NEWS
author wenzelm
Fri Feb 17 15:42:26 2012 +0100 (2012-02-17)
changeset 46512 4f9f61f9b535
parent 46506 c7faa011bfa7
child 46528 1bbee2041321
permissions -rw-r--r--
simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
    10 
    11   - markup for bound variables
    12   - markup for types of term variables (e.g. displayed as tooltips)
    13 
    14 * Updated and extended reference manuals ("isar-ref" and
    15 "implementation"); reduced remaining material in old "ref" manual.
    16 
    17 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
    18 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
    19 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
    20 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
    21 etc. was exploited.
    22 
    23 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
    24 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
    25 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
    26 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
    27 indices of schematic variables.
    28 
    29 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
    30 
    31     num ~> num_token
    32     xnum ~> xnum_token
    33     xstr ~> str_token
    34 
    35 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
    36 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
    37 position information via constraints).
    38 
    39 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
    40 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
    41 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    42 
    43 
    44 *** Pure ***
    45 
    46 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
    47 collection of foundational premises in the context (marked as legacy
    48 since Isabelle2011).
    49 
    50 * Obsolete command 'types' has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
    51 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    52 
    53 * Ancient code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
    54 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
    55 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    56 
    57 * Redundant attribute 'code_inline' has been discontinued. Use
    58 'code_unfold' instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    59 
    60 * Dropped attribute 'code_unfold_post' in favor of the its dual
    61 'code_abbrev', which yields a common pattern in definitions like
    62 
    63   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
    64 
    65 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    66 
    67 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
    68 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
    69 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
    70 
    71   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
    72 
    73   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
    74     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurence (!)"
    75 
    76 
    77 *** HOL ***
    78 
    79 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
    80 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
    81 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
    82 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase sets S accidentally
    83 used as predicates by "%x. x : S" and predicates P accidentally used
    84 as sets by "{x. P x}".  Corresponding proofs in a first step should be
    85 pruned from any tinkering with former theorems mem_def and
    86 Collect_def.  For developments which deliberately mixed predicates and
    87 sets, a planning step is necessary to determine what should become a
    88 predicate and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
    89 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
    90 
    91 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
    92 
    93 * Consolidated various theorem names relating to Finite_Set.fold
    94 combinator:
    95 
    96   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
    97   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
    98   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
    99   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
   100   union_set ~> union_set_fold
   101   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
   102   
   103 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   104 
   105 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
   106 
   107   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
   108   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
   109   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
   110   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
   111   foldr.simps ~> foldr_Nil foldr_Cons (in point-free formulation)
   112   foldl.simps ~> foldl_Nil foldl_Cons
   113   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_def
   114   foldl_fold ~> foldl_def
   115 
   116 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   117 
   118 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
   119 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
   120 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
   121 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
   122 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
   123 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   124 Prefer "List.fold" with canonical argument order, or boil down
   125 "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by unfolding "foldr_def"
   126 and "foldl_def".  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
   127 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".
   128 
   129 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   130 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   131 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   132 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   133 one_case.
   134 
   135 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   136 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   137 
   138 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   139 
   140 * Renamed some facts on canonical fold on lists, in order to avoid
   141 problems with interpretation involving corresponding facts on foldl
   142 with the same base names:
   143 
   144   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
   145   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
   146   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
   147 
   148 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   149 
   150 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   151   to match the constant's name:
   152   
   153   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   154   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   155   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   156   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   157   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   158   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   159   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   160   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   161   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2 
   162   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   163   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   164   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   165   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   166   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   167   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   168   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   169   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   170   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   171   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   172   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   173   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   174   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   175   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   176   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   177  
   178 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   179 
   180 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for association
   181   lists with distinct keys.
   182 
   183 * 'datatype' specifications allow explicit sort constraints.
   184 
   185 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   186 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
   187 
   188 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
   189 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
   190 instead.
   191 
   192   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
   193   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
   194   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
   195   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
   196   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
   197   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
   198   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
   199   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
   200   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   201   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   202   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
   203   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
   204   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   205   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
   206   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   207   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
   208   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
   209   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
   210   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
   211   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
   212   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
   213   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
   214   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
   215   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
   216   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
   217   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
   218   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
   219   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
   220   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
   221   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
   222   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
   223   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
   224   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
   225   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
   226   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
   227   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
   228   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
   229   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
   230   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
   231   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
   232   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
   233 
   234 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   235 the result of the fact expression.
   236 
   237 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
   238 relations.
   239 
   240 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   241 
   242 * "sublists" moved to theory More_List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   243 
   244 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
   245 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   246 
   247   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
   248   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
   249   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
   250   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
   251   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
   252   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   253   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
   254   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
   255   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
   256   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
   257   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
   258   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
   259   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
   260   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   261   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   262   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
   263   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
   264   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
   265   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   266   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   267   zle_refl ~> order_refl
   268   zle_trans ~> order_trans
   269   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
   270   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
   271   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
   272   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   273   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
   274   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
   275   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
   276   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
   277   zless_le ~> less_le
   278   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
   279   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
   280   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
   281 
   282 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
   283 
   284   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
   285 
   286 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   287 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   288 
   289   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   290 
   291 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   292 a list and a nat.
   293 
   294 * Improved code generation of multisets.
   295 
   296 * Quickcheck:
   297   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   298     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   299     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   300     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   301     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   302     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   303     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   304     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   305     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   306     continues searching for genuine ones.
   307     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   308     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to
   309     only show genuine counterexamples.
   310 
   311   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   312     value generators for a given type and operations.
   313     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   314     constructors of that type. 
   315 
   316   - Support for multisets.
   317 
   318 * Nitpick:
   319   - Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option and
   320     affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   321 
   322 * Sledgehammer:
   323   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   324   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   325   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   326 
   327 * Metis:
   328   - Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   329     parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   330 
   331 
   332 *** FOL ***
   333 
   334 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
   335 
   336 
   337 *** ML ***
   338 
   339 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
   340 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
   341 
   342 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
   343 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
   344 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
   345 
   346 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
   347 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   348 
   349 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
   350 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
   351 context as well.
   352 
   353 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
   354 
   355   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
   356   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
   357   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
   358   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
   359   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
   360   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
   361   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
   362   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
   363   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
   364   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
   365   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
   366   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
   367 
   368 
   369 
   370 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
   371 ------------------------------------
   372 
   373 *** General ***
   374 
   375 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
   376 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
   377 
   378   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
   379     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
   380     files for checking).
   381 
   382   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
   383     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
   384     positions.
   385 
   386   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
   387     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
   388     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
   389 
   390   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
   391     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
   392     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
   393 
   394   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
   395     cores.
   396 
   397   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
   398     versions (garbage collection).
   399 
   400 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
   401 including some remaining limitations.
   402 
   403 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
   404 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
   405 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
   406 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
   407 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
   408 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   409 
   410 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
   411 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
   412 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
   413 
   414 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
   415 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
   416 usedir option -Q.
   417 
   418 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
   419 configuration options, with more conventional names:
   420 
   421   long_names   ~> names_long
   422   short_names  ~> names_short
   423   unique_names ~> names_unique
   424 
   425 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
   426 
   427   declare [[names_unique = false]]
   428 
   429 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
   430 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
   431 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
   432 
   433 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
   434 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
   435 
   436 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
   437   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
   438   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
   439   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
   440     "Classical Reasoner".
   441 
   442 
   443 *** HOL ***
   444 
   445 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
   446 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   447 
   448 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
   449 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
   450 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
   451 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
   452 class complete_linorder.
   453 
   454 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
   455 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
   456 
   457 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
   458 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
   459 
   460   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
   461   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
   462   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
   463   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
   464   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
   465   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
   466   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
   467   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
   468   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
   469   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
   470   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
   471 
   472 More consistent and comprehensive names:
   473 
   474   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
   475   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
   476   INFI_def ~> INF_def
   477   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
   478   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
   479   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
   480   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
   481   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
   482   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
   483   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
   484   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
   485   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
   486   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
   487   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
   488   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
   489   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
   490 
   491 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   492 
   493 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
   494 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   495 
   496 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
   497 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
   498 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
   499 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   500 
   501 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
   502 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
   503 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
   504 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   505 
   506 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
   507 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
   508 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
   509 
   510 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
   511 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
   512 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   513 
   514 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
   515 separate type class floor_ceiling.
   516 
   517 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
   518 
   519     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
   520     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
   521 
   522 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
   523 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   524 
   525 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
   526 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   527 
   528 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
   529 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
   530 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
   531 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   532 
   533   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
   534   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
   535   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
   536   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
   537   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
   538   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
   539   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
   540 
   541 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
   542 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   543 
   544   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
   545   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
   546   real_less_def ~> less_le
   547   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
   548   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
   549   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
   550   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   551   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   552   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   553   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
   554   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
   555   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
   556   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
   557   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
   558   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
   559   real_le_linear ~> linear
   560   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
   561   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   562   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
   563   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
   564   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
   565   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
   566   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
   567   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
   568   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
   569   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
   570   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
   571   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
   572   expi_add ~> exp_add
   573   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
   574   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
   575   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
   576   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
   577   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
   578   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
   579   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
   580   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
   581   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
   582   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
   583   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
   584   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
   585   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
   586   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
   587   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
   588   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
   589   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
   590   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
   591   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
   592   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
   593   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
   594   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
   595   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
   596   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
   597   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
   598   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
   599   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
   600   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
   601   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
   602   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
   603   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
   604   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
   605   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
   606   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
   607   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
   608   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
   609   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
   610   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
   611   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
   612   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
   613   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
   614   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
   615   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
   616   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
   617   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
   618   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
   619   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
   620   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
   621   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
   622   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
   623   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
   624   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
   625   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
   626 
   627 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
   628 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
   629 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
   630 
   631 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
   632 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
   633 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
   634 
   635 * Code generation:
   636 
   637   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
   638     characters in the target language.
   639 
   640   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
   641     instead.
   642 
   643   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
   644 
   645   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
   646     reactivated by the following theory command:
   647 
   648       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
   649 
   650 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   651 
   652 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
   653 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
   654 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
   655 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
   656 syntax.
   657 
   658 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
   659 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
   660 
   661 * Nitpick:
   662   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
   663   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
   664   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
   665     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   666 
   667 * Sledgehammer:
   668   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
   669   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
   670     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
   671   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
   672     this can be done within reasonable time.
   673   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
   674     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   675   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
   676     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
   677   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
   678     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   679 
   680 * Metis:
   681   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   682   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
   683     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   684 
   685 * Command 'try':
   686   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
   687     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   688   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
   689     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
   690 
   691 * Quickcheck:
   692   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
   693     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
   694   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
   695     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
   696   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
   697     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
   698     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
   699     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
   700   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
   701     (formly in HOL/Library).
   702 
   703 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
   704 use 'partial_function' instead.
   705 
   706 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
   707 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
   708 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
   709 
   710 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
   711 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
   712 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   713 
   714 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
   715 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   716 
   717 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
   718 arithmetic.
   719 
   720 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
   721 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
   722 and lattice type classes.
   723 
   724 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
   725 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
   726 
   727 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
   728 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
   729 
   730 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
   731 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
   732 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   733 
   734   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
   735   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
   736   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
   737   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
   738 
   739 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
   740 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
   741 constants:
   742 
   743   type inat   ~> type enat
   744   Fin         ~> enat
   745   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
   746   iSuc        ~> eSuc
   747   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
   748 
   749 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
   750 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   751 
   752 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
   753 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
   754 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
   755 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
   756 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
   757 
   758 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
   759 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
   760 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
   761 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
   762 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
   763 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
   764 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
   765 
   766   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
   767   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
   768   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
   769   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
   770 
   771 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
   772 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
   773 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   774 
   775   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
   776   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
   777   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
   778   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
   779   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
   780   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
   781   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
   782   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
   783   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
   784   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
   785   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
   786   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
   787   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
   788   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
   789   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
   790   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
   791   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
   792   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
   793   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
   794   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
   795   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
   796   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
   797   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
   798   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
   799   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
   800   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
   801   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
   802   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
   803   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
   804   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
   805   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
   806   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
   807   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
   808   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
   809   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
   810   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
   811   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
   812   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
   813   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
   814   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
   815   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
   816   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
   817   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
   818   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
   819   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
   820   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
   821   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
   822   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
   823   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
   824   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
   825   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
   826 
   827 * Session HOL-Probability:
   828   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
   829   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
   830   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
   831   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
   832     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   833 
   834 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   835 
   836   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
   837   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
   838   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
   839   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
   840   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
   841   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
   842   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
   843   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
   844   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
   845   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
   846   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
   847   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
   848   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
   849   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
   850   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
   851   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
   852   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
   853   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
   854   UU_I ~> bottomI
   855   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
   856   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
   857   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
   858   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
   859   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
   860   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
   861 
   862 
   863 *** Document preparation ***
   864 
   865 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
   866 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
   867 same.
   868 
   869 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
   870 result.
   871 
   872 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
   873 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
   874 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
   875 
   876 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
   877 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
   878 
   879 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
   880 like this:
   881 
   882   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
   883   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
   884 
   885 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
   886 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
   887 layouts.
   888 
   889 
   890 *** ML ***
   891 
   892 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
   893 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
   894 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
   895 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
   896 under external program control.
   897 
   898 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
   899 data, which requires explicit setup.
   900 
   901 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
   902 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
   903 (better known as Proof General).
   904 
   905 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
   906 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
   907 
   908 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
   909 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
   910 
   911 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
   912 (including quotes etc.).
   913 
   914 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
   915 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
   916 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
   917 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
   918 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
   919 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
   920 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
   921 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
   922 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
   923 
   924 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
   925 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
   926 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
   927 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
   928 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
   929 
   930 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
   931 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
   932 
   933 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
   934 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
   935 
   936 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
   937 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
   938 
   939 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
   940 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
   941 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
   942 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
   943 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
   944 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
   945 proper Proof.context.
   946 
   947 
   948 *** System ***
   949 
   950 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
   951 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
   952 
   953 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
   954 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
   955 
   956 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
   957 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
   958 
   959   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
   960   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
   961   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
   962   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
   963   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
   964 
   965 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
   966 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   967 
   968 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
   969 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
   970 example:
   971 
   972   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
   973 
   974 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
   975 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
   976 
   977 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
   978 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
   979 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
   980 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
   981 
   982 
   983 
   984 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
   985 ----------------------------------
   986 
   987 *** General ***
   988 
   989 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
   990 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
   991 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
   992 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
   993 like this:
   994 
   995   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
   996 
   997 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
   998 
   999 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  1000 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  1001 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  1002 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  1003 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  1004 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  1005 
  1006 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  1007 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  1008 the following package declarations:
  1009 
  1010   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  1011   \usepackage{textcomp}
  1012 
  1013 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  1014 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  1015 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  1016 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  1017 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  1018 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  1019 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  1020 
  1021 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  1022 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1023 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  1024 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  1025 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  1026 
  1027 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  1028 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  1029 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  1030 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  1031 
  1032 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  1033 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  1034 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  1035 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  1036 
  1037   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  1038 
  1039   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  1040   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  1041   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  1042   show_types                    show_types
  1043   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  1044   show_consts                   show_consts
  1045   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  1046 
  1047   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  1048   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  1049   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  1050 
  1051   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  1052   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  1053 
  1054   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  1055 
  1056   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  1057   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  1058   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  1059   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  1060   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  1061 
  1062 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  1063 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  1064 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  1065 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  1066 
  1067 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  1068 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1069 
  1070   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  1071   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  1072 
  1073 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  1074 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  1075 float_token.
  1076 
  1077 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  1078 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  1079 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1080 
  1081 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  1082 DejaVu Sans.
  1083 
  1084 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  1085 
  1086 
  1087 *** Pure ***
  1088 
  1089 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  1090 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  1091 time.
  1092 
  1093 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  1094 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1095 
  1096 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  1097 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1098 
  1099 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  1100 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  1101 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  1102 command already provided this functionality.
  1103 
  1104 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  1105 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  1106 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  1107 without interpretations.
  1108 
  1109 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  1110 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  1111 
  1112 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  1113 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  1114 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  1115 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  1116 
  1117 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  1118 'definition' instead.
  1119 
  1120 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  1121 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  1122 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  1123 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  1124 
  1125 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  1126 constructors.
  1127 
  1128 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  1129 the local file system.
  1130 
  1131 
  1132 *** HOL ***
  1133 
  1134 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  1135 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  1136 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  1137 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  1138 
  1139   declare [[coercion f]]
  1140 
  1141 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  1142 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  1143 
  1144   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  1145 
  1146 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  1147 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  1148 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  1149 other theories like this:
  1150 
  1151   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  1152 
  1153 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  1154 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  1155 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  1156 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  1157 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  1158 for examples.
  1159 
  1160 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  1161 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1162 
  1163 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  1164 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  1165 
  1166 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  1167 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  1168 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  1169 
  1170 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  1171 functorial structure of types.
  1172 
  1173 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  1174 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  1175 
  1176 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  1177 languages.
  1178 
  1179 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  1180 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  1181 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1182 
  1183 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  1184 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1185 
  1186 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  1187 combinators any longer.
  1188 
  1189 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  1190 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  1191 
  1192 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  1193 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  1194 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  1195 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  1196 
  1197   record 'a foo = ...
  1198   ...
  1199   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  1200 
  1201 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  1202 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  1203 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1204 
  1205 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  1206 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  1207 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  1208 
  1209 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  1210 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  1211 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  1212 
  1213 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  1214 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1215 
  1216 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  1217 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  1218 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  1219 independently.
  1220 
  1221 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  1222 counter example search.
  1223 
  1224 * Sledgehammer:
  1225   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  1226     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  1227     sledgehammer").
  1228   - Renamed commands:
  1229     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  1230     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  1231     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  1232     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1233   - Renamed options:
  1234     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  1235     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  1236     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  1237     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  1238     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1239 
  1240 * Nitpick:
  1241   - Renamed options:
  1242     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  1243     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  1244     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1245   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  1246   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  1247   - Added "whack" option.
  1248   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  1249   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  1250   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  1251   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  1252     higher cardinalities.
  1253   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  1254 
  1255 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  1256 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  1257 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  1258 
  1259     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  1260 
  1261 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  1262 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  1263 
  1264 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  1265 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  1266 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  1267 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  1268 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  1269 "smt_solver".
  1270 
  1271 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  1272 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  1273 
  1274 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  1275 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  1276 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  1277 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1278 
  1279 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  1280   - Renamed:
  1281     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  1282     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  1283     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1284   - Added:
  1285     smt_verbose
  1286     smt_random_seed
  1287     smt_datatypes
  1288     smt_infer_triggers
  1289     smt_monomorph_limit
  1290     cvc3_options
  1291     remote_cvc3_options
  1292     remote_z3_options
  1293     yices_options
  1294 
  1295 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  1296 header.
  1297 
  1298 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  1299 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  1300 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  1301 
  1302   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  1303 
  1304 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1305 
  1306 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  1307 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1308 
  1309 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1310 
  1311 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  1312 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1313 
  1314 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  1315 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  1316 
  1317 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  1318 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1319 
  1320 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  1321 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  1322 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1323 
  1324 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1325 
  1326 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  1327 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1328 
  1329 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  1330 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1331 
  1332 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  1333 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  1334 for congruent(2)).
  1335 
  1336 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  1337 
  1338   types
  1339     bool ~> HOL.bool
  1340     nat ~> Nat.nat
  1341 
  1342   constants
  1343     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  1344     True ~> HOL.True
  1345     False ~> HOL.False
  1346     op & ~> HOL.conj
  1347     op | ~> HOL.disj
  1348     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  1349     op = ~> HOL.eq
  1350     Not ~> HOL.Not
  1351     The ~> HOL.The
  1352     All ~> HOL.All
  1353     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  1354     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  1355     Let ~> HOL.Let
  1356     If ~> HOL.If
  1357     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  1358     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  1359     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  1360     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  1361     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  1362     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  1363     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  1364     op : ~> Set.member
  1365     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  1366 
  1367 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1368 
  1369 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  1370 
  1371     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  1372     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  1373     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  1374     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  1375     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  1376     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  1377     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  1378     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  1379 
  1380 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1381 
  1382 * More stylized fact names:
  1383 
  1384   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  1385   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  1386   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  1387   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  1388 
  1389 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1390 
  1391 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  1392 
  1393   constants
  1394     null ~> List.null
  1395 
  1396   facts
  1397     mem_iff ~> member_def
  1398     null_empty ~> null_def
  1399 
  1400 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  1401 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  1402 generation.
  1403 
  1404 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  1405 Haskell code.
  1406 
  1407 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  1408 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  1409 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1410 
  1411 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  1412 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1413 
  1414 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  1415 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  1416 
  1417 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  1418 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  1419 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1420 
  1421 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  1422 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1423 
  1424 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  1425 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1426 
  1427 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  1428 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  1429 referred to by its qualified name.
  1430 
  1431   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  1432   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  1433   product ~>  Enum.product
  1434 
  1435 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  1436 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  1437 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1438 
  1439 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  1440 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  1441 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  1442 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1443 
  1444 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  1445 sort_key.
  1446 
  1447 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  1448 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1449 
  1450 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  1451 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  1452 instead of finite cartesian products.
  1453 
  1454   types
  1455     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  1456               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  1457               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  1458         (depends on your needs)
  1459 
  1460   constants
  1461      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  1462      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  1463      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  1464 
  1465 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  1466 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  1467 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  1468 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1469 
  1470 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  1471 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  1472 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  1473 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  1474 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1475 
  1476 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  1477 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1478 
  1479 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  1480 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  1481 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  1482 
  1483 
  1484 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  1485 
  1486 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  1487 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  1488 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  1489 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  1490 compatibility.
  1491 
  1492 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  1493 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  1494 
  1495 
  1496 *** HOLCF ***
  1497 
  1498 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  1499 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  1500 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  1501 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1502 
  1503 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  1504 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  1505 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1506 
  1507   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  1508   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  1509   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  1510 
  1511 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  1512 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  1513 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1514 
  1515 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  1516 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  1517 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  1518 domain definition now works:
  1519 
  1520   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  1521 
  1522 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  1523 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  1524 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  1525 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  1526 
  1527   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  1528     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  1529 
  1530   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  1531 
  1532 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  1533 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  1534 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1535 
  1536 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  1537 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1538 
  1539 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  1540 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  1541 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  1542 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  1543 
  1544 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  1545 
  1546 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1547 
  1548 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1549 
  1550 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  1551 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1552 
  1553 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  1554 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  1555 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  1556 
  1557 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  1558 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  1559 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1560 
  1561 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  1562 still supported as an input translation.
  1563 
  1564 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  1565 
  1566   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  1567   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  1568   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1569   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  1570   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  1571   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  1572   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1573 
  1574 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  1575 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1576 
  1577   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  1578   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  1579   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  1580   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  1581   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  1582   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  1583 
  1584 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  1585 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1586 
  1587 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  1588 
  1589   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  1590   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  1591   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  1592   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  1593 
  1594 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1595 
  1596 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  1597 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1598 
  1599 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  1600 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1601 
  1602   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  1603   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  1604   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  1605   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  1606   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  1607   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  1608   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  1609   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  1610   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  1611   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  1612   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  1613   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  1614   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  1615   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  1616   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  1617   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  1618   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  1619   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  1620   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  1621   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  1622 
  1623 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1624 
  1625   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  1626   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  1627   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  1628   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  1629   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  1630   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  1631   box_less             ~> box_below
  1632   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  1633   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  1634   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  1635   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  1636   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  1637   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  1638   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  1639   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  1640   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  1641   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  1642   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  1643   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  1644   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  1645   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  1646   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  1647   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  1648   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  1649   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  1650   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  1651   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  1652   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  1653   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  1654   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  1655   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  1656   up_less              ~> up_below
  1657   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  1658   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  1659   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  1660   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  1661   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  1662   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  1663   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  1664   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  1665   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  1666   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  1667   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  1668   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  1669   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  1670 
  1671 
  1672 *** FOL and ZF ***
  1673 
  1674 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  1675 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1676 
  1677 
  1678 *** ML ***
  1679 
  1680 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  1681 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  1682 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  1683 
  1684 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  1685 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  1686 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  1687 
  1688 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  1689 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  1690 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  1691 
  1692 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  1693 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  1694 
  1695 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  1696 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  1697 
  1698 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  1699 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  1700 
  1701 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  1702 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  1703 
  1704 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  1705 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  1706 almost all situations.
  1707 
  1708 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  1709 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  1710 Isabelle/ML.
  1711 
  1712 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  1713 meaning.
  1714 
  1715 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  1716 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  1717 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  1718 
  1719 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  1720 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  1721 
  1722 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  1723 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  1724 
  1725 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  1726 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  1727 @{thms} for most purposes.
  1728 
  1729 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  1730 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  1731 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  1732 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  1733 configuration options.
  1734 
  1735 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  1736 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  1737 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  1738 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  1739 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  1740 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  1741 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  1742 
  1743 
  1744 
  1745 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  1746 ---------------------------------
  1747 
  1748 *** General ***
  1749 
  1750 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  1751 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  1752 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  1753 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  1754 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  1755 their full internal name.
  1756 
  1757 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  1758 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  1759 Some hints on upgrading:
  1760 
  1761   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  1762     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  1763     which are independent of this issue.
  1764 
  1765   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  1766     provides the following special forms:
  1767 
  1768       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  1769       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  1770       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  1771 
  1772     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  1773     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  1774     extra variables".
  1775 
  1776     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  1777     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  1778     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  1779     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  1780     "logic".
  1781 
  1782   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  1783     antiquotations:
  1784 
  1785       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  1786       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  1787       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  1788       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  1789 
  1790   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  1791     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  1792     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  1793     antiquotations.
  1794 
  1795 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  1796 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  1797 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  1798 diagnose syntax problems.
  1799 
  1800 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  1801 
  1802 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  1803 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  1804 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  1805 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  1806 
  1807 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  1808 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  1809 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  1810 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1811 
  1812 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  1813 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  1814 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  1815 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  1816 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1817 
  1818 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  1819 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  1820 
  1821 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  1822 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  1823 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  1824 
  1825   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  1826 
  1827 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  1828 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  1829 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  1830 
  1831 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  1832 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  1833 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1834 
  1835 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  1836 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  1837 
  1838 
  1839 *** Pure ***
  1840 
  1841 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  1842 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  1843 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  1844 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  1845 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  1846 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  1847 inspect proof terms.
  1848 
  1849 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  1850 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  1851 are added internally.  For example:
  1852 
  1853   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  1854 
  1855 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  1856 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1857 
  1858 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1859 
  1860 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  1861 'class' instead.
  1862 
  1863 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  1864 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  1865 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1866 
  1867 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  1868 invariants.
  1869 
  1870 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  1871 user space functionality any longer.
  1872 
  1873 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  1874 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  1875 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1876 
  1877 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  1878 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  1879 
  1880 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  1881 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  1882 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  1883 
  1884 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  1885 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  1886 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  1887 
  1888 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  1889 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1890 
  1891 
  1892 *** HOL ***
  1893 
  1894 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  1895 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  1896 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  1897 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  1898 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  1899 
  1900 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  1901 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  1902 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  1903 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  1904 
  1905   fun
  1906     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  1907   where
  1908     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  1909 
  1910   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  1911     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  1912 
  1913   quotient_definition
  1914     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  1915 
  1916 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  1917 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  1918 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  1919 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  1920 
  1921 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  1922 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  1923 
  1924 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  1925 separate HOL-SMT session.
  1926 
  1927 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  1928 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1929 
  1930 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  1931 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  1932 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  1933 
  1934 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  1935 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1936 
  1937 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  1938 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1939 
  1940 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  1941 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1942 
  1943 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  1944 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1945 
  1946 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  1947 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  1948 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1949 
  1950   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  1951   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  1952   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  1953   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  1954   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  1955   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  1956   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  1957   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  1958   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  1959   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  1960   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  1961   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  1962   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  1963   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  1964   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  1965   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  1966   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  1967   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  1968   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  1969   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  1970   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  1971   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  1972   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  1973   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  1974   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  1975   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  1976   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  1977   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  1978   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  1979   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  1980 
  1981 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  1982 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  1983 
  1984 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  1985 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  1986 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  1987 
  1988 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  1989 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  1990 
  1991 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  1992 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1993 
  1994 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  1995 
  1996 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  1997 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1998 
  1999 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  2000 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2001 
  2002 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2003 
  2004 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  2005 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  2006 
  2007 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  2008 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  2009 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  2010 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2011 
  2012 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  2013   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  2014   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  2015   - inverse, divide: Rings
  2016 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2017 
  2018 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  2019 lattices):
  2020 
  2021     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  2022     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  2023 
  2024     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  2025 
  2026     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  2027     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  2028     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2029     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  2030     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2031     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  2032     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  2033     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  2034     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  2035     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  2036     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  2037     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  2038     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  2039 
  2040     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  2041     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2042     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2043     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  2044     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  2045     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  2046     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  2047     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  2048     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  2049     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  2050     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  2051     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  2052     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  2053     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  2054     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  2055     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  2056     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  2057     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  2058 
  2059   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  2060   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  2061 
  2062     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  2063     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  2064     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  2065     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  2066     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  2067 
  2068 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2069 
  2070 * Refined field classes:
  2071   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  2072     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  2073     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  2074   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  2075 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2076 
  2077 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  2078   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  2079   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  2080   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  2081     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  2082   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  2083     equal_neg_zero.
  2084 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2085 
  2086 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  2087 sets to lattices:
  2088 
  2089   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  2090   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  2091   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  2092   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  2093   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  2094   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  2095   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  2096   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  2097   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  2098   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  2099 
  2100 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  2101 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  2102 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  2103 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  2104 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  2105 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2106 
  2107 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  2108 multiset order:
  2109 
  2110   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  2111     <= and <;
  2112   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  2113     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  2114     multiset_order;
  2115   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  2116     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  2117     generation;
  2118   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  2119     if needed.
  2120 
  2121 Renamed:
  2122 
  2123   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  2124   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  2125   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  2126 
  2127 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2128 
  2129 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  2130 
  2131 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  2132 
  2133 * Theory List: added transpose.
  2134 
  2135 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  2136 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  2137 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2138 
  2139   Constants:
  2140   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  2141   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  2142   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  2143   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  2144   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  2145   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  2146   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  2147   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  2148   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  2149   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  2150   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  2151   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  2152   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  2153 
  2154   Lemmas:
  2155   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  2156   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  2157   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  2158   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  2159   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  2160   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  2161   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  2162   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  2163   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  2164   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  2165   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  2166   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  2167   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  2168 
  2169 * Sledgehammer:
  2170   - Renamed ATP commands:
  2171     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  2172     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  2173     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  2174     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  2175     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  2176     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2177   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  2178   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  2179     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  2180   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  2181     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  2182     is still experimental.)
  2183   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  2184     full-typed mode.
  2185   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  2186 
  2187 * Nitpick:
  2188   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  2189   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  2190   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  2191     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  2192   - Added support for quotient types.
  2193   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  2194     constructs.
  2195   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  2196     "termination" proofs).
  2197   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  2198   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  2199   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  2200   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  2201     record getters.
  2202   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  2203   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  2204   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  2205   - Added "atoms" option.
  2206   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  2207     problems.
  2208   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  2209     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  2210     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2211   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  2212     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2213   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2214 
  2215 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  2216   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  2217   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  2218   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  2219   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  2220   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  2221   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  2222   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  2223   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  2224   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2225 
  2226 
  2227 *** HOLCF ***
  2228 
  2229 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  2230 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  2231 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2232 
  2233 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  2234 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  2235 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  2236 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2237 
  2238 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  2239 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  2240 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  2241 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  2242 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2243 
  2244 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  2245 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  2246 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2247 
  2248 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  2249 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2250 
  2251   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  2252   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  2253 
  2254 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  2255 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2256 
  2257   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  2258   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  2259   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  2260   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  2261   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  2262 
  2263 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  2264 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2265 
  2266   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  2267   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  2268   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  2269 
  2270 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  2271 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  2272 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2273 
  2274 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  2275 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2276 
  2277 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2278 
  2279 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  2280 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2281 
  2282 
  2283 *** ML ***
  2284 
  2285 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  2286 
  2287     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  2288     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  2289 
  2290     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  2291     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  2292     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  2293     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  2294 
  2295     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  2296     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  2297     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  2298 
  2299 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  2300 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  2301 
  2302 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  2303 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  2304 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  2305 
  2306 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  2307 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  2308 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  2309 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  2310 
  2311 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  2312 the context or even global references.
  2313 
  2314 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  2315 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  2316 
  2317 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  2318 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  2319 
  2320   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  2321   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  2322   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  2323   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  2324   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  2325   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  2326   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  2327   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  2328   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  2329   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  2330 
  2331 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  2332 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  2333 
  2334 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  2335 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  2336 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  2337 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  2338 pass the proper local context through the code!
  2339 
  2340 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  2341 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  2342 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  2343 Theory_Data version.
  2344 
  2345 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  2346 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  2347 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  2348 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  2349 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  2350 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  2351 explicitly in rare situations.
  2352 
  2353 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  2354 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  2355 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2356 
  2357 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  2358 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2359 
  2360 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  2361 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  2362 quite rare).
  2363 
  2364 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  2365 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2366 
  2367 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  2368 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  2369 terms.
  2370 
  2371 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  2372 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  2373 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  2374 
  2375 
  2376 *** System ***
  2377 
  2378 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  2379 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  2380 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  2381 
  2382 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  2383 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  2384 respectively.
  2385 
  2386 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  2387 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  2388 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  2389 prefers 64 bit if available:
  2390 
  2391   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  2392 
  2393 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  2394 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  2395 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  2396 component.
  2397 
  2398 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  2399 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  2400 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  2401 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  2402 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  2403 the user for manual installation.
  2404 
  2405 
  2406 
  2407 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  2408 -------------------------------------
  2409 
  2410 *** General ***
  2411 
  2412 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  2413 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  2414 
  2415 
  2416 *** Pure ***
  2417 
  2418 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  2419 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  2420 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  2421 
  2422 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  2423 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  2424 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  2425 
  2426 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  2427 interpretation.
  2428 
  2429 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  2430 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2431 
  2432 
  2433 *** Document preparation ***
  2434 
  2435 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  2436 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  2437 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  2438 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  2439 
  2440 
  2441 *** HOL ***
  2442 
  2443 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  2444 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  2445 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  2446 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  2447 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  2448 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  2449 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  2450 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  2451 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  2452 
  2453 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  2454 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  2455 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  2456 
  2457 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  2458 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  2459 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  2460 
  2461 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  2462 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  2463 
  2464 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  2465 
  2466 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  2467 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  2468 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  2469 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  2470 
  2471 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  2472 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  2473 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  2474 "mirabelle" utility.
  2475 
  2476 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  2477 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  2478 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  2479 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  2480 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  2481 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  2482 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  2483 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  2484 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  2485 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  2486 
  2487 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  2488 procedure only.
  2489 
  2490 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  2491 
  2492 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  2493 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  2494 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  2495 that fail later.
  2496 
  2497 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  2498 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  2499 
  2500 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  2501 the same method as the approximation method.
  2502 
  2503 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  2504 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  2505 series expansion.
  2506 
  2507 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  2508 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  2509 
  2510 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  2511 reals.
  2512 
  2513 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  2514 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  2515 
  2516 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  2517 fixpoint theorem.
  2518 
  2519 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  2520   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  2521     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  2522   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  2523     accordingly
  2524   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  2525     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  2526   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  2527     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  2528 
  2529 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  2530 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  2531 lattice.
  2532 
  2533 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  2534 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  2535 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  2536 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  2537 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  2538 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  2539 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2540 
  2541 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  2542   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  2543     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  2544   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  2545     le_inf_iff
  2546   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  2547     sup_aci)
  2548   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  2549   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  2550   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  2551     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  2552     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  2553     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  2554     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  2555     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  2556     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  2557     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  2558     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  2559     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  2560     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  2561   - authentic syntax for
  2562     Set.Pow
  2563     Set.image
  2564   - mere abbreviations:
  2565     Set.empty               (for bot)
  2566     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  2567     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  2568     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  2569     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  2570     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  2571     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  2572     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  2573   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  2574 
  2575 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  2576 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  2577 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  2578 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  2579 
  2580 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  2581 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  2582 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2583 
  2584 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  2585 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2586 
  2587 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  2588 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  2589 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  2590 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2591 
  2592 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  2593 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2594 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  2595 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  2596 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  2597 
  2598 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  2599 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  2600 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2601 
  2602 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  2603 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2604 
  2605 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  2606 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  2607 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  2608 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  2609 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  2610 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  2611 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  2612 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2613 
  2614 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  2615     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  2616     code_post       replaces    code post
  2617     etc.
  2618   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2619 
  2620 * Renamed methods:
  2621     sizechange -> size_change
  2622     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  2623   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2624 
  2625 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  2626 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  2627 
  2628 * Renamed theorems:
  2629     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  2630     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  2631     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  2632     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  2633     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  2634   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2635 
  2636 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  2637 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2638 
  2639 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  2640 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2641 
  2642 
  2643 *** HOLCF ***
  2644 
  2645 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  2646 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  2647 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  2648 
  2649 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  2650 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  2651 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  2652 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  2653 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  2654 
  2655 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  2656 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  2657 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  2658 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  2659 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  2660 
  2661 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  2662 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  2663 constructor are pre-configured.
  2664 
  2665 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  2666 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  2667 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  2668 
  2669 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  2670 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  2671 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  2672 as well.)
  2673 
  2674 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  2675 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  2676 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  2677 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  2678 examples.
  2679 
  2680 
  2681 *** ML ***
  2682 
  2683 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  2684 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  2685 
  2686 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  2687 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  2688 position, logical grouping etc.
  2689 
  2690 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  2691 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  2692 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  2693 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  2694 
  2695 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  2696 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  2697 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  2698 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  2699 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  2700 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  2701 
  2702 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  2703 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  2704 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  2705 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  2706 experiments with references.
  2707 
  2708 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  2709 parallel tactical reasoning.
  2710 
  2711 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  2712 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  2713 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  2714 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  2715 
  2716 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  2717 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  2718 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  2719 
  2720 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  2721 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  2722 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2723 
  2724 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2725 
  2726 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  2727 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2728 
  2729 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  2730 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  2731 
  2732 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  2733 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  2734 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  2735 
  2736 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  2737 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  2738 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2739 
  2740 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  2741 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  2742 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  2743 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2744 
  2745 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2746 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  2747 instead of global theory.
  2748 
  2749 
  2750 *** System ***
  2751 
  2752 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  2753 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  2754 usedir option -q.
  2755 
  2756 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  2757 also the system manual.
  2758 
  2759 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  2760 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  2761 
  2762 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  2763 this is always enabled.
  2764 
  2765 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  2766 
  2767 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  2768 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  2769 currently supported on Linux only.
  2770 
  2771 
  2772 
  2773 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  2774 --------------------------------
  2775 
  2776 *** General ***
  2777 
  2778 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  2779 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  2780 
  2781   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  2782     "isatool."
  2783 
  2784   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  2785     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  2786 
  2787   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  2788     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  2789 
  2790 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  2791 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  2792 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  2793 
  2794 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  2795 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  2796 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  2797 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  2798 via "isabelle emacs".
  2799 
  2800 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  2801 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  2802 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  2803 
  2804 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  2805 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  2806 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  2807 
  2808 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  2809 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  2810 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  2811 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  2812 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  2813 
  2814 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  2815 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  2816 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  2817 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  2818 
  2819 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  2820 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  2821 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  2822 
  2823 
  2824 *** Pure ***
  2825 
  2826 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  2827 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  2828 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  2829 
  2830 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  2831 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  2832 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  2833 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  2834 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  2835 
  2836 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  2837 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  2838 useful in locale declarations.
  2839 
  2840 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  2841 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  2842 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  2843 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  2844 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  2845 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  2846 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  2847 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  2848 no longer generated.
  2849 
  2850 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  2851 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  2852 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  2853 
  2854 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  2855 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  2856 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  2857 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  2858 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  2859 
  2860 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2861 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  2862 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  2863 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  2864 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  2865 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  2866 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  2867 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  2868 
  2869 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  2870 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  2871 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  2872 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  2873 
  2874 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2875 
  2876 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  2877 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  2878 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  2879 
  2880 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  2881 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2882 
  2883 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  2884 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  2885 in HOL, write
  2886 
  2887     class foo = ...
  2888 
  2889 instead of
  2890 
  2891     class foo = type + ...
  2892 
  2893 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  2894 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2895 
  2896 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  2897 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  2898 
  2899 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  2900 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  2901 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  2902 
  2903 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  2904 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  2905 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  2906 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  2907 directly in regular applications.
  2908 
  2909 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  2910 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  2911 
  2912 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  2913 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  2914 
  2915 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  2916 theory context.
  2917 
  2918 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  2919 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2920 
  2921 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  2922 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  2923 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  2924 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  2925 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  2926 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  2927 
  2928   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  2929 
  2930 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  2931 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  2932 normalization.
  2933 
  2934 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  2935 addressing etc.
  2936 
  2937 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  2938 
  2939   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  2940   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  2941 
  2942 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2943 
  2944   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  2945      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  2946      parts of the code generator framework).
  2947 
  2948   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  2949      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  2950      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  2951 
  2952 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2953 
  2954 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  2955 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2956 
  2957 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  2958 patterns, e.g.
  2959 
  2960     find_consts "_ => bool"
  2961 
  2962 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  2963 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  2964 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  2965 hyphen:
  2966 
  2967     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  2968 
  2969 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  2970 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  2971 
  2972 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  2973 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  2974 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  2975 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  2976 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  2977 higher-order unification.
  2978 
  2979 
  2980 *** Document preparation ***
  2981 
  2982 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  2983 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  2984 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  2985 
  2986 
  2987 *** HOL ***
  2988 
  2989 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  2990 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  2991 
  2992 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  2993 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  2994 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  2995 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  2996 Main, as before.
  2997 
  2998 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  2999 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  3000 
  3001 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  3002 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  3003 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  3004 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  3005 
  3006 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  3007 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  3008 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  3009 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  3010 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  3011 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  3012 
  3013 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  3014 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  3015 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  3016 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  3017 
  3018 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  3019 menu.
  3020 
  3021 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  3022 (contains the empty clause).
  3023 
  3024 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  3025 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  3026 
  3027 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  3028 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  3029 
  3030 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  3031 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  3032 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3033 
  3034 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  3035 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  3036 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  3037 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  3038 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  3039 
  3040 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  3041 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  3042 
  3043 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  3044 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  3045 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  3046 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  3047 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  3048 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  3049 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  3050 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  3051 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  3052 
  3053 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  3054 
  3055 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  3056 
  3057 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  3058 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3059 
  3060 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  3061 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  3062 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  3063 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  3064 
  3065 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  3066 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3067 
  3068     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  3069     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  3070     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  3071     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  3072     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  3073     Union ~>    Set.Union
  3074     {} ~>       Set.empty
  3075     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  3076 
  3077 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  3078 theory Set.
  3079 
  3080 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  3081 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  3082 
  3083 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  3084 
  3085 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  3086 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  3087 
  3088 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  3089 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  3090 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  3091 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  3092 allowed. For examples see
  3093 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  3094 
  3095 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  3096 
  3097 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  3098 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3099 
  3100 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  3101 structure:
  3102 
  3103     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  3104     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3105     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3106     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3107     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3108     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3109     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3110     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3111     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3112     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3113     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3114     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3115     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3116     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3117     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3118     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3119     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3120     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3121     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3122     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3123     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3124     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3125     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3126     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3127     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3128     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3129     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3130     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3131     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3132     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3133     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3134     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  3135     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3136 
  3137     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3138     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3139     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3140     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  3141     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3142     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3143     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3144     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3145     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3146     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3147 
  3148     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3149     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3150     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3151     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3152     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3153     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3154 
  3155 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  3156 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  3157 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  3158 
  3159 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  3160 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  3161 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  3162 
  3163 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  3164 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3165 
  3166 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  3167 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  3168 
  3169 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  3170 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  3171 proofs, e.g.
  3172 
  3173   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  3174 
  3175 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  3176 
  3177 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  3178 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  3179 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3180 
  3181 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  3182 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  3183 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3184 
  3185 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  3186 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  3187 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  3188 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3189 
  3190 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  3191 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  3192 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  3193 preorder_class.*.
  3194 
  3195 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  3196 "diag" to "Id_on".
  3197 
  3198 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  3199 
  3200   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  3201 
  3202 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  3203 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  3204 fold_image.
  3205 
  3206 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  3207 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  3208 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  3209 the former will disappear at some point.
  3210 
  3211 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  3212 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  3213 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  3214 
  3215 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  3216 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  3217 realpow_0      -> power_0
  3218 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  3219 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  3220 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  3221 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  3222 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  3223 
  3224 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  3225 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  3226 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  3227 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  3228 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  3229 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  3230 
  3231     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  3232     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  3233     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  3234     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  3235     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  3236     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  3237     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  3238 
  3239 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  3240 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3241 rename old lemmas as follows:
  3242 
  3243 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  3244 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  3245 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  3246 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  3247 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  3248 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  3249 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  3250 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  3251 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  3252 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  3253 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  3254 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  3255 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  3256 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  3257 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  3258 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  3259 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  3260 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  3261 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  3262 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  3263 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  3264 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  3265 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  3266 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  3267 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  3268 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  3269 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  3270 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  3271 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  3272 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  3273 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  3274 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  3275 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  3276 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  3277 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  3278 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  3279 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  3280 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  3281 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  3282 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  3283 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  3284 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  3285 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  3286 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  3287 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  3288 
  3289 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3290 
  3291 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  3292 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  3293 
  3294 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  3295 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  3296 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  3297 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  3298 
  3299 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  3300 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  3301 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  3302 theory RealVector.
  3303 
  3304 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  3305 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  3306 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  3307 and inner products are included.
  3308 
  3309 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  3310 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  3311 supported.
  3312 
  3313 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  3314 first diagonalization argument.
  3315 
  3316 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  3317 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  3318 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  3319 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3320 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  3321 
  3322     hide (open) const gcd
  3323     abbreviation gcd where
  3324       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  3325     notation (output)
  3326       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  3327 
  3328 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  3329 
  3330 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  3331 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  3332 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3333 
  3334 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  3335 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  3336 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  3337 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  3338 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  3339 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  3340 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  3341 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  3342 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  3343 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  3344 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  3345 cases.
  3346 
  3347 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  3348 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  3349 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  3350 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  3351 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  3352 
  3353     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  3354     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  3355     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  3356     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  3357     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  3358 
  3359 
  3360 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3361 
  3362 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  3363 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  3364 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  3365 
  3366 * New theory of factorial domains.
  3367 
  3368 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  3369 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  3370 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  3371 
  3372 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3373 
  3374 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  3375 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  3376 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  3377 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  3378 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  3379 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  3380 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  3381 
  3382 
  3383 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  3384 
  3385 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  3386 
  3387 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  3388 theory targets.
  3389 
  3390 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  3391 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  3392 'inductive' etc.
  3393 
  3394 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  3395 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  3396 
  3397 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  3398 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  3399 
  3400 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  3401 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  3402 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  3403 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  3404 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  3405 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  3406 the algorithm W:
  3407 
  3408  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  3409  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  3410          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  3411 
  3412 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  3413 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  3414 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  3415 
  3416 
  3417 *** HOLCF ***
  3418 
  3419 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  3420 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  3421 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  3422 
  3423 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  3424 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  3425 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  3426 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  3427 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3428 
  3429 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  3430 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3431 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3432 
  3433 
  3434 *** ZF ***
  3435 
  3436 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  3437 
  3438 
  3439 *** ML ***
  3440 
  3441 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  3442 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  3443 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  3444 5.2.1!
  3445 
  3446 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  3447 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  3448 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  3449 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  3450 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  3451 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  3452 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3453 
  3454 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  3455 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  3456 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  3457 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  3458 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  3459 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  3460 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  3461 
  3462 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  3463 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  3464 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  3465 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  3466 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  3467 
  3468 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  3469 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  3470 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  3471 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  3472 Method.add_method.
  3473 
  3474 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  3475 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  3476 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  3477 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  3478 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  3479 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  3480 
  3481 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  3482 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  3483 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  3484 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  3485 examples.
  3486 
  3487 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  3488 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  3489 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  3490 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  3491 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  3492 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  3493 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  3494 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  3495 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  3496 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  3497 
  3498 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  3499 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  3500 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  3501 
  3502 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  3503 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  3504 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  3505 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  3506 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  3507 resort for legacy applications.
  3508 
  3509 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  3510 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  3511 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  3512 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  3513 explicit runtime argument.
  3514 
  3515 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  3516 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  3517 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  3518 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  3519 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3520 
  3521 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  3522 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  3523 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  3524 theory state.
  3525 
  3526 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  3527 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  3528 
  3529   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  3530   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  3531   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  3532   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  3533   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  3534   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  3535   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  3536   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  3537   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  3538   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  3539 
  3540 
  3541 *** System ***
  3542 
  3543 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  3544 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  3545 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  3546 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  3547 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  3548 
  3549 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  3550 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  3551 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  3552 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  3553 
  3554 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  3555 
  3556 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  3557 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  3558 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  3559 prover operations.
  3560 
  3561 
  3562 
  3563 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  3564 -------------------------------
  3565 
  3566 *** General ***
  3567 
  3568 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  3569 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  3570 
  3571 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  3572 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  3573 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  3574 provides a proper context already.
  3575 
  3576 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  3577 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  3578 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  3579 
  3580 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  3581 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  3582 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  3583 swap theory imports.
  3584 
  3585 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  3586 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  3587 
  3588 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  3589 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3590 white space without escapes.
  3591 
  3592 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  3593 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  3594 "foo_bar".
  3595 
  3596 
  3597 *** Pure ***
  3598 
  3599 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  3600 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  3601 
  3602 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  3603 There are three ways of invoking it:
  3604 
  3605 (1) unused_thms
  3606      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  3607 
  3608 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  3609      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  3610      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  3611 
  3612 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  3613      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  3614      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  3615      their ancestors.
  3616 
  3617 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  3618 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  3619 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  3620 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  3621 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  3622 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  3623 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  3624 
  3625 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  3626 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  3627 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  3628 
  3629 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  3630 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  3631 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  3632 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  3633 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  3634 
  3635 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  3636 
  3637 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  3638 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  3639 update of theories within ML code.
  3640 
  3641 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  3642 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  3643 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  3644 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  3645 
  3646 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  3647 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  3648 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  3649 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3650 
  3651 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  3652 
  3653 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  3654 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  3655 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  3656 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  3657 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  3658 
  3659 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  3660 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  3661 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  3662 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  3663 situations.
  3664 
  3665 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  3666 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  3667 proof text.
  3668 
  3669 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  3670 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  3671 
  3672 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  3673 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  3674 predicates.
  3675 
  3676 
  3677 *** Document preparation ***
  3678 
  3679 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  3680 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  3681 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  3682 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  3683 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  3684 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  3685 
  3686 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  3687 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  3688 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  3689 
  3690 
  3691 *** HOL ***
  3692 
  3693 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  3694 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  3695 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  3696 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  3697 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  3698 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  3699 
  3700 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  3701 with multithreading.
  3702 
  3703 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  3704 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  3705 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  3706 
  3707 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  3708 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  3709 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  3710 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3711 
  3712 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  3713 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  3714 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  3715 and makes them available separately.  See
  3716 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  3717 
  3718 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  3719 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  3720 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  3721 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  3722 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  3723 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  3724 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  3725 the declared rules.
  3726 
  3727 This setup also deals with rules like 
  3728 
  3729   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  3730 
  3731 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  3732 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  3733 
  3734 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  3735 
  3736   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  3737 
  3738   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  3739     definitions on => and bool.
  3740 
  3741   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  3742     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  3743     the following theorems have been renamed:
  3744 
  3745       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  3746       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  3747       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  3748       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  3749       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  3750       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  3751       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  3752       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  3753 
  3754   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  3755     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  3756     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  3757 
  3758   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  3759     The proof pattern
  3760 
  3761       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  3762       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  3763 
  3764     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  3765     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  3766 
  3767       have "EX S. P S"
  3768       proof
  3769         show "P S" <...>
  3770       qed
  3771 
  3772   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  3773     The proof pattern
  3774 
  3775       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  3776       also have "S = T" <...>
  3777       finally have "P T" .
  3778 
  3779     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  3780     must be replaced by something like
  3781 
  3782       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  3783       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  3784       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  3785 
  3786   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  3787     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  3788 
  3789       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  3790 
  3791     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  3792     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  3793     type of the form
  3794 
  3795       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  3796 
  3797     rather than
  3798 
  3799       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  3800 
  3801 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  3802 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  3803 
  3804 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3805 
  3806 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  3807 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  3808 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3809 
  3810 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  3811 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3812 
  3813 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  3814 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3815 
  3816 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  3817 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  3818 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3819 
  3820 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  3821 the same name in theory Orderings:
  3822 
  3823   less_trans
  3824   less_linear
  3825   le_imp_less_or_eq
  3826   le_less_trans
  3827   less_le_trans
  3828   less_not_sym
  3829   less_asym
  3830 
  3831 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  3832 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  3833 and different variable names.
  3834 
  3835 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  3836 
  3837 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  3838 finite maps.
  3839 
  3840 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  3841 
  3842 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  3843 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  3844 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  3845 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  3846 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  3847 accordingly.
  3848 
  3849 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  3850 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  3851 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  3852 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  3853 
  3854 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  3855 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  3856 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  3857 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  3858 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  3859 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3860 
  3861 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  3862 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3863 
  3864 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  3865 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  3866 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  3867 
  3868 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  3869 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3870 
  3871 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  3872 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  3873 
  3874 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  3875 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3876 
  3877 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  3878 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3879 
  3880 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  3881 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  3882 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3883 
  3884 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  3885 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3886 
  3887 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  3888 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  3889 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  3890 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  3891 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  3892 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3893 
  3894 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  3895 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  3896 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  3897 
  3898 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  3899 
  3900 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  3901 
  3902 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  3903 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  3904 well-orders on sets and on types.
  3905 
  3906 
  3907 *** ZF ***
  3908 
  3909 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  3910 same session:
  3911 
  3912   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  3913   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  3914   Int       -> Int_ZF
  3915   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  3916   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  3917   List      -> List_ZF
  3918   Main      -> Main_ZF
  3919 
  3920 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  3921 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  3922 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  3923 
  3924 
  3925 *** ML ***
  3926 
  3927 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  3928 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  3929 
  3930 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  3931 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  3932 
  3933 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  3934 
  3935 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  3936 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  3937 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  3938 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  3939 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3940 
  3941 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  3942 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  3943 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  3944 
  3945 
  3946 *** System ***
  3947 
  3948 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  3949 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  3950 
  3951 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  3952 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  3953 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  3954 
  3955 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  3956 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  3957 
  3958 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  3959 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  3960 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  3961 
  3962 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  3963 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  3964 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  3965 
  3966 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  3967 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  3968 
  3969 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  3970 way of changing the user's settings is via
  3971 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  3972 script.
  3973 
  3974 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  3975 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  3976 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  3977 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  3978 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  3979 
  3980 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  3981 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  3982 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  3983 
  3984 
  3985 
  3986 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  3987 -----------------------------------
  3988 
  3989 *** General ***
  3990 
  3991 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  3992 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  3993 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3994 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  3995 
  3996 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  3997 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  3998 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3999 
  4000 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  4001 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  4002 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  4003 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4004 
  4005 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  4006 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  4007 quotes.
  4008 
  4009 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  4010 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  4011 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  4012 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  4013 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  4014 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  4015 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  4016 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  4017 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  4018 
  4019 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  4020 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  4021 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  4022 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  4023 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  4024 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  4025 
  4026 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4027 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  4028 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  4029 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  4030 
  4031 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  4032 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  4033 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  4034 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  4035 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  4036 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  4037 
  4038 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  4039 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  4040 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  4041 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  4042 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  4043 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  4044 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  4045 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  4046 
  4047 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  4048 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  4049 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  4050 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  4051 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  4052 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  4053 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  4054 
  4055 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  4056 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  4057 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  4058 
  4059 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  4060 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  4061 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  4062 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  4063 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  4064 limit is imposed.
  4065 
  4066 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  4067 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  4068 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  4069 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  4070 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  4071 and scalability.
  4072 
  4073 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  4074 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  4075 
  4076 
  4077 *** Document preparation ***
  4078 
  4079 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  4080 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  4081 current context.
  4082 
  4083 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  4084 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  4085 
  4086 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  4087 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  4088 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  4089 
  4090 
  4091 *** Pure ***
  4092 
  4093 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  4094 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  4095 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  4096 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  4097 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  4098 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  4099 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  4100 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  4101 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  4102 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  4103 
  4104 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  4105 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  4106 sketch:
  4107 
  4108     internal compilation:
  4109         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  4110     writing SML code to a file:
  4111         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  4112     writing OCaml code to a file:
  4113         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  4114     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  4115         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  4116 
  4117     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  4118         method ``eval''
  4119 
  4120 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  4121 
  4122 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  4123 
  4124     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  4125     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  4126     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  4127     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  4128 
  4129 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  4130 
  4131     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  4132       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  4133 
  4134     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  4135       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  4136 
  4137     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  4138       {(target)}+
  4139         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  4140 
  4141     code_class <and_list of classes>
  4142       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  4143         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  4144 
  4145 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  4146 
  4147 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  4148 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  4149 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  4150 codegen".
  4151 
  4152 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  4153 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  4154 annotations).
  4155 
  4156 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  4157 syntax.
  4158 
  4159 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  4160 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  4161 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  4162 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  4163 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  4164 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  4165 
  4166 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  4167 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  4168 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  4169 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  4170 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  4171 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  4172 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  4173 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  4174 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  4175 equations, see section "definitions".
  4176 
  4177 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  4178 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  4179 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  4180 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  4181 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  4182 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  4183 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  4184 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  4185 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  4186 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  4187 
  4188 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  4189 configuration options:
  4190 
  4191   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  4192   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  4193   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  4194   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  4195   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  4196   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  4197   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  4198   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  4199   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  4200 
  4201 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  4202 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  4203 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  4204 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  4205 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  4206 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  4207 order.
  4208 
  4209 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  4210 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  4211 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  4212 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  4213 context encountered later on.
  4214 
  4215 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  4216 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  4217 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  4218 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  4219 
  4220 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  4221 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  4222 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  4223 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  4224 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  4225 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  4226 
  4227 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  4228 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  4229 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  4230 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  4231 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  4232 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  4233 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  4234 more permissive.
  4235 
  4236 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  4237 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  4238 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  4239 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  4240 maintainability of proof texts.
  4241 
  4242 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  4243 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  4244 
  4245   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  4246   then guess x and y by clarify
  4247 
  4248 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  4249 proof tools being involved here.
  4250 
  4251 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  4252 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  4253 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  4254 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  4255 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  4256 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  4257 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  4258 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  4259 
  4260 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  4261 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  4262 certain special cases of literal facts:
  4263 
  4264   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  4265   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  4266   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  4267   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  4268 
  4269 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  4270 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  4271 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  4272 
  4273 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  4274 both named and unnamed ones.
  4275 
  4276 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  4277 
  4278   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  4279 
  4280 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  4281 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  4282 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  4283 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  4284 
  4285 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  4286 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  4287 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  4288 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  4289 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  4290 
  4291 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  4292 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  4293 
  4294 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  4295 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  4296 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  4297 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  4298 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  4299 originally first one.
  4300 
  4301 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  4302 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  4303 expected.
  4304 
  4305 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  4306 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  4307 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  4308 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  4309 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  4310 
  4311   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4312     assumes "EX x. P x"
  4313     obtains x where "P x"
  4314 
  4315   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4316     assumes "A & B"
  4317     obtains A and B
  4318 
  4319   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4320     assumes "A | B"
  4321     obtains
  4322       A
  4323     | B
  4324 
  4325 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  4326 explicitly:
  4327 
  4328   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4329     obtains "~ thesis"
  4330 
  4331   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4332     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  4333 
  4334 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  4335 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  4336 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  4337 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  4338 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  4339 case_names).
  4340 
  4341 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  4342 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  4343 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  4344 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  4345 
  4346 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  4347 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  4348 top-level lemma.
  4349 
  4350 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  4351 introduction rule (default "that").
  4352 
  4353 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4354 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  4355 to occur.
  4356 
  4357 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  4358 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  4359 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  4360 representations independently of name spaces.
  4361 
  4362 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  4363 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  4364 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4365 
  4366 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  4367 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  4368 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  4369 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  4370 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  4371 current context.
  4372 
  4373 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  4374 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  4375 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  4376 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  4377 
  4378   axiomatization
  4379     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  4380     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  4381 
  4382   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  4383   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  4384 
  4385   abbreviation
  4386     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  4387     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  4388 
  4389 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  4390 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  4391 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  4392 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  4393 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  4394 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  4395 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  4396 
  4397 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  4398 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  4399 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  4400 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  4401 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  4402 
  4403 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  4404 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  4405 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  4406 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  4407 
  4408 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  4409 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  4410 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  4411 
  4412   definition "K x _ = x"
  4413 
  4414   inductive conj for A B
  4415   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  4416 
  4417 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  4418 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  4419 abbreviations on output.
  4420 
  4421 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  4422 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  4423 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  4424 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  4425 
  4426 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  4427 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  4428 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  4429 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  4430 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  4431 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  4432 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  4433 
  4434 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  4435 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  4436 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  4437 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  4438 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  4439 
  4440 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  4441 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  4442 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  4443 
  4444 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  4445 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  4446 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  4447 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  4448 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  4449 
  4450   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  4451     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  4452 
  4453 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  4454 definition specification element in the context of locale
  4455 partial_order.
  4456 
  4457 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  4458 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  4459 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  4460 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  4461 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  4462 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  4463 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  4464 examples.
  4465 
  4466 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  4467 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  4468 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  4469 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  4470 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  4471 
  4472 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  4473 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  4474 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  4475 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  4476 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  4477 
  4478   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  4479   (induct set: foo bar)
  4480   (induct pred: foo bar)
  4481   (induct type: foo bar)
  4482 
  4483 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  4484 new format.
  4485 
  4486 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  4487 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  4488 
  4489 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  4490 considered a legacy feature.
  4491 
  4492 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  4493 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4494 
  4495 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  4496 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  4497 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  4498 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  4499   
  4500 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  4501 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  4502 manipulating the claset.
  4503 
  4504 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  4505 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  4506 least one premise.
  4507 
  4508 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  4509 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  4510 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  4511 rule steps.
  4512 
  4513 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  4514 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  4515 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  4516 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  4517 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  4518 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  4519 
  4520 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  4521 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  4522 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  4523 
  4524 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  4525 the graph browser tool.
  4526 
  4527 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  4528 default; use '!' option for full details.
  4529 
  4530 
  4531 *** HOL ***
  4532 
  4533 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  4534 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  4535 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  4536 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  4537 multi-threading.
  4538   
  4539 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  4540 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  4541 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  4542 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  4543 work with multi-threading.
  4544 
  4545 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  4546 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  4547 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  4548 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  4549 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  4550 
  4551 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  4552 
  4553 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  4554 equality.
  4555 
  4556 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  4557 the new 'class' package:
  4558 
  4559     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  4560     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  4561     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  4562     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  4563     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  4564     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  4565     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  4566     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  4567     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  4568     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  4569     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  4570     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  4571     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  4572     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  4573     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  4574     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  4575     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  4576     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  4577     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  4578     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  4579 
  4580 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  4581 
  4582 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  4583 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  4584 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  4585 names.
  4586 
  4587 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  4588 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  4589 
  4590 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  4591 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  4592 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  4593 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  4594 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  4595 
  4596 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  4597 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  4598 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  4599 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  4600 
  4601 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  4602 
  4603 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  4604 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  4605 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  4606 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  4607 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4608 
  4609 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  4610 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4611 
  4612 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  4613 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  4614 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4615 
  4616 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  4617 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  4618 
  4619 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  4620 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  4621 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  4622 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  4623 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  4624 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  4625 in the current context.
  4626 
  4627 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  4628 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  4629 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4630 
  4631 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  4632 with new class dense_linear_order.
  4633 
  4634 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  4635 
  4636     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  4637     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  4638 
  4639     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  4640       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  4641     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  4642     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  4643 
  4644     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  4645     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  4646 
  4647   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  4648 
  4649     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  4650     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  4651     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  4652     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  4653     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  4654     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  4655     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  4656     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  4657     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  4658     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  4659     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  4660     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  4661     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  4662     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  4663     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  4664     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  4665     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  4666     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  4667     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  4668     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  4669     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  4670     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  4671     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  4672     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  4673     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  4674     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  4675     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  4676     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  4677     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  4678     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  4679     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  4680     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  4681     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  4682     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  4683     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  4684 
  4685     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  4686     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  4687     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  4688     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  4689     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  4690     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  4691     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  4692     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  4693     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  4694     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  4695     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  4696     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  4697     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  4698     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  4699     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  4700     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  4701     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  4702 
  4703     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  4704     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  4705     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  4706     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  4707     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  4708     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  4709     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  4710     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  4711     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  4712     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  4713     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  4714     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  4715     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  4716     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  4717     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  4718     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  4719     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  4720     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  4721     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  4722     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  4723     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  4724     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  4725     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  4726     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  4727     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  4728     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  4729     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  4730     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  4731 
  4732     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  4733     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  4734     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  4735     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  4736     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  4737     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  4738 
  4739     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  4740     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  4741     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  4742     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  4743 
  4744     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  4745     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  4746 
  4747     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  4748     join_max                ~> sup_max
  4749 
  4750 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  4751 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  4752 
  4753 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  4754 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  4755 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  4756 "*.size".
  4757 
  4758 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  4759 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4760 
  4761 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  4762 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  4763 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4764 
  4765 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4766 
  4767 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  4768 machine words, with arithemtic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  4769 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  4770 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  4771 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  4772 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  4773 numerals on all operations.
  4774 
  4775 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  4776 
  4777 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  4778 
  4779 * Code generator library theories:
  4780   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  4781     languages.
  4782   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  4783     languages.
  4784   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  4785     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  4786   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  4787   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  4788     denominator).
  4789   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  4790     representable by rational numbers.
  4791   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  4792     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  4793     includes Code_Integer.
  4794   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  4795     target-language built-in integers.
  4796   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  4797     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  4798 
  4799 * New package for inductive predicates
  4800 
  4801   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  4802 
  4803     inductive
  4804       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  4805       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  4806     where
  4807       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  4808     | ...
  4809 
  4810   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  4811 
  4812     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  4813 
  4814     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  4815     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  4816 
  4817     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  4818     intros
  4819       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  4820       ...
  4821 
  4822   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  4823   sets to be defined with the new package via
  4824 
  4825     inductive_set
  4826       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  4827       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  4828     where
  4829       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  4830     | ...
  4831 
  4832   or
  4833 
  4834     inductive_set
  4835       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  4836       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  4837       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  4838     where
  4839       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  4840     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  4841     | ...
  4842 
  4843   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  4844 
  4845   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  4846   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  4847 
  4848   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4849 
  4850   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  4851     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  4852     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  4853     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  4854     than before the actual inductive definition.
  4855 
  4856   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  4857     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  4858     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  4859     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  4860     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  4861     statements of the form
  4862 
  4863       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  4864 
  4865     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  4866     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  4867 
  4868       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  4869 
  4870   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  4871 
  4872       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  4873         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  4874         ==> ... ==> P
  4875 
  4876     for predicates and
  4877 
  4878       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  4879         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  4880         ==> ... ==> P
  4881 
  4882     for sets rather than
  4883 
  4884       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  4885         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  4886         ==> ... ==> P
  4887 
  4888     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  4889     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  4890     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  4891 
  4892   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  4893     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  4894     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  4895 
  4896 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  4897 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  4898 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  4899 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  4900 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  4901 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  4902 
  4903 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  4904 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures. 
  4905 
  4906 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  4907 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  4908 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  4909 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  4910 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  4911 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  4912 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  4913 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  4914 variable.
  4915 
  4916 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  4917 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  4918 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  4919 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4920   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  4921   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  4922 
  4923 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  4924 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  4925 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  4926 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  4927 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  4928 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  4929 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  4930 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  4931 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  4932 
  4933 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  4934 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  4935 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  4936 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  4937 rat, etc.
  4938 
  4939 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  4940 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  4941 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  4942 
  4943 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  4944 
  4945 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  4946 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  4947 
  4948 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  4949 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  4950 
  4951 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  4952 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  4953 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4954 
  4955 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  4956 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  4957 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4958 
  4959 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  4960 
  4961 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  4962 
  4963 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  4964 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  4965 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  4966 positive/negative (in inequations).
  4967 
  4968 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  4969 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  4970 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  4971 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4972 
  4973 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  4974 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  4975 algebraic operations.
  4976 
  4977 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  4978 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4979 
  4980 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  4981 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4982 
  4983 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  4984 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  4985 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  4986 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  4987 adapted.
  4988  
  4989 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  4990 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  4991 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  4992 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  4993 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  4994 
  4995 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  4996 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  4997 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  4998 
  4999 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  5000 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  5001 better use 'abbreviation'.
  5002 
  5003 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5004 
  5005 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  5006 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  5007 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  5008   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  5009       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  5010   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  5011   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  5012   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  5013 
  5014 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  5015 
  5016 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  5017 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  5018 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  5019 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  5020 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  5021 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  5022 
  5023 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  5024 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  5025 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  5026 
  5027 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  5028 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  5029 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  5030 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5031 
  5032 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  5033 
  5034 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  5035 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5036 
  5037 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  5038 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  5039 
  5040 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  5041 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  5042 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  5043 
  5044 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  5045 True/False.
  5046 
  5047 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  5048 
  5049 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  5050 
  5051 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  5052 ``rule'' method.
  5053 
  5054 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  5055 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  5056 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  5057 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  5058 
  5059 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  5060 zChaff is still supported as well.
  5061 
  5062 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  5063 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  5064 
  5065 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  5066 Library.
  5067 
  5068 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  5069 
  5070 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  5071 as greatest fixed-point.
  5072 
  5073 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  5074 association lists.
  5075 
  5076 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  5077 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  5078 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  5079 
  5080 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  5081 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  5082 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5083 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  5084 behavior.
  5085 
  5086 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  5087 
  5088 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  5089 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  5090 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  5091 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  5092 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  5093 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  5094 
  5095 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  5096 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  5097 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
  5098 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
  5099 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
  5100 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
  5101 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
  5102 
  5103 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
  5104 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
  5105 
  5106 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
  5107 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
  5108 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
  5109 HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
  5110 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
  5111 
  5112 
  5113 *** HOL-Complex ***
  5114 
  5115 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
  5116 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
  5117 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
  5118 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
  5119 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5120 
  5121 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
  5122 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
  5123 and norm :: 'a => real.
  5124 
  5125 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
  5126 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
  5127 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5128 
  5129 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
  5130 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
  5131 
  5132 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
  5133 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
  5134 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
  5135 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5136 
  5137   Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5138   HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5139   HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5140   approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
  5141   monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  5142   galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  5143   (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  5144   (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5145   (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5146   (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5147   (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
  5148   is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  5149   deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
  5150   sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
  5151   exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
  5152 
  5153 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
  5154 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
  5155 hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
  5156 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5157 
  5158   approx        <-- capprox
  5159   HFinite       <-- CFinite
  5160   HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
  5161   Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
  5162   monad         <-- cmonad
  5163   galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
  5164   (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
  5165   is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
  5166   (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
  5167 
  5168 
  5169 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5170 
  5171 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
  5172 
  5173 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
  5174 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5175 
  5176 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
  5177 greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5178 
  5179 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see
  5180 Ring.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations
  5181 of algebraic structures.
  5182 
  5183 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.
  5184 
  5185 
  5186 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5187 
  5188 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding
  5189 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic.  See src/HOL/Nominal and
  5190 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples.  Prospective users should consult
  5191 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/
  5192 
  5193 
  5194 *** ML ***
  5195 
  5196 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int
  5197 (even on SML/NJ).
  5198 
  5199 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked
  5200 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at
  5201 compile-time.  For example:
  5202 
  5203 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}
  5204 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}
  5205 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}
  5206 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}
  5207 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}
  5208 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}
  5209 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}
  5210 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}
  5211 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}
  5212 ML {* @{type_name c} *}
  5213 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}
  5214 ML {* @{const_name c} *}
  5215 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}
  5216 ML {* @{context} *}
  5217 ML {* @{theory} *}
  5218 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}
  5219 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}
  5220 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}
  5221 ML {* @{simpset} *}
  5222 ML {* @{claset} *}
  5223 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}
  5224 
  5225 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.
  5226 
  5227 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with
  5228 ML_Context.trace enabled.
  5229 
  5230 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions
  5231 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and
  5232 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.
  5233 
  5234 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now
  5235 use Context.generic instead of just theory.
  5236 
  5237 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and
  5238 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of
  5239 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.
  5240 
  5241 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always
  5242 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.
  5243 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while
  5244 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and
  5245 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure
  5246 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably
  5247 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type
  5248 declarations and definitions.
  5249 
  5250 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed
  5251 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,
  5252 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need
  5253 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)
  5254 
  5255 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in
  5256 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the
  5257 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,
  5258 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5259 
  5260 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with
  5261 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed
  5262 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --
  5263 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and
  5264 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede
  5265 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.
  5266 
  5267 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --
  5268 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been
  5269 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted
  5270 accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for
  5271 attributes, methods, etc.
  5272 
  5273 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."
  5274 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to
  5275 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and
  5276 fold_map combinators.
  5277 
  5278 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional
  5279 comments (tags) are now strictly separate.  Name hints -- which are
  5280 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the
  5281 derivation.
  5282 
  5283 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an
  5284 actual goal state (thm).  Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to
  5285 achieve the old behaviour.
  5286 
  5287 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a
  5288 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule
  5289 statements.
  5290 
  5291 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now
  5292 enforced instead of silently assumed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use
  5293 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.
  5294 
  5295 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating
  5296 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc.  This replaces
  5297 some popular functions from term.ML:
  5298 
  5299   Term.variant		->  Name.variant
  5300   Term.variantlist	->  Name.variant_list
  5301   Term.invent_names	->  Name.invent_list
  5302 
  5303 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations
  5304 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).
  5305 
  5306 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper
  5307 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context.  For example,
  5308 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and
  5309 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces
  5310 various freeze_thaw operations.
  5311 
  5312 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for
  5313 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former
  5314 Tactic.prove).  Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results
  5315 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for
  5316 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard.  Note that
  5317 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is
  5318 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or
  5319 in a locale context).
  5320 
  5321 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)
  5322 and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations
  5323 (Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.
  5324 which are considered legacy and await removal.
  5325 
  5326 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking
  5327 (Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),
  5328 with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term
  5329 etc.).  Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still
  5330 available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using
  5331 a mere theory instead of a full context.
  5332 
  5333 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception
  5334 ERROR of string uniformly.  Function error now merely raises ERROR,
  5335 without any side effect on output channels.  The Isar toplevel takes
  5336 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions.  ML code may use plain
  5337 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:
  5338 
  5339   ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."
  5340 
  5341 Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be
  5342 embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like
  5343 this:
  5344 
  5345   Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)
  5346 
  5347 INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed
  5348 obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,
  5349 Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)
  5350 -- use plain ERROR instead.
  5351 
  5352 * Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a
  5353 list.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.
  5354 
  5355 * Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to
  5356 ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.
  5357 
  5358 * Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the
  5359 theory before entering a proof state.  Transactions now always see a
  5360 quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and
  5361 batch mode.
  5362 
  5363 * Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax.  Renamed
  5364 OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords.  Removed
  5365 OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in
  5366 OuterSyntax.command etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5367 
  5368 * Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now
  5369 contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the
  5370 very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by
  5371 simpset_of/local_simpset_of).  Consequently, all plug-in components
  5372 (solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.
  5373 
  5374 * Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the
  5375 local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc
  5376 etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this!  Removed
  5377 former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --
  5378 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to
  5379 specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.
  5380 
  5381 * Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces
  5382 change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a
  5383 theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --
  5384 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5385 
  5386 * Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired
  5387 "Trueprop" etc.
  5388 
  5389 
  5390 *** System ***
  5391 
  5392 * settings: the default heap location within ISABELLE_HOME_USER now
  5393 includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER.  This simplifies use of multiple
  5394 Isabelle installations.
  5395 
  5396 * isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical
  5397 operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source
  5398 code.
  5399 
  5400 * Basic Isabelle mode for jEdit, see Isabelle/lib/jedit/.
  5401 
  5402 * Support for parallel execution, using native multicore support of
  5403 Poly/ML 5.1.  The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing
  5404 independent theories, according to the given theory header
  5405 specifications. The maximum number of worker threads is specified via
  5406 usedir option -M or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. A
  5407 speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected on a 4-core machine, and up
  5408 to 6 on a 8-core machine.  User-code needs to observe certain
  5409 guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A in the Isar
  5410 Implementation manual.
  5411 
  5412 
  5413 
  5414 New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)
  5415 ----------------------------------
  5416 
  5417 *** General ***
  5418 
  5419 * Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is
  5420 
  5421   theory <name>
  5422   imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>
  5423   uses <file1> ... <fileM>
  5424   begin
  5425 
  5426 where the 'uses' part is optional.  The previous syntax
  5427 
  5428   theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:
  5429 
  5430 will disappear in the next release.  Use isatool fixheaders to convert
  5431 existing theory files.  Note that there is no change in ancient
  5432 non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.
  5433 
  5434 * Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via
  5435 relative and absolute paths.
  5436 
  5437 * Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a
  5438 list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,
  5439 simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select
  5440 theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that
  5441 match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified
  5442 name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose
  5443 lhs match term.  Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects
  5444 all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under
  5445 'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f.  Example:
  5446 
  5447   C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."
  5448 
  5449 prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",
  5450 matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."
  5451 in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).
  5452 
  5453 * Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of
  5454 'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5455 
  5456 * Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that
  5457 Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both
  5458 formal and informal parts).  Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof
  5459 General interface.  Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):
  5460 
  5461   http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html
  5462   http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html
  5463 
  5464 * Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the
  5465 Classical Reasoner.  Typical big applications run around 2 times
  5466 faster.
  5467 
  5468 
  5469 *** Document preparation ***
  5470 
  5471 * Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output
  5472 of raw sources.  Only those symbols that do not require additional
  5473 LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are
  5474 displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim.  isatool display
  5475 and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the
  5476 DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).
  5477 
  5478 * Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,
  5479 notably folding and hiding.  Predefined tags include "theory" (for
  5480 theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for
  5481 commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and
  5482 "invisible" are unused by default.  Users may give explicit tag
  5483 specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''.  The
  5484 interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document
  5485 preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of
  5486 isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,
  5487 \isadroptag.
  5488 
  5489 Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool
  5490 usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them).  Typical
  5491 specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present
  5492 theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold
  5493 proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit
  5494 these parts without any formal replacement text.  The Isabelle site
  5495 default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as
  5496 specified above.
  5497 
  5498 * Several new antiquotations:
  5499 
  5500   @{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;
  5501 
  5502   @{typeof term} prints the type of a term;
  5503 
  5504   @{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the
  5505   argument is a known logical constant;
  5506 
  5507   @{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or
  5508   theorem applying a "style" to it
  5509 
  5510   @{ML text}
  5511 
  5512 Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of
  5513 definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the
  5514 conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem19'
  5515 to print the specified premise.  TermStyle.add_style provides an ML
  5516 interface for introducing further styles.  See also the "LaTeX Sugar"
  5517 document practical applications.  The ML antiquotation prints
  5518 type-checked ML expressions verbatim.
  5519 
  5520 * Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',
  5521 and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which
  5522 specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations.  For
  5523 example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.
  5524 
  5525 * Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative
  5526 context interpreting the subsequent argument.  For example: @{thm
  5527 [locale=lattice] inf_assoc}.
  5528 
  5529 * Proper output of proof terms (@{prf ...} and @{full_prf ...}) within
  5530 a proof context.
  5531 
  5532 * Proper output of antiquotations for theory commands involving a
  5533 proof context (such as 'locale' or 'theorem (in loc) ...').
  5534 
  5535 * Delimiters of outer tokens (string etc.) now produce separate LaTeX
  5536 macros (\isachardoublequoteopen, isachardoublequoteclose etc.).
  5537 
  5538 * isatool usedir: new option -C (default true) controls whether option
  5539 -D should include a copy of the original document directory; -C false
  5540 prevents unwanted effects such as copying of administrative CVS data.
  5541 
  5542 
  5543 *** Pure ***
  5544 
  5545 * Considerably improved version of 'constdefs' command.  Now performs
  5546 automatic type-inference of declared constants; additional support for
  5547 local structure declarations (cf. locales and HOL records), see also
  5548 isar-ref manual.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to observe strictly
  5549 sequential dependencies of definitions within a single 'constdefs'
  5550 section; moreover, the declared name needs to be an identifier.  If
  5551 all fails, consider to fall back on 'consts' and 'defs' separately.
  5552 
  5553 * Improved indexed syntax and implicit structures.  First of all,
  5554 indexed syntax provides a notational device for subscripted
  5555 application, using the new syntax \<^bsub>term\<^esub> for arbitrary
  5556 expressions.  Secondly, in a local context with structure
  5557 declarations, number indexes \<^sub>n or the empty index (default
  5558 number 1) refer to a certain fixed variable implicitly; option
  5559 show_structs controls printing of implicit structures.  Typical
  5560 applications of these concepts involve record types and locales.
  5561 
  5562 * New command 'no_syntax' removes grammar declarations (and
  5563 translations) resulting from the given syntax specification, which is
  5564 interpreted in the same manner as for the 'syntax' command.
  5565 
  5566 * 'Advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) may depend
  5567 on the signature of the theory context being presently used for
  5568 parsing/printing, see also isar-ref manual.
  5569 
  5570 * Improved 'oracle' command provides a type-safe interface to turn an
  5571 ML expression of type theory -> T -> term into a primitive rule of
  5572 type theory -> T -> thm (i.e. the functionality of Thm.invoke_oracle
  5573 is already included here); see also FOL/ex/IffExample.thy;
  5574 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5575 
  5576 * axclass: name space prefix for class "c" is now "c_class" (was "c"
  5577 before); "cI" is no longer bound, use "c.intro" instead.
  5578 INCOMPATIBILITY.  This change avoids clashes of fact bindings for
  5579 axclasses vs. locales.
  5580 
  5581 * Improved internal renaming of symbolic identifiers -- attach primes
  5582 instead of base 26 numbers.
  5583 
  5584 * New flag show_question_marks controls printing of leading question
  5585 marks in schematic variable names.
  5586 
  5587 * In schematic variable names, *any* symbol following \<^isub> or
  5588 \<^isup> is now treated as part of the base name.  For example, the
  5589 following works without printing of awkward ".0" indexes:
  5590 
  5591   lemma "x\<^isub>1 = x\<^isub>2 ==> x\<^isub>2 = x\<^isub>1"
  5592     by simp
  5593 
  5594 * Inner syntax includes (*(*nested*) comments*).
  5595 
  5596 * Pretty printer now supports unbreakable blocks, specified in mixfix
  5597 annotations as "(00...)".
  5598 
  5599 * Clear separation of logical types and nonterminals, where the latter
  5600 may only occur in 'syntax' specifications or type abbreviations.
  5601 Before that distinction was only partially implemented via type class
  5602 "logic" vs. "{}".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare cases of improper
  5603 use of 'types'/'consts' instead of 'nonterminals'/'syntax'.  Some very
  5604 exotic syntax specifications may require further adaption
  5605 (e.g. Cube/Cube.thy).
  5606 
  5607 * Removed obsolete type class "logic", use the top sort {} instead.
  5608 Note that non-logical types should be declared as 'nonterminals'
  5609 rather than 'types'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for new object-logic
  5610 specifications.
  5611 
  5612 * Attributes 'induct' and 'cases': type or set names may now be
  5613 locally fixed variables as well.
  5614 
  5615 * Simplifier: can now control the depth to which conditional rewriting
  5616 is traced via the PG menu Isabelle -> Settings -> Trace Simp Depth
  5617 Limit.
  5618 
  5619 * Simplifier: simplification procedures may now take the current
  5620 simpset into account (cf. Simplifier.simproc(_i) / mk_simproc
  5621 interface), which is very useful for calling the Simplifier
  5622 recursively.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: the 'prems' argument of simprocs
  5623 is gone -- use prems_of_ss on the simpset instead.  Moreover, the
  5624 low-level mk_simproc no longer applies Logic.varify internally, to
  5625 allow for use in a context of fixed variables.
  5626 
  5627 * thin_tac now works even if the assumption being deleted contains !!
  5628 or ==>.  More generally, erule now works even if the major premise of
  5629 the elimination rule contains !! or ==>.
  5630 
  5631 * Method 'rules' has been renamed to 'iprover'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5632 
  5633 * Reorganized bootstrapping of the Pure theories; CPure is now derived
  5634 from Pure, which contains all common declarations already.  Both
  5635 theories are defined via plain Isabelle/Isar .thy files.
  5636 INCOMPATIBILITY: elements of CPure (such as the CPure.intro /
  5637 CPure.elim / CPure.dest attributes) now appear in the Pure name space;
  5638 use isatool fixcpure to adapt your theory and ML sources.
  5639 
  5640 * New syntax 'name(i-j, i-, i, ...)' for referring to specific
  5641 selections of theorems in named facts via index ranges.
  5642 
  5643 * 'print_theorems': in theory mode, really print the difference
  5644 wrt. the last state (works for interactive theory development only),
  5645 in proof mode print all local facts (cf. 'print_facts');
  5646 
  5647 * 'hide': option '(open)' hides only base names.
  5648 
  5649 * More efficient treatment of intermediate checkpoints in interactive
  5650 theory development.
  5651 
  5652 * Code generator is now invoked via code_module (incremental code
  5653 generation) and code_library (modular code generation, ML structures
  5654 for each theory).  INCOMPATIBILITY: new keywords 'file' and 'contains'
  5655 must be quoted when used as identifiers.
  5656 
  5657 * New 'value' command for reading, evaluating and printing terms using
  5658 the code generator.  INCOMPATIBILITY: command keyword 'value' must be
  5659 quoted when used as identifier.
  5660 
  5661 
  5662 *** Locales ***
  5663 
  5664 * New commands for the interpretation of locale expressions in
  5665 theories (1), locales (2) and proof contexts (3).  These generate
  5666 proof obligations from the expression specification.  After the
  5667 obligations have been discharged, theorems of the expression are added
  5668 to the theory, target locale or proof context.  The synopsis of the
  5669 commands is a follows:
  5670 
  5671   (1) interpretation expr inst
  5672   (2) interpretation target < expr
  5673   (3) interpret expr inst
  5674 
  5675 Interpretation in theories and proof contexts require a parameter
  5676 instantiation of terms from the current context.  This is applied to
  5677 specifications and theorems of the interpreted expression.
  5678 Interpretation in locales only permits parameter renaming through the
  5679 locale expression.  Interpretation is smart in that interpretations
  5680 that are active already do not occur in proof obligations, neither are
  5681 instantiated theorems stored in duplicate.  Use 'print_interps' to
  5682 inspect active interpretations of a particular locale.  For details,
  5683 see the Isar Reference manual.  Examples can be found in
  5684 HOL/Finite_Set.thy and HOL/Algebra/UnivPoly.thy.
  5685 
  5686 INCOMPATIBILITY: former 'instantiate' has been withdrawn, use
  5687 'interpret' instead.
  5688 
  5689 * New context element 'constrains' for adding type constraints to
  5690 parameters.
  5691 
  5692 * Context expressions: renaming of parameters with syntax
  5693 redeclaration.
  5694 
  5695 * Locale declaration: 'includes' disallowed.
  5696 
  5697 * Proper static binding of attribute syntax -- i.e. types / terms /
  5698 facts mentioned as arguments are always those of the locale definition
  5699 context, independently of the context of later invocations.  Moreover,
  5700 locale operations (renaming and type / term instantiation) are applied
  5701 to attribute arguments as expected.
  5702 
  5703 INCOMPATIBILITY of the ML interface: always pass Attrib.src instead of
  5704 actual attributes; rare situations may require Attrib.attribute to
  5705 embed those attributes into Attrib.src that lack concrete syntax.
  5706 Attribute implementations need to cooperate properly with the static
  5707 binding mechanism.  Basic parsers Args.XXX_typ/term/prop and
  5708 Attrib.XXX_thm etc. already do the right thing without further
  5709 intervention.  Only unusual applications -- such as "where" or "of"
  5710 (cf. src/Pure/Isar/attrib.ML), which process arguments depending both
  5711 on the context and the facts involved -- may have to assign parsed
  5712 values to argument tokens explicitly.
  5713 
  5714 * Changed parameter management in theorem generation for long goal
  5715 statements with 'includes'.  INCOMPATIBILITY: produces a different
  5716 theorem statement in rare situations.
  5717 
  5718 * Locale inspection command 'print_locale' omits notes elements.  Use
  5719 'print_locale!' to have them included in the output.
  5720 
  5721 
  5722 *** Provers ***
  5723 
  5724 * Provers/hypsubst.ML: improved version of the subst method, for
  5725 single-step rewriting: it now works in bound variable contexts. New is
  5726 'subst (asm)', for rewriting an assumption.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may
  5727 rewrite a different subterm than the original subst method, which is
  5728 still available as 'simplesubst'.
  5729 
  5730 * Provers/quasi.ML: new transitivity reasoners for transitivity only
  5731 and quasi orders.
  5732 
  5733 * Provers/trancl.ML: new transitivity reasoner for transitive and
  5734 reflexive-transitive closure of relations.
  5735 
  5736 * Provers/blast.ML: new reference depth_limit to make blast's depth
  5737 limit (previously hard-coded with a value of 20) user-definable.
  5738 
  5739 * Provers/simplifier.ML has been moved to Pure, where Simplifier.setup
  5740 is peformed already.  Object-logics merely need to finish their
  5741 initial simpset configuration as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5742 
  5743 
  5744 *** HOL ***
  5745 
  5746 * Symbolic syntax of Hilbert Choice Operator is now as follows:
  5747 
  5748   syntax (epsilon)
  5749     "_Eps" :: "[pttrn, bool] => 'a"    ("(3\<some>_./ _)" [0, 10] 10)
  5750 
  5751 The symbol \<some> is displayed as the alternative epsilon of LaTeX
  5752 and x-symbol; use option '-m epsilon' to get it actually printed.
  5753 Moreover, the mathematically important symbolic identifier \<epsilon>
  5754 becomes available as variable, constant etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5755 
  5756 * "x > y" abbreviates "y < x" and "x >= y" abbreviates "y <= x".
  5757 Similarly for all quantifiers: "ALL x > y" etc.  The x-symbol for >=
  5758 is \<ge>. New transitivity rules have been added to HOL/Orderings.thy to
  5759 support corresponding Isar calculations.
  5760 
  5761 * "{x:A. P}" abbreviates "{x. x:A & P}", and similarly for "\<in>"
  5762 instead of ":".
  5763 
  5764 * theory SetInterval: changed the syntax for open intervals:
  5765 
  5766   Old       New
  5767   {..n(}    {..<n}
  5768   {)n..}    {n<..}
  5769   {m..n(}   {m..<n}
  5770   {)m..n}   {m<..n}
  5771   {)m..n(}  {m<..<n}
  5772 
  5773 The old syntax is still supported but will disappear in the next
  5774 release.  For conversion use the following Emacs search and replace
  5775 patterns (these are not perfect but work quite well):
  5776 
  5777   {)\([^\.]*\)\.\.  ->  {\1<\.\.}
  5778   \.\.\([^(}]*\)(}  ->  \.\.<\1}
  5779 
  5780 * Theory Commutative_Ring (in Library): method comm_ring for proving
  5781 equalities in commutative rings; method 'algebra' provides a generic
  5782 interface.
  5783 
  5784 * Theory Finite_Set: changed the syntax for 'setsum', summation over
  5785 finite sets: "setsum (%x. e) A", which used to be "\<Sum>x:A. e", is
  5786 now either "SUM x:A. e" or "\<Sum>x \<in> A. e". The bound variable can
  5787 be a tuple pattern.
  5788 
  5789 Some new syntax forms are available:
  5790 
  5791   "\<Sum>x | P. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {x. P}"
  5792   "\<Sum>x = a..b. e"   for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..b}"
  5793   "\<Sum>x = a..<b. e"  for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..<b}"
  5794   "\<Sum>x < k. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {..<k}"
  5795 
  5796 The latter form "\<Sum>x < k. e" used to be based on a separate
  5797 function "Summation", which has been discontinued.
  5798 
  5799 * theory Finite_Set: in structured induction proofs, the insert case
  5800 is now 'case (insert x F)' instead of the old counterintuitive 'case
  5801 (insert F x)'.
  5802 
  5803 * The 'refute' command has been extended to support a much larger
  5804 fragment of HOL, including axiomatic type classes, constdefs and
  5805 typedefs, inductive datatypes and recursion.
  5806 
  5807 * New tactics 'sat' and 'satx' to prove propositional tautologies.
  5808 Requires zChaff with proof generation to be installed.  See
  5809 HOL/ex/SAT_Examples.thy for examples.
  5810 
  5811 * Datatype induction via method 'induct' now preserves the name of the
  5812 induction variable. For example, when proving P(xs::'a list) by
  5813 induction on xs, the induction step is now P(xs) ==> P(a#xs) rather
  5814 than P(list) ==> P(a#list) as previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  5815 in unstructured proof scripts.
  5816 
  5817 * Reworked implementation of records.  Improved scalability for
  5818 records with many fields, avoiding performance problems for type
  5819 inference. Records are no longer composed of nested field types, but
  5820 of nested extension types. Therefore the record type only grows linear
  5821 in the number of extensions and not in the number of fields.  The
  5822 top-level (users) view on records is preserved.  Potential
  5823 INCOMPATIBILITY only in strange cases, where the theory depends on the
  5824 old record representation. The type generated for a record is called
  5825 <record_name>_ext_type.
  5826 
  5827 Flag record_quick_and_dirty_sensitive can be enabled to skip the
  5828 proofs triggered by a record definition or a simproc (if
  5829 quick_and_dirty is enabled).  Definitions of large records can take
  5830 quite long.
  5831 
  5832 New simproc record_upd_simproc for simplification of multiple record
  5833 updates enabled by default.  Moreover, trivial updates are also
  5834 removed: r(|x := x r|) = r.  INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break
  5835 occasionally, since simplification is more powerful by default.
  5836 
  5837 * typedef: proper support for polymorphic sets, which contain extra
  5838 type-variables in the term.
  5839 
  5840 * Simplifier: automatically reasons about transitivity chains
  5841 involving "trancl" (r^+) and "rtrancl" (r^*) by setting up tactics
  5842 provided by Provers/trancl.ML as additional solvers.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5843 old proofs break occasionally as simplification may now solve more
  5844 goals than previously.
  5845 
  5846 * Simplifier: converts x <= y into x = y if assumption y <= x is
  5847 present.  Works for all partial orders (class "order"), in particular
  5848 numbers and sets.  For linear orders (e.g. numbers) it treats ~ x < y
  5849 just like y <= x.
  5850 
  5851 * Simplifier: new simproc for "let x = a in f x".  If a is a free or
  5852 bound variable or a constant then the let is unfolded.  Otherwise
  5853 first a is simplified to b, and then f b is simplified to g. If
  5854 possible we abstract b from g arriving at "let x = b in h x",
  5855 otherwise we unfold the let and arrive at g.  The simproc can be
  5856 enabled/disabled by the reference use_let_simproc.  Potential
  5857 INCOMPATIBILITY since simplification is more powerful by default.
  5858 
  5859 * Classical reasoning: the meson method now accepts theorems as arguments.
  5860 
  5861 * Prover support: pre-release of the Isabelle-ATP linkup, which runs background
  5862 jobs to provide advice on the provability of subgoals.
  5863 
  5864 * Theory OrderedGroup and Ring_and_Field: various additions and
  5865 improvements to faciliate calculations involving equalities and
  5866 inequalities.
  5867 
  5868 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
  5869 (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5870 
  5871   abs_eq             now named abs_of_nonneg
  5872   abs_of_ge_0        now named abs_of_nonneg
  5873   abs_minus_eq       now named abs_of_nonpos
  5874   imp_abs_id         now named abs_of_nonneg
  5875   imp_abs_neg_id     now named abs_of_nonpos
  5876   mult_pos           now named mult_pos_pos
  5877   mult_pos_le        now named mult_nonneg_nonneg
  5878   mult_pos_neg_le    now named mult_nonneg_nonpos
  5879   mult_pos_neg2_le   now named mult_nonneg_nonpos2
  5880   mult_neg           now named mult_neg_neg
  5881   mult_neg_le        now named mult_nonpos_nonpos
  5882 
  5883 * The following lemmas in Ring_and_Field have been added to the simplifier:
  5884      
  5885      zero_le_square
  5886      not_square_less_zero 
  5887 
  5888   The following lemmas have been deleted from Real/RealPow:
  5889   
  5890      realpow_zero_zero
  5891      realpow_two
  5892      realpow_less
  5893      zero_le_power
  5894      realpow_two_le
  5895      abs_realpow_two
  5896      realpow_two_abs     
  5897 
  5898 * Theory Parity: added rules for simplifying exponents.
  5899 
  5900 * Theory List:
  5901 
  5902 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
  5903 (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5904 
  5905   list_all_Nil       now named list_all.simps(1)
  5906   list_all_Cons      now named list_all.simps(2)
  5907   list_all_conv      now named list_all_iff
  5908   set_mem_eq         now named mem_iff
  5909 
  5910 * Theories SetsAndFunctions and BigO (see HOL/Library) support
  5911 asymptotic "big O" calculations.  See the notes in BigO.thy.
  5912 
  5913 
  5914 *** HOL-Complex ***
  5915 
  5916 * Theory RealDef: better support for embedding natural numbers and
  5917 integers in the reals.
  5918 
  5919 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
  5920 (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5921 
  5922   exp_ge_add_one_self  now requires no hypotheses
  5923   real_of_int_add      reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  5924   real_of_int_minus    reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  5925   real_of_int_diff     reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  5926   real_of_int_mult     reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  5927 
  5928 * Theory RComplete: expanded support for floor and ceiling functions.
  5929 
  5930 * Theory Ln is new, with properties of the natural logarithm
  5931 
  5932 * Hyperreal: There is a new type constructor "star" for making
  5933 nonstandard types.  The old type names are now type synonyms:
  5934 
  5935   hypreal = real star
  5936   hypnat = nat star
  5937   hcomplex = complex star
  5938 
  5939 * Hyperreal: Many groups of similarly-defined constants have been
  5940 replaced by polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5941 
  5942   star_of <-- hypreal_of_real, hypnat_of_nat, hcomplex_of_complex
  5943 
  5944   starset      <-- starsetNat, starsetC
  5945   *s*          <-- *sNat*, *sc*
  5946   starset_n    <-- starsetNat_n, starsetC_n
  5947   *sn*         <-- *sNatn*, *scn*
  5948   InternalSets <-- InternalNatSets, InternalCSets
  5949 
  5950   starfun      <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
  5951   *f*          <-- *fNat*, *fNat2*, *fc*, *fRc*, *fcR*
  5952   starfun_n    <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n
  5953   *fn*         <-- *fNatn*, *fNat2n*, *fcn*, *fRcn*, *fcRn*
  5954   InternalFuns <-- InternalNatFuns, InternalNatFuns2, Internal{C,RC,CR}Funs
  5955 
  5956 * Hyperreal: Many type-specific theorems have been removed in favor of
  5957 theorems specific to various axiomatic type classes (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5958 
  5959   add_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_commute
  5960   add_assoc   <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_assocs
  5961   OrderedGroup.add_0 <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_zero_left
  5962   OrderedGroup.add_0_right <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_zero_right
  5963   right_minus <-- hypreal_add_minus
  5964   left_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_minus_left
  5965   mult_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_commute
  5966   mult_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_assoc
  5967   mult_1_left <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_1, hcomplex_mult_one_left
  5968   mult_1_right <-- hcomplex_mult_one_right
  5969   mult_zero_left <-- hcomplex_mult_zero_left
  5970   left_distrib <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_mult_distrib
  5971   right_distrib <-- hypnat_add_mult_distrib2
  5972   zero_neq_one <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_not_eq_one
  5973   right_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse
  5974   left_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse_left, hcomplex_mult_inv_left
  5975   order_refl <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_refl
  5976   order_trans <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_trans
  5977   order_antisym <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_anti_sym
  5978   order_less_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less_le
  5979   linorder_linear <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_linear
  5980   add_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_add_left_mono
  5981   mult_strict_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_less_mono2
  5982   add_nonneg_nonneg <-- hypreal_le_add_order
  5983 
  5984 * Hyperreal: Separate theorems having to do with type-specific
  5985 versions of constants have been merged into theorems that apply to the
  5986 new polymorphic constants (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5987 
  5988   STAR_UNIV_set <-- {STAR_real,NatStar_real,STARC_complex}_set
  5989   STAR_empty_set <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_empty_set
  5990   STAR_Un <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Un
  5991   STAR_Int <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Int
  5992   STAR_Compl <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Compl
  5993   STAR_subset <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_subset
  5994   STAR_mem <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_mem
  5995   STAR_mem_Compl <-- {STAR,STARC}_mem_Compl
  5996   STAR_diff <-- {STAR,STARC}_diff
  5997   STAR_star_of_image_subset <-- {STAR_hypreal_of_real, NatStar_hypreal_of_real,
  5998     STARC_hcomplex_of_complex}_image_subset
  5999   starset_n_Un <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Un
  6000   starset_n_Int <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Int
  6001   starset_n_Compl <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Compl
  6002   starset_n_diff <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_diff
  6003   InternalSets_Un <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Un
  6004   InternalSets_Int <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Int
  6005   InternalSets_Compl <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Compl
  6006   InternalSets_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_diff
  6007   InternalSets_UNIV_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_UNIV_diff
  6008   InternalSets_starset_n <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_starset{Nat,C}_n
  6009   starset_starset_n_eq <-- starset{Nat,C}_starset{Nat,C}_n_eq
  6010   starset_n_starset <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_starset{Nat,C}
  6011   starfun_n_starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n_starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
  6012   starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
  6013   starfun_mult <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_mult
  6014   starfun_add <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_add
  6015   starfun_minus <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_minus
  6016   starfun_diff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_diff
  6017   starfun_o <-- starfun{NatNat2,Nat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o
  6018   starfun_o2 <-- starfun{NatNat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o2
  6019   starfun_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_const_fun
  6020   starfun_inverse <-- starfun{Nat,C,RC,CR}_inverse
  6021   starfun_eq <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_eq
  6022   starfun_eq_iff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_eq_iff
  6023   starfun_Id <-- starfunC_Id
  6024   starfun_approx <-- starfun{Nat,CR}_approx
  6025   starfun_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_capprox
  6026   starfun_abs <-- starfunNat_rabs
  6027   starfun_lambda_cancel <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel
  6028   starfun_lambda_cancel2 <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel2
  6029   starfun_mult_HFinite_approx <-- starfunCR_mult_HFinite_capprox
  6030   starfun_mult_CFinite_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_mult_CFinite_capprox
  6031   starfun_add_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_add_capprox
  6032   starfun_add_approx <-- starfunCR_add_approx
  6033   starfun_inverse_inverse <-- starfunC_inverse_inverse
  6034   starfun_divide <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_divide
  6035   starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n
  6036   starfun_n_mult <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_mult
  6037   starfun_n_add <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_add
  6038   starfun_n_add_minus <-- starfunNat_n_add_minus
  6039   starfun_n_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_const_fun
  6040   starfun_n_minus <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_minus
  6041   starfun_n_eq <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_eq
  6042 
  6043   star_n_add <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add
  6044   star_n_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_minus
  6045   star_n_diff <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_diff
  6046   star_n_mult <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_mult
  6047   star_n_inverse <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_inverse
  6048   star_n_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le
  6049   star_n_less <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less
  6050   star_n_zero_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_num
  6051   star_n_one_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_one_num
  6052   star_n_abs <-- hypreal_hrabs
  6053   star_n_divide <-- hcomplex_divide
  6054 
  6055   star_of_add <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_add
  6056   star_of_minus <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_minus
  6057   star_of_diff <-- hypreal_of_real_diff
  6058   star_of_mult <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_mult
  6059   star_of_one <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_one
  6060   star_of_zero <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_zero
  6061   star_of_le <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_le_iff
  6062   star_of_less <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_less_iff
  6063   star_of_eq <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_eq_iff
  6064   star_of_inverse <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_inverse
  6065   star_of_divide <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_divide
  6066   star_of_of_nat <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_nat
  6067   star_of_of_int <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_int
  6068   star_of_number_of <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_number_of
  6069   star_of_number_less <-- number_of_less_hypreal_of_real_iff
  6070   star_of_number_le <-- number_of_le_hypreal_of_real_iff
  6071   star_of_eq_number <-- hypreal_of_real_eq_number_of_iff
  6072   star_of_less_number <-- hypreal_of_real_less_number_of_iff
  6073   star_of_le_number <-- hypreal_of_real_le_number_of_iff
  6074   star_of_power <-- hypreal_of_real_power
  6075   star_of_eq_0 <-- hcomplex_of_complex_zero_iff
  6076 
  6077 * Hyperreal: new method "transfer" that implements the transfer
  6078 principle of nonstandard analysis. With a subgoal that mentions
  6079 nonstandard types like "'a star", the command "apply transfer"
  6080 replaces it with an equivalent one that mentions only standard types.
  6081 To be successful, all free variables must have standard types; non-
  6082 standard variables must have explicit universal quantifiers.
  6083 
  6084 * Hyperreal: A theory of Taylor series.
  6085 
  6086 
  6087 *** HOLCF ***
  6088 
  6089 * Discontinued special version of 'constdefs' (which used to support
  6090 continuous functions) in favor of the general Pure one with full
  6091 type-inference.
  6092 
  6093 * New simplification procedure for solving continuity conditions; it
  6094 is much faster on terms with many nested lambda abstractions (cubic
  6095 instead of exponential time).
  6096 
  6097 * New syntax for domain package: selector names are now optional.
  6098 Parentheses should be omitted unless argument is lazy, for example:
  6099 
  6100   domain 'a stream = cons "'a" (lazy "'a stream")
  6101 
  6102 * New command 'fixrec' for defining recursive functions with pattern
  6103 matching; defining multiple functions with mutual recursion is also
  6104 supported.  Patterns may include the constants cpair, spair, up, sinl,
  6105 sinr, or any data constructor defined by the domain package. The given
  6106 equations are proven as rewrite rules. See HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  6107 syntax and examples.
  6108 
  6109 * New commands 'cpodef' and 'pcpodef' for defining predicate subtypes
  6110 of cpo and pcpo types. Syntax is exactly like the 'typedef' command,
  6111 but the proof obligation additionally includes an admissibility
  6112 requirement. The packages generate instances of class cpo or pcpo,
  6113 with continuity and strictness theorems for Rep and Abs.
  6114 
  6115 * HOLCF: Many theorems have been renamed according to a more standard naming
  6116 scheme (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  6117 
  6118   foo_inject:  "foo$x = foo$y ==> x = y"
  6119   foo_eq:      "(foo$x = foo$y) = (x = y)"
  6120   foo_less:    "(foo$x << foo$y) = (x << y)"
  6121   foo_strict:  "foo$UU = UU"
  6122   foo_defined: "... ==> foo$x ~= UU"
  6123   foo_defined_iff: "(foo$x = UU) = (x = UU)"
  6124 
  6125 
  6126 *** ZF ***
  6127 
  6128 * ZF/ex: theories Group and Ring provide examples in abstract algebra,
  6129 including the First Isomorphism Theorem (on quotienting by the kernel
  6130 of a homomorphism).
  6131 
  6132 * ZF/Simplifier: install second copy of type solver that actually
  6133 makes use of TC rules declared to Isar proof contexts (or locales);
  6134 the old version is still required for ML proof scripts.
  6135 
  6136 
  6137 *** Cube ***
  6138 
  6139 * Converted to Isar theory format; use locales instead of axiomatic
  6140 theories.
  6141 
  6142 
  6143 *** ML ***
  6144 
  6145 * Pure/library.ML: added ##>, ##>>, #>> -- higher-order counterparts
  6146 for ||>, ||>>, |>>,
  6147 
  6148 * Pure/library.ML no longer defines its own option datatype, but uses
  6149 that of the SML basis, which has constructors NONE and SOME instead of
  6150 None and Some, as well as exception Option.Option instead of OPTION.
  6151 The functions the, if_none, is_some, is_none have been adapted
  6152 accordingly, while Option.map replaces apsome.
  6153 
  6154 * Pure/library.ML: the exception LIST has been given up in favour of
  6155 the standard exceptions Empty and Subscript, as well as
  6156 Library.UnequalLengths.  Function like Library.hd and Library.tl are
  6157 superceded by the standard hd and tl functions etc.
  6158 
  6159 A number of basic list functions are no longer exported to the ML
  6160 toplevel, as they are variants of predefined functions.  The following
  6161 suggests how one can translate existing code:
  6162 
  6163     rev_append xs ys = List.revAppend (xs, ys)
  6164     nth_elem (i, xs) = List.nth (xs, i)
  6165     last_elem xs = List.last xs
  6166     flat xss = List.concat xss
  6167     seq fs = List.app fs
  6168     partition P xs = List.partition P xs
  6169     mapfilter f xs = List.mapPartial f xs
  6170 
  6171 * Pure/library.ML: several combinators for linear functional
  6172 transformations, notably reverse application and composition:
  6173 
  6174   x |> f                f #> g
  6175   (x, y) |-> f          f #-> g
  6176 
  6177 * Pure/library.ML: introduced/changed precedence of infix operators:
  6178 
  6179   infix 1 |> |-> ||> ||>> |>> |>>> #> #->;
  6180   infix 2 ?;
  6181   infix 3 o oo ooo oooo;
  6182   infix 4 ~~ upto downto;
  6183 
  6184 Maybe INCOMPATIBILITY when any of those is used in conjunction with other
  6185 infix operators.
  6186 
  6187 * Pure/library.ML: natural list combinators fold, fold_rev, and
  6188 fold_map support linear functional transformations and nesting.  For
  6189 example:
  6190 
  6191   fold f [x1, ..., xN] y =
  6192     y |> f x1 |> ... |> f xN
  6193 
  6194   (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] y =
  6195     y |> fold f xs1 |> ... |> fold f xsN
  6196 
  6197   fold f [x1, ..., xN] =
  6198     f x1 #> ... #> f xN
  6199 
  6200   (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] =
  6201     fold f xs1 #> ... #> fold f xsN
  6202 
  6203 * Pure/library.ML: the following selectors on type 'a option are
  6204 available:
  6205 
  6206   the:               'a option -> 'a  (*partial*)
  6207   these:             'a option -> 'a  where 'a = 'b list
  6208   the_default: 'a -> 'a option -> 'a
  6209   the_list:          'a option -> 'a list
  6210 
  6211 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides
  6212 basic operations for association lists, following natural argument
  6213 order; moreover the explicit equality predicate passed here avoids
  6214 potentially expensive polymorphic runtime equality checks.
  6215 The old functions may be expressed as follows:
  6216 
  6217   assoc = uncurry (AList.lookup (op =))
  6218   assocs = these oo AList.lookup (op =)
  6219   overwrite = uncurry (AList.update (op =)) o swap
  6220 
  6221 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides
  6222 
  6223   val make: ('a -> 'b) -> 'a list -> ('a * 'b) list
  6224   val find: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> ('c * 'b) list -> 'a -> 'c list
  6225 
  6226 replacing make_keylist and keyfilter (occassionally used)
  6227 Naive rewrites:
  6228 
  6229   make_keylist = AList.make
  6230   keyfilter = AList.find (op =)
  6231 
  6232 * eq_fst and eq_snd now take explicit equality parameter, thus
  6233   avoiding eqtypes. Naive rewrites:
  6234 
  6235     eq_fst = eq_fst (op =)
  6236     eq_snd = eq_snd (op =)
  6237 
  6238 * Removed deprecated apl and apr (rarely used).
  6239   Naive rewrites:
  6240 
  6241     apl (n, op) =>>= curry op n
  6242     apr (op, m) =>>= fn n => op (n, m)
  6243 
  6244 * Pure/General: structure OrdList (cf. Pure/General/ord_list.ML)
  6245 provides a reasonably efficient light-weight implementation of sets as
  6246 lists.
  6247 
  6248 * Pure/General: generic tables (cf. Pure/General/table.ML) provide a
  6249 few new operations; existing lookup and update are now curried to
  6250 follow natural argument order (for use with fold etc.);
  6251 INCOMPATIBILITY, use (uncurry Symtab.lookup) etc. as last resort.
  6252 
  6253 * Pure/General: output via the Isabelle channels of
  6254 writeln/warning/error etc. is now passed through Output.output, with a
  6255 hook for arbitrary transformations depending on the print_mode
  6256 (cf. Output.add_mode