author wenzelm
Tue, 28 Aug 2012 18:57:32 +0200
changeset 48985 5386df44a037
parent 27015 doc-src/TutorialI/Datatype/Fundata.thy@f8537d69f514
child 58305 57752a91eec4
permissions -rw-r--r--
renamed doc-src to src/Doc; renamed TutorialI to Tutorial;

theory Fundata imports Main begin
datatype ('a,'i)bigtree = Tip | Br 'a "'i \<Rightarrow> ('a,'i)bigtree"

Parameter @{typ"'a"} is the type of values stored in
the @{term Br}anches of the tree, whereas @{typ"'i"} is the index
type over which the tree branches. If @{typ"'i"} is instantiated to
@{typ"bool"}, the result is a binary tree; if it is instantiated to
@{typ"nat"}, we have an infinitely branching tree because each node
has as many subtrees as there are natural numbers. How can we possibly
write down such a tree? Using functional notation! For example, the term
@{term[display]"Br (0::nat) (\<lambda>i. Br i (\<lambda>n. Tip))"}
of type @{typ"(nat,nat)bigtree"} is the tree whose
root is labeled with 0 and whose $i$th subtree is labeled with $i$ and
has merely @{term"Tip"}s as further subtrees.

Function @{term"map_bt"} applies a function to all labels in a @{text"bigtree"}:

primrec map_bt :: "('a \<Rightarrow> 'b) \<Rightarrow> ('a,'i)bigtree \<Rightarrow> ('b,'i)bigtree"
"map_bt f Tip      = Tip" |
"map_bt f (Br a F) = Br (f a) (\<lambda>i. map_bt f (F i))"

text{*\noindent This is a valid \isacommand{primrec} definition because the
recursive calls of @{term"map_bt"} involve only subtrees of
@{term"F"}, which is itself a subterm of the left-hand side. Thus termination
is assured.  The seasoned functional programmer might try expressing
@{term"%i. map_bt f (F i)"} as @{term"map_bt f o F"}, which Isabelle 
however will reject.  Applying @{term"map_bt"} to only one of its arguments
makes the termination proof less obvious.

The following lemma has a simple proof by induction:  *}

lemma "map_bt (g o f) T = map_bt g (map_bt f T)";
apply(induct_tac T, simp_all)
(*<*)lemma "map_bt (g o f) T = map_bt g (map_bt f T)";
apply(induct_tac T, rename_tac[2] F)(*>*)
Because of the function type, the proof state after induction looks unusual.
Notice the quantified induction hypothesis: