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NEWS

author | haftmann |

Wed Feb 10 14:12:30 2010 +0100 (2010-02-10) | |

changeset 35093 | 5acba118b02a |

parent 35084 | e25eedfc15ce |

child 35100 | 53754ec7360b |

permissions | -rw-r--r-- |

NEWS

1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes

2 ==============================================

4 New in this Isabelle version

5 ----------------------------

7 *** Pure ***

9 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on

10 the user space functionality any longer.

13 *** HOL ***

15 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute rewrites

16 for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.

18 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory "Ring_and_Field"

19 into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more appropriate and more

20 consistent names suitable for name prefixes within the HOL theories.

21 INCOMPATIBILITY.

23 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:

25 less_eq, less: Orderings

26 abs, sgn: Groups

27 inverse, divide: Rings

29 INCOMPATIBILITY.

31 * Class division ring also requires proof of fact divide_inverse. However instantiation

32 of parameter divide has also been required previously. INCOMPATIBILITY.

34 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and lattices):

36 lower_semilattice ~> semilattice_inf

37 upper_semilattice ~> semilattice_sup

39 dense_linear_order ~> dense_linorder

41 pordered_ab_group_add ~> ordered_ab_group_add

42 pordered_ab_group_add_abs ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs

43 pordered_ab_semigroup_add ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add

44 pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le

45 pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add

46 pordered_cancel_comm_semiring ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring

47 pordered_cancel_semiring ~> ordered_cancel_semiring

48 pordered_comm_monoid_add ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add

49 pordered_comm_ring ~> ordered_comm_ring

50 pordered_comm_semiring ~> ordered_comm_semiring

51 pordered_ring ~> ordered_ring

52 pordered_ring_abs ~> ordered_ring_abs

53 pordered_semiring ~> ordered_semiring

55 ordered_ab_group_add ~> linordered_ab_group_add

56 ordered_ab_semigroup_add ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add

57 ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add

58 ordered_comm_semiring_strict ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict

59 ordered_field ~> linordered_field

60 ordered_field_no_lb ~> linordered_field_no_lb

61 ordered_field_no_ub ~> linordered_field_no_ub

62 ordered_field_dense_linear_order ~> dense_linordered_field

63 ordered_idom ~> linordered_idom

64 ordered_ring ~> linordered_ring

65 ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor

66 ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor

67 ordered_ring_strict ~> linordered_ring_strict

68 ordered_semidom ~> linordered_semidom

69 ordered_semiring ~> linordered_semiring

70 ordered_semiring_1 ~> linordered_semiring_1

71 ordered_semiring_1_strict ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict

72 ordered_semiring_strict ~> linordered_semiring_strict

74 The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to

75 a separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras.thy:

77 lordered_ab_group_add ~> lattice_ab_group_add

78 lordered_ab_group_add_abs ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs

79 lordered_ab_group_add_meet ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add

80 lordered_ab_group_add_join ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add

81 lordered_ring ~> lattice_ring

83 INCOMPATIBILITY.

85 * New theory Algebras contains generic algebraic structures and

86 generic algebraic operations. INCOMPATIBILTY: constants zero, one,

87 plus, minus, uminus and times have been moved from HOL.thy to Algebras.thy.

89 * HOLogic.strip_psplit: types are returned in syntactic order, similar

90 to other strip and tuple operations. INCOMPATIBILITY.

92 * Various old-style primrec specifications in the HOL theories have been

93 replaced by new-style primrec, especially in theory List. The corresponding

94 constants now have authentic syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY.

96 * Reorganized theory Multiset: less duplication, less historical

97 organization of sections, conversion from associations lists to

98 multisets, rudimentary code generation. Use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric]

99 instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union, if needed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

101 * Reorganized theory Sum_Type; Inl and Inr now have authentic syntax.

102 INCOMPATIBILITY.

104 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.

106 * Theory Complete_Lattice: lemmas top_def and bot_def have been

107 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.

108 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed

109 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert. Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace

110 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ. Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right

111 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively. INCOMPATIBILITY.

113 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from

114 sets to lattices:

116 fun_left_comm_idem_inter ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf

117 fun_left_comm_idem_union ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup

118 inter_Inter_fold_inter ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf

119 union_Union_fold_union ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup

120 Inter_fold_inter ~> Inf_fold_inf

121 Union_fold_union ~> Sup_fold_sup

122 inter_INTER_fold_inter ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf

123 union_UNION_fold_union ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup

124 INTER_fold_inter ~> INFI_fold_inf

125 UNION_fold_union ~> SUPR_fold_sup

127 * Theory List: added transpose.

130 *** ML ***

132 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to

133 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.

134 INCOMPATIBILITY.

136 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted

137 as infinity (as in chop). INCOMPATIBILITY.

139 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as

140 usual for resolution. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.

142 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data

143 needs to be pure. Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional

144 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard

145 Theory_Data version.

148 *** System ***

150 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;

151 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions. Note that

152 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.

154 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy

155 feature since Isabelle2009). Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,

156 respectively.

160 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)

161 -------------------------------------

163 *** General ***

165 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>. Only

166 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.

169 *** Pure ***

171 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.

172 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map

173 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.

175 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'. Use "print_interps

176 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.

177 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.

179 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial. New section on conditional

180 interpretation.

182 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters

183 are formally declared. INCOMPATIBILITY.

186 *** Document preparation ***

188 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}

189 instead of @{foo_style style ...} (old form is still retained for

190 backward compatibility). Styles can be also applied for

191 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.

194 *** HOL ***

196 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with

197 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and

198 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order

199 features (esp. lambda abstractions). It is an incomplete decision

200 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;

201 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing. Certificates

202 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for

203 re-checking proofs. Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for

204 installing SMT solvers locally. See src/HOL/SMT.

206 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by

207 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C

208 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#). See src/HOL/Boogie.

210 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod

211 relational model finder. See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and

212 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.

214 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate

215 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.

217 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.

219 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;

220 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records

221 and datatypes. Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory

222 Library/SML_Quickcheck.

224 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools. Applies

225 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to

226 every proof step in a theory. To be used in batch mode via the

227 "mirabelle" utility.

229 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real

230 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory

231 Library/Sum_Of_Squares. It is not a complete decision procedure but

232 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,

233 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and

234 inequalities between polynomials. It makes use of external

235 semidefinite programming solvers. Method "sos" generates a

236 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need

237 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked. See

238 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.

240 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision

241 procedure only.

243 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.

245 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.

246 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs. This slows

247 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"

248 that fail later.

250 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type

251 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.

253 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using

254 the same method as the approximation method.

256 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as

257 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor

258 series expansion.

260 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype

261 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.

263 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of

264 reals.

266 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure

267 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.

269 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's

270 fixpoint theorem.

272 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:

273 - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides

274 and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory

275 - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int

276 accordingly

277 - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including

278 theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)

279 - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to

280 src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory

282 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and

283 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete

284 lattice.

286 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of

287 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,

288 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been

289 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems

290 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and

291 zdiv_zmult_zmult2. div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.

292 INCOMPATIBILITY.

294 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:

295 - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default

296 intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity

297 - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with

298 le_inf_iff

299 - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and

300 sup_aci)

301 - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci

302 - new class "boolean_algebra"

303 - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory

304 "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)

305 renamed and with authentic syntax:

306 Set.Inf ~> Complete_Lattice.Inf

307 Set.Sup ~> Complete_Lattice.Sup

308 Set.INFI ~> Complete_Lattice.INFI

309 Set.SUPR ~> Complete_Lattice.SUPR

310 Set.Inter ~> Complete_Lattice.Inter

311 Set.Union ~> Complete_Lattice.Union

312 Set.INTER ~> Complete_Lattice.INTER

313 Set.UNION ~> Complete_Lattice.UNION

314 - authentic syntax for

315 Set.Pow

316 Set.image

317 - mere abbreviations:

318 Set.empty (for bot)

319 Set.UNIV (for top)

320 Set.inter (for inf, formerly Set.Int)

321 Set.union (for sup, formerly Set.Un)

322 Complete_Lattice.Inter (for Inf)

323 Complete_Lattice.Union (for Sup)

324 Complete_Lattice.INTER (for INFI)

325 Complete_Lattice.UNION (for SUPR)

326 - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate

328 INCOMPATIBILITY. Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or

329 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also

330 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be

331 deleted to achieve the desired effect.

333 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp

334 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1

335 etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

337 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as

338 pred_set_conv by default. INCOMPATIBILITY.

340 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated

341 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^". Power operation on

342 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic

343 in class power. INCOMPATIBILITY.

345 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:

346 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}". INCOMPATIBILITY,

347 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally

348 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this. Fix using

349 O_assoc[symmetric]. The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".

351 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an

352 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV". Lemmas are renamed accordingly.

353 INCOMPATIBILITY.

355 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory

356 prefixes. INCOMPATIBILITY.

358 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by

359 the attribute of the same name. Each of the theorems in the list

360 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and

361 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the

362 Simplifier. Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative

363 of most elementary terms. Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and

364 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).

365 INCOMPATIBILITY.

367 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:

368 code_unfold replaces code unfold

369 code_post replaces code post

370 etc.

371 INCOMPATIBILITY.

373 * Renamed methods:

374 sizechange -> size_change

375 induct_scheme -> induction_schema

376 INCOMPATIBILITY.

378 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".

379 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.

381 * Renamed theorems:

382 Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1

383 Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left

384 Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1

385 *anti_sym -> *antisym*

386 vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def

387 INCOMPATIBILITY.

389 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp]. Removed List.map_compose.

390 INCOMPATIBILITY.

392 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).

393 INCOMPATIBILITY.

396 *** HOLCF ***

398 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are

399 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".

400 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.

402 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the

403 domain package, for representable domains. Syntax is identical to the

404 old domain package. The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect

405 recursion using previously-defined type constructors. See

406 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.

408 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant

409 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs

410 simplification. Rewriting is done using rules declared with the

411 "fixrec_simp" attribute. The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a

412 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.

414 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors

415 with HOL function types. Pattern-match combinators for the Pair

416 constructor are pre-configured.

418 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules

419 for mutually-recursive definitions: Induction rules have conclusions

420 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".

422 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has

423 been renamed to "below". The name "below" now replaces "less" in many

424 theorem names. (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported

425 as well.)

427 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns". Bottom

428 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make

429 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the

430 Glasgow Haskell Compiler). See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for

431 examples.

434 *** ML ***

436 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler

437 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.

439 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely

440 identified entries, with some additional information such as source

441 position, logical grouping etc.

443 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and

444 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data. Data needs

445 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit

446 copy operation) is still available for some time.

448 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)

449 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state

450 variables with atomic update. This works via pure function

451 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as

452 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,

453 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!

455 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)

456 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe

457 behaviour. The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to

458 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive

459 experiments with references.

461 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for

462 parallel tactical reasoning.

464 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS

465 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the

466 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the

467 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.

469 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has

470 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion. Use SUBPROOF

471 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.

473 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph. (Since

474 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them

475 separately.) Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

477 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms. INCOMPATIBILITY.

479 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar. Occasional,

480 INCOMPATIBILITY.

482 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty

483 mode, which avoids critical setmp.

485 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related

486 combinators for "args". INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified

487 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.

489 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of. May fall

490 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as

491 last resort. INCOMPATIBILITY.

493 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former

494 ProofContext.pretty_thm). May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global

495 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.

496 INCOMPATIBILITY.

498 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

499 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context

500 instead of global theory.

503 *** System ***

505 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores

506 (max. speedup factor 5.0). See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and

507 usedir option -q.

509 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see

510 also the system manual.

512 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with

513 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".

515 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;

516 this is always enabled.

518 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.

520 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'

521 on a given logic image. This requires the lighttpd webserver and is

522 currently supported on Linux only.

526 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)

527 --------------------------------

529 *** General ***

531 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on

532 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).

534 - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of

535 "isatool."

537 - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been

538 removed (should rarely occur to regular users).

540 - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been

541 removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).

543 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables

544 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,

545 respectively. (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)

547 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if

548 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise. Individual

549 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the

550 Isabelle system manual. In particular, Proof General is now available

551 via "isabelle emacs".

553 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts. Users may need to

554 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle

555 install -p ...", or use symlinks.

557 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the

558 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause

559 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).

561 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,

562 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place. Special

563 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle. Note that

564 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any

565 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.

567 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on

568 multi-core systems. A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on

569 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably

570 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H). (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)

572 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and

573 "system") have been updated and extended. Formally checked references

574 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.

577 *** Pure ***

579 * Complete re-implementation of locales. INCOMPATIBILITY in several

580 respects. The most important changes are listed below. See the

581 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.

583 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming. Parameters

584 must be declared in a for clause. To aid compatibility with previous

585 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not

586 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added

587 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.

589 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in

590 locale expressions and context elements. The latter is particularly

591 useful in locale declarations.

593 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale

594 expressions. Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale

595 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or

596 optional (syntax "name?:"). The default depends for plain "name:"

597 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in

598 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in

599 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory. The old

600 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are

601 no longer generated.

603 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e". The

604 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square

605 brackets) is no longer available. Use locale expressions.

607 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in

608 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even

609 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior. In the

610 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones. Qualifiers

611 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.

613 - Dropped locale element "includes". This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.

614 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the

615 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those

616 that are already present in the theorem specification. Multiple

617 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one

618 involving the locale predicate. In the proof body, declarations (most

619 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective

620 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").

622 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the

623 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,

624 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on

625 the parameters (context element "constrains").

627 - Discontinued "locale (open)". INCOMPATIBILITY.

629 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.

630 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs. Use

631 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.

633 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation

634 attributes. INCOMPATIBILITY.

636 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import

637 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification. Particularly

638 in HOL, write

640 class foo = ...

642 instead of

644 class foo = type + ...

646 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a

647 parameter prefix any longer. INCOMPATIBILITY.

649 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.

650 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.

652 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in

653 Isabelle2007. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really

654 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.

656 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in

657 isar-ref manual. Removed locales meta_term_syntax and

658 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,

659 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations. Note that &&& should not be used

660 directly in regular applications.

662 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal

663 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).

665 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command. INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML

666 interface with 'setup' command instead.

668 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local

669 theory context.

671 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory

672 context. INCOMPATIBILITY.

674 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort

675 hypotheses. Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be

676 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the

677 type instance information of the background theory. Non-trivial sort

678 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via

679 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c). For example:

681 lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...

683 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --

684 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule

685 normalization.

687 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state

688 addressing etc.

690 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:

692 unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)

693 unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)

695 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):

697 a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular

698 constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other

699 parts of the code generator framework).

701 b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code

702 attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming

703 from definition, primrec, fun etc.

705 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

707 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators. Thus [code

708 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains. INCOMPATIBILITY.

710 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name

711 patterns, e.g.

713 find_consts "_ => bool"

715 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to

716 the whole type. Searching by name is possible. Multiple queries are

717 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a

718 hyphen:

720 find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"

722 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that

723 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).

725 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal

726 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could

727 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.

728 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,

729 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of

730 higher-order unification.

733 *** Document preparation ***

735 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,

736 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression

737 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.

740 *** HOL ***

742 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL. Entry

743 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.

745 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important

746 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...). This facilitates

747 experimentation and tool development. Note that user applications

748 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory

749 Main, as before.

751 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates

752 experimentation due to shorter build times.

754 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which

755 were previously part of former HOL-Complex. Entry point Hyperreal

756 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use

757 new entry point Hypercomplex.

759 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of

760 Posix processes. Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML

761 process. New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix

762 platforms (Cygwin). Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined

763 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions. Basic Sledgehammer

764 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.

766 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use

767 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other

768 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also

769 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.

771 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings

772 menu.

774 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial

775 (contains the empty clause).

777 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising

778 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.

780 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also

781 src/Tools/coherent.ML).

783 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary". Usually

784 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though

785 logically there is no difference. INCOMPATIBILITY.

787 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms. The

788 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed. In

789 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be

790 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]). See further

791 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.

793 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.

794 Declare with attribute [code nbe].

796 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules

797 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the

798 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes. Mutual induction rules

799 are now presented as a list of individual projections

800 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with

801 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported. INCOMPATIBILITY, in

802 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple

803 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t

804 rule: prod.exhaust) here.

806 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.

808 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".

810 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option. Renamed

811 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.

813 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial

814 orders. With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about

815 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",

816 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".

818 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with

819 authentic syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY:

821 op Int ~> Set.Int

822 op Un ~> Set.Un

823 INTER ~> Set.INTER

824 UNION ~> Set.UNION

825 Inter ~> Set.Inter

826 Union ~> Set.Union

827 {} ~> Set.empty

828 UNIV ~> Set.UNIV

830 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in

831 theory Set.

833 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any

834 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.

836 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.

838 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,

839 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.

841 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof

842 method "approximation". It proves formulas on real values by using

843 interval arithmetic. In the formulas are also the transcendental

844 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are

845 allowed. For examples see

846 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.

848 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.

850 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".

851 INCOMPATIBILITY.

853 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution

854 structure:

856 src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy

857 src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/

858 src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/

859 src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/

860 src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/

861 src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/

862 src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/

863 src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/

864 src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/

865 src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/

866 src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/

867 src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/

868 src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/

869 src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/

870 src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/

871 src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/

872 src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/

873 src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/

874 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/

875 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/

876 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/

877 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/

878 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/

879 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/

880 src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/

881 src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/

882 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/

883 src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/

884 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/

885 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/

886 src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/

887 src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach

888 src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/

890 src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

891 src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

892 src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

893 src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML

894 src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

895 src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

896 src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

897 src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

898 src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

899 src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

901 src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

902 src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

903 src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

904 src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

905 src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

906 src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

908 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof

909 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if

910 possible), avoiding strange error messages.

912 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a

913 modification of) the size-change principle. Requires SAT solver. See

914 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.

916 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound

917 variable occurs at most once in let expression body. INCOMPATIBILITY.

919 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when

920 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.

922 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used

923 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in

924 proofs, e.g.

926 assumes [arith]: "x > 0"

928 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.

930 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and

931 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"

932 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot". INCOMPATIBILITY.

934 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an

935 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.

936 INCOMPATIBILITY.

938 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit

939 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption. For instantiation of

940 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.

941 INCOMPATIBILITY.

943 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".

944 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder

945 etc. slightly changed. Some theorems named order_class.* now named

946 preorder_class.*.

948 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,

949 "diag" to "Id_on".

951 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type

953 ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b

955 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator

956 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to

957 fold_image.

959 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"

960 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be

961 extended with further lemmas!). At the moment both still exist but

962 the former will disappear at some point.

964 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in

965 class recpower. Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types

966 have been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:

968 rat_power_0 -> power_0

969 rat_power_Suc -> power_Suc

970 realpow_0 -> power_0

971 realpow_Suc -> power_Suc

972 complexpow_0 -> power_0

973 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc

974 power_poly_0 -> power_0

975 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc

977 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been

978 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on

979 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1. Likewise a bunch

980 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class

981 semiring_div. INCOMPATIBILITY. This involves the following theorem

982 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:

984 dvd_def_mod ~> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0

985 zero_dvd_iff ~> dvd_0_left_iff

986 dvd_0 ~> dvd_0_right

987 DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0

988 DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0

989 mult_div ~> div_mult_self2_is_id

990 mult_mod ~> mod_mult_self2_is_0

992 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based

993 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field). INCOMPATIBILITY,

994 rename old lemmas as follows:

996 dvd_diff -> nat_dvd_diff

997 dvd_zminus_iff -> dvd_minus_iff

998 mod_add1_eq -> mod_add_eq

999 mod_mult1_eq -> mod_mult_right_eq

1000 mod_mult1_eq' -> mod_mult_left_eq

1001 mod_mult_distrib_mod -> mod_mult_eq

1002 nat_mod_add_left_eq -> mod_add_left_eq

1003 nat_mod_add_right_eq -> mod_add_right_eq

1004 nat_mod_div_trivial -> mod_div_trivial

1005 nat_mod_mod_trivial -> mod_mod_trivial

1006 zdiv_zadd_self1 -> div_add_self1

1007 zdiv_zadd_self2 -> div_add_self2

1008 zdiv_zmult_self1 -> div_mult_self2_is_id

1009 zdiv_zmult_self2 -> div_mult_self1_is_id

1010 zdvd_triv_left -> dvd_triv_left

1011 zdvd_triv_right -> dvd_triv_right

1012 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left

1013 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]

1014 zmod_zadd_left_eq -> mod_add_left_eq

1015 zmod_zadd_right_eq -> mod_add_right_eq

1016 zmod_zadd_self1 -> mod_add_self1

1017 zmod_zadd_self2 -> mod_add_self2

1018 zmod_zadd1_eq -> mod_add_eq

1019 zmod_zdiff1_eq -> mod_diff_eq

1020 zmod_zdvd_zmod -> mod_mod_cancel

1021 zmod_zmod_cancel -> mod_mod_cancel

1022 zmod_zmult_self1 -> mod_mult_self2_is_0

1023 zmod_zmult_self2 -> mod_mult_self1_is_0

1024 zmod_1 -> mod_by_1

1025 zdiv_1 -> div_by_1

1026 zdvd_abs1 -> abs_dvd_iff

1027 zdvd_abs2 -> dvd_abs_iff

1028 zdvd_refl -> dvd_refl

1029 zdvd_trans -> dvd_trans

1030 zdvd_zadd -> dvd_add

1031 zdvd_zdiff -> dvd_diff

1032 zdvd_zminus_iff -> dvd_minus_iff

1033 zdvd_zminus2_iff -> minus_dvd_iff

1034 zdvd_zmultD -> dvd_mult_right

1035 zdvd_zmultD2 -> dvd_mult_left

1036 zdvd_zmult_mono -> mult_dvd_mono

1037 zdvd_0_right -> dvd_0_right

1038 zdvd_0_left -> dvd_0_left_iff

1039 zdvd_1_left -> one_dvd

1040 zminus_dvd_iff -> minus_dvd_iff

1042 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1044 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated

1045 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.

1047 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of

1048 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a. In addition to

1049 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod. Code

1050 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.

1052 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real

1053 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a

1054 => real. Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from

1055 theory RealVector.

1057 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product

1058 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.

1059 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,

1060 and inner products are included.

1062 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2. In

1063 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also

1064 supported.

1066 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's

1067 first diagonalization argument.

1069 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,

1070 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in

1071 the HOL Distribution. Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and

1072 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY,

1073 may recover tupled syntax as follows:

1075 hide (open) const gcd

1076 abbreviation gcd where

1077 "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"

1078 notation (output)

1079 GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")

1081 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.

1083 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more

1084 instantiations for algebraic structures. Removed some duplicate

1085 theorems. Changes in simp rules. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1087 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates

1088 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding

1089 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.

1090 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated

1091 simultaneously. Provides a generic and safe interface for

1092 instrumentalizing code generation. See

1093 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.

1094 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML

1095 code on the ML toplevel. Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}

1096 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are

1097 set. Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that

1098 cases.

1100 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now

1101 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be

1102 represented as datatype. The characteristic theorems have to be

1103 proven. INCOMPATIBILITY. Also observe that the following theorems

1104 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:

1106 unit_induct ~> unit.induct

1107 prod_induct ~> prod.induct

1108 sum_induct ~> sum.induct

1109 Suc_Suc_eq ~> nat.inject

1110 Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc ~> nat.distinct

1113 *** HOL-Algebra ***

1115 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation

1116 is not restricted to equality. INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice

1117 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.

1119 * New theory of factorial domains.

1121 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.

1122 INCOMPATIBILITY. Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv

1123 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.

1125 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:

1127 UpperD ~> Upper_memD

1128 LowerD ~> Lower_memD

1129 least_carrier ~> least_closed

1130 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed

1131 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below

1132 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero

1133 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero (collision with assumption)

1136 *** HOL-Nominal ***

1138 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.

1140 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local

1141 theory targets.

1143 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its

1144 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in

1145 'inductive' etc.

1147 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes

1148 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.

1150 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the

1151 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.

1153 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction

1154 principles for inductive definitions. In contrast to

1155 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of

1156 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of

1157 atoms to be avoided. The only inductive definition we have at the

1158 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in

1159 the algorithm W:

1161 Gamma |- t1 : T1 (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2 x#Gamma

1162 -----------------------------------------------------------------

1163 Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2

1165 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by

1166 "close Gamma T1". We are looking for other examples where this

1167 feature might be useful. Please let us know.

1170 *** HOLCF ***

1172 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity

1173 subgoals. The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional

1174 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].

1176 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for

1177 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions. In

1178 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the

1179 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.

1180 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

1182 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general

1183 format as seen in 'inductive' etc. See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for

1184 examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1187 *** ZF ***

1189 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.

1192 *** ML ***

1194 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for

1195 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later. Important note: the TimeLimit facility

1196 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML

1197 5.2.1!

1199 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see

1200 src/Pure/Cuncurrent. The data-oriented model of "future values" is

1201 particularly convenient to organize independent functional

1202 computations. The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a

1203 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the

1204 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables. (Requires

1205 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)

1207 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar

1208 context (theory or proof). Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'

1209 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning

1210 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).

1211 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the

1212 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a

1213 theory. (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)

1215 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof

1216 context. Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in

1217 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.

1218 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the

1219 proof. (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)

1221 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup

1222 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and

1223 'method_setup'. INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify

1224 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old

1225 Method.add_method.

1227 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm

1228 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle

1229 name. The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type

1230 is specified. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code

1231 accordingly. Note that extra performance may be gained by producing

1232 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.

1234 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via

1235 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally

1236 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user

1237 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common

1238 examples.

1240 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and

1241 name space operations. Basic operations on qualified names have been

1242 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,

1243 Long_Name.append. Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by

1244 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise

1245 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper

1246 tracking of source positions. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old

1247 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract

1248 bindings everywhere. See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,

1249 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML

1251 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,

1252 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the

1253 bstring as before. INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!

1255 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,

1256 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,

1257 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.). INCOMPATIBILITY, should

1258 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,

1259 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last

1260 resort for legacy applications.

1262 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to

1263 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,

1264 Simp_tac, SIMPSET). INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in

1265 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as

1266 explicit runtime argument.

1268 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,

1269 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof

1270 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking. Moreover,

1271 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings

1272 thereof. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1274 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of

1275 transactions. E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML

1276 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new

1277 theory state.

1279 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by

1280 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:

1282 @{binding name} - basic name binding

1283 @{let ?pat = term} - term abbreviation (HO matching)

1284 @{note name = fact} - fact abbreviation

1285 @{thm fact} - singleton fact (with attributes)

1286 @{thms fact} - general fact (with attributes)

1287 @{lemma prop by method} - singleton goal

1288 @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2} - singleton goal

1289 @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method} - general goal

1290 @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal

1291 @{lemma (open) ...} - open derivation

1294 *** System ***

1296 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke

1297 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not

1298 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on

1299 isabelle-process). The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the

1300 installation location of the Proof General distribution.

1302 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate

1303 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application. See

1304 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example. (The obsolete Java

1305 process wrapper has been discontinued.)

1307 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.

1309 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are

1310 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled. This allows

1311 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal

1312 prover operations.

1316 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)

1317 -------------------------------

1319 *** General ***

1321 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized

1322 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.

1324 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the

1325 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in

1326 conflict with concurrency. INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which

1327 provides a proper context already.

1329 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy

1330 file are no longer supported. INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and

1331 'use' within a theory file will do the job.

1333 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space

1334 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first

1335 space take precedence. INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to

1336 swap theory imports.

1338 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter. Potential

1339 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.

1341 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,

1342 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

1343 white space without escapes.

1345 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes

1346 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML). E.g. "foo\095bar" for

1347 "foo_bar".

1350 *** Pure ***

1352 * Context-dependent token translations. Default setup reverts locally

1353 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.

1355 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.

1356 There are three ways of invoking it:

1358 (1) unused_thms

1359 Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.

1361 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -

1362 Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,

1363 excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.

1365 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m

1366 Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of

1367 their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of

1368 their ancestors.

1370 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by

1371 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance

1372 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered

1373 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in

1374 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer

1375 reported as unused. Moreover, if all theorems in the group are

1376 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.

1378 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for

1379 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is

1380 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).

1382 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous

1383 theorems within the same name space. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove

1384 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications. Note

1385 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using

1386 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.

1388 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.

1390 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and

1391 clasimpset. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear

1392 update of theories within ML code.

1394 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.

1395 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require

1396 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics

1397 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.

1399 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on

1400 theory/local_theory. Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'

1401 instead. Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.

1402 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1404 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.

1406 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class

1407 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.

1408 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.

1409 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and

1410 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.

1412 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only

1413 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the

1414 background context (locale etc.). Affects `prop` notation and method

1415 "fact". INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare

1416 situations.

1418 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented

1419 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the

1420 proof text.

1422 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".

1423 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.

1425 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';

1426 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale

1427 predicates.

1430 *** Document preparation ***

1432 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for

1433 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed

1434 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the

1435 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default

1436 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets

1437 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).

1439 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given

1440 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method

1441 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.

1444 *** HOL ***

1446 * New primrec package. Specification syntax conforms in style to

1447 definition/function/.... No separate induction rule is provided. The

1448 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications

1449 by syntax. The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.

1450 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style

1451 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.

1453 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works

1454 with multithreading.

1456 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a

1457 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses. Theorems that

1458 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.

1460 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To

1461 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]]. Attributes

1462 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed

1463 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1465 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules

1466 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors

1467 out some operations that are done internally by the function package

1468 and makes them available separately. See

1469 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.

1471 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination

1472 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the

1473 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.

1474 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and

1475 just guides the heuristic. To find suitable measure functions, the

1476 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate

1477 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using

1478 the declared rules.

1480 This setup also deals with rules like

1482 "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"

1484 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.

1485 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.

1487 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"

1489 INCOMPATIBILITIES:

1491 - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by

1492 definitions on => and bool.

1494 - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved

1495 using the definitions of the operators on => and bool. Therefore,

1496 the following theorems have been renamed:

1498 subset_def -> subset_eq

1499 psubset_def -> psubset_eq

1500 set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq

1501 Compl_def -> Compl_eq

1502 Sup_set_def -> Sup_set_eq

1503 Inf_set_def -> Inf_set_eq

1504 sup_set_def -> sup_set_eq

1505 inf_set_def -> inf_set_eq

1507 - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some

1508 rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of

1509 the unknowns in the rule is a set.

1511 - Higher order unification and forward proofs:

1512 The proof pattern

1514 have "P (S::'a set)" <...>

1515 then have "EX S. P S" ..

1517 no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification

1518 algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern

1520 have "EX S. P S"

1521 proof

1522 show "P S" <...>

1523 qed

1525 - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):

1526 The proof pattern

1528 have "P (S::'a set)" <...>

1529 also have "S = T" <...>

1530 finally have "P T" .

1532 no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and

1533 must be replaced by something like

1535 have "P (S::'a set)" <...>

1536 moreover have "S = T" <...>

1537 ultimately have "P T" by simp

1539 - Tactics or packages written in ML code:

1540 Code performing pattern matching on types via

1542 Type ("set", [T]) => ...

1544 must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or

1545 binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a

1546 type of the form

1548 T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool

1550 rather than

1552 T1 => ... => Tn => U set

1554 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and

1555 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.

1557 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1559 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter. Use class

1560 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.

1561 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1563 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"

1564 and "Cons". INCOMPATIBILITY.

1566 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.

1567 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

1569 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and

1570 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.

1571 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1573 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of

1574 the same name in theory Orderings:

1576 less_trans

1577 less_linear

1578 le_imp_less_or_eq

1579 le_less_trans

1580 less_le_trans

1581 less_not_sym

1582 less_asym

1584 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to

1585 less_irrefl_nat. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types

1586 and different variable names.

1588 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.

1590 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of

1591 finite maps.

1593 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.

1595 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed. The infix

1596 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have

1597 disappeared. INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in

1598 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively. Theorems

1599 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"

1600 accordingly.

1602 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer

1603 depend on well-founded relations. INCOMPATIBILITY. Definitions

1604 le_def and less_def have disappeared. Consider lemmas not_less

1605 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.

1607 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin

1608 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been

1609 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes

1610 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,

1611 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.

1612 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1614 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper

1615 case_names ("base" and "step"). INCOMPATIBILITY.

1617 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete

1618 lattices. The form set-specific version is available as

1619 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.

1621 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".

1622 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1624 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings

1625 with division and modulo operations. Subsumes former class dvd_mod.

1627 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory

1628 Int. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1630 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural

1631 numbers rather than integers. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1633 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class

1634 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).

1635 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1637 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic

1638 syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1640 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,

1641 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,

1642 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,

1643 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,

1644 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object

1645 equality. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1647 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term

1648 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.

1649 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.

1651 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.

1653 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.

1655 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of

1656 pairs. Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and

1657 well-orders on sets and on types.

1660 *** ZF ***

1662 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the

1663 same session:

1665 Datatype -> Datatype_ZF

1666 Inductive -> Inductive_ZF

1667 Int -> Int_ZF

1668 IntDiv -> IntDiv_ZF

1669 Nat -> Nat_ZF

1670 List -> List_ZF

1671 Main -> Main_ZF

1673 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below

1674 Main might need to be adapted. Regular theory Main is still

1675 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.

1678 *** ML ***

1680 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const

1681 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.

1683 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact

1684 (of the same name). Removed obsolete print command.

1686 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.

1688 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global

1689 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes

1690 non-critical. The global print_mode reference is for session

1691 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,

1692 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1694 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external

1695 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML

1696 5.2.1). Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!

1699 *** System ***

1701 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---

1702 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.

1704 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;

1705 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR

1706 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".

1708 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general

1709 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.

1711 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to

1712 standard XML transfer syntax. See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and

1713 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.

1715 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)

1716 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust

1717 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.

1719 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),

1720 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).

1722 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature. NB: the documented

1723 way of changing the user's settings is via

1724 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash

1725 script.

1727 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU

1728 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for

1729 optimal performance tuning. The corresponding usedir option -M allows

1730 "max" as an alias for "0". WARNING: does not work on certain versions

1731 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).

1733 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the

1734 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably

1735 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).

1739 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)

1740 -----------------------------------

1742 *** General ***

1744 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a

1745 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the

1746 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:

1747 legacy features will disappear eventually.

1749 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been

1750 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''. Use isatool

1751 fixheaders to convert existing theory files. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1753 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been

1754 discontinued altogether. Note that ML proof scripts may still be used

1755 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML

1756 function use_legacy_bindings. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1758 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',

1759 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords. INCOMPATIBILITY, use double

1760 quotes.

1762 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory

1763 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the

1764 accidental file locations of previously successful loads. The strict

1765 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by

1766 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several

1767 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header

1768 specification, but without merging the results. Potential

1769 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands

1770 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.

1772 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file

1773 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical

1774 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting

1775 (cf. the system manual). The new scheme allows to work with

1776 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source

1777 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.

1779 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy

1780 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy

1781 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader

1782 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.

1784 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is

1785 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous

1786 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the

1787 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and

1788 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit

1789 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.

1791 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',

1792 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in

1793 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations

1794 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space

1795 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse

1796 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax

1797 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and

1798 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.

1800 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required

1801 to keep existing proof scripts running. Most other user-level

1802 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open

1803 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).

1804 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because

1805 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being

1806 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().

1808 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"

1809 criterion; "with_dups" option. Certain ProofGeneral versions might

1810 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).

1812 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1

1813 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are

1814 suppressed from proof state output. Note that the ProofGeneral

1815 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but

1816 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems

1817 limit is imposed.

1819 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of

1820 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''. The body may

1821 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism

1822 that has been implemented on top of these primitives. This concept

1823 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility

1824 and scalability.

1826 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;

1827 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).

1830 *** Document preparation ***

1832 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,

1833 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the

1834 current context.

1836 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which

1837 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.

1839 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation

1840 "c args == rhs" given in the current context. (Any number of

1841 arguments may be given on the LHS.)

1844 *** Pure ***

1846 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to

1847 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle. Definitions and

1848 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with

1849 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic

1850 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class

1851 context). Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate

1852 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting

1853 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.

1854 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).

1855 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.

1857 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable

1858 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes). A short usage

1859 sketch:

1861 internal compilation:

1862 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML

1863 writing SML code to a file:

1864 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>

1865 writing OCaml code to a file:

1866 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>

1867 writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:

1868 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>

1870 evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:

1871 method ``eval''

1873 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.

1875 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:

1877 [code fun]: select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant

1878 [code fun del]: deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant

1879 [code inline]: select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place

1880 [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place

1882 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):

1884 code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>

1885 {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+

1887 code_type <and-list of type constructors>

1888 {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+

1890 code_instance <and-list of instances>

1891 {(target)}+

1892 where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>

1894 code_class <and_list of classes>

1895 {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+

1896 where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?

1898 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.

1900 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and

1901 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy. A separate tutorial on code

1902 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc

1903 codegen".

1905 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now

1906 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type

1907 annotations).

1909 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory

1910 syntax.

1912 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic

1913 dependencies. The overloading scheme is slightly more general than

1914 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact

1915 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.

1916 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more

1917 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!

1919 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the

1920 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general

1921 declaration given in the signature. For example, with the declaration

1922 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented

1923 as c(nat). Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural

1924 recursion over such type arguments. Incomplete specification patterns

1925 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the

1926 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.

1927 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive

1928 equations, see section "definitions".

1930 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof

1931 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple

1932 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data. Tools may

1933 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to

1934 these values using Config.get etc. Users may change options via an

1935 associated attribute of the same name. This form of context

1936 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or

1937 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''. Thus it has become

1938 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar

1939 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.

1941 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into

1942 configuration options:

1944 Unify.search_bound unify_search_bound

1945 Unify.trace_bound unify_trace_bound

1946 Unify.trace_simp unify_trace_simp

1947 Unify.trace_types unify_trace_types

1948 Simplifier.simp_depth_limit simp_depth_limit

1949 Blast.depth_limit blast_depth_limit

1950 DatatypeProp.dtK datatype_distinctness_limit

1951 fast_arith_neq_limit fast_arith_neq_limit

1952 fast_arith_split_limit fast_arith_split_limit

1954 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context

1955 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also

1956 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML). The user may add or delete facts via

1957 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command. This facility is

1958 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way

1959 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical

1960 order.

1962 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic

1963 declaration functions written in ML. This enables arbitrary content

1964 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the

1965 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application

1966 context encountered later on.

1968 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures. Command

1969 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body

1970 text in ML). Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current

1971 context. ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.

1973 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations

1974 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,

1975 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on

1976 the background context will persist. This form of in-place

1977 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and

1978 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.

1980 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now

1981 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying

1982 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic

1983 assumption steps. This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'

1984 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",

1985 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the

1986 Isar proof context. POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is

1987 more permissive.

1989 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is

1990 considered a legacy feature. Common applications like ``have A .''

1991 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''. In general,

1992 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and

1993 maintainability of proof texts.

1995 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives

1996 the obtained context from the course of reasoning! For example:

1998 assume "EX x y. A x & B y" -- "any previous fact"

1999 then guess x and y by clarify

2001 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and

2002 proof tools being involved here.

2004 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal

2005 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax. This works wherever

2006 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof

2007 methods, attributes etc. Literal facts are retrieved from the context

2008 according to unification of type and term parameters. For example,

2009 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known

2010 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:

2011 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.

2013 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition

2014 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with

2015 certain special cases of literal facts:

2017 have "A" by fact == note `A`

2018 have "A ==> B" by fact == note `A ==> B`

2019 have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact == note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`

2020 have "P a ==> Q a" by fact == note `P a ==> Q a`

2022 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in

2023 outer syntax. Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without

2024 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.

2026 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,

2027 both named and unnamed ones.

2029 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:

2031 def x == "t" and y == "u"

2033 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to

2034 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given

2035 rewrite rules. Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or

2036 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.

2038 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',

2039 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities

2040 (potentially conditional). The underlying notion of rewrite rule is

2041 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the

2042 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).

2044 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the

2045 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.

2047 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a

2048 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N

2049 sub-goals, which need to exist. For example, ``simp_all [3]''

2050 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]

2051 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the

2052 originally first one.

2054 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order

2055 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as

2056 expected.

2058 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either

2059 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'

2060 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and

2061 assumptions). The latter allows to express general elimination rules

2062 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:

2064 lemma exE: -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

2065 assumes "EX x. P x"

2066 obtains x where "P x"

2068 lemma conjE: -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

2069 assumes "A & B"

2070 obtains A and B

2072 lemma disjE: -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

2073 assumes "A | B"

2074 obtains

2075 A

2076 | B

2078 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"

2079 explicitly:

2081 lemma classical: -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

2082 obtains "~ thesis"

2084 lemma Peirce's_Law: -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

2085 obtains "thesis ==> something"

2087 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the

2088 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.

2089 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be

2090 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the

2091 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute

2092 case_names).

2094 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as

2095 "assms" fact in the proof context. This is more appropriate than the

2096 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current

2097 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.

2099 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or

2100 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a

2101 top-level lemma.

2103 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context

2104 introduction rule (default "that").

2106 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

2107 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens

2108 to occur.

2110 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant

2111 according to the current context. This is particularly useful for

2112 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant

2113 representations independently of name spaces.

2115 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"

2116 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist

2117 in the same context. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2119 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'

2120 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and

2121 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation

2122 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the

2123 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the

2124 current context.

2126 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',

2127 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit

2128 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence). See also the

2129 isar-ref manual. Examples:

2131 axiomatization

2132 eq (infix "===" 50) where

2133 eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"

2135 definition "f x y = x + y + 1"

2136 definition g where "g x = f x x"

2138 abbreviation

2139 neq (infix "=!=" 50) where

2140 "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"

2142 These specifications may be also used in a locale context. Then the

2143 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the

2144 constant name is qualified by the locale base name. An internal

2145 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the

2146 parameters implicit and using the original short name. See also

2147 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic

2148 entities from a monomorphic theory.

2150 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but

2151 not inherited by general import expressions. Also note that

2152 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +

2153 'translations' in common applications. The "no_abbrevs" print mode

2154 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.

2156 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,

2157 independently of name spaces. The parse tree representation is

2158 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and

2159 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.

2161 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms

2162 (e.g. 'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits

2163 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_"). For example:

2165 definition "K x _ = x"

2167 inductive conj for A B

2168 where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"

2170 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of

2171 the current context. Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of

2172 abbreviations on output.

2174 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and

2175 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer

2176 required to be injective. For example, this allows to define

2177 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.

2179 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.

2180 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is

2181 now an interpretation. INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of

2182 locale expressions. In particular, in interpretations of locales with

2183 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not

2184 removed automatically. Use methods `intro_locales' and

2185 `unfold_locales'; see below.

2187 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'

2188 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates. The methods are

2189 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.

2190 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not

2191 unfold predicates to assumptions.

2193 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated

2194 has changed. This enables to override declarations from fragments due

2195 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.

2197 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been

2198 extended. One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are

2199 unfolded in interpreted theorems. This is useful for replacing

2200 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by

2201 concepts already existing in the target context. Example:

2203 interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]

2204 where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"

2206 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a

2207 definition specification element in the context of locale

2208 partial_order.

2210 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support

2211 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level

2212 connectives !! and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals

2213 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long

2214 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in

2215 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also

2216 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic

2217 examples.

2219 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of

2220 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into

2221 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested

2222 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,

2223 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.

2225 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list

2226 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide

2227 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive

2228 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify

2229 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:

2231 (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)

2232 (induct set: foo bar)

2233 (induct pred: foo bar)

2234 (induct type: foo bar)

2236 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the

2237 new format.

2239 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see

2240 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.

2242 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is

2243 considered a legacy feature.

2245 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic

2246 variables (index 0). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

2248 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level

2249 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by

2250 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The

2251 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.

2253 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format

2254 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when

2255 manipulating the claset.

2257 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,

2258 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at

2259 least one premise.

2261 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional

2262 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions). Weights are

2263 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single

2264 rule steps.

2266 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",

2267 where the body does not mention the bound variable. Note that dummy

2268 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes

2269 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected. Potential

2270 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic

2271 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.

2273 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated

2274 parse translation. INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,

2275 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".

2277 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using

2278 the graph browser tool.

2280 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by

2281 default; use '!' option for full details.

2284 *** HOL ***

2286 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose

2287 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).

2288 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples. WARNING: the

2289 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with

2290 multi-threading.

2292 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as

2293 background processes. It generates calls to the "metis" method if

2294 successful. These can be pasted into the proof. Users do not have to

2295 wait for the automatic provers to return. WARNING: does not really

2296 work with multi-threading.

2298 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for

2299 potential counter-examples. Controlled by ML references

2300 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default

2301 5000 milliseconds). Fails silently if statements is outside of

2302 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.

2304 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".

2306 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic

2307 equality.

2309 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in

2310 the new 'class' package:

2312 HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs

2313 HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide

2314 0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero

2315 1 ~> HOL.one_class.one

2316 op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus

2317 op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus

2318 uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus

2319 op * ~> HOL.times_class.times

2320 op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less

2321 op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq

2322 Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power

2323 Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size

2324 Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of

2325 FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf

2326 FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup

2327 Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min

2328 Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max

2329 Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div

2330 Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod

2331 Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd

2333 INCOMPATIBILITY. Adaptions may be required in the following cases:

2335 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",

2336 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for

2337 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong. INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific

2338 names.

2340 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"

2341 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.

2343 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")

2344 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative

2345 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows

2346 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle

2347 distribution). INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs

2349 d) ML code directly refering to constant names

2350 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and

2351 so on. INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.

2352 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.

2354 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".

2356 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex

2357 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn". Two possible defs of

2358 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and

2359 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.

2360 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2362 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory

2363 Orderings), added parameter "less". INCOMPATIBILITY.

2365 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and

2366 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid

2367 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans". INCOMPATIBILITY.

2369 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to

2370 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.

2372 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up

2373 for classes "order" and "linorder". Instances of the reasoner are available

2374 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.

2375 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner

2376 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver. Diagnostic

2377 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner

2378 in the current context.

2380 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated

2381 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.

2382 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2384 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration

2385 with new class dense_linear_order.

2387 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.

2389 constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"

2390 constant "Meet" now named "Inf"

2392 classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named

2393 "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"

2394 class "lorder" now named "lattice"

2395 class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"

2397 Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions

2398 for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).

2400 INCOMPATIBILITY. Theorem renames:

2402 meet_left_le ~> inf_le1

2403 meet_right_le ~> inf_le2

2404 join_left_le ~> sup_ge1

2405 join_right_le ~> sup_ge2

2406 meet_join_le ~> inf_sup_ord

2407 le_meetI ~> le_infI

2408 join_leI ~> le_supI

2409 le_meet ~> le_inf_iff

2410 le_join ~> ge_sup_conv

2411 meet_idempotent ~> inf_idem

2412 join_idempotent ~> sup_idem

2413 meet_comm ~> inf_commute

2414 join_comm ~> sup_commute

2415 meet_leI1 ~> le_infI1

2416 meet_leI2 ~> le_infI2

2417 le_joinI1 ~> le_supI1

2418 le_joinI2 ~> le_supI2

2419 meet_assoc ~> inf_assoc

2420 join_assoc ~> sup_assoc

2421 meet_left_comm ~> inf_left_commute

2422 meet_left_idempotent ~> inf_left_idem

2423 join_left_comm ~> sup_left_commute

2424 join_left_idempotent ~> sup_left_idem

2425 meet_aci ~> inf_aci

2426 join_aci ~> sup_aci

2427 le_def_meet ~> le_iff_inf

2428 le_def_join ~> le_iff_sup

2429 join_absorp2 ~> sup_absorb2

2430 join_absorp1 ~> sup_absorb1

2431 meet_absorp1 ~> inf_absorb1

2432 meet_absorp2 ~> inf_absorb2

2433 meet_join_absorp ~> inf_sup_absorb

2434 join_meet_absorp ~> sup_inf_absorb

2435 distrib_join_le ~> distrib_sup_le

2436 distrib_meet_le ~> distrib_inf_le

2438 add_meet_distrib_left ~> add_inf_distrib_left

2439 add_join_distrib_left ~> add_sup_distrib_left

2440 is_join_neg_meet ~> is_join_neg_inf

2441 is_meet_neg_join ~> is_meet_neg_sup

2442 add_meet_distrib_right ~> add_inf_distrib_right

2443 add_join_distrib_right ~> add_sup_distrib_right

2444 add_meet_join_distribs ~> add_sup_inf_distribs

2445 join_eq_neg_meet ~> sup_eq_neg_inf

2446 meet_eq_neg_join ~> inf_eq_neg_sup

2447 add_eq_meet_join ~> add_eq_inf_sup

2448 meet_0_imp_0 ~> inf_0_imp_0

2449 join_0_imp_0 ~> sup_0_imp_0

2450 meet_0_eq_0 ~> inf_0_eq_0

2451 join_0_eq_0 ~> sup_0_eq_0

2452 neg_meet_eq_join ~> neg_inf_eq_sup

2453 neg_join_eq_meet ~> neg_sup_eq_inf

2454 join_eq_if ~> sup_eq_if

2456 mono_meet ~> mono_inf

2457 mono_join ~> mono_sup

2458 meet_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_eq

2459 join_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_eq

2460 meet_fun_eq ~> inf_fun_eq

2461 join_fun_eq ~> sup_fun_eq

2462 meet_set_eq ~> inf_set_eq

2463 join_set_eq ~> sup_set_eq

2464 meet1_iff ~> inf1_iff

2465 meet2_iff ~> inf2_iff

2466 meet1I ~> inf1I

2467 meet2I ~> inf2I

2468 meet1D1 ~> inf1D1

2469 meet2D1 ~> inf2D1

2470 meet1D2 ~> inf1D2

2471 meet2D2 ~> inf2D2

2472 meet1E ~> inf1E

2473 meet2E ~> inf2E

2474 join1_iff ~> sup1_iff

2475 join2_iff ~> sup2_iff

2476 join1I1 ~> sup1I1

2477 join2I1 ~> sup2I1

2478 join1I1 ~> sup1I1

2479 join2I2 ~> sup1I2

2480 join1CI ~> sup1CI

2481 join2CI ~> sup2CI

2482 join1E ~> sup1E

2483 join2E ~> sup2E

2485 is_meet_Meet ~> is_meet_Inf

2486 Meet_bool_def ~> Inf_bool_def

2487 Meet_fun_def ~> Inf_fun_def

2488 Meet_greatest ~> Inf_greatest

2489 Meet_lower ~> Inf_lower

2490 Meet_set_def ~> Inf_set_def

2492 Sup_def ~> Sup_Inf

2493 Sup_bool_eq ~> Sup_bool_def

2494 Sup_fun_eq ~> Sup_fun_def

2495 Sup_set_eq ~> Sup_set_def

2497 listsp_meetI ~> listsp_infI

2498 listsp_meet_eq ~> listsp_inf_eq

2500 meet_min ~> inf_min

2501 join_max ~> sup_max

2503 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has

2504 type "'a::size ==> bool"

2506 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems

2507 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still

2508 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named

2509 "*.size".

2511 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".

2512 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2514 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,

2515 Linorder etc. have disappeared; operations defined in terms of

2516 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2518 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2520 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size

2521 machine words, with arithemtic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating

2522 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for

2523 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including

2524 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity. Instantiated to all appropriate

2525 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of

2526 numerals on all operations.

2528 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.

2530 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).

2532 * Code generator library theories:

2533 - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target

2534 languages.

2535 - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target

2536 languages.

2537 - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character

2538 codes; includes Code_Integer.

2539 - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.

2540 - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,

2541 denominator).

2542 - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those

2543 representable by rational numbers.

2544 - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will

2545 result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;

2546 includes Code_Integer.

2547 - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to

2548 target-language built-in integers.

2549 - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to

2550 strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.

2552 * New package for inductive predicates

2554 An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via

2556 inductive

2557 p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

2558 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

2559 where

2560 rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"

2561 | ...

2563 with full support for type-inference, rather than

2565 consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

2567 abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

2568 where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

2570 inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"

2571 intros

2572 rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

2573 ...

2575 For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive

2576 sets to be defined with the new package via

2578 inductive_set

2579 s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

2580 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

2581 where

2582 rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

2583 | ...

2585 or

2587 inductive_set

2588 s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

2589 and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

2590 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

2591 where

2592 "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

2593 | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"

2594 | ...

2596 if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.

2598 Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,

2599 src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.

2601 INCOMPATIBILITIES:

2603 - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates

2604 is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly

2605 introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the

2606 introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather

2607 than before the actual inductive definition.

2609 - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now

2610 quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction

2611 rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break

2612 some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by

2613 reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'

2614 statements of the form

2616 case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})

2618 or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding

2619 meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.

2621 | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"

2623 - The format of the elimination rules is now

2625 p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>

2626 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)

2627 ==> ... ==> P

2629 for predicates and

2631 (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>

2632 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)

2633 ==> ... ==> P

2635 for sets rather than

2637 x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>

2638 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)

2639 ==> ... ==> P

2641 This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples

2642 (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all

2643 rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.

2645 - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive

2646 sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The

2647 list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.

2649 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,

2650 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,

2651 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy

2652 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function

2653 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but

2654 users are encouraged to use the new package.

2656 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination

2657 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures.

2659 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including

2660 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional

2661 programming. Internally, this is translated into nested

2662 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined

2663 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show

2664 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow

2665 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an

2666 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new

2667 variable.

2669 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"

2670 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification

2671 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did

2672 previously. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:

2673 - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"

2674 - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules

2676 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using

2677 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the

2678 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for

2679 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding

2680 declarations for computation on the coefficients. The method is

2681 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class

2682 of idoms with numerals. See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at

2683 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this

2684 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.

2686 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over

2687 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to

2688 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class

2689 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,

2690 rat, etc.

2692 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append". Use ML

2693 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to

2694 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.

2696 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".

2698 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.

2699 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)

2701 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.

2702 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.

2704 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :

2705 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list

2706 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2708 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders. It used to be

2709 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]

2710 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2712 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD" to "set_takeWhileD".

2714 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.

2716 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for

2717 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all

2718 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or

2719 positive/negative (in inequations).

2721 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib

2722 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and

2723 ring_distribs. Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field

2724 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2726 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function

2727 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried. Infix syntax for

2728 algebraic operations.

2730 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.

2731 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2733 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.

2734 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2736 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the

2737 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update

2738 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.

2739 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be

2740 adapted.

2742 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0

2743 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring. Richer structures do not

2744 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem

2745 there, not an axiom. INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,

2746 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.

2748 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just

2749 commutative semirings. INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate

2750 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.

2752 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.

2753 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,

2754 better use 'abbreviation'.

2756 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member". INCOMPATIBILITY.

2758 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has

2759 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'. INCOMPATIBILITY --

2760 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:

2761 - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead

2762 of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.

2763 - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.

2764 - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.

2765 - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.

2767 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.

2769 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may

2770 contain free variables. For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''

2771 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof). This command is suitable for

2772 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML

2773 first. Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided. See

2774 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.

2776 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority

2777 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is

2778 "A = B" (with priority 50).

2780 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.

2781 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,

2782 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z". Potential

2783 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2785 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).

2787 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds

2788 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2790 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been

2791 removed. Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.

2793 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites

2794 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq"). INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using

2795 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.

2797 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to

2798 True/False.

2800 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".

2802 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.

2804 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the

2805 ``rule'' method.

2807 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:

2808 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences

2809 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form

2810 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.

2812 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.

2813 zChaff is still supported as well.

2815 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,

2816 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;

2818 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to

2819 Library.

2821 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.

2823 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists

2824 as greatest fixed-point.

2826 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as

2827 association lists.

2829 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)

2830 efficiently by compiling it to ML. The goal is "proved" (via an

2831 oracle) if it evaluates to True.

2833 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)

2834 also when invoked by the simplifier. This results in the Simplifier

2835 being more powerful on arithmetic goals. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2836 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old

2837 behavior.

2839 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.

2841 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an

2842 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional

2843 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the

2844 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The

2845 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs

2846 s. If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.

2848 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)

2849 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,

2850 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code

2851 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then

2852 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =

2853 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the

2854 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.

2856 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is

2857 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy

2859 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a

2860 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an

2861 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of

2862 HOL types. This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,

2863 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.

2866 *** HOL-Complex ***

2868 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real

2869 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.

2870 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so

2871 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential

2872 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2874 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and

2875 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a

2876 and norm :: 'a => real.

2878 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from

2879 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now

2880 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

2882 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.

2883 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.

2885 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the

2886 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector

2887 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential

2888 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2890 Infinitesimal :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

2891 HFinite :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

2892 HInfinite :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

2893 approx :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool

2894 monad :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set

2895 galaxy :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set

2896 (NS)LIMSEQ :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool

2897 (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

2898 (NS)Bseq :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

2899 (NS)Cauchy :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

2900 (NS)LIM :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool

2901 is(NS)Cont :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool

2902 deriv :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool

2903 sgn :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a

2904 exp :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a

2906 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for

2907 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =

2908 hnorm. Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the

2909 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):

2911 approx <-- capprox

2912 HFinite <-- CFinite

2913 HInfinite <-- CInfinite

2914 Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal

2915 monad <-- cmonad

2916 galaxy <-- cgalaxy

2917 (NS)LIM <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM

2918 is(NS)Cont <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR

2919 (ns)deriv <-- (ns)cderiv

2922 *** HOL-Algebra ***

2924 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.

2926 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.

2927 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2929 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->

2930 greatest_closed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2932 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute. For examples see

2933 Ring.thy. INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations

2934 of algebraic structures.

2936 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.

2939 *** HOL-Nominal ***

2941 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding

2942 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic. See src/HOL/Nominal and

2943 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples. Prospective users should consult

2944 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/

2947 *** ML ***

2949 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int

2950 (even on SML/NJ).

2952 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked

2953 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at

2954 compile-time. For example:

2956 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}

2957 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}

2958 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}

2959 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}

2960 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}

2961 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}

2962 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}

2963 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}

2964 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}

2965 ML {* @{type_name c} *}

2966 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}

2967 ML {* @{const_name c} *}

2968 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}

2969 ML {* @{context} *}

2970 ML {* @{theory} *}

2971 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}

2972 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}

2973 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}

2974 ML {* @{simpset} *}

2975 ML {* @{claset} *}

2976 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}

2978 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.

2980 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with

2981 ML_Context.trace enabled.

2983 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions

2984 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and

2985 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.

2987 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now

2988 use Context.generic instead of just theory.

2990 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and

2991 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of

2992 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.

2994 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always

2995 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.

2996 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while

2997 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and

2998 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure

2999 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably

3000 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type

3001 declarations and definitions.

3003 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed

3004 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,

3005 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need

3006 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)

3008 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in

3009 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the

3010 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,

3011 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

3013 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with

3014 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed

3015 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --

3016 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and

3017 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede

3018 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.

3020 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --

3021 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been

3022 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted

3023 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for

3024 attributes, methods, etc.

3026 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."

3027 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to

3028 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and

3029 fold_map combinators.

3031 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional

3032 comments (tags) are now strictly separate. Name hints -- which are

3033 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the

3034 derivation.

3036 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an

3037 actual goal state (thm). Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to

3038 achieve the old behaviour.

3040 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a

3041 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule

3042 statements.

3044 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now

3045 enforced instead of silently assumed. INCOMPATIBILITY, may use

3046 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.

3048 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating

3049 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc. This replaces

3050 some popular functions from term.ML:

3052 Term.variant -> Name.variant

3053 Term.variantlist -> Name.variant_list

3054 Term.invent_names -> Name.invent_list

3056 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations

3057 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).

3059 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper

3060 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context. For example,

3061 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and

3062 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces

3063 various freeze_thaw operations.

3065 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for

3066 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former

3067 Tactic.prove). Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results

3068 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for

3069 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard. Note that

3070 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is

3071 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or

3072 in a locale context).

3074 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)

3075 and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations

3076 (Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.

3077 which are considered legacy and await removal.

3079 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking

3080 (Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),

3081 with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term

3082 etc.). Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still

3083 available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using

3084 a mere theory instead of a full context.

3086 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception

3087 ERROR of string uniformly. Function error now merely raises ERROR,

3088 without any side effect on output channels. The Isar toplevel takes

3089 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions. ML code may use plain

3090 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:

3092 ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."

3094 Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be

3095 embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like

3096 this:

3098 Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)

3100 INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed

3101 obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,

3102 Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)

3103 -- use plain ERROR instead.

3105 * Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a

3106 list. INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.

3108 * Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to

3109 ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.

3111 * Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the

3112 theory before entering a proof state. Transactions now always see a

3113 quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and

3114 batch mode.

3116 * Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax. Renamed

3117 OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords. Removed

3118 OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in

3119 OuterSyntax.command etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3121 * Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now

3122 contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the

3123 very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by

3124 simpset_of/local_simpset_of). Consequently, all plug-in components

3125 (solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.

3127 * Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the

3128 local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc

3129 etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this! Removed

3130 former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --

3131 INCOMPATIBILITY. Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to

3132 specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.

3134 * Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces

3135 change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a

3136 theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --

3137 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3139 * Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired

3140 "Trueprop" etc.

3143 *** System ***

3145 * settings: the default heap location within ISABELLE_HOME_USER now

3146 includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER. This simplifies use of multiple

3147 Isabelle installations.

3149 * isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical

3150 operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source

3151 code.

3153 * Basic Isabelle mode for jEdit, see Isabelle/lib/jedit/.

3155 * Support for parallel execution, using native multicore support of

3156 Poly/ML 5.1. The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing

3157 independent theories, according to the given theory header

3158 specifications. The maximum number of worker threads is specified via

3159 usedir option -M or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. A

3160 speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected on a 4-core machine, and up

3161 to 6 on a 8-core machine. User-code needs to observe certain

3162 guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A in the Isar

3163 Implementation manual.

3167 New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)

3168 ----------------------------------

3170 *** General ***

3172 * Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is

3174 theory <name>

3175 imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>

3176 uses <file1> ... <fileM>

3177 begin

3179 where the 'uses' part is optional. The previous syntax

3181 theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:

3183 will disappear in the next release. Use isatool fixheaders to convert

3184 existing theory files. Note that there is no change in ancient

3185 non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.

3187 * Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via

3188 relative and absolute paths.

3190 * Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a

3191 list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,

3192 simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select

3193 theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that

3194 match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified

3195 name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose

3196 lhs match term. Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects

3197 all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under

3198 'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f. Example:

3200 C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."

3202 prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",

3203 matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."

3204 in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).

3206 * Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of

3207 'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.

3209 * Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that

3210 Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both

3211 formal and informal parts). Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof

3212 General interface. Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):

3214 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html

3215 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html

3217 * Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the

3218 Classical Reasoner. Typical big applications run around 2 times

3219 faster.

3222 *** Document preparation ***

3224 * Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output

3225 of raw sources. Only those symbols that do not require additional

3226 LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are

3227 displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim. isatool display

3228 and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the

3229 DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).

3231 * Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,

3232 notably folding and hiding. Predefined tags include "theory" (for

3233 theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for

3234 commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and

3235 "invisible" are unused by default. Users may give explicit tag

3236 specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''. The

3237 interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document

3238 preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of

3239 isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,

3240 \isadroptag.

3242 Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool

3243 usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them). Typical

3244 specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present

3245 theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold

3246 proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit

3247 these parts without any formal replacement text. The Isabelle site

3248 default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as

3249 specified above.

3251 * Several new antiquotations:

3253 @{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;

3255 @{typeof term} prints the type of a term;

3257 @{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the

3258 argument is a known logical constant;

3260 @{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or

3261 theorem applying a "style" to it

3263 @{ML text}

3265 Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of

3266 definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the

3267 conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem19'

3268 to print the specified premise. TermStyle.add_style provides an ML

3269 interface for introducing further styles. See also the "LaTeX Sugar"

3270 document practical applications. The ML antiquotation prints

3271 type-checked ML expressions verbatim.

3273 * Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',

3274 and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which

3275 specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations. For

3276 example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.

3278 * Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative

3279 context interpreting the subsequent argument. For example: @{thm

3280 [locale=lattice] inf_assoc}.

3282 * Proper output of proof terms (@{prf ...} and @{full_prf ...}) within

3283 a proof context.

3285 * Proper output of antiquotations for theory commands involving a

3286 proof context (such as 'locale' or 'theorem (in loc) ...').

3288 * Delimiters of outer tokens (string etc.) now produce separate LaTeX

3289 macros (\isachardoublequoteopen, isachardoublequoteclose etc.).

3291 * isatool usedir: new option -C (default true) controls whether option

3292 -D should include a copy of the original document directory; -C false

3293 prevents unwanted effects such as copying of administrative CVS data.

3296 *** Pure ***

3298 * Considerably improved version of 'constdefs' command. Now performs

3299 automatic type-inference of declared constants; additional support for

3300 local structure declarations (cf. locales and HOL records), see also

3301 isar-ref manual. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to observe strictly

3302 sequential dependencies of definitions within a single 'constdefs'

3303 section; moreover, the declared name needs to be an identifier. If

3304 all fails, consider to fall back on 'consts' and 'defs' separately.

3306 * Improved indexed syntax and implicit structures. First of all,

3307 indexed syntax provides a notational device for subscripted

3308 application, using the new syntax \<^bsub>term\<^esub> for arbitrary

3309 expressions. Secondly, in a local context with structure

3310 declarations, number indexes \<^sub>n or the empty index (default

3311 number 1) refer to a certain fixed variable implicitly; option

3312 show_structs controls printing of implicit structures. Typical

3313 applications of these concepts involve record types and locales.

3315 * New command 'no_syntax' removes grammar declarations (and

3316 translations) resulting from the given syntax specification, which is

3317 interpreted in the same manner as for the 'syntax' command.

3319 * 'Advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) may depend

3320 on the signature of the theory context being presently used for

3321 parsing/printing, see also isar-ref manual.

3323 * Improved 'oracle' command provides a type-safe interface to turn an

3324 ML expression of type theory -> T -> term into a primitive rule of

3325 type theory -> T -> thm (i.e. the functionality of Thm.invoke_oracle

3326 is already included here); see also FOL/ex/IffExample.thy;

3327 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3329 * axclass: name space prefix for class "c" is now "c_class" (was "c"

3330 before); "cI" is no longer bound, use "c.intro" instead.

3331 INCOMPATIBILITY. This change avoids clashes of fact bindings for

3332 axclasses vs. locales.

3334 * Improved internal renaming of symbolic identifiers -- attach primes

3335 instead of base 26 numbers.

3337 * New flag show_question_marks controls printing of leading question

3338 marks in schematic variable names.

3340 * In schematic variable names, *any* symbol following \<^isub> or

3341 \<^isup> is now treated as part of the base name. For example, the

3342 following works without printing of awkward ".0" indexes:

3344 lemma "x\<^isub>1 = x\<^isub>2 ==> x\<^isub>2 = x\<^isub>1"

3345 by simp

3347 * Inner syntax includes (*(*nested*) comments*).

3349 * Pretty printer now supports unbreakable blocks, specified in mixfix

3350 annotations as "(00...)".

3352 * Clear separation of logical types and nonterminals, where the latter

3353 may only occur in 'syntax' specifications or type abbreviations.

3354 Before that distinction was only partially implemented via type class

3355 "logic" vs. "{}". Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare cases of improper

3356 use of 'types'/'consts' instead of 'nonterminals'/'syntax'. Some very

3357 exotic syntax specifications may require further adaption

3358 (e.g. Cube/Cube.thy).

3360 * Removed obsolete type class "logic", use the top sort {} instead.

3361 Note that non-logical types should be declared as 'nonterminals'

3362 rather than 'types'. INCOMPATIBILITY for new object-logic

3363 specifications.

3365 * Attributes 'induct' and 'cases': type or set names may now be

3366 locally fixed variables as well.

3368 * Simplifier: can now control the depth to which conditional rewriting

3369 is traced via the PG menu Isabelle -> Settings -> Trace Simp Depth

3370 Limit.

3372 * Simplifier: simplification procedures may now take the current

3373 simpset into account (cf. Simplifier.simproc(_i) / mk_simproc

3374 interface), which is very useful for calling the Simplifier

3375 recursively. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: the 'prems' argument of simprocs

3376 is gone -- use prems_of_ss on the simpset instead. Moreover, the

3377 low-level mk_simproc no longer applies Logic.varify internally, to

3378 allow for use in a context of fixed variables.

3380 * thin_tac now works even if the assumption being deleted contains !!

3381 or ==>. More generally, erule now works even if the major premise of

3382 the elimination rule contains !! or ==>.

3384 * Method 'rules' has been renamed to 'iprover'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3386 * Reorganized bootstrapping of the Pure theories; CPure is now derived

3387 from Pure, which contains all common declarations already. Both

3388 theories are defined via plain Isabelle/Isar .thy files.

3389 INCOMPATIBILITY: elements of CPure (such as the CPure.intro /

3390 CPure.elim / CPure.dest attributes) now appear in the Pure name space;

3391 use isatool fixcpure to adapt your theory and ML sources.

3393 * New syntax 'name(i-j, i-, i, ...)' for referring to specific

3394 selections of theorems in named facts via index ranges.

3396 * 'print_theorems': in theory mode, really print the difference

3397 wrt. the last state (works for interactive theory development only),

3398 in proof mode print all local facts (cf. 'print_facts');

3400 * 'hide': option '(open)' hides only base names.

3402 * More efficient treatment of intermediate checkpoints in interactive

3403 theory development.

3405 * Code generator is now invoked via code_module (incremental code

3406 generation) and code_library (modular code generation, ML structures

3407 for each theory). INCOMPATIBILITY: new keywords 'file' and 'contains'

3408 must be quoted when used as identifiers.

3410 * New 'value' command for reading, evaluating and printing terms using

3411 the code generator. INCOMPATIBILITY: command keyword 'value' must be

3412 quoted when used as identifier.

3415 *** Locales ***

3417 * New commands for the interpretation of locale expressions in

3418 theories (1), locales (2) and proof contexts (3). These generate

3419 proof obligations from the expression specification. After the

3420 obligations have been discharged, theorems of the expression are added

3421 to the theory, target locale or proof context. The synopsis of the

3422 commands is a follows:

3424 (1) interpretation expr inst

3425 (2) interpretation target < expr

3426 (3) interpret expr inst

3428 Interpretation in theories and proof contexts require a parameter

3429 instantiation of terms from the current context. This is applied to

3430 specifications and theorems of the interpreted expression.

3431 Interpretation in locales only permits parameter renaming through the

3432 locale expression. Interpretation is smart in that interpretations

3433 that are active already do not occur in proof obligations, neither are

3434 instantiated theorems stored in duplicate. Use 'print_interps' to

3435 inspect active interpretations of a particular locale. For details,

3436 see the Isar Reference manual. Examples can be found in

3437 HOL/Finite_Set.thy and HOL/Algebra/UnivPoly.thy.

3439 INCOMPATIBILITY: former 'instantiate' has been withdrawn, use

3440 'interpret' instead.

3442 * New context element 'constrains' for adding type constraints to

3443 parameters.

3445 * Context expressions: renaming of parameters with syntax

3446 redeclaration.

3448 * Locale declaration: 'includes' disallowed.

3450 * Proper static binding of attribute syntax -- i.e. types / terms /

3451 facts mentioned as arguments are always those of the locale definition

3452 context, independently of the context of later invocations. Moreover,

3453 locale operations (renaming and type / term instantiation) are applied

3454 to attribute arguments as expected.

3456 INCOMPATIBILITY of the ML interface: always pass Attrib.src instead of

3457 actual attributes; rare situations may require Attrib.attribute to

3458 embed those attributes into Attrib.src that lack concrete syntax.

3459 Attribute implementations need to cooperate properly with the static

3460 binding mechanism. Basic parsers Args.XXX_typ/term/prop and

3461 Attrib.XXX_thm etc. already do the right thing without further

3462 intervention. Only unusual applications -- such as "where" or "of"

3463 (cf. src/Pure/Isar/attrib.ML), which process arguments depending both

3464 on the context and the facts involved -- may have to assign parsed

3465 values to argument tokens explicitly.

3467 * Changed parameter management in theorem generation for long goal

3468 statements with 'includes'. INCOMPATIBILITY: produces a different

3469 theorem statement in rare situations.

3471 * Locale inspection command 'print_locale' omits notes elements. Use

3472 'print_locale!' to have them included in the output.

3475 *** Provers ***

3477 * Provers/hypsubst.ML: improved version of the subst method, for

3478 single-step rewriting: it now works in bound variable contexts. New is

3479 'subst (asm)', for rewriting an assumption. INCOMPATIBILITY: may

3480 rewrite a different subterm than the original subst method, which is

3481 still available as 'simplesubst'.

3483 * Provers/quasi.ML: new transitivity reasoners for transitivity only

3484 and quasi orders.

3486 * Provers/trancl.ML: new transitivity reasoner for transitive and

3487 reflexive-transitive closure of relations.

3489 * Provers/blast.ML: new reference depth_limit to make blast's depth

3490 limit (previously hard-coded with a value of 20) user-definable.

3492 * Provers/simplifier.ML has been moved to Pure, where Simplifier.setup

3493 is peformed already. Object-logics merely need to finish their

3494 initial simpset configuration as before. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3497 *** HOL ***

3499 * Symbolic syntax of Hilbert Choice Operator is now as follows:

3501 syntax (epsilon)

3502 "_Eps" :: "[pttrn, bool] => 'a" ("(3\<some>_./ _)" [0, 10] 10)

3504 The symbol \<some> is displayed as the alternative epsilon of LaTeX

3505 and x-symbol; use option '-m epsilon' to get it actually printed.

3506 Moreover, the mathematically important symbolic identifier \<epsilon>

3507 becomes available as variable, constant etc. INCOMPATIBILITY,

3509 * "x > y" abbreviates "y < x" and "x >= y" abbreviates "y <= x".

3510 Similarly for all quantifiers: "ALL x > y" etc. The x-symbol for >=

3511 is \<ge>. New transitivity rules have been added to HOL/Orderings.thy to

3512 support corresponding Isar calculations.

3514 * "{x:A. P}" abbreviates "{x. x:A & P}", and similarly for "\<in>"

3515 instead of ":".

3517 * theory SetInterval: changed the syntax for open intervals:

3519 Old New

3520 {..n(} {..<n}

3521 {)n..} {n<..}

3522 {m..n(} {m..<n}

3523 {)m..n} {m<..n}

3524 {)m..n(} {m<..<n}

3526 The old syntax is still supported but will disappear in the next

3527 release. For conversion use the following Emacs search and replace

3528 patterns (these are not perfect but work quite well):

3530 {)\([^\.]*\)\.\. -> {\1<\.\.}

3531 \.\.\([^(}]*\)(} -> \.\.<\1}

3533 * Theory Commutative_Ring (in Library): method comm_ring for proving

3534 equalities in commutative rings; method 'algebra' provides a generic

3535 interface.

3537 * Theory Finite_Set: changed the syntax for 'setsum', summation over

3538 finite sets: "setsum (%x. e) A", which used to be "\<Sum>x:A. e", is

3539 now either "SUM x:A. e" or "\<Sum>x \<in> A. e". The bound variable can

3540 be a tuple pattern.

3542 Some new syntax forms are available:

3544 "\<Sum>x | P. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {x. P}"

3545 "\<Sum>x = a..b. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {a..b}"

3546 "\<Sum>x = a..<b. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {a..<b}"

3547 "\<Sum>x < k. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {..<k}"

3549 The latter form "\<Sum>x < k. e" used to be based on a separate

3550 function "Summation", which has been discontinued.

3552 * theory Finite_Set: in structured induction proofs, the insert case

3553 is now 'case (insert x F)' instead of the old counterintuitive 'case

3554 (insert F x)'.

3556 * The 'refute' command has been extended to support a much larger

3557 fragment of HOL, including axiomatic type classes, constdefs and

3558 typedefs, inductive datatypes and recursion.

3560 * New tactics 'sat' and 'satx' to prove propositional tautologies.

3561 Requires zChaff with proof generation to be installed. See

3562 HOL/ex/SAT_Examples.thy for examples.

3564 * Datatype induction via method 'induct' now preserves the name of the

3565 induction variable. For example, when proving P(xs::'a list) by

3566 induction on xs, the induction step is now P(xs) ==> P(a#xs) rather

3567 than P(list) ==> P(a#list) as previously. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY

3568 in unstructured proof scripts.

3570 * Reworked implementation of records. Improved scalability for

3571 records with many fields, avoiding performance problems for type

3572 inference. Records are no longer composed of nested field types, but

3573 of nested extension types. Therefore the record type only grows linear

3574 in the number of extensions and not in the number of fields. The

3575 top-level (users) view on records is preserved. Potential

3576 INCOMPATIBILITY only in strange cases, where the theory depends on the

3577 old record representation. The type generated for a record is called

3578 <record_name>_ext_type.

3580 Flag record_quick_and_dirty_sensitive can be enabled to skip the

3581 proofs triggered by a record definition or a simproc (if

3582 quick_and_dirty is enabled). Definitions of large records can take

3583 quite long.

3585 New simproc record_upd_simproc for simplification of multiple record

3586 updates enabled by default. Moreover, trivial updates are also

3587 removed: r(|x := x r|) = r. INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break

3588 occasionally, since simplification is more powerful by default.

3590 * typedef: proper support for polymorphic sets, which contain extra

3591 type-variables in the term.

3593 * Simplifier: automatically reasons about transitivity chains

3594 involving "trancl" (r^+) and "rtrancl" (r^*) by setting up tactics

3595 provided by Provers/trancl.ML as additional solvers. INCOMPATIBILITY:

3596 old proofs break occasionally as simplification may now solve more

3597 goals than previously.

3599 * Simplifier: converts x <= y into x = y if assumption y <= x is

3600 present. Works for all partial orders (class "order"), in particular

3601 numbers and sets. For linear orders (e.g. numbers) it treats ~ x < y

3602 just like y <= x.

3604 * Simplifier: new simproc for "let x = a in f x". If a is a free or

3605 bound variable or a constant then the let is unfolded. Otherwise

3606 first a is simplified to b, and then f b is simplified to g. If

3607 possible we abstract b from g arriving at "let x = b in h x",

3608 otherwise we unfold the let and arrive at g. The simproc can be

3609 enabled/disabled by the reference use_let_simproc. Potential

3610 INCOMPATIBILITY since simplification is more powerful by default.

3612 * Classical reasoning: the meson method now accepts theorems as arguments.

3614 * Prover support: pre-release of the Isabelle-ATP linkup, which runs background

3615 jobs to provide advice on the provability of subgoals.

3617 * Theory OrderedGroup and Ring_and_Field: various additions and

3618 improvements to faciliate calculations involving equalities and

3619 inequalities.

3621 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

3622 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

3624 abs_eq now named abs_of_nonneg

3625 abs_of_ge_0 now named abs_of_nonneg

3626 abs_minus_eq now named abs_of_nonpos

3627 imp_abs_id now named abs_of_nonneg

3628 imp_abs_neg_id now named abs_of_nonpos

3629 mult_pos now named mult_pos_pos

3630 mult_pos_le now named mult_nonneg_nonneg

3631 mult_pos_neg_le now named mult_nonneg_nonpos

3632 mult_pos_neg2_le now named mult_nonneg_nonpos2

3633 mult_neg now named mult_neg_neg

3634 mult_neg_le now named mult_nonpos_nonpos

3636 * The following lemmas in Ring_and_Field have been added to the simplifier:

3638 zero_le_square

3639 not_square_less_zero

3641 The following lemmas have been deleted from Real/RealPow:

3643 realpow_zero_zero

3644 realpow_two

3645 realpow_less

3646 zero_le_power

3647 realpow_two_le

3648 abs_realpow_two

3649 realpow_two_abs

3651 * Theory Parity: added rules for simplifying exponents.

3653 * Theory List:

3655 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

3656 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

3658 list_all_Nil now named list_all.simps(1)

3659 list_all_Cons now named list_all.simps(2)

3660 list_all_conv now named list_all_iff

3661 set_mem_eq now named mem_iff

3663 * Theories SetsAndFunctions and BigO (see HOL/Library) support

3664 asymptotic "big O" calculations. See the notes in BigO.thy.

3667 *** HOL-Complex ***

3669 * Theory RealDef: better support for embedding natural numbers and

3670 integers in the reals.

3672 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

3673 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

3675 exp_ge_add_one_self now requires no hypotheses

3676 real_of_int_add reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

3677 real_of_int_minus reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

3678 real_of_int_diff reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

3679 real_of_int_mult reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

3681 * Theory RComplete: expanded support for floor and ceiling functions.

3683 * Theory Ln is new, with properties of the natural logarithm

3685 * Hyperreal: There is a new type constructor "star" for making

3686 nonstandard types. The old type names are now type synonyms:

3688 hypreal = real star

3689 hypnat = nat star

3690 hcomplex = complex star

3692 * Hyperreal: Many groups of similarly-defined constants have been

3693 replaced by polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):

3695 star_of <-- hypreal_of_real, hypnat_of_nat, hcomplex_of_complex

3697 starset <-- starsetNat, starsetC

3698 *s* <-- *sNat*, *sc*

3699 starset_n <-- starsetNat_n, starsetC_n

3700 *sn* <-- *sNatn*, *scn*

3701 InternalSets <-- InternalNatSets, InternalCSets

3703 starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

3704 *f* <-- *fNat*, *fNat2*, *fc*, *fRc*, *fcR*

3705 starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n

3706 *fn* <-- *fNatn*, *fNat2n*, *fcn*, *fRcn*, *fcRn*

3707 InternalFuns <-- InternalNatFuns, InternalNatFuns2, Internal{C,RC,CR}Funs

3709 * Hyperreal: Many type-specific theorems have been removed in favor of

3710 theorems specific to various axiomatic type classes (INCOMPATIBILITY):

3712 add_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_commute

3713 add_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_assocs

3714 OrderedGroup.add_0 <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_zero_left

3715 OrderedGroup.add_0_right <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_zero_right

3716 right_minus <-- hypreal_add_minus

3717 left_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_minus_left

3718 mult_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_commute

3719 mult_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_assoc

3720 mult_1_left <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_1, hcomplex_mult_one_left

3721 mult_1_right <-- hcomplex_mult_one_right

3722 mult_zero_left <-- hcomplex_mult_zero_left

3723 left_distrib <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_mult_distrib

3724 right_distrib <-- hypnat_add_mult_distrib2

3725 zero_neq_one <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_not_eq_one

3726 right_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse

3727 left_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse_left, hcomplex_mult_inv_left

3728 order_refl <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_refl

3729 order_trans <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_trans

3730 order_antisym <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_anti_sym

3731 order_less_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less_le

3732 linorder_linear <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_linear

3733 add_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_add_left_mono

3734 mult_strict_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_less_mono2

3735 add_nonneg_nonneg <-- hypreal_le_add_order

3737 * Hyperreal: Separate theorems having to do with type-specific

3738 versions of constants have been merged into theorems that apply to the

3739 new polymorphic constants (INCOMPATIBILITY):

3741 STAR_UNIV_set <-- {STAR_real,NatStar_real,STARC_complex}_set

3742 STAR_empty_set <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_empty_set

3743 STAR_Un <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Un

3744 STAR_Int <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Int

3745 STAR_Compl <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Compl

3746 STAR_subset <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_subset

3747 STAR_mem <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_mem

3748 STAR_mem_Compl <-- {STAR,STARC}_mem_Compl

3749 STAR_diff <-- {STAR,STARC}_diff

3750 STAR_star_of_image_subset <-- {STAR_hypreal_of_real, NatStar_hypreal_of_real,

3751 STARC_hcomplex_of_complex}_image_subset

3752 starset_n_Un <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Un

3753 starset_n_Int <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Int

3754 starset_n_Compl <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Compl

3755 starset_n_diff <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_diff

3756 InternalSets_Un <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Un

3757 InternalSets_Int <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Int

3758 InternalSets_Compl <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Compl

3759 InternalSets_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_diff

3760 InternalSets_UNIV_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_UNIV_diff

3761 InternalSets_starset_n <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_starset{Nat,C}_n

3762 starset_starset_n_eq <-- starset{Nat,C}_starset{Nat,C}_n_eq

3763 starset_n_starset <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_starset{Nat,C}

3764 starfun_n_starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n_starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

3765 starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

3766 starfun_mult <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_mult

3767 starfun_add <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_add

3768 starfun_minus <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_minus

3769 starfun_diff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_diff

3770 starfun_o <-- starfun{NatNat2,Nat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o

3771 starfun_o2 <-- starfun{NatNat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o2

3772 starfun_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_const_fun

3773 starfun_inverse <-- starfun{Nat,C,RC,CR}_inverse

3774 starfun_eq <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_eq

3775 starfun_eq_iff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_eq_iff

3776 starfun_Id <-- starfunC_Id

3777 starfun_approx <-- starfun{Nat,CR}_approx

3778 starfun_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_capprox

3779 starfun_abs <-- starfunNat_rabs

3780 starfun_lambda_cancel <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel

3781 starfun_lambda_cancel2 <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel2

3782 starfun_mult_HFinite_approx <-- starfunCR_mult_HFinite_capprox

3783 starfun_mult_CFinite_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_mult_CFinite_capprox

3784 starfun_add_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_add_capprox

3785 starfun_add_approx <-- starfunCR_add_approx

3786 starfun_inverse_inverse <-- starfunC_inverse_inverse

3787 starfun_divide <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_divide

3788 starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n

3789 starfun_n_mult <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_mult

3790 starfun_n_add <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_add

3791 starfun_n_add_minus <-- starfunNat_n_add_minus

3792 starfun_n_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_const_fun

3793 starfun_n_minus <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_minus

3794 starfun_n_eq <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_eq

3796 star_n_add <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add

3797 star_n_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_minus

3798 star_n_diff <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_diff

3799 star_n_mult <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_mult

3800 star_n_inverse <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_inverse

3801 star_n_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le

3802 star_n_less <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less

3803 star_n_zero_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_num

3804 star_n_one_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_one_num

3805 star_n_abs <-- hypreal_hrabs

3806 star_n_divide <-- hcomplex_divide

3808 star_of_add <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_add

3809 star_of_minus <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_minus

3810 star_of_diff <-- hypreal_of_real_diff

3811 star_of_mult <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_mult

3812 star_of_one <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_one

3813 star_of_zero <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_zero

3814 star_of_le <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_le_iff

3815 star_of_less <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_less_iff

3816 star_of_eq <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_eq_iff

3817 star_of_inverse <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_inverse

3818 star_of_divide <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_divide

3819 star_of_of_nat <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_nat

3820 star_of_of_int <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_int

3821 star_of_number_of <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_number_of

3822 star_of_number_less <-- number_of_less_hypreal_of_real_iff

3823 star_of_number_le <-- number_of_le_hypreal_of_real_iff

3824 star_of_eq_number <-- hypreal_of_real_eq_number_of_iff

3825 star_of_less_number <-- hypreal_of_real_less_number_of_iff

3826 star_of_le_number <-- hypreal_of_real_le_number_of_iff

3827 star_of_power <-- hypreal_of_real_power

3828 star_of_eq_0 <-- hcomplex_of_complex_zero_iff

3830 * Hyperreal: new method "transfer" that implements the transfer

3831 principle of nonstandard analysis. With a subgoal that mentions

3832 nonstandard types like "'a star", the command "apply transfer"

3833 replaces it with an equivalent one that mentions only standard types.

3834 To be successful, all free variables must have standard types; non-

3835 standard variables must have explicit universal quantifiers.

3837 * Hyperreal: A theory of Taylor series.

3840 *** HOLCF ***

3842 * Discontinued special version of 'constdefs' (which used to support

3843 continuous functions) in favor of the general Pure one with full

3844 type-inference.

3846 * New simplification procedure for solving continuity conditions; it

3847 is much faster on terms with many nested lambda abstractions (cubic

3848 instead of exponential time).

3850 * New syntax for domain package: selector names are now optional.

3851 Parentheses should be omitted unless argument is lazy, for example:

3853 domain 'a stream = cons "'a" (lazy "'a stream")

3855 * New command 'fixrec' for defining recursive functions with pattern

3856 matching; defining multiple functions with mutual recursion is also

3857 supported. Patterns may include the constants cpair, spair, up, sinl,

3858 sinr, or any data constructor defined by the domain package. The given

3859 equations are proven as rewrite rules. See HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for

3860 syntax and examples.

3862 * New commands 'cpodef' and 'pcpodef' for defining predicate subtypes

3863 of cpo and pcpo types. Syntax is exactly like the 'typedef' command,

3864 but the proof obligation additionally includes an admissibility

3865 requirement. The packages generate instances of class cpo or pcpo,

3866 with continuity and strictness theorems for Rep and Abs.

3868 * HOLCF: Many theorems have been renamed according to a more standard naming

3869 scheme (INCOMPATIBILITY):

3871 foo_inject: "foo$x = foo$y ==> x = y"

3872 foo_eq: "(foo$x = foo$y) = (x = y)"

3873 foo_less: "(foo$x << foo$y) = (x << y)"

3874 foo_strict: "foo$UU = UU"

3875 foo_defined: "... ==> foo$x ~= UU"

3876 foo_defined_iff: "(foo$x = UU) = (x = UU)"

3879 *** ZF ***

3881 * ZF/ex: theories Group and Ring provide examples in abstract algebra,

3882 including the First Isomorphism Theorem (on quotienting by the kernel

3883 of a homomorphism).

3885 * ZF/Simplifier: install second copy of type solver that actually

3886 makes use of TC rules declared to Isar proof contexts (or locales);

3887 the old version is still required for ML proof scripts.

3890 *** Cube ***

3892 * Converted to Isar theory format; use locales instead of axiomatic

3893 theories.

3896 *** ML ***

3898 * Pure/library.ML: added ##>, ##>>, #>> -- higher-order counterparts

3899 for ||>, ||>>, |>>,

3901 * Pure/library.ML no longer defines its own option datatype, but uses

3902 that of the SML basis, which has constructors NONE and SOME instead of

3903 None and Some, as well as exception Option.Option instead of OPTION.

3904 The functions the, if_none, is_some, is_none have been adapted

3905 accordingly, while Option.map replaces apsome.

3907 * Pure/library.ML: the exception LIST has been given up in favour of

3908 the standard exceptions Empty and Subscript, as well as

3909 Library.UnequalLengths. Function like Library.hd and Library.tl are

3910 superceded by the standard hd and tl functions etc.

3912 A number of basic list functions are no longer exported to the ML

3913 toplevel, as they are variants of predefined functions. The following

3914 suggests how one can translate existing code:

3916 rev_append xs ys = List.revAppend (xs, ys)

3917 nth_elem (i, xs) = List.nth (xs, i)

3918 last_elem xs = List.last xs

3919 flat xss = List.concat xss

3920 seq fs = List.app fs

3921 partition P xs = List.partition P xs

3922 mapfilter f xs = List.mapPartial f xs

3924 * Pure/library.ML: several combinators for linear functional

3925 transformations, notably reverse application and composition:

3927 x |> f f #> g

3928 (x, y) |-> f f #-> g

3930 * Pure/library.ML: introduced/changed precedence of infix operators:

3932 infix 1 |> |-> ||> ||>> |>> |>>> #> #->;

3933 infix 2 ?;

3934 infix 3 o oo ooo oooo;

3935 infix 4 ~~ upto downto;

3937 Maybe INCOMPATIBILITY when any of those is used in conjunction with other

3938 infix operators.

3940 * Pure/library.ML: natural list combinators fold, fold_rev, and

3941 fold_map support linear functional transformations and nesting. For

3942 example:

3944 fold f [x1, ..., xN] y =

3945 y |> f x1 |> ... |> f xN

3947 (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] y =

3948 y |> fold f xs1 |> ... |> fold f xsN

3950 fold f [x1, ..., xN] =

3951 f x1 #> ... #> f xN

3953 (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] =

3954 fold f xs1 #> ... #> fold f xsN

3956 * Pure/library.ML: the following selectors on type 'a option are

3957 available:

3959 the: 'a option -> 'a (*partial*)

3960 these: 'a option -> 'a where 'a = 'b list

3961 the_default: 'a -> 'a option -> 'a

3962 the_list: 'a option -> 'a list

3964 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides

3965 basic operations for association lists, following natural argument

3966 order; moreover the explicit equality predicate passed here avoids

3967 potentially expensive polymorphic runtime equality checks.

3968 The old functions may be expressed as follows:

3970 assoc = uncurry (AList.lookup (op =))

3971 assocs = these oo AList.lookup (op =)

3972 overwrite = uncurry (AList.update (op =)) o swap

3974 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides

3976 val make: ('a -> 'b) -> 'a list -> ('a * 'b) list

3977 val find: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> ('c * 'b) list -> 'a -> 'c list

3979 replacing make_keylist and keyfilter (occassionally used)

3980 Naive rewrites:

3982 make_keylist = AList.make

3983 keyfilter = AList.find (op =)

3985 * eq_fst and eq_snd now take explicit equality parameter, thus

3986 avoiding eqtypes. Naive rewrites:

3988 eq_fst = eq_fst (op =)

3989 eq_snd = eq_snd (op =)

3991 * Removed deprecated apl and apr (rarely used).

3992 Naive rewrites:

3994 apl (n, op) =>>= curry op n

3995 apr (op, m) =>>= fn n => op (n, m)

3997 * Pure/General: structure OrdList (cf. Pure/General/ord_list.ML)

3998 provides a reasonably efficient light-weight implementation of sets as

3999 lists.

4001 * Pure/General: generic tables (cf. Pure/General/table.ML) provide a

4002 few new operations; existing lookup and update are now curried to

4003 follow natural argument order (for use with fold etc.);

4004 INCOMPATIBILITY, use (uncurry Symtab.lookup) etc. as last resort.

4006 * Pure/General: output via the Isabelle channels of

4007 writeln/warning/error etc. is now passed through Output.output, with a

4008 hook for arbitrary transformations depending on the print_mode

4009 (cf. Output.add_mode -- the first active mode that provides a output

4010 function wins). Already formatted output may be embedded into further

4011 text via Output.raw; the result of Pretty.string_of/str_of and derived

4012 functions (string_of_term/cterm/thm etc.) is already marked raw to

4013 accommodate easy composition of diagnostic messages etc. Programmers

4014 rarely need to care about Output.output or Output.raw at all, with

4015 some notable exceptions: Output.output is required when bypassing the

4016 standard channels (writeln etc.), or in token translations to produce

4017 properly formatted results; Output.raw is required when capturing

4018 already output material that will eventually be presented to the user

4019 a second time. For the default print mode, both Output.output and

4020 Output.raw have no effect.

4022 * Pure/General: Output.time_accumulator NAME creates an operator ('a

4023 -> 'b) -> 'a -> 'b to measure runtime and count invocations; the

4024 cumulative results are displayed at the end of a batch session.

4026 * Pure/General: File.sysify_path and File.quote_sysify path have been

4027 replaced by File.platform_path and File.shell_path (with appropriate

4028 hooks). This provides a clean interface for unusual systems where the

4029 internal and external process view of file names are different.

4031 * Pure: more efficient orders for basic syntactic entities: added

4032 fast_string_ord, fast_indexname_ord, fast_term_ord; changed sort_ord

4033 and typ_ord to use fast_string_ord and fast_indexname_ord (term_ord is

4034 NOT affected); structures Symtab, Vartab, Typtab, Termtab use the fast

4035 orders now -- potential INCOMPATIBILITY for code that depends on a

4036 particular order for Symtab.keys, Symtab.dest, etc. (consider using

4037 Library.sort_strings on result).

4039 * Pure/term.ML: combinators fold_atyps, fold_aterms, fold_term_types,

4040 fold_types traverse types/terms from left to right, observing natural

4041 argument order. Supercedes previous foldl_XXX versions, add_frees,

4042 add_vars etc. have been adapted as well: INCOMPATIBILITY.

4044 * Pure: name spaces have been refined, with significant changes of the

4045 internal interfaces -- INCOMPATIBILITY. Renamed cond_extern(_table)

4046 to extern(_table). The plain name entry path is superceded by a

4047 general 'naming' context, which also includes the 'policy' to produce

4048 a fully qualified name and external accesses of a fully qualified

4049 name; NameSpace.extend is superceded by context dependent

4050 Sign.declare_name. Several theory and proof context operations modify

4051 the naming context. Especially note Theory.restore_naming and

4052 ProofContext.restore_naming to get back to a sane state; note that

4053 Theory.add_path is no longer sufficient to recover from

4054 Theory.absolute_path in particular.

4056 * Pure: new flags short_names (default false) and unique_names

4057 (default true) for controlling output of qualified names. If

4058 short_names is set, names are printed unqualified. If unique_names is

4059 reset, the name prefix is reduced to the minimum required to achieve

4060 the original result when interning again, even if there is an overlap

4061 with earlier declarations.

4063 * Pure/TheoryDataFun: change of the argument structure; 'prep_ext' is

4064 now 'extend', and 'merge' gets an additional Pretty.pp argument

4065 (useful for printing error messages). INCOMPATIBILITY.

4067 * Pure: major reorganization of the theory context. Type Sign.sg and

4068 Theory.theory are now identified, referring to the universal

4069 Context.theory (see Pure/context.ML). Actual signature and theory

4070 content is managed as theory data. The old code and interfaces were

4071 spread over many files and structures; the new arrangement introduces

4072 considerable INCOMPATIBILITY to gain more clarity:

4074 Context -- theory management operations (name, identity, inclusion,

4075 parents, ancestors, merge, etc.), plus generic theory data;

4077 Sign -- logical signature and syntax operations (declaring consts,

4078 types, etc.), plus certify/read for common entities;

4080 Theory -- logical theory operations (stating axioms, definitions,

4081 oracles), plus a copy of logical signature operations (consts,

4082 types, etc.); also a few basic management operations (Theory.copy,

4083 Theory.merge, etc.)

4085 The most basic sign_of operations (Theory.sign_of, Thm.sign_of_thm

4086 etc.) as well as the sign field in Thm.rep_thm etc. have been retained

4087 for convenience -- they merely return the theory.

4089 * Pure: type Type.tsig is superceded by theory in most interfaces.

4091 * Pure: the Isar proof context type is already defined early in Pure

4092 as Context.proof (note that ProofContext.context and Proof.context are

4093 aliases, where the latter is the preferred name). This enables other

4094 Isabelle components to refer to that type even before Isar is present.

4096 * Pure/sign/theory: discontinued named name spaces (i.e. classK,

4097 typeK, constK, axiomK, oracleK), but provide explicit operations for

4098 any of these kinds. For example, Sign.intern typeK is now

4099 Sign.intern_type, Theory.hide_space Sign.typeK is now

4100 Theory.hide_types. Also note that former

4101 Theory.hide_classes/types/consts are now

4102 Theory.hide_classes_i/types_i/consts_i, while the non '_i' versions

4103 internalize their arguments! INCOMPATIBILITY.

4105 * Pure: get_thm interface (of PureThy and ProofContext) expects

4106 datatype thmref (with constructors Name and NameSelection) instead of

4107 plain string -- INCOMPATIBILITY;

4109 * Pure: cases produced by proof methods specify options, where NONE

4110 means to remove case bindings -- INCOMPATIBILITY in

4111 (RAW_)METHOD_CASES.

4113 * Pure: the following operations retrieve axioms or theorems from a

4114 theory node or theory hierarchy, respectively:

4116 Theory.axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list

4117 Theory.all_axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list

4118 PureThy.thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list

4119 PureThy.all_thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list

4121 * Pure: print_tac now outputs the goal through the trace channel.

4123 * Isar toplevel: improved diagnostics, mostly for Poly/ML only.

4124 Reference Toplevel.debug (default false) controls detailed printing

4125 and tracing of low-level exceptions; Toplevel.profiling (default 0)

4126 controls execution profiling -- set to 1 for time and 2 for space

4127 (both increase the runtime).

4129 * Isar session: The initial use of ROOT.ML is now always timed,

4130 i.e. the log will show the actual process times, in contrast to the

4131 elapsed wall-clock time that the outer shell wrapper produces.

4133 * Simplifier: improved handling of bound variables (nameless

4134 representation, avoid allocating new strings). Simprocs that invoke

4135 the Simplifier recursively should use Simplifier.inherit_bounds to

4136 avoid local name clashes. Failure to do so produces warnings

4137 "Simplifier: renamed bound variable ..."; set Simplifier.debug_bounds

4138 for further details.

4140 * ML functions legacy_bindings and use_legacy_bindings produce ML fact

4141 bindings for all theorems stored within a given theory; this may help

4142 in porting non-Isar theories to Isar ones, while keeping ML proof

4143 scripts for the time being.

4145 * ML operator HTML.with_charset specifies the charset begin used for

4146 generated HTML files. For example:

4148 HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Hebrew";

4149 HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Chinese";

4152 *** System ***

4154 * Allow symlinks to all proper Isabelle executables (Isabelle,

4155 isabelle, isatool etc.).

4157 * ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT setting specifies preferred document format (for

4158 isatool doc, isatool mkdir, display_drafts etc.).

4160 * isatool usedir: option -f allows specification of the ML file to be

4161 used by Isabelle; default is ROOT.ML.

4163 * New isatool version outputs the version identifier of the Isabelle

4164 distribution being used.

4166 * HOL: new isatool dimacs2hol converts files in DIMACS CNF format

4167 (containing Boolean satisfiability problems) into Isabelle/HOL

4168 theories.

4172 New in Isabelle2004 (April 2004)

4173 --------------------------------

4175 *** General ***

4177 * Provers/order.ML: new efficient reasoner for partial and linear orders.

4178 Replaces linorder.ML.

4180 * Pure: Greek letters (except small lambda, \<lambda>), as well as Gothic

4181 (\<aa>...\<zz>\<AA>...\<ZZ>), calligraphic (\<A>...\<Z>), and Euler

4182 (\<a>...\<z>), are now considered normal letters, and can therefore

4183 be used anywhere where an ASCII letter (a...zA...Z) has until

4184 now. COMPATIBILITY: This obviously changes the parsing of some

4185 terms, especially where a symbol has been used as a binder, say

4186 '\<Pi>x. ...', which is now a type error since \<Pi>x will be parsed

4187 as an identifier. Fix it by inserting a space around former

4188 symbols. Call 'isatool fixgreek' to try to fix parsing errors in

4189 existing theory and ML files.

4191 * Pure: Macintosh and Windows line-breaks are now allowed in theory files.

4193 * Pure: single letter sub/superscripts (\<^isub> and \<^isup>) are now

4194 allowed in identifiers. Similar to Greek letters \<^isub> is now considered

4195 a normal (but invisible) letter. For multiple letter subscripts repeat

4196 \<^isub> like this: x\<^isub>1\<^isub>2.

4198 * Pure: There are now sub-/superscripts that can span more than one

4199 character. Text between \<^bsub> and \<^esub> is set in subscript in

4200 ProofGeneral and LaTeX, text between \<^bsup> and \<^esup> in

4201 superscript. The new control characters are not identifier parts.

4203 * Pure: Control-symbols of the form \<^raw:...> will literally print the

4204 content of "..." to the latex file instead of \isacntrl... . The "..."

4205 may consist of any printable characters excluding the end bracket >.

4207 * Pure: Using new Isar command "finalconsts" (or the ML functions

4208 Theory.add_finals or Theory.add_finals_i) it is now possible to

4209 declare constants "final", which prevents their being given a definition

4210 later. It is useful for constants whose behaviour is fixed axiomatically

4211 rather than definitionally, such as the meta-logic connectives.

4213 * Pure: 'instance' now handles general arities with general sorts

4214 (i.e. intersections of classes),

4216 * Presentation: generated HTML now uses a CSS style sheet to make layout

4217 (somewhat) independent of content. It is copied from lib/html/isabelle.css.

4218 It can be changed to alter the colors/layout of generated pages.

4221 *** Isar ***

4223 * Tactic emulation methods rule_tac, erule_tac, drule_tac, frule_tac,

4224 cut_tac, subgoal_tac and thin_tac:

4225 - Now understand static (Isar) contexts. As a consequence, users of Isar

4226 locales are no longer forced to write Isar proof scripts.

4227 For details see Isar Reference Manual, paragraph 4.3.2: Further tactic

4228 emulations.

4229 - INCOMPATIBILITY: names of variables to be instantiated may no

4230 longer be enclosed in quotes. Instead, precede variable name with `?'.

4231 This is consistent with the instantiation attribute "where".

4233 * Attributes "where" and "of":

4234 - Now take type variables of instantiated theorem into account when reading

4235 the instantiation string. This fixes a bug that caused instantiated

4236 theorems to have too special types in some circumstances.

4237 - "where" permits explicit instantiations of type variables.

4239 * Calculation commands "moreover" and "also" no longer interfere with

4240 current facts ("this"), admitting arbitrary combinations with "then"

4241 and derived forms.

4243 * Locales:

4244 - Goal statements involving the context element "includes" no longer

4245 generate theorems with internal delta predicates (those ending on

4246 "_axioms") in the premise.

4247 Resolve particular premise with <locale>.intro to obtain old form.

4248 - Fixed bug in type inference ("unify_frozen") that prevented mix of target

4249 specification and "includes" elements in goal statement.

4250 - Rule sets <locale>.intro and <locale>.axioms no longer declared as

4251 [intro?] and [elim?] (respectively) by default.

4252 - Experimental command for instantiation of locales in proof contexts:

4253 instantiate <label>[<attrs>]: <loc>

4254 Instantiates locale <loc> and adds all its theorems to the current context

4255 taking into account their attributes. Label and attrs are optional

4256 modifiers, like in theorem declarations. If present, names of

4257 instantiated theorems are qualified with <label>, and the attributes

4258 <attrs> are applied after any attributes these theorems might have already.

4259 If the locale has assumptions, a chained fact of the form

4260 "<loc> t1 ... tn" is expected from which instantiations of the parameters

4261 are derived. The command does not support old-style locales declared

4262 with "locale (open)".

4263 A few (very simple) examples can be found in FOL/ex/LocaleInst.thy.

4265 * HOL: Tactic emulation methods induct_tac and case_tac understand static

4266 (Isar) contexts.

4269 *** HOL ***

4271 * Proof import: new image HOL4 contains the imported library from

4272 the HOL4 system with about 2500 theorems. It is imported by

4273 replaying proof terms produced by HOL4 in Isabelle. The HOL4 image

4274 can be used like any other Isabelle image. See

4275 HOL/Import/HOL/README for more information.

4277 * Simplifier:

4278 - Much improved handling of linear and partial orders.

4279 Reasoners for linear and partial orders are set up for type classes

4280 "linorder" and "order" respectively, and are added to the default simpset

4281 as solvers. This means that the simplifier can build transitivity chains

4282 to solve goals from the assumptions.

4283 - INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break occasionally. Typically, applications

4284 of blast or auto after simplification become unnecessary because the goal

4285 is solved by simplification already.

4287 * Numerics: new theory Ring_and_Field contains over 250 basic numerical laws,

4288 all proved in axiomatic type classes for semirings, rings and fields.

4290 * Numerics:

4291 - Numeric types (nat, int, and in HOL-Complex rat, real, complex, etc.) are

4292 now formalized using the Ring_and_Field theory mentioned above.

4293 - INCOMPATIBILITY: simplification and arithmetic behaves somewhat differently

4294 than before, because now they are set up once in a generic manner.

4295 - INCOMPATIBILITY: many type-specific arithmetic laws have gone.

4296 Look for the general versions in Ring_and_Field (and Power if they concern

4297 exponentiation).

4299 * Type "rat" of the rational numbers is now available in HOL-Complex.

4301 * Records:

4302 - Record types are now by default printed with their type abbreviation

4303 instead of the list of all field types. This can be configured via

4304 the reference "print_record_type_abbr".

4305 - Simproc "record_upd_simproc" for simplification of multiple updates added

4306 (not enabled by default).

4307 - Simproc "record_ex_sel_eq_simproc" to simplify EX x. sel r = x resp.

4308 EX x. x = sel r to True (not enabled by default).

4309 - Tactic "record_split_simp_tac" to split and simplify records added.

4311 * 'specification' command added, allowing for definition by

4312 specification. There is also an 'ax_specification' command that

4313 introduces the new constants axiomatically.

4315 * arith(_tac) is now able to generate counterexamples for reals as well.

4317 * HOL-Algebra: new locale "ring" for non-commutative rings.

4319 * HOL-ex: InductiveInvariant_examples illustrates advanced recursive function

4320 definitions, thanks to Sava Krsti\'{c} and John Matthews.

4322 * HOL-Matrix: a first theory for matrices in HOL with an application of

4323 matrix theory to linear programming.

4325 * Unions and Intersections:

4326 The latex output syntax of UN and INT has been changed

4327 from "\Union x \in A. B" to "\Union_{x \in A} B"

4328 i.e. the index formulae has become a subscript.

4329 Similarly for "\Union x. B", and for \Inter instead of \Union.

4331 * Unions and Intersections over Intervals:

4332 There is new short syntax "UN i<=n. A" for "UN i:{0..n}. A". There is

4333 also an x-symbol version with subscripts "\<Union>\<^bsub>i <= n\<^esub>. A"

4334 like in normal math, and corresponding versions for < and for intersection.

4336 * HOL/List: Ordering "lexico" is renamed "lenlex" and the standard

4337 lexicographic dictonary ordering has been added as "lexord".

4339 * ML: the legacy theory structures Int and List have been removed. They had

4340 conflicted with ML Basis Library structures having the same names.

4342 * 'refute' command added to search for (finite) countermodels. Only works

4343 for a fragment of HOL. The installation of an external SAT solver is

4344 highly recommended. See "HOL/Refute.thy" for details.

4346 * 'quickcheck' command: Allows to find counterexamples by evaluating

4347 formulae under an assignment of free variables to random values.

4348 In contrast to 'refute', it can deal with inductive datatypes,

4349 but cannot handle quantifiers. See "HOL/ex/Quickcheck_Examples.thy"

4350 for examples.

4353 *** HOLCF ***

4355 * Streams now come with concatenation and are part of the HOLCF image

4359 New in Isabelle2003 (May 2003)

4360 ------------------------------

4362 *** General ***

4364 * Provers/simplifier:

4366 - Completely reimplemented method simp (ML: Asm_full_simp_tac):

4367 Assumptions are now subject to complete mutual simplification,

4368 not just from left to right. The simplifier now preserves

4369 the order of assumptions.

4371 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:

4373 -- simp sometimes diverges where the old version did

4374 not, e.g. invoking simp on the goal

4376 [| P (f x); y = x; f x = f y |] ==> Q

4378 now gives rise to the infinite reduction sequence

4380 P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> P(f y) --(y = x)--> P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> ...

4382 Using "simp (asm_lr)" (ML: Asm_lr_simp_tac) instead often solves this

4383 kind of problem.

4385 -- Tactics combining classical reasoner and simplification (such as auto)

4386 are also affected by this change, because many of them rely on

4387 simp. They may sometimes diverge as well or yield a different numbers

4388 of subgoals. Try to use e.g. force, fastsimp, or safe instead of auto

4389 in case of problems. Sometimes subsequent calls to the classical

4390 reasoner will fail because a preceeding call to the simplifier too

4391 eagerly simplified the goal, e.g. deleted redundant premises.

4393 - The simplifier trace now shows the names of the applied rewrite rules

4395 - You can limit the number of recursive invocations of the simplifier

4396 during conditional rewriting (where the simplifie tries to solve the

4397 conditions before applying the rewrite rule):

4398 ML "simp_depth_limit := n"

4399 where n is an integer. Thus you can force termination where previously

4400 the simplifier would diverge.

4402 - Accepts free variables as head terms in congruence rules. Useful in Isar.

4404 - No longer aborts on failed congruence proof. Instead, the

4405 congruence is ignored.

4407 * Pure: New generic framework for extracting programs from constructive

4408 proofs. See HOL/Extraction.thy for an example instantiation, as well

4409 as HOL/Extraction for some case studies.

4411 * Pure: The main goal of the proof state is no longer shown by default, only

4412 the subgoals. This behaviour is controlled by a new flag.

4413 PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Settings -> Show Main Goal

4414 (ML: Proof.show_main_goal).

4416 * Pure: You can find all matching introduction rules for subgoal 1, i.e. all

4417 rules whose conclusion matches subgoal 1:

4418 PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Show me -> matching rules

4419 The rules are ordered by how closely they match the subgoal.

4420 In particular, rules that solve a subgoal outright are displayed first

4421 (or rather last, the way they are printed).

4422 (ML: ProofGeneral.print_intros())

4424 * Pure: New flag trace_unify_fail causes unification to print

4425 diagnostic information (PG: in trace buffer) when it fails. This is

4426 useful for figuring out why single step proofs like rule, erule or

4427 assumption failed.

4429 * Pure: Locale specifications now produce predicate definitions

4430 according to the body of text (covering assumptions modulo local

4431 definitions); predicate "loc_axioms" covers newly introduced text,

4432 while "loc" is cumulative wrt. all included locale expressions; the

4433 latter view is presented only on export into the global theory

4434 context; potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use "(open)" option to fall back

4435 on the old view without predicates;

4437 * Pure: predefined locales "var" and "struct" are useful for sharing

4438 parameters (as in CASL, for example); just specify something like

4439 ``var x + var y + struct M'' as import;

4441 * Pure: improved thms_containing: proper indexing of facts instead of

4442 raw theorems; check validity of results wrt. current name space;

4443 include local facts of proof configuration (also covers active

4444 locales), cover fixed variables in index; may use "_" in term

4445 specification; an optional limit for the number of printed facts may

4446 be given (the default is 40);

4448 * Pure: disallow duplicate fact bindings within new-style theory files

4449 (batch-mode only);

4451 * Provers: improved induct method: assumptions introduced by case

4452 "foo" are split into "foo.hyps" (from the rule) and "foo.prems" (from

4453 the goal statement); "foo" still refers to all facts collectively;

4455 * Provers: the function blast.overloaded has been removed: all constants

4456 are regarded as potentially overloaded, which improves robustness in exchange

4457 for slight decrease in efficiency;

4459 * Provers/linorder: New generic prover for transitivity reasoning over

4460 linear orders. Note: this prover is not efficient!

4462 * Isar: preview of problems to finish 'show' now produce an error

4463 rather than just a warning (in interactive mode);

4466 *** HOL ***

4468 * arith(_tac)

4470 - Produces a counter example if it cannot prove a goal.

4471 Note that the counter example may be spurious if the goal is not a formula

4472 of quantifier-free linear arithmetic.

4473 In ProofGeneral the counter example appears in the trace buffer.

4475 - Knows about div k and mod k where k is a numeral of type nat or int.

4477 - Calls full Presburger arithmetic (by Amine Chaieb) if quantifier-free

4478 linear arithmetic fails. This takes account of quantifiers and divisibility.

4479 Presburger arithmetic can also be called explicitly via presburger(_tac).

4481 * simp's arithmetic capabilities have been enhanced a bit: it now

4482 takes ~= in premises into account (by performing a case split);

4484 * simp reduces "m*(n div m) + n mod m" to n, even if the two summands

4485 are distributed over a sum of terms;

4487 * New tactic "trans_tac" and method "trans" instantiate

4488 Provers/linorder.ML for axclasses "order" and "linorder" (predicates

4489 "<=", "<" and "=").

4491 * function INCOMPATIBILITIES: Pi-sets have been redefined and moved from main

4492 HOL to Library/FuncSet; constant "Fun.op o" is now called "Fun.comp";

4494 * 'typedef' command has new option "open" to suppress the set

4495 definition;

4497 * functions Min and Max on finite sets have been introduced (theory

4498 Finite_Set);

4500 * attribute [symmetric] now works for relations as well; it turns

4501 (x,y) : R^-1 into (y,x) : R, and vice versa;

4503 * induct over a !!-quantified statement (say !!x1..xn):

4504 each "case" automatically performs "fix x1 .. xn" with exactly those names.

4506 * Map: `empty' is no longer a constant but a syntactic abbreviation for

4507 %x. None. Warning: empty_def now refers to the previously hidden definition

4508 of the empty set.

4510 * Algebra: formalization of classical algebra. Intended as base for

4511 any algebraic development in Isabelle. Currently covers group theory

4512 (up to Sylow's theorem) and ring theory (Universal Property of

4513 Univariate Polynomials). Contributions welcome;

4515 * GroupTheory: deleted, since its material has been moved to Algebra;

4517 * Complex: new directory of the complex numbers with numeric constants,

4518 nonstandard complex numbers, and some complex analysis, standard and

4519 nonstandard (Jacques Fleuriot);

4521 * HOL-Complex: new image for analysis, replacing HOL-Real and HOL-Hyperreal;

4523 * Hyperreal: introduced Gauge integration and hyperreal logarithms (Jacques

4524 Fleuriot);

4526 * Real/HahnBanach: updated and adapted to locales;

4528 * NumberTheory: added Gauss's law of quadratic reciprocity (by Avigad,

4529 Gray and Kramer);

4531 * UNITY: added the Meier-Sanders theory of progress sets;

4533 * MicroJava: bytecode verifier and lightweight bytecode verifier

4534 as abstract algorithms, instantiated to the JVM;

4536 * Bali: Java source language formalization. Type system, operational

4537 semantics, axiomatic semantics. Supported language features:

4538 classes, interfaces, objects,virtual methods, static methods,

4539 static/instance fields, arrays, access modifiers, definite

4540 assignment, exceptions.

4543 *** ZF ***

4545 * ZF/Constructible: consistency proof for AC (Gdel's constructible

4546 universe, etc.);

4548 * Main ZF: virtually all theories converted to new-style format;

4551 *** ML ***

4553 * Pure: Tactic.prove provides sane interface for internal proofs;

4554 omits the infamous "standard" operation, so this is more appropriate

4555 than prove_goalw_cterm in many situations (e.g. in simprocs);

4557 * Pure: improved error reporting of simprocs;

4559 * Provers: Simplifier.simproc(_i) provides sane interface for setting

4560 up simprocs;

4563 *** Document preparation ***

4565 * uses \par instead of \\ for line breaks in theory text. This may

4566 shift some page breaks in large documents. To get the old behaviour

4567 use \renewcommand{\isanewline}{\mbox{}\\\mbox{}} in root.tex.

4569 * minimized dependencies of isabelle.sty and isabellesym.sty on

4570 other packages

4572 * \<euro> now needs package babel/greek instead of marvosym (which

4573 broke \Rightarrow)

4575 * normal size for \<zero>...\<nine> (uses \mathbf instead of

4576 textcomp package)

4580 New in Isabelle2002 (March 2002)

4581 --------------------------------

4583 *** Document preparation ***

4585 * greatly simplified document preparation setup, including more

4586 graceful interpretation of isatool usedir -i/-d/-D options, and more

4587 instructive isatool mkdir; users should basically be able to get

4588 started with "isatool mkdir HOL Test && isatool make"; alternatively,

4589 users may run a separate document processing stage manually like this:

4590 "isatool usedir -D output HOL Test && isatool document Test/output";

4592 * theory dependency graph may now be incorporated into documents;

4593 isatool usedir -g true will produce session_graph.eps/.pdf for use

4594 with \includegraphics of LaTeX;

4596 * proper spacing of consecutive markup elements, especially text

4597 blocks after section headings;

4599 * support bold style (for single symbols only), input syntax is like

4600 this: "\<^bold>\<alpha>" or "\<^bold>A";

4602 * \<bullet> is now output as bold \cdot by default, which looks much

4603 better in printed text;

4605 * added default LaTeX bindings for \<tturnstile> and \<TTurnstile>;

4606 note that these symbols are currently unavailable in Proof General /

4607 X-Symbol; new symbols \<zero>, \<one>, ..., \<nine>, and \<euro>;

4609 * isatool latex no longer depends on changed TEXINPUTS, instead

4610 isatool document copies the Isabelle style files to the target

4611 location;

4614 *** Isar ***

4616 * Pure/Provers: improved proof by cases and induction;

4617 - 'case' command admits impromptu naming of parameters (such as

4618 "case (Suc n)");

4619 - 'induct' method divinates rule instantiation from the inductive

4620 claim; no longer requires excessive ?P bindings for proper

4621 instantiation of cases;

4622 - 'induct' method properly enumerates all possibilities of set/type

4623 rules; as a consequence facts may be also passed through *type*

4624 rules without further ado;

4625 - 'induct' method now derives symbolic cases from the *rulified*

4626 rule (before it used to rulify cases stemming from the internal

4627 atomized version); this means that the context of a non-atomic

4628 statement becomes is included in the hypothesis, avoiding the

4629 slightly cumbersome show "PROP ?case" form;

4630 - 'induct' may now use elim-style induction rules without chaining

4631 facts, using ``missing'' premises from the goal state; this allows

4632 rules stemming from inductive sets to be applied in unstructured

4633 scripts, while still benefitting from proper handling of non-atomic

4634 statements; NB: major inductive premises need to be put first, all

4635 the rest of the goal is passed through the induction;

4636 - 'induct' proper support for mutual induction involving non-atomic

4637 rule statements (uses the new concept of simultaneous goals, see

4638 below);

4639 - append all possible rule selections, but only use the first

4640 success (no backtracking);

4641 - removed obsolete "(simplified)" and "(stripped)" options of methods;

4642 - undeclared rule case names default to numbers 1, 2, 3, ...;

4643 - added 'print_induct_rules' (covered by help item in recent Proof

4644 General versions);

4645 - moved induct/cases attributes to Pure, methods to Provers;

4646 - generic method setup instantiated for FOL and HOL;

4648 * Pure: support multiple simultaneous goal statements, for example

4649 "have a: A and b: B" (same for 'theorem' etc.); being a pure

4650 meta-level mechanism, this acts as if several individual goals had

4651 been stated separately; in particular common proof methods need to be

4652 repeated in order to cover all claims; note that a single elimination

4653 step is *not* sufficient to establish the two conjunctions, so this

4654 fails:

4656 assume "A & B" then have A and B .. (*".." fails*)

4658 better use "obtain" in situations as above; alternative refer to

4659 multi-step methods like 'auto', 'simp_all', 'blast+' etc.;

4661 * Pure: proper integration with ``locales''; unlike the original

4662 version by Florian Kammller, Isar locales package high-level proof

4663 contexts rather than raw logical ones (e.g. we admit to include

4664 attributes everywhere); operations on locales include merge and

4665 rename; support for implicit arguments (``structures''); simultaneous

4666 type-inference over imports and text; see also HOL/ex/Locales.thy for

4667 some examples;

4669 * Pure: the following commands have been ``localized'', supporting a

4670 target locale specification "(in name)": 'lemma', 'theorem',

4671 'corollary', 'lemmas', 'theorems', 'declare'; the results will be

4672 stored both within the locale and at the theory level (exported and

4673 qualified by the locale name);

4675 * Pure: theory goals may now be specified in ``long'' form, with

4676 ad-hoc contexts consisting of arbitrary locale elements. for example

4677 ``lemma foo: fixes x assumes "A x" shows "B x"'' (local syntax and

4678 definitions may be given, too); the result is a meta-level rule with

4679 the context elements being discharged in the obvious way;

4681 * Pure: new proof command 'using' allows to augment currently used

4682 facts after a goal statement ('using' is syntactically analogous to

4683 'apply', but acts on the goal's facts only); this allows chained facts

4684 to be separated into parts given before and after a claim, as in

4685 ``from a and b have C using d and e <proof>'';

4687 * Pure: renamed "antecedent" case to "rule_context";

4689 * Pure: new 'judgment' command records explicit information about the

4690 object-logic embedding (used by several tools internally); no longer

4691 use hard-wired "Trueprop";

4693 * Pure: added 'corollary' command;

4695 * Pure: fixed 'token_translation' command;

4697 * Pure: removed obsolete 'exported' attribute;

4699 * Pure: dummy pattern "_" in is/let is now automatically lifted over

4700 bound variables: "ALL x. P x --> Q x" (is "ALL x. _ --> ?C x")

4701 supersedes more cumbersome ... (is "ALL x. _ x --> ?C x");

4703 * Pure: method 'atomize' presents local goal premises as object-level

4704 statements (atomic meta-level propositions); setup controlled via

4705 rewrite rules declarations of 'atomize' attribute; example

4706 application: 'induct' method with proper rule statements in improper

4707 proof *scripts*;

4709 * Pure: emulation of instantiation tactics (rule_tac, cut_tac, etc.)

4710 now consider the syntactic context of assumptions, giving a better

4711 chance to get type-inference of the arguments right (this is

4712 especially important for locales);

4714 * Pure: "sorry" no longer requires quick_and_dirty in interactive

4715 mode;

4717 * Pure/obtain: the formal conclusion "thesis", being marked as

4718 ``internal'', may no longer be reference directly in the text;

4719 potential INCOMPATIBILITY, may need to use "?thesis" in rare

4720 situations;

4722 * Pure: generic 'sym' attribute which declares a rule both as pure

4723 'elim?' and for the 'symmetric' operation;

4725 * Pure: marginal comments ``--'' may now occur just anywhere in the

4726 text; the fixed correlation with particular command syntax has been

4727 discontinued;

4729 * Pure: new method 'rules' is particularly well-suited for proof

4730 search in intuitionistic logic; a bit slower than 'blast' or 'fast',

4731 but often produces more compact proof terms with less detours;

4733 * Pure/Provers/classical: simplified integration with pure rule

4734 attributes and methods; the classical "intro?/elim?/dest?"

4735 declarations coincide with the pure ones; the "rule" method no longer

4736 includes classically swapped intros; "intro" and "elim" methods no

4737 longer pick rules from the context; also got rid of ML declarations

4738 AddXIs/AddXEs/AddXDs; all of this has some potential for

4739 INCOMPATIBILITY;

4741 * Provers/classical: attribute 'swapped' produces classical inversions

4742 of introduction rules;

4744 * Provers/simplifier: 'simplified' attribute may refer to explicit

4745 rules instead of full simplifier context; 'iff' attribute handles

4746 conditional rules;

4748 * HOL: 'typedef' now allows alternative names for Rep/Abs morphisms;

4750 * HOL: 'recdef' now fails on unfinished automated proofs, use

4751 "(permissive)" option to recover old behavior;

4753 * HOL: 'inductive' no longer features separate (collective) attributes

4754 for 'intros' (was found too confusing);

4756 * HOL: properly declared induction rules less_induct and

4757 wf_induct_rule;

4760 *** HOL ***

4762 * HOL: moved over to sane numeral syntax; the new policy is as

4763 follows:

4765 - 0 and 1 are polymorphic constants, which are defined on any

4766 numeric type (nat, int, real etc.);

4768 - 2, 3, 4, ... and -1, -2, -3, ... are polymorphic numerals, based

4769 binary representation internally;

4771 - type nat has special constructor Suc, and generally prefers Suc 0

4772 over 1::nat and Suc (Suc 0) over 2::nat;

4774 This change may cause significant problems of INCOMPATIBILITY; here

4775 are some hints on converting existing sources:

4777 - due to the new "num" token, "-0" and "-1" etc. are now atomic

4778 entities, so expressions involving "-" (unary or binary minus) need

4779 to be spaced properly;

4781 - existing occurrences of "1" may need to be constraint "1::nat" or

4782 even replaced by Suc 0; similar for old "2";

4784 - replace "#nnn" by "nnn", and "#-nnn" by "-nnn";

4786 - remove all special provisions on numerals in proofs;

4788 * HOL: simp rules nat_number expand numerals on nat to Suc/0

4789 representation (depends on bin_arith_simps in the default context);

4791 * HOL: symbolic syntax for x^2 (numeral 2);

4793 * HOL: the class of all HOL types is now called "type" rather than

4794 "term"; INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt references to this type class

4795 in axclass/classes, instance/arities, and (usually rare) occurrences

4796 in typings (of consts etc.); internally the class is called

4797 "HOL.type", ML programs should refer to HOLogic.typeS;

4799 * HOL/record package improvements:

4800 - new derived operations "fields" to build a partial record section,

4801 "extend" to promote a fixed record to a record scheme, and

4802 "truncate" for the reverse; cf. theorems "xxx.defs", which are *not*

4803 declared as simp by default;

4804 - shared operations ("more", "fields", etc.) now need to be always

4805 qualified) --- potential INCOMPATIBILITY;

4806 - removed "make_scheme" operations (use "make" with "extend") --

4807 INCOMPATIBILITY;

4808 - removed "more" class (simply use "term") -- INCOMPATIBILITY;

4809 - provides cases/induct rules for use with corresponding Isar

4810 methods (for concrete records, record schemes, concrete more

4811 parts, and schematic more parts -- in that order);

4812 - internal definitions directly based on a light-weight abstract

4813 theory of product types over typedef rather than datatype;

4815 * HOL: generic code generator for generating executable ML code from

4816 specifications; specific support for HOL constructs such as inductive

4817 datatypes and sets, as well as recursive functions; can be invoked

4818 via 'generate_code' theory section;

4820 * HOL: canonical cases/induct rules for n-tuples (n = 3..7);

4822 * HOL: consolidated and renamed several theories. In particular:

4823 Ord.thy has been absorbed into HOL.thy

4824 String.thy has been absorbed into List.thy

4826 * HOL: concrete setsum syntax "\<Sum>i:A. b" == "setsum (%i. b) A"

4827 (beware of argument permutation!);

4829 * HOL: linorder_less_split superseded by linorder_cases;

4831 * HOL/List: "nodups" renamed to "distinct";

4833 * HOL: added "The" definite description operator; move Hilbert's "Eps"

4834 to peripheral theory "Hilbert_Choice"; some INCOMPATIBILITIES:

4835 - Ex_def has changed, now need to use some_eq_ex

4837 * HOL: made split_all_tac safe; EXISTING PROOFS MAY FAIL OR LOOP, so

4838 in this (rare) case use:

4840 delSWrapper "split_all_tac"

4841 addSbefore ("unsafe_split_all_tac", unsafe_split_all_tac)

4843 * HOL: added safe wrapper "split_conv_tac" to claset; EXISTING PROOFS

4844 MAY FAIL;

4846 * HOL: introduced f^n = f o ... o f; warning: due to the limits of

4847 Isabelle's type classes, ^ on functions and relations has too general

4848 a domain, namely ('a * 'b) set and 'a => 'b; this means that it may be

4849 necessary to attach explicit type constraints;

4851 * HOL/Relation: the prefix name of the infix "O" has been changed from

4852 "comp" to "rel_comp"; INCOMPATIBILITY: a few theorems have been

4853 renamed accordingly (eg "compI" -> "rel_compI").

4855 * HOL: syntax translations now work properly with numerals and records

4856 expressions;

4858 * HOL: bounded abstraction now uses syntax "%" / "\<lambda>" instead

4859 of "lam" -- INCOMPATIBILITY;

4861 * HOL: got rid of some global declarations (potential INCOMPATIBILITY

4862 for ML tools): const "()" renamed "Product_Type.Unity", type "unit"

4863 renamed "Product_Type.unit";

4865 * HOL: renamed rtrancl_into_rtrancl2 to converse_rtrancl_into_rtrancl

4867 * HOL: removed obsolete theorem "optionE" (use "option.exhaust", or

4868 the "cases" method);

4870 * HOL/GroupTheory: group theory examples including Sylow's theorem (by

4871 Florian Kammller);

4873 * HOL/IMP: updated and converted to new-style theory format; several

4874 parts turned into readable document, with proper Isar proof texts and

4875 some explanations (by Gerwin Klein);

4877 * HOL-Real: added Complex_Numbers (by Gertrud Bauer);

4879 * HOL-Hyperreal is now a logic image;

4882 *** HOLCF ***

4884 * Isar: consts/constdefs supports mixfix syntax for continuous

4885 operations;

4887 * Isar: domain package adapted to new-style theory format, e.g. see

4888 HOLCF/ex/Dnat.thy;

4890 * theory Lift: proper use of rep_datatype lift instead of ML hacks --

4891 potential INCOMPATIBILITY; now use plain induct_tac instead of former

4892 lift.induct_tac, always use UU instead of Undef;

4894 * HOLCF/IMP: updated and converted to new-style theory;

4897 *** ZF ***

4899 * Isar: proper integration of logic-specific tools and packages,

4900 including theory commands '(co)inductive', '(co)datatype',

4901 'rep_datatype', 'inductive_cases', as well as methods 'ind_cases',

4902 'induct_tac', 'case_tac', and 'typecheck' (with attribute 'TC');

4904 * theory Main no longer includes AC; for the Axiom of Choice, base

4905 your theory on Main_ZFC;

4907 * the integer library now covers quotients and remainders, with many

4908 laws relating division to addition, multiplication, etc.;

4910 * ZF/UNITY: Chandy and Misra's UNITY is now available in ZF, giving a

4911 typeless version of the formalism;

4913 * ZF/AC, Coind, IMP, Resid: updated and converted to new-style theory

4914 format;

4916 * ZF/Induct: new directory for examples of inductive definitions,

4917 including theory Multiset for multiset orderings; converted to

4918 new-style theory format;

4920 * ZF: many new theorems about lists, ordinals, etc.;

4923 *** General ***

4925 * Pure/kernel: meta-level proof terms (by Stefan Berghofer); reference

4926 variable proof controls level of detail: 0 = no proofs (only oracle

4927 dependencies), 1 = lemma dependencies, 2 = compact proof terms; see

4928 also ref manual for further ML interfaces;

4930 * Pure/axclass: removed obsolete ML interface

4931 goal_subclass/goal_arity;

4933 * Pure/syntax: new token syntax "num" for plain numerals (without "#"

4934 of "xnum"); potential INCOMPATIBILITY, since -0, -1 etc. are now

4935 separate tokens, so expressions involving minus need to be spaced

4936 properly;

4938 * Pure/syntax: support non-oriented infixes, using keyword "infix"

4939 rather than "infixl" or "infixr";

4941 * Pure/syntax: concrete syntax for dummy type variables admits genuine

4942 sort constraint specifications in type inference; e.g. "x::_::foo"

4943 ensures that the type of "x" is of sort "foo" (but not necessarily a

4944 type variable);

4946 * Pure/syntax: print modes "type_brackets" and "no_type_brackets"

4947 control output of nested => (types); the default behavior is

4948 "type_brackets";

4950 * Pure/syntax: builtin parse translation for "_constify" turns valued

4951 tokens into AST constants;

4953 * Pure/syntax: prefer later declarations of translations and print

4954 translation functions; potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to reverse

4955 multiple declarations for same syntax element constant;

4957 * Pure/show_hyps reset by default (in accordance to existing Isar

4958 practice);

4960 * Provers/classical: renamed addaltern to addafter, addSaltern to

4961 addSafter;

4963 * Provers/clasimp: ``iff'' declarations now handle conditional rules

4964 as well;

4966 * system: tested support for MacOS X; should be able to get Isabelle +

4967 Proof General to work in a plain Terminal after installing Poly/ML

4968 (e.g. from the Isabelle distribution area) and GNU bash alone

4969 (e.g. from http://www.apple.com); full X11, XEmacs and X-Symbol

4970 support requires further installations, e.g. from

4971 http://fink.sourceforge.net/);

4973 * system: support Poly/ML 4.1.1 (able to manage larger heaps);

4975 * system: reduced base memory usage by Poly/ML (approx. 20 MB instead

4976 of 40 MB), cf. ML_OPTIONS;

4978 * system: Proof General keywords specification is now part of the

4979 Isabelle distribution (see etc/isar-keywords.el);

4981 * system: support for persistent Proof General sessions (refrain from

4982 outdating all loaded theories on startup); user may create writable

4983 logic images like this: ``isabelle -q HOL Test'';

4985 * system: smart selection of Isabelle process versus Isabelle

4986 interface, accommodates case-insensitive file systems (e.g. HFS+); may

4987 run both "isabelle" and "Isabelle" even if file names are badly

4988 damaged (executable inspects the case of the first letter of its own

4989 name); added separate "isabelle-process" and "isabelle-interface";

4991 * system: refrain from any attempt at filtering input streams; no

4992 longer support ``8bit'' encoding of old isabelle font, instead proper

4993 iso-latin characters may now be used; the related isatools

4994 "symbolinput" and "nonascii" have disappeared as well;

4996 * system: removed old "xterm" interface (the print modes "xterm" and

4997 "xterm_color" are still available for direct use in a suitable

4998 terminal);

5002 New in Isabelle99-2 (February 2001)

5003 -----------------------------------

5005 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES ***

5007 * HOL: please note that theories in the Library and elsewhere often use the

5008 new-style (Isar) format; to refer to their theorems in an ML script you must

5009 bind them to ML identifers by e.g. val thm_name = thm "thm_name";

5011 * HOL: inductive package no longer splits induction rule aggressively,

5012 but only as far as specified by the introductions given; the old

5013 format may be recovered via ML function complete_split_rule or attribute

5014 'split_rule (complete)';

5016 * HOL: induct renamed to lfp_induct, lfp_Tarski to lfp_unfold,

5017 gfp_Tarski to gfp_unfold;

5019 * HOL: contrapos, contrapos2 renamed to contrapos_nn, contrapos_pp;

5021 * HOL: infix "dvd" now has priority 50 rather than 70 (because it is a

5022 relation); infix "^^" has been renamed "``"; infix "``" has been

5023 renamed "`"; "univalent" has been renamed "single_valued";

5025 * HOL/Real: "rinv" and "hrinv" replaced by overloaded "inverse"

5026 operation;

5028 * HOLCF: infix "`" has been renamed "$"; the symbol syntax is \<cdot>;

5030 * Isar: 'obtain' no longer declares "that" fact as simp/intro;

5032 * Isar/HOL: method 'induct' now handles non-atomic goals; as a

5033 consequence, it is no longer monotonic wrt. the local goal context

5034 (which is now passed through the inductive cases);

5036 * Document preparation: renamed standard symbols \<ll> to \<lless> and

5037 \<gg> to \<ggreater>;

5040 *** Document preparation ***

5042 * \isabellestyle{NAME} selects version of Isabelle output (currently

5043 available: are "it" for near math-mode best-style output, "sl" for

5044 slanted text style, and "tt" for plain type-writer; if no

5045 \isabellestyle command is given, output is according to slanted

5046 type-writer);

5048 * support sub/super scripts (for single symbols only), input syntax is

5049 like this: "A\<^sup>*" or "A\<^sup>\<star>";

5051 * some more standard symbols; see Appendix A of the system manual for

5052 the complete list of symbols defined in isabellesym.sty;

5054 * improved isabelle style files; more abstract symbol implementation

5055 (should now use \isamath{...} and \isatext{...} in custom symbol

5056 definitions);

5058 * antiquotation @{goals} and @{subgoals} for output of *dynamic* goals

5059 state; Note that presentation of goal states does not conform to

5060 actual human-readable proof documents. Please do not include goal

5061 states into document output unless you really know what you are doing!

5063 * proper indentation of antiquoted output with proportional LaTeX

5064 fonts;

5066 * no_document ML operator temporarily disables LaTeX document

5067 generation;

5069 * isatool unsymbolize tunes sources for plain ASCII communication;

5072 *** Isar ***

5074 * Pure: Isar now suffers initial goal statements to contain unbound

5075 schematic variables (this does not conform to actual readable proof

5076 documents, due to unpredictable outcome and non-compositional proof

5077 checking); users who know what they are doing may use schematic goals

5078 for Prolog-style synthesis of proven results;

5080 * Pure: assumption method (an implicit finishing) now handles actual

5081 rules as well;

5083 * Pure: improved 'obtain' --- moved to Pure, insert "that" into

5084 initial goal, declare "that" only as Pure intro (only for single

5085 steps); the "that" rule assumption may now be involved in implicit

5086 finishing, thus ".." becomes a feasible for trivial obtains;

5088 * Pure: default proof step now includes 'intro_classes'; thus trivial

5089 instance proofs may be performed by "..";

5091 * Pure: ?thesis / ?this / "..." now work for pure meta-level

5092 statements as well;

5094 * Pure: more robust selection of calculational rules;

5096 * Pure: the builtin notion of 'finished' goal now includes the ==-refl

5097 rule (as well as the assumption rule);

5099 * Pure: 'thm_deps' command visualizes dependencies of theorems and

5100 lemmas, using the graph browser tool;

5102 * Pure: predict failure of "show" in interactive mode;

5104 * Pure: 'thms_containing' now takes actual terms as arguments;

5106 * HOL: improved method 'induct' --- now handles non-atomic goals

5107 (potential INCOMPATIBILITY); tuned error handling;

5109 * HOL: cases and induct rules now provide explicit hints about the

5110 number of facts to be consumed (0 for "type" and 1 for "set" rules);

5111 any remaining facts are inserted into the goal verbatim;

5113 * HOL: local contexts (aka cases) may now contain term bindings as

5114 well; the 'cases' and 'induct' methods new provide a ?case binding for

5115 the result to be shown in each case;

5117 * HOL: added 'recdef_tc' command;

5119 * isatool convert assists in eliminating legacy ML scripts;

5122 *** HOL ***

5124 * HOL/Library: a collection of generic theories to be used together

5125 with main HOL; the theory loader path already includes this directory

5126 by default; the following existing theories have been moved here:

5127 HOL/Induct/Multiset, HOL/Induct/Acc (as Accessible_Part), HOL/While

5128 (as While_Combinator), HOL/Lex/Prefix (as List_Prefix);

5130 * HOL/Unix: "Some aspects of Unix file-system security", a typical

5131 modelling and verification task performed in Isabelle/HOL +

5132 Isabelle/Isar + Isabelle document preparation (by Markus Wenzel).

5134 * HOL/Algebra: special summation operator SUM no longer exists, it has

5135 been replaced by setsum; infix 'assoc' now has priority 50 (like

5136 'dvd'); axiom 'one_not_zero' has been moved from axclass 'ring' to

5137 'domain', this makes the theory consistent with mathematical

5138 literature;

5140 * HOL basics: added overloaded operations "inverse" and "divide"

5141 (infix "/"), syntax for generic "abs" operation, generic summation

5142 operator \<Sum>;

5144 * HOL/typedef: simplified package, provide more useful rules (see also

5145 HOL/subset.thy);

5147 * HOL/datatype: induction rule for arbitrarily branching datatypes is

5148 now expressed as a proper nested rule (old-style tactic scripts may

5149 require atomize_strip_tac to cope with non-atomic premises);

5151 * HOL: renamed theory "Prod" to "Product_Type", renamed "split" rule

5152 to "split_conv" (old name still available for compatibility);

5154 * HOL: improved concrete syntax for strings (e.g. allows translation

5155 rules with string literals);

5157 * HOL-Real-Hyperreal: this extends HOL-Real with the hyperreals

5158 and Fleuriot's mechanization of analysis, including the transcendental

5159 functions for the reals;

5161 * HOL/Real, HOL/Hyperreal: improved arithmetic simplification;

5164 *** CTT ***

5166 * CTT: x-symbol support for Pi, Sigma, -->, : (membership); note that

5167 "lam" is displayed as TWO lambda-symbols

5169 * CTT: theory Main now available, containing everything (that is, Bool

5170 and Arith);

5173 *** General ***

5175 * Pure: the Simplifier has been implemented properly as a derived rule

5176 outside of the actual kernel (at last!); the overall performance

5177 penalty in practical applications is about 50%, while reliability of

5178 the Isabelle inference kernel has been greatly improved;

5180 * print modes "brackets" and "no_brackets" control output of nested =>

5181 (types) and ==> (props); the default behaviour is "brackets";

5183 * Provers: fast_tac (and friends) now handle actual object-logic rules

5184 as assumptions as well;

5186 * system: support Poly/ML 4.0;

5188 * system: isatool install handles KDE version 1 or 2;

5192 New in Isabelle99-1 (October 2000)

5193 ----------------------------------

5195 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES ***

5197 * HOL: simplification of natural numbers is much changed; to partly

5198 recover the old behaviour (e.g. to prevent n+n rewriting to #2*n)

5199 issue the following ML commands:

5201 Delsimprocs Nat_Numeral_Simprocs.cancel_numerals;

5202 Delsimprocs [Nat_Numeral_Simprocs.combine_numerals];

5204 * HOL: simplification no longer dives into case-expressions; this is

5205 controlled by "t.weak_case_cong" for each datatype t;

5207 * HOL: nat_less_induct renamed to less_induct;

5209 * HOL: systematic renaming of the SOME (Eps) rules, may use isatool

5210 fixsome to patch .thy and .ML sources automatically;

5212 select_equality -> some_equality

5213 select_eq_Ex -> some_eq_ex

5214 selectI2EX -> someI2_ex

5215 selectI2 -> someI2

5216 selectI -> someI

5217 select1_equality -> some1_equality

5218 Eps_sym_eq -> some_sym_eq_trivial

5219 Eps_eq -> some_eq_trivial

5221 * HOL: exhaust_tac on datatypes superceded by new generic case_tac;

5223 * HOL: removed obsolete theorem binding expand_if (refer to split_if

5224 instead);

5226 * HOL: the recursion equations generated by 'recdef' are now called

5227 f.simps instead of f.rules;

5229 * HOL: qed_spec_mp now also handles bounded ALL as well;

5231 * HOL: 0 is now overloaded, so the type constraint ":: nat" may

5232 sometimes be needed;

5234 * HOL: the constant for "f``x" is now "image" rather than "op ``";

5236 * HOL: the constant for "f-``x" is now "vimage" rather than "op -``";

5238 * HOL: the disjoint sum is now "<+>" instead of "Plus"; the cartesian

5239 product is now "<*>" instead of "Times"; the lexicographic product is

5240 now "<*lex*>" instead of "**";

5242 * HOL: theory Sexp is now in HOL/Induct examples (it used to be part

5243 of main HOL, but was unused); better use HOL's datatype package;

5245 * HOL: removed "symbols" syntax for constant "override" of theory Map;

5246 the old syntax may be recovered as follows:

5248 syntax (symbols)

5249 override :: "('a ~=> 'b) => ('a ~=> 'b) => ('a ~=> 'b)"

5250 (infixl "\\<oplus>" 100)

5252 * HOL/Real: "rabs" replaced by overloaded "abs" function;

5254 * HOL/ML: even fewer consts are declared as global (see theories Ord,

5255 Lfp, Gfp, WF); this only affects ML packages that refer to const names

5256 internally;

5258 * HOL and ZF: syntax for quotienting wrt an equivalence relation

5259 changed from A/r to A//r;

5261 * ZF: new treatment of arithmetic (nat & int) may break some old

5262 proofs;

5264 * Isar: renamed some attributes (RS -> THEN, simplify -> simplified,

5265 rulify -> rule_format, elimify -> elim_format, ...);

5267 * Isar/Provers: intro/elim/dest attributes changed; renamed

5268 intro/intro!/intro!! flags to intro!/intro/intro? (in most cases, one

5269 should have to change intro!! to intro? only); replaced "delrule" by

5270 "rule del";

5272 * Isar/HOL: renamed "intrs" to "intros" in inductive definitions;

5274 * Provers: strengthened force_tac by using new first_best_tac;

5276 * LaTeX document preparation: several changes of isabelle.sty (see

5277 lib/texinputs);

5280 *** Document preparation ***

5282 * formal comments (text blocks etc.) in new-style theories may now

5283 contain antiquotations of thm/prop/term/typ/text to be presented

5284 according to latex print mode; concrete syntax is like this:

5285 @{term[show_types] "f(x) = a + x"};

5287 * isatool mkdir provides easy setup of Isabelle session directories,

5288 including proper document sources;

5290 * generated LaTeX sources are now deleted after successful run

5291 (isatool document -c); may retain a copy somewhere else via -D option

5292 of isatool usedir;

5294 * isatool usedir -D now lets isatool latex -o sty update the Isabelle

5295 style files, achieving self-contained LaTeX sources and simplifying

5296 LaTeX debugging;

5298 * old-style theories now produce (crude) LaTeX output as well;

5300 * browser info session directories are now self-contained (may be put

5301 on WWW server seperately); improved graphs of nested sessions; removed

5302 graph for 'all sessions';

5304 * several improvements in isabelle style files; \isabellestyle{it}

5305 produces fake math mode output; \isamarkupheader is now \section by

5306 default; see lib/texinputs/isabelle.sty etc.;

5309 *** Isar ***

5311 * Isar/Pure: local results and corresponding term bindings are now

5312 subject to Hindley-Milner polymorphism (similar to ML); this

5313 accommodates incremental type-inference very nicely;

5315 * Isar/Pure: new derived language element 'obtain' supports

5316 generalized existence reasoning;

5318 * Isar/Pure: new calculational elements 'moreover' and 'ultimately'

5319 support accumulation of results, without applying any rules yet;

5320 useful to collect intermediate results without explicit name

5321 references, and for use with transitivity rules with more than 2

5322 premises;

5324 * Isar/Pure: scalable support for case-analysis type proofs: new

5325 'case' language element refers to local contexts symbolically, as

5326 produced by certain proof methods; internally, case names are attached

5327 to theorems as "tags";

5329 * Isar/Pure: theory command 'hide' removes declarations from

5330 class/type/const name spaces;

5332 * Isar/Pure: theory command 'defs' supports option "(overloaded)" to

5333 indicate potential overloading;

5335 * Isar/Pure: changed syntax of local blocks from {{ }} to { };

5337 * Isar/Pure: syntax of sorts made 'inner', i.e. have to write

5338 "{a,b,c}" instead of {a,b,c};

5340 * Isar/Pure now provides its own version of intro/elim/dest

5341 attributes; useful for building new logics, but beware of confusion

5342 with the version in Provers/classical;

5344 * Isar/Pure: the local context of (non-atomic) goals is provided via

5345 case name 'antecedent';

5347 * Isar/Pure: removed obsolete 'transfer' attribute (transfer of thms

5348 to the current context is now done automatically);

5350 * Isar/Pure: theory command 'method_setup' provides a simple interface

5351 for definining proof methods in ML;

5353 * Isar/Provers: intro/elim/dest attributes changed; renamed

5354 intro/intro!/intro!! flags to intro!/intro/intro? (INCOMPATIBILITY, in

5355 most cases, one should have to change intro!! to intro? only);

5356 replaced "delrule" by "rule del";

5358 * Isar/Provers: new 'hypsubst' method, plain 'subst' method and

5359 'symmetric' attribute (the latter supercedes [RS sym]);

5361 * Isar/Provers: splitter support (via 'split' attribute and 'simp'

5362 method modifier); 'simp' method: 'only:' modifier removes loopers as

5363 well (including splits);

5365 * Isar/Provers: Simplifier and Classical methods now support all kind

5366 of modifiers used in the past, including 'cong', 'iff', etc.

5368 * Isar/Provers: added 'fastsimp' and 'clarsimp' methods (combination

5369 of Simplifier and Classical reasoner);

5371 * Isar/HOL: new proof method 'cases' and improved version of 'induct'

5372 now support named cases; major packages (inductive, datatype, primrec,

5373 recdef) support case names and properly name parameters;

5375 * Isar/HOL: new transitivity rules for substitution in inequalities --

5376 monotonicity conditions are extracted to be proven at end of

5377 calculations;

5379 * Isar/HOL: removed 'case_split' thm binding, should use 'cases' proof

5380 method anyway;

5382 * Isar/HOL: removed old expand_if = split_if; theorems if_splits =

5383 split_if split_if_asm; datatype package provides theorems foo.splits =

5384 foo.split foo.split_asm for each datatype;

5386 * Isar/HOL: tuned inductive package, rename "intrs" to "intros"

5387 (potential INCOMPATIBILITY), emulation of mk_cases feature for proof

5388 scripts: new 'inductive_cases' command and 'ind_cases' method; (Note:

5389 use "(cases (simplified))" method in proper proof texts);

5391 * Isar/HOL: added global 'arith_split' attribute for 'arith' method;

5393 * Isar: names of theorems etc. may be natural numbers as well;

5395 * Isar: 'pr' command: optional arguments for goals_limit and

5396 ProofContext.prems_limit; no longer prints theory contexts, but only

5397 proof states;

5399 * Isar: diagnostic commands 'pr', 'thm', 'prop', 'term', 'typ' admit

5400 additional print modes to be specified; e.g. "pr(latex)" will print

5401 proof state according to the Isabelle LaTeX style;

5403 * Isar: improved support for emulating tactic scripts, including proof

5404 methods 'rule_tac' etc., 'cut_tac', 'thin_tac', 'subgoal_tac',

5405 'rename_tac', 'rotate_tac', 'tactic', and 'case_tac' / 'induct_tac'

5406 (for HOL datatypes);

5408 * Isar: simplified (more robust) goal selection of proof methods: 1st

5409 goal, all goals, or explicit goal specifier (tactic emulation); thus

5410 'proof method scripts' have to be in depth-first order;

5412 * Isar: tuned 'let' syntax: replaced 'as' keyword by 'and';

5414 * Isar: removed 'help' command, which hasn't been too helpful anyway;

5415 should instead use individual commands for printing items

5416 (print_commands, print_methods etc.);

5418 * Isar: added 'nothing' --- the empty list of theorems;

5421 *** HOL ***

5423 * HOL/MicroJava: formalization of a fragment of Java, together with a

5424 corresponding virtual machine and a specification of its bytecode

5425 verifier and a lightweight bytecode verifier, including proofs of

5426 type-safety; by Gerwin Klein, Tobias Nipkow, David von Oheimb, and

5427 Cornelia Pusch (see also the homepage of project Bali at

5428 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/Bali/);

5430 * HOL/Algebra: new theory of rings and univariate polynomials, by

5431 Clemens Ballarin;

5433 * HOL/NumberTheory: fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic, Chinese

5434 Remainder Theorem, Fermat/Euler Theorem, Wilson's Theorem, by Thomas M

5435 Rasmussen;

5437 * HOL/Lattice: fundamental concepts of lattice theory and order

5438 structures, including duals, properties of bounds versus algebraic

5439 laws, lattice operations versus set-theoretic ones, the Knaster-Tarski

5440 Theorem for complete lattices etc.; may also serve as a demonstration

5441 for abstract algebraic reasoning using axiomatic type classes, and

5442 mathematics-style proof in Isabelle/Isar; by Markus Wenzel;

5444 * HOL/Prolog: a (bare-bones) implementation of Lambda-Prolog, by David

5445 von Oheimb;

5447 * HOL/IMPP: extension of IMP with local variables and mutually

5448 recursive procedures, by David von Oheimb;

5450 * HOL/Lambda: converted into new-style theory and document;

5452 * HOL/ex/Multiquote: example of multiple nested quotations and

5453 anti-quotations -- basically a generalized version of de-Bruijn

5454 representation; very useful in avoiding lifting of operations;

5456 * HOL/record: added general record equality rule to simpset; fixed

5457 select-update simplification procedure to handle extended records as

5458 well; admit "r" as field name;

5460 * HOL: 0 is now overloaded over the new sort "zero", allowing its use with

5461 other numeric types and also as the identity of groups, rings, etc.;

5463 * HOL: new axclass plus_ac0 for addition with the AC-laws and 0 as identity.

5464 Types nat and int belong to this axclass;

5466 * HOL: greatly improved simplification involving numerals of type nat, int, real:

5467 (i + #8 + j) = Suc k simplifies to #7 + (i + j) = k

5468 i*j + k + j*#3*i simplifies to #4*(i*j) + k

5469 two terms #m*u and #n*u are replaced by #(m+n)*u

5470 (where #m, #n and u can implicitly be 1; this is simproc combine_numerals)

5471 and the term/formula #m*u+x ~~ #n*u+y simplifies simplifies to #(m-n)+x ~~ y

5472 or x ~~ #(n-m)+y, where ~~ is one of = < <= or - (simproc cancel_numerals);

5474 * HOL: meson_tac is available (previously in ex/meson.ML); it is a

5475 powerful prover for predicate logic but knows nothing of clasets; see

5476 ex/mesontest.ML and ex/mesontest2.ML for example applications;

5478 * HOL: new version of "case_tac" subsumes both boolean case split and

5479 "exhaust_tac" on datatypes; INCOMPATIBILITY: exhaust_tac no longer

5480 exists, may define val exhaust_tac = case_tac for ad-hoc portability;

5482 * HOL: simplification no longer dives into case-expressions: only the

5483 selector expression is simplified, but not the remaining arms; to

5484 enable full simplification of case-expressions for datatype t, you may

5485 remove t.weak_case_cong from the simpset, either globally (Delcongs

5486 [thm"t.weak_case_cong"];) or locally (delcongs [...]).

5488 * HOL/recdef: the recursion equations generated by 'recdef' for

5489 function 'f' are now called f.simps instead of f.rules; if all

5490 termination conditions are proved automatically, these simplification

5491 rules are added to the simpset, as in primrec; rules may be named

5492 individually as well, resulting in a separate list of theorems for

5493 each equation;

5495 * HOL/While is a new theory that provides a while-combinator. It

5496 permits the definition of tail-recursive functions without the

5497 provision of a termination measure. The latter is necessary once the

5498 invariant proof rule for while is applied.

5500 * HOL: new (overloaded) notation for the set of elements below/above

5501 some element: {..u}, {..u(}, {l..}, {)l..}. See theory SetInterval.

5503 * HOL: theorems impI, allI, ballI bound as "strip";

5505 * HOL: new tactic induct_thm_tac: thm -> string -> int -> tactic

5506 induct_tac th "x1 ... xn" expects th to have a conclusion of the form

5507 P v1 ... vn and abbreviates res_inst_tac [("v1","x1"),...,("vn","xn")] th;

5509 * HOL/Real: "rabs" replaced by overloaded "abs" function;

5511 * HOL: theory Sexp now in HOL/Induct examples (it used to be part of

5512 main HOL, but was unused);

5514 * HOL: fewer consts declared as global (e.g. have to refer to

5515 "Lfp.lfp" instead of "lfp" internally; affects ML packages only);

5517 * HOL: tuned AST representation of nested pairs, avoiding bogus output

5518 in case of overlap with user translations (e.g. judgements over

5519 tuples); (note that the underlying logical represenation is still

5520 bogus);

5523 *** ZF ***

5525 * ZF: simplification automatically cancels common terms in arithmetic

5526 expressions over nat and int;

5528 * ZF: new treatment of nat to minimize type-checking: all operators

5529 coerce their operands to a natural number using the function natify,

5530 making the algebraic laws unconditional;

5532 * ZF: as above, for int: operators coerce their operands to an integer

5533 using the function intify;

5535 * ZF: the integer library now contains many of the usual laws for the

5536 orderings, including $<=, and monotonicity laws for $+ and $*;

5538 * ZF: new example ZF/ex/NatSum to demonstrate integer arithmetic

5539 simplification;

5541 * FOL and ZF: AddIffs now available, giving theorems of the form P<->Q

5542 to the simplifier and classical reasoner simultaneously;

5545 *** General ***

5547 * Provers: blast_tac now handles actual object-logic rules as

5548 assumptions; note that auto_tac uses blast_tac internally as well;

5550 * Provers: new functions rulify/rulify_no_asm: thm -> thm for turning

5551 outer -->/All/Ball into ==>/!!; qed_spec_mp now uses rulify_no_asm;

5553 * Provers: delrules now handles destruct rules as well (no longer need

5554 explicit make_elim);

5556 * Provers: Blast_tac now warns of and ignores "weak elimination rules" e.g.

5557 [| inj ?f; ?f ?x = ?f ?y; ?x = ?y ==> ?W |] ==> ?W

5558 use instead the strong form,

5559 [| inj ?f; ~ ?W ==> ?f ?x = ?f ?y; ?x = ?y ==> ?W |] ==> ?W

5560 in HOL, FOL and ZF the function cla_make_elim will create such rules

5561 from destruct-rules;

5563 * Provers: Simplifier.easy_setup provides a fast path to basic

5564 Simplifier setup for new object-logics;

5566 * Pure: AST translation rules no longer require constant head on LHS;

5568 * Pure: improved name spaces: ambiguous output is qualified; support

5569 for hiding of names;

5571 * system: smart setup of canonical ML_HOME, ISABELLE_INTERFACE, and

5572 XSYMBOL_HOME; no longer need to do manual configuration in most

5573 situations;

5575 * system: compression of ML heaps images may now be controlled via -c

5576 option of isabelle and isatool usedir (currently only observed by

5577 Poly/ML);

5579 * system: isatool installfonts may handle X-Symbol fonts as well (very

5580 useful for remote X11);

5582 * system: provide TAGS file for Isabelle sources;

5584 * ML: infix 'OF' is a version of 'MRS' with more appropriate argument

5585 order;

5587 * ML: renamed flags Syntax.trace_norm_ast to Syntax.trace_ast; global

5588 timing flag supersedes proof_timing and Toplevel.trace;

5590 * ML: new combinators |>> and |>>> for incremental transformations

5591 with secondary results (e.g. certain theory extensions):

5593 * ML: PureThy.add_defs gets additional argument to indicate potential

5594 overloading (usually false);

5596 * ML: PureThy.add_thms/add_axioms/add_defs now return theorems as

5597 results;

5601 New in Isabelle99 (October 1999)

5602 --------------------------------

5604 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES (see below for more details) ***

5606 * HOL: The THEN and ELSE parts of conditional expressions (if P then x else y)

5607 are no longer simplified. (This allows the simplifier to unfold recursive

5608 functional programs.) To restore the old behaviour, declare

5610 Delcongs [if_weak_cong];

5612 * HOL: Removed the obsolete syntax "Compl A"; use -A for set

5613 complement;

5615 * HOL: the predicate "inj" is now defined by translation to "inj_on";

5617 * HOL/datatype: mutual_induct_tac no longer exists --

5618 use induct_tac "x_1 ... x_n" instead of mutual_induct_tac ["x_1", ..., "x_n"]

5620 * HOL/typedef: fixed type inference for representing set; type

5621 arguments now have to occur explicitly on the rhs as type constraints;

5623 * ZF: The con_defs part of an inductive definition may no longer refer

5624 to constants declared in the same theory;

5626 * HOL, ZF: the function mk_cases, generated by the inductive

5627 definition package, has lost an argument. To simplify its result, it

5628 uses the default simpset instead of a supplied list of theorems.

5630 * HOL/List: the constructors of type list are now Nil and Cons;

5632 * Simplifier: the type of the infix ML functions

5633 setSSolver addSSolver setSolver addSolver

5634 is now simpset * solver -> simpset where `solver' is a new abstract type

5635 for packaging solvers. A solver is created via

5636 mk_solver: string -> (thm list -> int -> tactic) -> solver

5637 where the string argument is only a comment.

5640 *** Proof tools ***

5642 * Provers/Arith/fast_lin_arith.ML contains a functor for creating a

5643 decision procedure for linear arithmetic. Currently it is used for

5644 types `nat', `int', and `real' in HOL (see below); it can, should and

5645 will be instantiated for other types and logics as well.

5647 * The simplifier now accepts rewrite rules with flexible heads, eg

5648 hom ?f ==> ?f(?x+?y) = ?f ?x + ?f ?y

5649 They are applied like any rule with a non-pattern lhs, i.e. by first-order

5650 matching.

5653 *** General ***

5655 * New Isabelle/Isar subsystem provides an alternative to traditional

5656 tactical theorem proving; together with the ProofGeneral/isar user

5657 interface it offers an interactive environment for developing human

5658 readable proof documents (Isar == Intelligible semi-automated

5659 reasoning); for further information see isatool doc isar-ref,

5660 src/HOL/Isar_examples and http://isabelle.in.tum.de/Isar/

5662 * improved and simplified presentation of theories: better HTML markup

5663 (including colors), graph views in several sizes; isatool usedir now

5664 provides a proper interface for user theories (via -P option); actual

5665 document preparation based on (PDF)LaTeX is available as well (for

5666 new-style theories only); see isatool doc system for more information;

5668 * native support for Proof General, both for classic Isabelle and

5669 Isabelle/Isar;

5671 * ML function thm_deps visualizes dependencies of theorems and lemmas,

5672 using the graph browser tool;

5674 * Isabelle manuals now also available as PDF;

5676 * theory loader rewritten from scratch (may not be fully

5677 bug-compatible); old loadpath variable has been replaced by show_path,

5678 add_path, del_path, reset_path functions; new operations such as

5679 update_thy, touch_thy, remove_thy, use/update_thy_only (see also

5680 isatool doc ref);

5682 * improved isatool install: option -k creates KDE application icon,

5683 option -p DIR installs standalone binaries;

5685 * added ML_PLATFORM setting (useful for cross-platform installations);

5686 more robust handling of platform specific ML images for SML/NJ;

5688 * the settings environment is now statically scoped, i.e. it is never

5689 created again in sub-processes invoked from isabelle, isatool, or

5690 Isabelle;

5692 * path element specification '~~' refers to '$ISABELLE_HOME';

5694 * in locales, the "assumes" and "defines" parts may be omitted if

5695 empty;

5697 * new print_mode "xsymbols" for extended symbol support (e.g. genuine

5698 long arrows);

5700 * new print_mode "HTML";

5702 * new flag show_tags controls display of tags of theorems (which are

5703 basically just comments that may be attached by some tools);

5705 * Isamode 2.6 requires patch to accomodate change of Isabelle font

5706 mode and goal output format:

5708 diff -r Isamode-2.6/elisp/isa-load.el Isamode/elisp/isa-load.el

5709 244c244

5710 < (list (isa-getenv "ISABELLE") "-msymbols" logic-name)

5711 ---

5712 > (list (isa-getenv "ISABELLE") "-misabelle_font" "-msymbols" logic-name)

5713 diff -r Isabelle-2.6/elisp/isa-proofstate.el Isamode/elisp/isa-proofstate.el

5714 181c181

5715 < (defconst proofstate-proofstart-regexp "^Level [0-9]+$"

5716 ---

5717 > (defconst proofstate-proofstart-regexp "^Level [0-9]+"

5719 * function bind_thms stores lists of theorems (cf. bind_thm);

5721 * new shorthand tactics ftac, eatac, datac, fatac;

5723 * qed (and friends) now accept "" as result name; in that case the

5724 theorem is not stored, but proper checks and presentation of the

5725 result still apply;

5727 * theorem database now also indexes constants "Trueprop", "all",

5728 "==>", "=="; thus thms_containing, findI etc. may retrieve more rules;

5731 *** HOL ***

5733 ** HOL arithmetic **

5735 * There are now decision procedures for linear arithmetic over nat and

5736 int:

5738 1. arith_tac copes with arbitrary formulae involving `=', `<', `<=',

5739 `+', `-', `Suc', `min', `max' and numerical constants; other subterms

5740 are treated as atomic; subformulae not involving type `nat' or `int'

5741 are ignored; quantified subformulae are ignored unless they are

5742 positive universal or negative existential. The tactic has to be

5743 invoked by hand and can be a little bit slow. In particular, the

5744 running time is exponential in the number of occurrences of `min' and

5745 `max', and `-' on `nat'.

5747 2. fast_arith_tac is a cut-down version of arith_tac: it only takes

5748 (negated) (in)equalities among the premises and the conclusion into

5749 account (i.e. no compound formulae) and does not know about `min' and

5750 `max', and `-' on `nat'. It is fast and is used automatically by the

5751 simplifier.

5753 NB: At the moment, these decision procedures do not cope with mixed

5754 nat/int formulae where the two parts interact, such as `m < n ==>

5755 int(m) < int(n)'.

5757 * HOL/Numeral provides a generic theory of numerals (encoded

5758 efficiently as bit strings); setup for types nat/int/real is in place;

5759 INCOMPATIBILITY: since numeral syntax is now polymorphic, rather than

5760 int, existing theories and proof scripts may require a few additional

5761 type constraints;

5763 * integer division and remainder can now be performed on constant

5764 arguments;

5766 * many properties of integer multiplication, division and remainder

5767 are now available;

5769 * An interface to the Stanford Validity Checker (SVC) is available through the

5770 tactic svc_tac. Propositional tautologies and theorems of linear arithmetic

5771 are proved automatically. SVC must be installed separately, and its results

5772 must be TAKEN ON TRUST (Isabelle does not check the proofs, but tags any

5773 invocation of the underlying oracle). For SVC see

5774 http://verify.stanford.edu/SVC

5776 * IsaMakefile: the HOL-Real target now builds an actual image;

5779 ** HOL misc **

5781 * HOL/Real/HahnBanach: the Hahn-Banach theorem for real vector spaces

5782 (in Isabelle/Isar) -- by Gertrud Bauer;

5784 * HOL/BCV: generic model of bytecode verification, i.e. data-flow

5785 analysis for assembly languages with subtypes;

5787 * HOL/TLA (Lamport's Temporal Logic of Actions): major reorganization

5788 -- avoids syntactic ambiguities and treats state, transition, and

5789 temporal levels more uniformly; introduces INCOMPATIBILITIES due to

5790 changed syntax and (many) tactics;

5792 * HOL/inductive: Now also handles more general introduction rules such

5793 as "ALL y. (y, x) : r --> y : acc r ==> x : acc r"; monotonicity

5794 theorems are now maintained within the theory (maintained via the

5795 "mono" attribute);

5797 * HOL/datatype: Now also handles arbitrarily branching datatypes

5798 (using function types) such as

5800 datatype 'a tree = Atom 'a | Branch "nat => 'a tree"

5802 * HOL/record: record_simproc (part of the default simpset) takes care

5803 of selectors applied to updated records; record_split_tac is no longer

5804 part of the default claset; update_defs may now be removed from the

5805 simpset in many cases; COMPATIBILITY: old behavior achieved by

5807 claset_ref () := claset() addSWrapper record_split_wrapper;

5808 Delsimprocs [record_simproc]

5810 * HOL/typedef: fixed type inference for representing set; type

5811 arguments now have to occur explicitly on the rhs as type constraints;

5813 * HOL/recdef (TFL): 'congs' syntax now expects comma separated list of theorem

5814 names rather than an ML expression;

5816 * HOL/defer_recdef (TFL): like recdef but the well-founded relation can be

5817 supplied later. Program schemes can be defined, such as

5818 "While B C s = (if B s then While B C (C s) else s)"

5819 where the well-founded relation can be chosen after B and C have been given.

5821 * HOL/List: the constructors of type list are now Nil and Cons;

5822 INCOMPATIBILITY: while [] and infix # syntax is still there, of

5823 course, ML tools referring to List.list.op # etc. have to be adapted;

5825 * HOL_quantifiers flag superseded by "HOL" print mode, which is

5826 disabled by default; run isabelle with option -m HOL to get back to

5827 the original Gordon/HOL-style output;

5829 * HOL/Ord.thy: new bounded quantifier syntax (input only): ALL x<y. P,

5830 ALL x<=y. P, EX x<y. P, EX x<=y. P;

5832 * HOL basic syntax simplified (more orthogonal): all variants of

5833 All/Ex now support plain / symbolic / HOL notation; plain syntax for

5834 Eps operator is provided as well: "SOME x. P[x]";

5836 * HOL/Sum.thy: sum_case has been moved to HOL/Datatype;

5838 * HOL/Univ.thy: infix syntax <*>, <+>, <**>, <+> eliminated and made

5839 thus available for user theories;

5841 * HOLCF/IOA/Sequents: renamed 'Cons' to 'Consq' to avoid clash with

5842 HOL/List; hardly an INCOMPATIBILITY since '>>' syntax is used all the

5843 time;

5845 * HOL: new tactic smp_tac: int -> int -> tactic, which applies spec

5846 several times and then mp;

5849 *** LK ***

5851 * the notation <<...>> is now available as a notation for sequences of

5852 formulas;

5854 * the simplifier is now installed

5856 * the axiom system has been generalized (thanks to Soren Heilmann)

5858 * the classical reasoner now has a default rule database

5861 *** ZF ***

5863 * new primrec section allows primitive recursive functions to be given

5864 directly (as in HOL) over datatypes and the natural numbers;

5866 * new tactics induct_tac and exhaust_tac for induction (or case

5867 analysis) over datatypes and the natural numbers;

5869 * the datatype declaration of type T now defines the recursor T_rec;

5871 * simplification automatically does freeness reasoning for datatype

5872 constructors;

5874 * automatic type-inference, with AddTCs command to insert new

5875 type-checking rules;

5877 * datatype introduction rules are now added as Safe Introduction rules

5878 to the claset;

5880 * the syntax "if P then x else y" is now available in addition to

5881 if(P,x,y);

5884 *** Internal programming interfaces ***

5886 * tuned simplifier trace output; new flag debug_simp;

5888 * structures Vartab / Termtab (instances of TableFun) offer efficient

5889 tables indexed by indexname_ord / term_ord (compatible with aconv);

5891 * AxClass.axclass_tac lost the theory argument;

5893 * tuned current_goals_markers semantics: begin / end goal avoids

5894 printing empty lines;

5896 * removed prs and prs_fn hook, which was broken because it did not

5897 include \n in its semantics, forcing writeln to add one

5898 uncoditionally; replaced prs_fn by writeln_fn; consider std_output:

5899 string -> unit if you really want to output text without newline;

5901 * Symbol.output subject to print mode; INCOMPATIBILITY: defaults to

5902 plain output, interface builders may have to enable 'isabelle_font'

5903 mode to get Isabelle font glyphs as before;

5905 * refined token_translation interface; INCOMPATIBILITY: output length

5906 now of type real instead of int;

5908 * theory loader actions may be traced via new ThyInfo.add_hook

5909 interface (see src/Pure/Thy/thy_info.ML); example application: keep

5910 your own database of information attached to *whole* theories -- as

5911 opposed to intra-theory data slots offered via TheoryDataFun;

5913 * proper handling of dangling sort hypotheses (at last!);

5914 Thm.strip_shyps and Drule.strip_shyps_warning take care of removing

5915 extra sort hypotheses that can be witnessed from the type signature;

5916 the force_strip_shyps flag is gone, any remaining shyps are simply

5917 left in the theorem (with a warning issued by strip_shyps_warning);

5921 New in Isabelle98-1 (October 1998)

5922 ----------------------------------

5924 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES (see below for more details) ***

5926 * several changes of automated proof tools;

5928 * HOL: major changes to the inductive and datatype packages, including

5929 some minor incompatibilities of theory syntax;

5931 * HOL: renamed r^-1 to 'converse' from 'inverse'; 'inj_onto' is now

5932 called `inj_on';

5934 * HOL: removed duplicate thms in Arith:

5935 less_imp_add_less should be replaced by trans_less_add1

5936 le_imp_add_le should be replaced by trans_le_add1

5938 * HOL: unary minus is now overloaded (new type constraints may be

5939 required);

5941 * HOL and ZF: unary minus for integers is now #- instead of #~. In

5942 ZF, expressions such as n#-1 must be changed to n#- 1, since #-1 is

5943 now taken as an integer constant.

5945 * Pure: ML function 'theory_of' renamed to 'theory';

5948 *** Proof tools ***

5950 * Simplifier:

5951 1. Asm_full_simp_tac is now more aggressive.

5952 1. It will sometimes reorient premises if that increases their power to

5953 simplify.

5954 2. It does no longer proceed strictly from left to right but may also

5955 rotate premises to achieve further simplification.

5956 For compatibility reasons there is now Asm_lr_simp_tac which is like the

5957 old Asm_full_simp_tac in that it does not rotate premises.

5958 2. The simplifier now knows a little bit about nat-arithmetic.

5960 * Classical reasoner: wrapper mechanism for the classical reasoner now

5961 allows for selected deletion of wrappers, by introduction of names for

5962 wrapper functionals. This implies that addbefore, addSbefore,

5963 addaltern, and addSaltern now take a pair (name, tactic) as argument,

5964 and that adding two tactics with the same name overwrites the first

5965 one (emitting a warning).

5966 type wrapper = (int -> tactic) -> (int -> tactic)

5967 setWrapper, setSWrapper, compWrapper and compSWrapper are replaced by

5968 addWrapper, addSWrapper: claset * (string * wrapper) -> claset

5969 delWrapper, delSWrapper: claset * string -> claset

5970 getWrapper is renamed to appWrappers, getSWrapper to appSWrappers;

5972 * Classical reasoner: addbefore/addSbefore now have APPEND/ORELSE

5973 semantics; addbefore now affects only the unsafe part of step_tac

5974 etc.; this affects addss/auto_tac/force_tac, so EXISTING PROOFS MAY

5975 FAIL, but proofs should be fixable easily, e.g. by replacing Auto_tac

5976 by Force_tac;

5978 * Classical reasoner: setwrapper to setWrapper and compwrapper to

5979 compWrapper; added safe wrapper (and access functions for it);

5981 * HOL/split_all_tac is now much faster and fails if there is nothing

5982 to split. Some EXISTING PROOFS MAY REQUIRE ADAPTION because the order

5983 and the names of the automatically generated variables have changed.

5984 split_all_tac has moved within claset() from unsafe wrappers to safe

5985 wrappers, which means that !!-bound variables are split much more

5986 aggressively, and safe_tac and clarify_tac now split such variables.

5987 If this splitting is not appropriate, use delSWrapper "split_all_tac".

5988 Note: the same holds for record_split_tac, which does the job of

5989 split_all_tac for record fields.

5991 * HOL/Simplifier: Rewrite rules for case distinctions can now be added

5992 permanently to the default simpset using Addsplits just like

5993 Addsimps. They can be removed via Delsplits just like

5994 Delsimps. Lower-case versions are also available.

5996 * HOL/Simplifier: The rule split_if is now part of the default

5997 simpset. This means that the simplifier will eliminate all occurrences

5998 of if-then-else in the conclusion of a goal. To prevent this, you can

5999 either remove split_if completely from the default simpset by

6000 `Delsplits [split_if]' or remove it in a specific call of the

6001 simplifier using `... delsplits [split_if]'. You can also add/delete

6002 other case splitting rules to/from the default simpset: every datatype

6003 generates suitable rules `split_t_case' and `split_t_case_asm' (where

6004 t is the name of the datatype).

6006 * Classical reasoner / Simplifier combination: new force_tac (and

6007 derivatives Force_tac, force) combines rewriting and classical

6008 reasoning (and whatever other tools) similarly to auto_tac, but is

6009 aimed to solve the given subgoal completely.

6012 *** General ***

6014 * new top-level commands `Goal' and `Goalw' that improve upon `goal'

6015 and `goalw': the theory is no longer needed as an explicit argument -

6016 the current theory context is used; assumptions are no longer returned

6017 at the ML-level unless one of them starts with ==> or !!; it is

6018 recommended to convert to these new commands using isatool fixgoal

6019 (backup your sources first!);

6021 * new top-level commands 'thm' and 'thms' for retrieving theorems from

6022 the current theory context, and 'theory' to lookup stored theories;

6024 * new theory section 'locale' for declaring constants, assumptions and

6025 definitions that have local scope;

6027 * new theory section 'nonterminals' for purely syntactic types;

6029 * new theory section 'setup' for generic ML setup functions

6030 (e.g. package initialization);

6032 * the distribution now includes Isabelle icons: see

6033 lib/logo/isabelle-{small,tiny}.xpm;

6035 * isatool install - install binaries with absolute references to

6036 ISABELLE_HOME/bin;

6038 * isatool logo -- create instances of the Isabelle logo (as EPS);

6040 * print mode 'emacs' reserved for Isamode;

6042 * support multiple print (ast) translations per constant name;

6044 * theorems involving oracles are now printed with a suffixed [!];

6047 *** HOL ***

6049 * there is now a tutorial on Isabelle/HOL (do 'isatool doc tutorial');

6051 * HOL/inductive package reorganized and improved: now supports mutual

6052 definitions such as

6054 inductive EVEN ODD

6055 intrs

6056 null "0 : EVEN"

6057 oddI "n : EVEN ==> Suc n : ODD"

6058 evenI "n : ODD ==> Suc n : EVEN"

6060 new theorem list "elims" contains an elimination rule for each of the

6061 recursive sets; inductive definitions now handle disjunctive premises

6062 correctly (also ZF);

6064 INCOMPATIBILITIES: requires Inductive as an ancestor; component

6065 "mutual_induct" no longer exists - the induction rule is always

6066 contained in "induct";

6069 * HOL/datatype package re-implemented and greatly improved: now

6070 supports mutually recursive datatypes such as

6072 datatype

6073 'a aexp = IF_THEN_ELSE ('a bexp) ('a aexp) ('a aexp)

6074 | SUM ('a aexp) ('a aexp)

6075 | DIFF ('a aexp) ('a aexp)

6076 | NUM 'a

6077 and

6078 'a bexp = LESS ('a aexp) ('a aexp)

6079 | AND ('a bexp) ('a bexp)

6080 | OR ('a bexp) ('a bexp)

6082 as well as indirectly recursive datatypes such as

6084 datatype

6085 ('a, 'b) term = Var 'a

6086 | App 'b ((('a, 'b) term) list)

6088 The new tactic mutual_induct_tac [<var_1>, ..., <var_n>] i performs

6089 induction on mutually / indirectly recursive datatypes.

6091 Primrec equations are now stored in theory and can be accessed via

6092 <function_name>.simps.

6094 INCOMPATIBILITIES:

6096 - Theories using datatypes must now have theory Datatype as an

6097 ancestor.

6098 - The specific <typename>.induct_tac no longer exists - use the

6099 generic induct_tac instead.

6100 - natE has been renamed to nat.exhaust - use exhaust_tac

6101 instead of res_inst_tac ... natE. Note that the variable

6102 names in nat.exhaust differ from the names in natE, this

6103 may cause some "fragile" proofs to fail.

6104 - The theorems split_<typename>_case and split_<typename>_case_asm

6105 have been renamed to <typename>.split and <typename>.split_asm.

6106 - Since default sorts of type variables are now handled correctly,

6107 some datatype definitions may have to be annotated with explicit

6108 sort constraints.

6109 - Primrec definitions no longer require function name and type

6110 of recursive argument.

6112 Consider using isatool fixdatatype to adapt your theories and proof

6113 scripts to the new package (backup your sources first!).

6116 * HOL/record package: considerably improved implementation; now

6117 includes concrete syntax for record types, terms, updates; theorems

6118 for surjective pairing and splitting !!-bound record variables; proof

6119 support is as follows:

6121 1) standard conversions (selectors or updates applied to record

6122 constructor terms) are part of the standard simpset;

6124 2) inject equations of the form ((x, y) = (x', y')) == x=x' & y=y' are

6125 made part of standard simpset and claset via addIffs;

6127 3) a tactic for record field splitting (record_split_tac) is part of

6128 the standard claset (addSWrapper);

6130 To get a better idea about these rules you may retrieve them via

6131 something like 'thms "foo.simps"' or 'thms "foo.iffs"', where "foo" is

6132 the name of your record type.

6134 The split tactic 3) conceptually simplifies by the following rule:

6136 "(!!x. PROP ?P x) == (!!a b. PROP ?P (a, b))"

6138 Thus any record variable that is bound by meta-all will automatically

6139 blow up into some record constructor term, consequently the

6140 simplifications of 1), 2) apply. Thus force_tac, auto_tac etc. shall

6141 solve record problems automatically.

6144 * reorganized the main HOL image: HOL/Integ and String loaded by

6145 default; theory Main includes everything;

6147 * automatic simplification of integer sums and comparisons, using cancellation;

6149 * added option_map_eq_Some and not_Some_eq to the default simpset and claset;

6151 * added disj_not1 = "(~P | Q) = (P --> Q)" to the default simpset;

6153 * many new identities for unions, intersections, set difference, etc.;

6155 * expand_if, expand_split, expand_sum_case and expand_nat_case are now

6156 called split_if, split_split, split_sum_case and split_nat_case (to go

6157 with add/delsplits);

6159 * HOL/Prod introduces simplification procedure unit_eq_proc rewriting

6160 (?x::unit) = (); this is made part of the default simpset, which COULD

6161 MAKE EXISTING PROOFS FAIL under rare circumstances (consider

6162 'Delsimprocs [unit_eq_proc];' as last resort); also note that

6163 unit_abs_eta_conv is added in order to counter the effect of

6164 unit_eq_proc on (%u::unit. f u), replacing it by f rather than by

6165 %u.f();

6167 * HOL/Fun INCOMPATIBILITY: `inj_onto' is now called `inj_on' (which

6168 makes more sense);

6170 * HOL/Set INCOMPATIBILITY: rule `equals0D' is now a well-formed destruct rule;

6171 It and 'sym RS equals0D' are now in the default claset, giving automatic

6172 disjointness reasoning but breaking a few old proofs.

6174 * HOL/Relation INCOMPATIBILITY: renamed the relational operator r^-1

6175 to 'converse' from 'inverse' (for compatibility with ZF and some

6176 literature);

6178 * HOL/recdef can now declare non-recursive functions, with {} supplied as

6179 the well-founded relation;

6181 * HOL/Set INCOMPATIBILITY: the complement of set A is now written -A instead of

6182 Compl A. The "Compl" syntax remains available as input syntax for this

6183 release ONLY.

6185 * HOL/Update: new theory of function updates:

6186 f(a:=b) == %x. if x=a then b else f x

6187 may also be iterated as in f(a:=b,c:=d,...);

6189 * HOL/Vimage: new theory for inverse image of a function, syntax f-``B;

6191 * HOL/List:

6192 - new function list_update written xs[i:=v] that updates the i-th

6193 list position. May also be iterated as in xs[i:=a,j:=b,...].

6194 - new function `upt' written [i..j(] which generates the list

6195 [i,i+1,...,j-1], i.e. the upper bound is excluded. To include the upper

6196 bound write [i..j], which is a shorthand for [i..j+1(].

6197 - new lexicographic orderings and corresponding wellfoundedness theorems.

6199 * HOL/Arith:

6200 - removed 'pred' (predecessor) function;

6201 - generalized some theorems about n-1;

6202 - many new laws about "div" and "mod";

6203 - new laws about greatest common divisors (see theory ex/Primes);

6205 * HOL/Relation: renamed the relational operator r^-1 "converse"

6206 instead of "inverse";

6208 * HOL/Induct/Multiset: a theory of multisets, including the wellfoundedness

6209 of the multiset ordering;

6211 * directory HOL/Real: a construction of the reals using Dedekind cuts

6212 (not included by default);

6214 * directory HOL/UNITY: Chandy and Misra's UNITY formalism;

6216 * directory HOL/Hoare: a new version of Hoare logic which permits many-sorted

6217 programs, i.e. different program variables may have different types.

6219 * calling (stac rew i) now fails if "rew" has no effect on the goal

6220 [previously, this check worked only if the rewrite rule was unconditional]

6221 Now rew can involve either definitions or equalities (either == or =).

6224 *** ZF ***

6226 * theory Main includes everything; INCOMPATIBILITY: theory ZF.thy contains

6227 only the theorems proved on ZF.ML;

6229 * ZF INCOMPATIBILITY: rule `equals0D' is now a well-formed destruct rule;

6230 It and 'sym RS equals0D' are now in the default claset, giving automatic

6231 disjointness reasoning but breaking a few old proofs.

6233 * ZF/Update: new theory of function updates

6234 with default rewrite rule f(x:=y) ` z = if(z=x, y, f`z)

6235 may also be iterated as in f(a:=b,c:=d,...);

6237 * in let x=t in u(x), neither t nor u(x) has to be an FOL term.

6239 * calling (stac rew i) now fails if "rew" has no effect on the goal