps and init_database;

4669 * deleted the obsolete tactical STATE, which was declared by

4670 fun STATE tacfun st = tacfun st st;

4672 * cd and use now support path variables, e.g. $ISABELLE_HOME, or ~

4673 (which abbreviates $HOME);

4675 * changed Pure/Sequence interface (see Pure/seq.ML); COMPATIBILITY:

4676 use isatool fixseq to adapt your ML programs (this works for fully

4677 qualified references to the Sequence structure only!);

4679 * use_thy no longer requires writable current directory; it always

4680 reloads .ML *and* .thy file, if either one is out of date;

4683 *** Classical Reasoner ***

4685 * Clarify_tac, clarify_tac, clarify_step_tac, Clarify_step_tac: new

4686 tactics that use classical reasoning to simplify a subgoal without

4687 splitting it into several subgoals;

4689 * Safe_tac: like safe_tac but uses the default claset;

4692 *** Simplifier ***

4694 * added simplification meta rules:

4695 (asm_)(full_)simplify: simpset -> thm -> thm;

4697 * simplifier.ML no longer part of Pure -- has to be loaded by object

4698 logics (again);

4700 * added prems argument to simplification procedures;

4702 * HOL, FOL, ZF: added infix function `addsplits':

4703 instead of `<simpset> setloop (split_tac <thms>)'

4704 you can simply write `<simpset> addsplits <thms>'

4707 *** Syntax ***

4709 * TYPE('a) syntax for type reflection terms;

4711 * no longer handles consts with name "" -- declare as 'syntax' instead;

4713 * pretty printer: changed order of mixfix annotation preference (again!);

4715 * Pure: fixed idt/idts vs. pttrn/pttrns syntactic categories;

4718 *** HOL ***

4720 * HOL: there is a new splitter `split_asm_tac' that can be used e.g.

4721 with `addloop' of the simplifier to faciliate case splitting in premises.

4723 * HOL/TLA: Stephan Merz's formalization of Lamport's Temporal Logic of Actions;

4725 * HOL/Auth: new protocol proofs including some for the Internet

4726 protocol TLS;

4728 * HOL/Map: new theory of `maps' a la VDM;

4730 * HOL/simplifier: simplification procedures nat_cancel_sums for

4731 cancelling out common nat summands from =, <, <= (in)equalities, or

4732 differences; simplification procedures nat_cancel_factor for

4733 cancelling common factor from =, <, <= (in)equalities over natural

4734 sums; nat_cancel contains both kinds of procedures, it is installed by

4735 default in Arith.thy -- this COULD MAKE EXISTING PROOFS FAIL;

4737 * HOL/simplifier: terms of the form

4738 `? x. P1(x) & ... & Pn(x) & x=t & Q1(x) & ... Qn(x)' (or t=x)

4739 are rewritten to

4740 `P1(t) & ... & Pn(t) & Q1(t) & ... Qn(t)',

4741 and those of the form

4742 `! x. P1(x) & ... & Pn(x) & x=t & Q1(x) & ... Qn(x) --> R(x)' (or t=x)

4743 are rewritten to

4744 `P1(t) & ... & Pn(t) & Q1(t) & ... Qn(t) --> R(t)',

4746 * HOL/datatype

4747 Each datatype `t' now comes with a theorem `split_t_case' of the form

4749 P(t_case f1 ... fn x) =

4750 ( (!y1 ... ym1. x = C1 y1 ... ym1 --> P(f1 y1 ... ym1)) &

4751 ...

4752 (!y1 ... ymn. x = Cn y1 ... ymn --> P(f1 y1 ... ymn))

4753 )

4755 and a theorem `split_t_case_asm' of the form

4757 P(t_case f1 ... fn x) =

4758 ~( (? y1 ... ym1. x = C1 y1 ... ym1 & ~P(f1 y1 ... ym1)) |

4759 ...

4760 (? y1 ... ymn. x = Cn y1 ... ymn & ~P(f1 y1 ... ymn))

4761 )

4762 which can be added to a simpset via `addsplits'. The existing theorems

4763 expand_list_case and expand_option_case have been renamed to

4764 split_list_case and split_option_case.

4766 * HOL/Arithmetic:

4767 - `pred n' is automatically converted to `n-1'.

4768 Users are strongly encouraged not to use `pred' any longer,

4769 because it will disappear altogether at some point.

4770 - Users are strongly encouraged to write "0 < n" rather than

4771 "n ~= 0". Theorems and proof tools have been modified towards this

4772 `standard'.

4774 * HOL/Lists:

4775 the function "set_of_list" has been renamed "set" (and its theorems too);

4776 the function "nth" now takes its arguments in the reverse order and

4777 has acquired the infix notation "!" as in "xs!n".

4779 * HOL/Set: UNIV is now a constant and is no longer translated to Compl{};

4781 * HOL/Set: The operator (UN x.B x) now abbreviates (UN x:UNIV. B x) and its

4782 specialist theorems (like UN1_I) are gone. Similarly for (INT x.B x);

4784 * HOL/record: extensible records with schematic structural subtyping

4785 (single inheritance); EXPERIMENTAL version demonstrating the encoding,

4786 still lacks various theorems and concrete record syntax;

4789 *** HOLCF ***

4791 * removed "axioms" and "generated by" sections;

4793 * replaced "ops" section by extended "consts" section, which is capable of

4794 handling the continuous function space "->" directly;

4796 * domain package:

4797 . proves theorems immediately and stores them in the theory,

4798 . creates hierachical name space,

4799 . now uses normal mixfix annotations (instead of cinfix...),

4800 . minor changes to some names and values (for consistency),

4801 . e.g. cases -> casedist, dists_eq -> dist_eqs, [take_lemma] -> take_lemmas,

4802 . separator between mutual domain defs: changed "," to "and",

4803 . improved handling of sort constraints; now they have to

4804 appear on the left-hand side of the equations only;

4806 * fixed LAM <x,y,zs>.b syntax;

4808 * added extended adm_tac to simplifier in HOLCF -- can now discharge

4809 adm (%x. P (t x)), where P is chainfinite and t continuous;

4812 *** FOL and ZF ***

4814 * FOL: there is a new splitter `split_asm_tac' that can be used e.g.

4815 with `addloop' of the simplifier to faciliate case splitting in premises.

4817 * qed_spec_mp, qed_goal_spec_mp, qed_goalw_spec_mp are available, as

4818 in HOL, they strip ALL and --> from proved theorems;

4822 New in Isabelle94-8 (May 1997)

4823 ------------------------------

4825 *** General Changes ***

4827 * new utilities to build / run / maintain Isabelle etc. (in parts

4828 still somewhat experimental); old Makefiles etc. still functional;

4830 * new 'Isabelle System Manual';

4832 * INSTALL text, together with ./configure and ./build scripts;

4834 * reimplemented type inference for greater efficiency, better error

4835 messages and clean internal interface;

4837 * prlim command for dealing with lots of subgoals (an easier way of

4838 setting goals_limit);

4841 *** Syntax ***

4843 * supports alternative (named) syntax tables (parser and pretty

4844 printer); internal interface is provided by add_modesyntax(_i);

4846 * Pure, FOL, ZF, HOL, HOLCF now support symbolic input and output; to

4847 be used in conjunction with the Isabelle symbol font; uses the

4848 "symbols" syntax table;

4850 * added token_translation interface (may translate name tokens in

4851 arbitrary ways, dependent on their type (free, bound, tfree, ...) and

4852 the current print_mode); IMPORTANT: user print translation functions

4853 are responsible for marking newly introduced bounds

4854 (Syntax.mark_boundT);

4856 * token translations for modes "xterm" and "xterm_color" that display

4857 names in bold, underline etc. or colors (which requires a color

4858 version of xterm);

4860 * infixes may now be declared with names independent of their syntax;

4862 * added typed_print_translation (like print_translation, but may

4863 access type of constant);

4866 *** Classical Reasoner ***

4868 Blast_tac: a new tactic! It is often more powerful than fast_tac, but has

4869 some limitations. Blast_tac...

4870 + ignores addss, addbefore, addafter; this restriction is intrinsic

4871 + ignores elimination rules that don't have the correct format

4872 (the conclusion MUST be a formula variable)

4873 + ignores types, which can make HOL proofs fail

4874 + rules must not require higher-order unification, e.g. apply_type in ZF

4875 [message "Function Var's argument not a bound variable" relates to this]

4876 + its proof strategy is more general but can actually be slower

4878 * substitution with equality assumptions no longer permutes other

4879 assumptions;

4881 * minor changes in semantics of addafter (now called addaltern); renamed

4882 setwrapper to setWrapper and compwrapper to compWrapper; added safe wrapper

4883 (and access functions for it);

4885 * improved combination of classical reasoner and simplifier:

4886 + functions for handling clasimpsets

4887 + improvement of addss: now the simplifier is called _after_ the

4888 safe steps.

4889 + safe variant of addss called addSss: uses safe simplifications

4890 _during_ the safe steps. It is more complete as it allows multiple

4891 instantiations of unknowns (e.g. with slow_tac).

4893 *** Simplifier ***

4895 * added interface for simplification procedures (functions that

4896 produce *proven* rewrite rules on the fly, depending on current

4897 redex);

4899 * ordering on terms as parameter (used for ordered rewriting);

4901 * new functions delcongs, deleqcongs, and Delcongs. richer rep_ss;

4903 * the solver is now split into a safe and an unsafe part.

4904 This should be invisible for the normal user, except that the

4905 functions setsolver and addsolver have been renamed to setSolver and

4906 addSolver; added safe_asm_full_simp_tac;

4909 *** HOL ***

4911 * a generic induction tactic `induct_tac' which works for all datatypes and

4912 also for type `nat';

4914 * a generic case distinction tactic `exhaust_tac' which works for all

4915 datatypes and also for type `nat';

4917 * each datatype comes with a function `size';

4919 * patterns in case expressions allow tuple patterns as arguments to

4920 constructors, for example `case x of [] => ... | (x,y,z)#ps => ...';

4922 * primrec now also works with type nat;

4924 * recdef: a new declaration form, allows general recursive functions to be

4925 defined in theory files. See HOL/ex/Fib, HOL/ex/Primes, HOL/Subst/Unify.

4927 * the constant for negation has been renamed from "not" to "Not" to

4928 harmonize with FOL, ZF, LK, etc.;

4930 * HOL/ex/LFilter theory of a corecursive "filter" functional for

4931 infinite lists;

4933 * HOL/Modelcheck demonstrates invocation of model checker oracle;

4935 * HOL/ex/Ring.thy declares cring_simp, which solves equational

4936 problems in commutative rings, using axiomatic type classes for + and *;

4938 * more examples in HOL/MiniML and HOL/Auth;

4940 * more default rewrite rules for quantifiers, union/intersection;

4942 * a new constant `arbitrary == @x.False';

4944 * HOLCF/IOA replaces old HOL/IOA;

4946 * HOLCF changes: derived all rules and arities

4947 + axiomatic type classes instead of classes

4948 + typedef instead of faking type definitions

4949 + eliminated the internal constants less_fun, less_cfun, UU_fun, UU_cfun etc.

4950 + new axclasses cpo, chfin, flat with flat < chfin < pcpo < cpo < po

4951 + eliminated the types void, one, tr

4952 + use unit lift and bool lift (with translations) instead of one and tr

4953 + eliminated blift from Lift3.thy (use Def instead of blift)

4954 all eliminated rules are derived as theorems --> no visible changes ;

4957 *** ZF ***

4959 * ZF now has Fast_tac, Simp_tac and Auto_tac. Union_iff is a now a default

4960 rewrite rule; this may affect some proofs. eq_cs is gone but can be put back

4961 as ZF_cs addSIs [equalityI];

4965 New in Isabelle94-7 (November 96)

4966 ---------------------------------

4968 * allowing negative levels (as offsets) in prlev and choplev;

4970 * super-linear speedup for large simplifications;

4972 * FOL, ZF and HOL now use miniscoping: rewriting pushes

4973 quantifications in as far as possible (COULD MAKE EXISTING PROOFS

4974 FAIL); can suppress it using the command Delsimps (ex_simps @

4975 all_simps); De Morgan laws are also now included, by default;

4977 * improved printing of ==> : ~:

4979 * new object-logic "Sequents" adds linear logic, while replacing LK

4980 and Modal (thanks to Sara Kalvala);

4982 * HOL/Auth: correctness proofs for authentication protocols;

4984 * HOL: new auto_tac combines rewriting and classical reasoning (many

4985 examples on HOL/Auth);

4987 * HOL: new command AddIffs for declaring theorems of the form P=Q to

4988 the rewriter and classical reasoner simultaneously;

4990 * function uresult no longer returns theorems in "standard" format;

4991 regain previous version by: val uresult = standard o uresult;

4995 New in Isabelle94-6

4996 -------------------

4998 * oracles -- these establish an interface between Isabelle and trusted

4999 external reasoners, which may deliver results as theorems;

5001 * proof objects (in particular record all uses of oracles);

5003 * Simp_tac, Fast_tac, etc. that refer to implicit simpset / claset;

5005 * "constdefs" section in theory files;

5007 * "primrec" section (HOL) no longer requires names;

5009 * internal type "tactic" now simply "thm -> thm Sequence.seq";

5013 New in Isabelle94-5

5014 -------------------

5016 * reduced space requirements;

5018 * automatic HTML generation from theories;

5020 * theory files no longer require "..." (quotes) around most types;

5022 * new examples, including two proofs of the Church-Rosser theorem;

5024 * non-curried (1994) version of HOL is no longer distributed;

5028 New in Isabelle94-4

5029 -------------------

5031 * greatly reduced space requirements;

5033 * theory files (.thy) no longer require \...\ escapes at line breaks;

5035 * searchable theorem database (see the section "Retrieving theorems" on

5036 page 8 of the Reference Manual);

5038 * new examples, including Grabczewski's monumental case study of the

5039 Axiom of Choice;

5041 * The previous version of HOL renamed to Old_HOL;

5043 * The new version of HOL (previously called CHOL) uses a curried syntax

5044 for functions. Application looks like f a b instead of f(a,b);

5046 * Mutually recursive inductive definitions finally work in HOL;

5048 * In ZF, pattern-matching on tuples is now available in all abstractions and

5049 translates to the operator "split";

5053 New in Isabelle94-3

5054 -------------------

5056 * new infix operator, addss, allowing the classical reasoner to

5057 perform simplification at each step of its search. Example:

5058 fast_tac (cs addss ss)

5060 * a new logic, CHOL, the same as HOL, but with a curried syntax

5061 for functions. Application looks like f a b instead of f(a,b). Also pairs

5062 look like (a,b) instead of <a,b>;

5064 * PLEASE NOTE: CHOL will eventually replace HOL!

5066 * In CHOL, pattern-matching on tuples is now available in all abstractions.

5067 It translates to the operator "split". A new theory of integers is available;

5069 * In ZF, integer numerals now denote two's-complement binary integers.

5070 Arithmetic operations can be performed by rewriting. See ZF/ex/Bin.ML;

5072 * Many new examples: I/O automata, Church-Rosser theorem, equivalents

5073 of the Axiom of Choice;

5077 New in Isabelle94-2

5078 -------------------

5080 * Significantly faster resolution;

5082 * the different sections in a .thy file can now be mixed and repeated

5083 freely;

5085 * Database of theorems for FOL, HOL and ZF. New

5086 commands including qed, qed_goal and bind_thm store theorems in the database.

5088 * Simple database queries: return a named theorem (get_thm) or all theorems of

5089 a given theory (thms_of), or find out what theory a theorem was proved in

5090 (theory_of_thm);

5092 * Bugs fixed in the inductive definition and datatype packages;

5094 * The classical reasoner provides deepen_tac and depth_tac, making FOL_dup_cs

5095 and HOL_dup_cs obsolete;

5097 * Syntactic ambiguities caused by the new treatment of syntax in Isabelle94-1

5098 have been removed;

5100 * Simpler definition of function space in ZF;

5102 * new results about cardinal and ordinal arithmetic in ZF;

5104 * 'subtype' facility in HOL for introducing new types as subsets of existing

5105 types;

5107 :mode=text:wrap=hard:maxLineLen=72:

5108 $Id$