NEWS
author wenzelm
Wed Nov 20 23:00:18 2013 +0100 (2013-11-20)
changeset 54639 5adc68deb322
parent 54378 72254819befd
child 54641 50169ef2cca3
permissions -rw-r--r--
updated to Isabelle2013-2;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
     5 -------------------------------------
     6 
     7 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
     8 
     9 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
    10 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
    11 
    12 
    13 
    14 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
    15 -------------------------------------
    16 
    17 *** General ***
    18 
    19 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
    20 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
    21 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    22 
    23 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
    24 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    25 
    26 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
    27 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
    28 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
    29 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
    30 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
    31 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
    32 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
    33 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
    34 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
    35 syntax.
    36 
    37 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
    38 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    39 
    40 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
    41 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
    42 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
    43 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
    44 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
    45 
    46 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
    47 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    48 
    49 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
    50 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
    51 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
    52 
    53 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
    54 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
    55 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
    56 
    57 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
    58 eliminated old "ref" manual.
    59 
    60 
    61 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    62 
    63 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
    64 Documentation panel.
    65 
    66 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
    67 documentation.
    68 
    69 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
    70 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
    71 
    72 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
    73 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
    74 normal editing and checking process.
    75 
    76 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
    77 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
    78 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
    79 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
    80 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
    81 
    82 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
    83 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
    84 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
    85 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
    86 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
    87 
    88 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
    89 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
    90 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
    91 
    92 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
    93 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
    94 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
    95 to resolve conflict.
    96 
    97 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
    98 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
    99 
   100 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   101 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   102 such command executions while editing.
   103 
   104 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   105 document content.
   106 
   107 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   108 toplevel theorem statements.
   109 
   110 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   111 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   112 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   113 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   114 
   115 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   116 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   117 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   118 
   119 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   120 / Global Options / Appearance".
   121 
   122 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   123 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   124 
   125 
   126 *** Pure ***
   127 
   128 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   129 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   130 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   131 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   132 details.
   133 
   134 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   135 
   136 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   137 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   138 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   139 
   140 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   141 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   142 
   143 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   144 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   145 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   146 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   147 
   148 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   149 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   150 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   151 
   152 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   153 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   154 
   155 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   156 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   157 situations.
   158 
   159 
   160 *** HOL ***
   161 
   162 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   163 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   164 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   165 
   166 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   167 
   168 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   169 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   170 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   171 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   172 
   173   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   174 
   175 * Code generator:
   176   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   177     'code_instance'.
   178   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   179     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   180 
   181 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   182 examples.
   183 
   184 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   185 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   186 to distinguish both when desired.
   187 
   188 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   189 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   190 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   191 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   192 
   193 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   194 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   195 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   196 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   197 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   198 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   199 
   200 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   201 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   202 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   203 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   204 
   205 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   206 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   207 
   208 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   209 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   210 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   211 
   212 * Lifting:
   213   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   214     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
   215       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   216       transfer rules
   217     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   218       correspondence relation can be generated
   219     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   220       parametricity
   221     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   222   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   223   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   224     copies
   225   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   226     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   227     anonymous context)
   228   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
   229     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   230   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   231     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   232   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
   233     INCOMPATIBILITY
   234 
   235 * Transfer:
   236   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
   237     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   238   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   239   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   240     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   241   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   242 
   243 * Reification and reflection:
   244   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   245     "Reification".
   246   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   247   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   248 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   249 
   250 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   251   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   252     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   253     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   254   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   255     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   256   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   257     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   258     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   259     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   260     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   261     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   262     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   263     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   264   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   265     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   266   - Fact renames:
   267       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   268       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   269 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   270 
   271 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   272 
   273 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   274 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   275 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   276 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   277 
   278 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   279 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   280 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   281 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   282 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   283 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   284 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   285 lemmas.
   286 
   287 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   288 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   289 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   290 
   291 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
   292 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
   293 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   294 
   295 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   296 top and bottom elements.
   297 
   298 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   299 
   300 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   301 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   302 
   303  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
   304    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
   305    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
   306 
   307  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   308    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
   309    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   310 
   311    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
   312    arbitrary filter.
   313 
   314  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
   315    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   316    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
   317    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
   318    on a compact set.
   319 
   320  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   321    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   322    linear_continuum_topology).
   323 
   324  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   325    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
   326    on all sequences converging to x.
   327 
   328  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
   329    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
   330    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
   331    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
   332    left or right.
   333 
   334  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   335 
   336      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   337 
   338  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   339    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   340 
   341  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
   342    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
   343    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
   344    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
   345    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
   346    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
   347 
   348  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   349 
   350    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   351 
   352    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   353      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   354 
   355    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   356 
   357    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
   358      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
   359 
   360    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   361 
   362    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   363 
   364  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   365 
   366 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   367 
   368 * Nitpick:
   369   - Added option "spy"
   370   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors
   371 
   372 * Sledgehammer:
   373   - Renamed option:
   374       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   375     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   376   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy"
   377   - Better support for "isar_proofs"
   378   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server
   379 
   380 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   381 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   382 
   383 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   384   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   385   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
   386     generated code.
   387   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   388   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   389   - Fact renames:
   390     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   391     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
   392     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
   393 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   394 
   395 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
   396 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
   397 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
   398 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
   399 
   400 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
   401 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
   402 
   403 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   404 
   405 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   406 
   407     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   408     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   409 
   410 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   411 
   412 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
   413 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
   414 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
   415 
   416 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
   417 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
   418 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
   419 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   420 
   421 * HOL-BNF:
   422   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
   423     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
   424     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
   425     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
   426   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
   427     coinduct).
   428   - Renamed keywords:
   429     data ~> datatype_new
   430     codata ~> codatatype
   431     bnf_def ~> bnf
   432   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
   433     discs ~> disc
   434     map_comp' ~> map_comp
   435     map_id' ~> map_id
   436     sels ~> sel
   437     set_map' ~> set_map
   438     sets ~> set
   439 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   440 
   441 
   442 *** ML ***
   443 
   444 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
   445 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
   446 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
   447 Examples.thy in particular.
   448 
   449 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
   450 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
   451 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
   452 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
   453 
   454 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
   455 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
   456 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
   457 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
   458 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   459 
   460 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
   461 
   462     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
   463     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
   464 
   465 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   466 
   467 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
   468 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
   469 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
   470 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
   471 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
   472 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
   473 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
   474 
   475 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
   476 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
   477 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
   478 clasets separately from the context.
   479 
   480 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
   481 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
   482 
   483 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
   484 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
   485 
   486 
   487 *** System ***
   488 
   489 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
   490 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   491 
   492 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
   493 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   494 
   495 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
   496 settings variable.
   497 
   498 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
   499 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
   500 always pdf.
   501 
   502 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
   503 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
   504 
   505 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
   506 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
   507 
   508 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
   509 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
   510 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
   511 
   512 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
   513 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
   514 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
   515 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
   516 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   517 for HTML presentation of theories.
   518 
   519 
   520 
   521 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
   522 -----------------------------------
   523 
   524 *** General ***
   525 
   526 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
   527 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
   528 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
   529 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
   530 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
   531 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
   532 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
   533 
   534 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
   535 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
   536 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
   537 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
   538 
   539 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
   540 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
   541 
   542 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
   543 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
   544 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
   545 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
   546 dependencies properly.
   547 
   548 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
   549 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
   550 
   551 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
   552 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
   553 
   554 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
   555 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
   556 and "class ... context ...".
   557 
   558 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
   559 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
   560 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
   561 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
   562 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
   563 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
   564 
   565 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
   566 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
   567 
   568 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
   569 to name patterns (with clickable results).
   570 
   571 
   572 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   573 
   574 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
   575 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
   576 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
   577 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
   578 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
   579 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
   580 
   581 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
   582 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
   583 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
   584 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
   585 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
   586 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
   587 
   588 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
   589 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
   590 browser on demand.
   591 
   592 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
   593 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
   594 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
   595 that frequently occur in user interaction.
   596 
   597 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
   598 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
   599 
   600 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
   601 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
   602 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
   603 potentially infinite message streams.
   604 
   605 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
   606 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
   607 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
   608 schemes.
   609 
   610 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
   611 symbols.
   612 
   613 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
   614 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
   615 
   616 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
   617 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
   618 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
   619 
   620 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
   621 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
   622 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
   623 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
   624 
   625 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
   626 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
   627 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
   628 
   629 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
   630 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
   631 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
   632 Isabelle distribution.
   633 
   634 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
   635 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   636 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   637 
   638 
   639 *** Pure ***
   640 
   641 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   642 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   643 
   644 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
   645 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
   646 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   647 
   648 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   649 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   650 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   651 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   652 with some care where this is really required.
   653 
   654 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   655 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   656 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   657 
   658   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   659 
   660 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
   661 a Hasse diagram.
   662 
   663 
   664 *** HOL ***
   665 
   666 * Sledgehammer:
   667 
   668   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   669     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   670   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
   671   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   672   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
   673   - Renamed options:
   674       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   675       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   676       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   677       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   678 
   679 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
   680 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
   681 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   682 
   683 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
   684 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   685 
   686 * Lifting:
   687   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
   688   - quot_del attribute
   689   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
   690 
   691 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   692 expressions.
   693 
   694 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   695 pointfree expressions.
   696 
   697 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   698 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   699 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   700 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
   701 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   702 
   703 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   704 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   705 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   706 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   707 accordingly.
   708 
   709 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   710 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   711 
   712 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
   713 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   714 
   715 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   716 
   717 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   718 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   719 
   720 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   721 
   722 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
   723 
   724   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
   725   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
   726 
   727 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   728 
   729 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
   730 
   731   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   732   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   733 
   734 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   735 
   736 * Generalized the definition of limits:
   737 
   738   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
   739     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
   740     output f x converges to G.
   741 
   742   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
   743     infinity (at_bot).
   744 
   745   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
   746     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
   747 
   748   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
   749     at_top".
   750 
   751 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   752 
   753 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
   754 lattice type classes.
   755 
   756 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
   757 
   758     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
   759     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
   760 
   761 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   762 
   763 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
   764 changes as follows.
   765 
   766   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
   767 
   768       prefix ~> prefixeq
   769       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   770 
   771   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
   772     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
   773     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
   774     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
   775 
   776   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
   777     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
   778     "list_hembeq (op =)".
   779 
   780   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
   781     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   782     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
   783     Library/Prefix_Order.
   784 
   785   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
   786     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
   787 
   788       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
   789       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
   790       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
   791       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
   792       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
   793       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
   794       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
   795       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
   796       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
   797       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
   798       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
   799       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
   800       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
   801       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   802       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   803       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
   804 
   805 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   806 
   807 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
   808 
   809 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
   810 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   811 
   812 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
   813 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
   814 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
   815 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
   816 
   817   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
   818   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
   819   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
   820   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
   821   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
   822   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
   823   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
   824   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
   825   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
   826   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
   827 
   828 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   829 
   830 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
   831 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
   832 Data").
   833 
   834 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
   835 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
   836 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
   837 code.
   838 
   839 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
   840 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   841 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
   842 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   843 
   844 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
   845 
   846 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
   847 
   848 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
   849 
   850   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
   851   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
   852 
   853 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
   854 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
   855 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
   856 
   857   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
   858 
   859     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
   860     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
   861     cart_base i  removed
   862     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
   863 
   864   Theorems about these constants where removed.
   865 
   866   Renamed lemmas:
   867 
   868     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
   869     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
   870     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
   871     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
   872     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
   873     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
   874     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
   875     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
   876     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
   877     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
   878 
   879 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   880 
   881 * HOL/Probability:
   882 
   883   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
   884 
   885   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
   886     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
   887     (borel_measurable_induct).
   888 
   889   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
   890     projective family).
   891 
   892 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
   893 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
   894 
   895 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
   896 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
   897 datatypes.
   898 
   899 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
   900 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
   901 
   902 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
   903 trees for the code generator.
   904 
   905 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
   906 Lifting/Transfer.
   907 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
   908 
   909 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
   910 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   911 
   912 
   913 *** Document preparation ***
   914 
   915 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
   916 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
   917 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
   918 
   919 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
   920 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
   921 
   922 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
   923 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
   924 document/root.tex.
   925 
   926 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
   927 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   928 
   929 
   930 *** ML ***
   931 
   932 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
   933 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
   934 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
   935 
   936 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
   937 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
   938 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
   939 
   940 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
   941 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
   942 necessarily printing visible text.
   943 
   944 
   945 *** System ***
   946 
   947 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
   948 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
   949 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
   950 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
   951 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
   952 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
   953 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
   954 
   955 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
   956 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
   957 
   958   isabelle build -s -b HOL
   959 
   960 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
   961 
   962 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
   963 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
   964 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
   965 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
   966 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
   967 
   968 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
   969 required for "isabelle build", for example.
   970 
   971 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
   972 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
   973 
   974 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
   975 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   976 
   977 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
   978 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
   979 version of Isabelle.
   980 
   981 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
   982 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
   983 
   984 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
   985 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   986 for home-made settings.
   987 
   988 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
   989 
   990 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
   991 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
   992 configuration.
   993 
   994 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
   995 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
   996 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
   997 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
   998 bundled as Isabelle component.
   999 
  1000 
  1001 
  1002 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1003 ------------------------------
  1004 
  1005 *** General ***
  1006 
  1007 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1008 
  1009   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1010     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1011   - markup for bound variables
  1012   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1013   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1014   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1015     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1016 
  1017 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1018 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1019 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1020 
  1021 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1022 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1023 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1024 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1025 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1026 
  1027   context
  1028     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1029     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1030   begin
  1031 
  1032   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1033 
  1034   end
  1035 
  1036   thm my_trans
  1037 
  1038 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1039 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1040 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1041 
  1042 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1043 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1044 
  1045 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1046 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1047 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1048 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1049 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1050 
  1051 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1052 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1053 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1054 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1055 indices of schematic variables.
  1056 
  1057 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1058 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1059 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1060 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1061 etc. was exploited.
  1062 
  1063 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1064 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1065 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1066 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1067 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1068 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1069 
  1070 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1071 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1072 manual.
  1073 
  1074 
  1075 *** Pure ***
  1076 
  1077 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1078 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1079 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1080 
  1081 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1082 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1083 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1084 undocumented feature.)
  1085 
  1086 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1087 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1088 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1089 
  1090   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1091 
  1092   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1093     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1094 
  1095 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1096 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1097 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1098 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1099 
  1100 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1101 
  1102     num ~> num_token
  1103     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1104     xstr ~> str_token
  1105 
  1106 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1107 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1108 position information via constraints).
  1109 
  1110 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1111 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1112 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1113 
  1114 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1115 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1116 
  1117 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1118 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1119 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1120 
  1121 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1122 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1123 
  1124 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1125 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1126 
  1127   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1128 
  1129 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1130 
  1131 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1132 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1133 
  1134 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1135 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1136 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1137 
  1138 
  1139 *** HOL ***
  1140 
  1141 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1142 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1143 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1144 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1145 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1146 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1147 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1148 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1149 possible.
  1150 
  1151 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1152 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1153 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1154 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1155 
  1156 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1157 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1158 
  1159 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1160 
  1161 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1162 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1163 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1164 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1165 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1166 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1167 
  1168   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1169     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1170 
  1171   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1172     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1173     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1174 
  1175   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1176     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1177 
  1178   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1179     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1180     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1181 
  1182   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1183     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1184 
  1185 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1186 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1187 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1188 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1189 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1190 
  1191   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1192     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1193     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1194     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1195     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1196 
  1197     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1198     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1199 
  1200   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1201     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1202     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1203     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1204     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1205     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1206     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1207     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1208 
  1209   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1210     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1211     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1212     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1213 
  1214   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1215     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1216     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1217     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1218 
  1219   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1220     from type nat to type int.
  1221 
  1222 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1223 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1224 
  1225   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1226     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1227     type.  Example syntax:
  1228 
  1229     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1230       is List.insert
  1231 
  1232     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1233     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1234     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1235     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1236     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1237     by the package.
  1238 
  1239   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1240     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1241     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1242     code generation for each constant.
  1243 
  1244   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1245     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1246     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1247     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1248     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1249 
  1250   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1251     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1252     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1253 
  1254 * Quotient package:
  1255 
  1256   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1257     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1258 
  1259   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1260     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1261 
  1262   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1263     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1264     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1265 
  1266   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1267     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1268 
  1269 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1270 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1271 
  1272 * Quickcheck:
  1273 
  1274   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1275     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1276     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1277     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1278     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1279 
  1280     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1281     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1282     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1283 
  1284     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1285     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1286 
  1287     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1288     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1289     show genuine counterexamples.
  1290 
  1291   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1292     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1293 
  1294     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1295     constructors of that type.
  1296 
  1297   - Support for multisets.
  1298 
  1299   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1300 
  1301   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1302     conjectures in a locale context.
  1303 
  1304 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1305 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1306 
  1307 * Sledgehammer:
  1308   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1309     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1310   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1311   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1312     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1313   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1314   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1315   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1316   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1317 
  1318 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1319 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1320 
  1321 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1322 
  1323 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1324 
  1325 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1326 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1327 
  1328   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1329 
  1330 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1331 a list and a nat.
  1332 
  1333 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1334 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1335 
  1336 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1337 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1338 default.
  1339 
  1340 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1341 
  1342   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1343 
  1344 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1345 
  1346 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1347 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1348 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1349 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1350 one_case.
  1351 
  1352 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1353 the result of the fact expression.
  1354 
  1355 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1356 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1357 of some relation theorems:
  1358 
  1359   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1360   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1361   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1362   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1363   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1364   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1365 
  1366 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1367 
  1368 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1369 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1370 
  1371 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1372 
  1373 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1374 to match the constant's name:
  1375 
  1376   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1377   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1378   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1379   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1380   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1381   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1382   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1383   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1384   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1385   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1386   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1387   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1388   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1389   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1390   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1391   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1392   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1393   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1394   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1395   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1396   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1397   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1398   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1399   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1400 
  1401 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1402 
  1403 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1404 and corresponding theorem names:
  1405 
  1406   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1407 
  1408   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1409 
  1410   - Renamed theorems:
  1411 
  1412     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1413     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1414     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1415     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1416     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1417     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1418     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1419     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1420     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1421     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1422     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1423     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1424     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1425     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1426     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1427     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1428     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1429     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1430     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1431     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1432     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1433     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1434     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1435 
  1436     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1437 
  1438     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1439 
  1440 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1441 
  1442 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1443 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1444 
  1445   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1446   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1447   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1448   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1449   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1450   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1451   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1452   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1453   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1454   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1455   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1456   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1457   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1458   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1459   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1460   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1461   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1462   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1463   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1464   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1465   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1466 
  1467 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1468 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1469 
  1470 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1471 
  1472 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1473 
  1474   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1475   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1476   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1477   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1478   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1479   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1480   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1481   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1482   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1483   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1484   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1485   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1486   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1487   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1488   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1489   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1490   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1491   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1492 
  1493 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1494 
  1495 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1496 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1497 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1498 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1499 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1500 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1501 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1502 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1503 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1504 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1505 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1506 
  1507 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1508 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1509 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1510 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1511 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1512 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1513 
  1514 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1515 through option types.
  1516 
  1517 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1518 relations.
  1519 
  1520 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1521 
  1522 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1523 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1524 
  1525   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1526   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1527   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1528   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1529   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1530   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1531   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1532   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1533   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1534   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1535   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1536   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1537   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1538   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1539   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1540   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1541   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1542   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1543   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1544   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1545   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1546   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1547   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1548   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1549   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1550   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1551   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1552   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1553   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1554   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1555   zless_le ~> less_le
  1556   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1557   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1558   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1559 
  1560 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1561 
  1562   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1563 
  1564 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1565 
  1566 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1567 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1568 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1569 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1570 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1571 
  1572 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1573 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1574 
  1575 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1576 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1577 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1578 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1579 follows:
  1580 
  1581   Operations:
  1582   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1583   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1584   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1585   del -> rbt_del
  1586   delete -> rbt_delete
  1587   ins -> rbt_ins
  1588   insert -> rbt_insert
  1589   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1590   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1591   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1592   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1593   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1594   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1595   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1596   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1597   union -> rbt_union
  1598   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1599   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1600 
  1601   Lemmas:
  1602   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1603   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1604   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1605   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1606   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1607   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1608   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1609   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1610   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1611   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1612   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1613   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1614   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1615   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1616   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1617   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1618   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1619   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1620   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1621   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1622   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1623   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1624   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1625   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1626   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1627   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1628   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1629   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1630   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1631   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1632   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1633   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1634   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1635   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1636   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1637   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1638   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1639   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1640   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1641   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1642   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1643   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1644   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1645   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1646   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1647   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1648   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1649   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1650   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1651   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1652   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1653   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1654   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1655   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1656   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1657   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1658   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1659   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1660   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1661   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1662   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1663   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1664   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1665   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1666   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1667   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1668   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1669   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1670   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1671   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1672   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1673   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1674   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1675   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1676   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1677   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1678   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1679   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1680   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1681   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1682   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1683   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1684   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1685 
  1686 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1687 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1688 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1689 
  1690   Changed Operations:
  1691   float_abs -> abs
  1692   float_nprt -> nprt
  1693   float_pprt -> pprt
  1694   pow2 -> use powr
  1695   round_down -> float_round_down
  1696   round_up -> float_round_up
  1697   scale -> exponent
  1698 
  1699   Removed Operations:
  1700   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1701 
  1702   Renamed Lemmas:
  1703   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1704   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1705   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1706   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1707   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1708   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1709   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1710   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1711   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1712   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1713   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1714   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1715   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1716   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1717   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1718   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1719   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1720   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1721   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1722   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1723   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1724   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1725   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1726   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1727   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1728   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1729   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1730   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1731   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1732   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1733   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1734   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1735   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1736   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1737   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1738   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1739 
  1740   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1741   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1742   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1743   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1744   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1745   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1746   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1747   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1748   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1749   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1750 
  1751 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1752 association lists with distinct keys.
  1753 
  1754 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1755 annotated commands.
  1756 
  1757 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1758 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1759 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1760 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1761 
  1762 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1763 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1764 instead.
  1765 
  1766   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1767   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1768   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1769   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1770   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1771   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1772   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1773   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1774   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1775   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1776   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1777   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1778   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1779   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1780   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1781   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1782   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1783   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1784   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1785   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1786   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1787   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1788   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1789   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1790   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1791   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1792   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1793   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1794   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1795   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1796   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1797   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1798   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1799   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1800   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1801   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1802   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1803   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1804   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1805   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1806   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1807 
  1808 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1809 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1810 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1811 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1812 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1813 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1814 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1815 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1816 
  1817 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1818 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1819 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1820 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1821 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1822 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1823 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1824 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1825 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1826 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1827 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1828 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1829 
  1830   Renamed constants:
  1831   measure -> emeasure
  1832   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1833   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1834   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1835   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1836 
  1837   Removed locales:
  1838   completeable_measure_space
  1839   finite_measure_space
  1840   finite_prob_space
  1841   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1842   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1843   finite_sigma_algebra
  1844   measure_space
  1845   pair_finite_prob_space
  1846   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1847   pair_finite_space
  1848   pair_sigma_algebra
  1849   product_sigma_algebra
  1850 
  1851   Removed constants:
  1852   conditional_space
  1853   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1854   image_space
  1855   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1856   pair_measure_generator
  1857   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1858   subvimage
  1859 
  1860   Replacement theorems:
  1861   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1862   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1863   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1864   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1865   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1866   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1867   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1868   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1869   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1870   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1871   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1872   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1873   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1874   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1875   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1876   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1877   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1878   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1879   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1880   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1881   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1882   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1883   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1884   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1885   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1886   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1887   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1888   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1889   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1890   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1891   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1892   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1893   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1894   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1895   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1896   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1897   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1898   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1899   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1900   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1901   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1902   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1903   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1904   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1905   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1906   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1907   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1908   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1909   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1910   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1911   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1912   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1913   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1914   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1915   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1916   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1917   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1918   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1919   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1920   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1921   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1922   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1923   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1924   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1925   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1926   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1927   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1928   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1929   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1930   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1931   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1932   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1933   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1934   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1935   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1936   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1937   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1938   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1939   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1940   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1941   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1942   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1943   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1944   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1945   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1946   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1947   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1948   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1949   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1950   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1951   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1952   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1953   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1954   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1955   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1956   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1957   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1958   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1959   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1960   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1961   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1962   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1963   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1964   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1965   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1966   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1967   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1968   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1969   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1970   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1971   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1972   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1973   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1974   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1975   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1976   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1977   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1978   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1979   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1980   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1981   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1982   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1983   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1984   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1985   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1986   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1987   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1988   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1989 
  1990 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1991 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1992 
  1993 
  1994 *** FOL ***
  1995 
  1996 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1997 
  1998 
  1999 *** ZF ***
  2000 
  2001 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2002 analysis.
  2003 
  2004 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2005 
  2006 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2007 
  2008 
  2009 *** ML ***
  2010 
  2011 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2012 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2013 
  2014 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2015 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2016 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2017 
  2018 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2019 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2020 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2021 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2022 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2023 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2024 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2025 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2026 
  2027 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2028 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2029 
  2030 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2031 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2032 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2033 
  2034 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2035 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2036 
  2037 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2038 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2039 context as well.
  2040 
  2041 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2042 
  2043   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2044   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2045   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2046   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2047   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2048   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2049   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2050   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2051   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2052   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2053   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2054   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2055 
  2056 
  2057 *** System ***
  2058 
  2059 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2060 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2061 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2062 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2063 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2064 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2065 the generic user home was intended.
  2066 
  2067 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2068 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2069 
  2070 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2071 (not just JRE).
  2072 
  2073 
  2074 
  2075 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2076 ------------------------------------
  2077 
  2078 *** General ***
  2079 
  2080 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2081 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2082 
  2083   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2084     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2085     files for checking).
  2086 
  2087   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2088     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2089     positions.
  2090 
  2091   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2092     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2093     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2094 
  2095   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2096     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2097     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2098 
  2099   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2100     cores.
  2101 
  2102   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2103     versions (garbage collection).
  2104 
  2105 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2106 including some remaining limitations.
  2107 
  2108 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2109 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2110 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2111 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2112 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2113 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2114 
  2115 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2116 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2117 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2118 
  2119 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2120 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2121 usedir option -Q.
  2122 
  2123 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2124 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2125 
  2126   long_names   ~> names_long
  2127   short_names  ~> names_short
  2128   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2129 
  2130 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2131 
  2132   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2133 
  2134 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2135 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2136 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2137 
  2138 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2139 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2140 
  2141 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2142   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2143   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2144   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2145     "Classical Reasoner".
  2146 
  2147 
  2148 *** HOL ***
  2149 
  2150 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2151 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2152 
  2153 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2154 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2155 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2156 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2157 class complete_linorder.
  2158 
  2159 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2160 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2161 
  2162 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2163 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2164 
  2165   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2166   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2167   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2168   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2169   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2170   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2171   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2172   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2173   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2174   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2175   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2176 
  2177 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2178 
  2179   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2180   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2181   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2182   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2183   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2184   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2185   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2186   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2187   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2188   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2189   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2190   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2191   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2192   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2193   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2194   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2195 
  2196 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2197 
  2198 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2199 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2200 
  2201 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2202 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2203 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2204 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2205 
  2206 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2207 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2208 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2209 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2210 
  2211 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2212 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2213 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2214 
  2215 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2216 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2217 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2218 
  2219 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2220 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2221 
  2222 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2223 
  2224     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2225     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2226 
  2227 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2228 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2229 
  2230 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2231 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2232 
  2233 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2234 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2235 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2236 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2237 
  2238   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2239   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2240   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2241   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2242   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2243   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2244   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2245 
  2246 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2247 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2248 
  2249   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2250   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2251   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2252   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2253   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2254   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2255   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2256   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2257   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2258   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2259   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2260   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2261   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2262   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2263   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2264   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2265   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2266   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2267   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2268   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2269   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2270   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2271   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2272   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2273   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2274   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2275   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2276   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2277   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2278   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2279   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2280   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2281   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2282   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2283   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2284   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2285   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2286   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2287   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2288   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2289   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2290   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2291   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2292   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2293   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2294   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2295   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2296   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2297   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2298   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2299   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2300   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2301   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2302   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2303   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2304   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2305   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2306   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2307   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2308   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2309   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2310   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2311   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2312   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2313   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2314   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2315   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2316   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2317   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2318   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2319   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2320   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2321   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2322   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2323   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2324   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2325   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2326   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2327   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2328   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2329   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2330   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2331 
  2332 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2333 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2334 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2335 
  2336 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2337 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2338 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2339 
  2340 * Code generation:
  2341 
  2342   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2343     characters in the target language.
  2344 
  2345   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2346     instead.
  2347 
  2348   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2349 
  2350   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2351     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2352 
  2353       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2354 
  2355 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2356 
  2357 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2358 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2359 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2360 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2361 syntax.
  2362 
  2363 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2364 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2365 
  2366 * Nitpick:
  2367   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2368   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2369   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2370     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2371 
  2372 * Sledgehammer:
  2373   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2374   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2375     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2376   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2377     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2378   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2379     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2380   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2381     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2382   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2383     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2384 
  2385 * Metis:
  2386   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2387   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2388     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2389 
  2390 * Command 'try':
  2391   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2392     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2393   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2394     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2395 
  2396 * Quickcheck:
  2397   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2398     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2399   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2400     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2401   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2402     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2403     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2404     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2405   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2406     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2407 
  2408 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2409 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2410 
  2411 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2412 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2413 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2414 
  2415 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2416 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2417 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2418 
  2419 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2420 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2421 
  2422 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2423 arithmetic.
  2424 
  2425 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2426 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2427 and lattice type classes.
  2428 
  2429 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2430 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2431 
  2432 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2433 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2434 
  2435 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2436 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2437 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2438 
  2439   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2440   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2441   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2442   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2443 
  2444 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2445 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2446 constants:
  2447 
  2448   type inat   ~> type enat
  2449   Fin         ~> enat
  2450   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2451   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2452   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2453 
  2454 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2455 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2456 
  2457 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2458 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2459 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2460 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2461 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2462 
  2463 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2464 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2465 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2466 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2467 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2468 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2469 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2470 
  2471   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2472   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2473   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2474   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2475 
  2476 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2477 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2478 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2479 
  2480   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2481   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2482   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2483   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2484   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2485   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2486   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2487   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2488   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2489   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2490   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2491   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2492   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2493   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2494   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2495   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2496   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2497   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2498   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2499   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2500   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2501   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2502   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2503   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2504   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2505   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2506   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2507   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2508   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2509   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2510   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2511   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2512   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2513   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2514   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2515   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2516   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2517   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2518   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2519   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2520   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2521   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2522   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2523   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2524   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2525   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2526   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2527   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2528   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2529   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2530   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2531 
  2532 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2533   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2534   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2535   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2536   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2537     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2538 
  2539 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2540 
  2541   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2542   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2543   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2544   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2545   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2546   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2547   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2548   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2549   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2550   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2551   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2552   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2553   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2554   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2555   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2556   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2557   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2558   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2559   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2560   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2561   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2562   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2563   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2564   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2565   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2566 
  2567 
  2568 *** Document preparation ***
  2569 
  2570 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2571 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2572 same.
  2573 
  2574 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2575 result.
  2576 
  2577 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2578 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2579 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2580 
  2581 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2582 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2583 
  2584 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2585 like this:
  2586 
  2587   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2588   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2589 
  2590 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2591 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2592 layouts.
  2593 
  2594 
  2595 *** ML ***
  2596 
  2597 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2598 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2599 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2600 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2601 under external program control.
  2602 
  2603 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2604 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2605 
  2606 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2607 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2608 (better known as Proof General).
  2609 
  2610 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2611 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2612 
  2613 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2614 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2615 
  2616 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2617 (including quotes etc.).
  2618 
  2619 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2620 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2621 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2622 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2623 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2624 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2625 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2626 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2627 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2628 
  2629 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2630 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2631 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2632 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2633 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2634 
  2635 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2636 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2637 
  2638 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2639 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2640 
  2641 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2642 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2643 
  2644 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2645 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2646 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2647 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2648 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2649 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2650 proper Proof.context.
  2651 
  2652 
  2653 *** System ***
  2654 
  2655 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2656 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2657 
  2658 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2659 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2660 
  2661 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2662 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2663 
  2664   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2665   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2666   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2667   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2668   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2669 
  2670 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2671 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2672 
  2673 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2674 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2675 example:
  2676 
  2677   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2678 
  2679 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2680 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2681 
  2682 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2683 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2684 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2685 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2686 
  2687 
  2688 
  2689 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2690 ----------------------------------
  2691 
  2692 *** General ***
  2693 
  2694 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2695 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2696 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2697 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2698 like this:
  2699 
  2700   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2701 
  2702 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2703 
  2704 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2705 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2706 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2707 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2708 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2709 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2710 
  2711 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2712 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2713 the following package declarations:
  2714 
  2715   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2716   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2717 
  2718 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2719 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2720 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2721 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2722 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2723 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2724 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2725 
  2726 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2727 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2728 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2729 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2730 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2731 
  2732 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2733 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2734 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2735 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2736 
  2737 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2738 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2739 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2740 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2741 
  2742   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2743 
  2744   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2745   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2746   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2747   show_types                    show_types
  2748   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2749   show_consts                   show_consts
  2750   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2751 
  2752   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2753   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2754   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2755 
  2756   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2757   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2758 
  2759   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2760 
  2761   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2762   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2763   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2764   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2765   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2766 
  2767 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2768 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2769 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2770 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2771 
  2772 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2773 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2774 
  2775   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2776   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2777 
  2778 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2779 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2780 float_token.
  2781 
  2782 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2783 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2784 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2785 
  2786 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2787 DejaVu Sans.
  2788 
  2789 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2790 
  2791 
  2792 *** Pure ***
  2793 
  2794 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2795 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2796 time.
  2797 
  2798 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2799 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2800 
  2801 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2802 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2803 
  2804 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2805 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2806 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2807 command already provided this functionality.
  2808 
  2809 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2810 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2811 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2812 without interpretations.
  2813 
  2814 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2815 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2816 
  2817 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2818 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2819 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2820 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2821 
  2822 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2823 'definition' instead.
  2824 
  2825 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2826 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2827 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2828 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2829 
  2830 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2831 constructors.
  2832 
  2833 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2834 the local file system.
  2835 
  2836 
  2837 *** HOL ***
  2838 
  2839 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2840 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2841 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2842 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2843 
  2844   declare [[coercion f]]
  2845 
  2846 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2847 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2848 
  2849   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2850 
  2851 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2852 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2853 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2854 other theories like this:
  2855 
  2856   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2857 
  2858 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2859 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2860 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2861 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2862 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2863 for examples.
  2864 
  2865 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2866 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2867 
  2868 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2869 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2870 
  2871 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2872 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2873 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2874 
  2875 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2876 functorial structure of types.
  2877 
  2878 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2879 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2880 
  2881 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2882 languages.
  2883 
  2884 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2885 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2886 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2887 
  2888 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2889 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2890 
  2891 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2892 combinators any longer.
  2893 
  2894 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2895 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2896 
  2897 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2898 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2899 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2900 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2901 
  2902   record 'a foo = ...
  2903   ...
  2904   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2905 
  2906 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2907 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2908 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2909 
  2910 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2911 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2912 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2913 
  2914 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2915 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2916 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2917 
  2918 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2919 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2920 
  2921 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2922 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2923 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2924 independently.
  2925 
  2926 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2927 counter example search.
  2928 
  2929 * Sledgehammer:
  2930   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2931     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2932     sledgehammer").
  2933   - Renamed commands:
  2934     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2935     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2936     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2937     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2938   - Renamed options:
  2939     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2940     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2941     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2942     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2943     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2944 
  2945 * Nitpick:
  2946   - Renamed options:
  2947     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2948     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2949     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2950   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2951   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2952   - Added "whack" option.
  2953   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2954   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2955   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2956   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2957     higher cardinalities.
  2958   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2959 
  2960 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2961 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2962 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2963 
  2964     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2965 
  2966 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2967 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2968 
  2969 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2970 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2971 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2972 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2973 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2974 "smt_solver".
  2975 
  2976 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2977 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2978 
  2979 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2980 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2981 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2982 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2983 
  2984 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2985   - Renamed:
  2986     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2987     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2988     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2989   - Added:
  2990     smt_verbose
  2991     smt_random_seed
  2992     smt_datatypes
  2993     smt_infer_triggers
  2994     smt_monomorph_limit
  2995     cvc3_options
  2996     remote_cvc3_options
  2997     remote_z3_options
  2998     yices_options
  2999 
  3000 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3001 header.
  3002 
  3003 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3004 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3005 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3006 
  3007   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3008 
  3009 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3010 
  3011 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3012 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3013 
  3014 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3015 
  3016 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3017 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3018 
  3019 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3020 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3021 
  3022 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3023 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3024 
  3025 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3026 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3027 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3028 
  3029 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3030 
  3031 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3032 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3033 
  3034 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3035 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3036 
  3037 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3038 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3039 for congruent(2)).
  3040 
  3041 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3042 
  3043   types
  3044     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3045     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3046 
  3047   constants
  3048     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3049     True ~> HOL.True
  3050     False ~> HOL.False
  3051     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3052     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3053     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3054     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3055     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3056     The ~> HOL.The
  3057     All ~> HOL.All
  3058     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3059     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3060     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3061     If ~> HOL.If
  3062     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3063     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3064     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3065     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3066     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3067     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3068     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3069     op : ~> Set.member
  3070     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3071 
  3072 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3073 
  3074 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3075 
  3076     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3077     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3078     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3079     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3080     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3081     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3082     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3083     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3084 
  3085 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3086 
  3087 * More stylized fact names:
  3088 
  3089   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3090   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3091   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3092   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3093 
  3094 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3095 
  3096 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3097 
  3098   constants
  3099     null ~> List.null
  3100 
  3101   facts
  3102     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3103     null_empty ~> null_def
  3104 
  3105 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3106 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3107 generation.
  3108 
  3109 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3110 Haskell code.
  3111 
  3112 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3113 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3114 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3115 
  3116 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3117 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3118 
  3119 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3120 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3121 
  3122 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3123 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3124 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3125 
  3126 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3127 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3128 
  3129 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3130 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3131 
  3132 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3133 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3134 referred to by its qualified name.
  3135 
  3136   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3137   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3138   product ~>  Enum.product
  3139 
  3140 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3141 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3142 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3143 
  3144 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3145 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3146 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3147 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3148 
  3149 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3150 sort_key.
  3151 
  3152 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3153 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3154 
  3155 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3156 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3157 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3158 
  3159   types
  3160     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3161               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3162               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3163         (depends on your needs)
  3164 
  3165   constants
  3166      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3167      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3168      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3169 
  3170 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3171 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3172 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3173 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3174 
  3175 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3176 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3177 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3178 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3179 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3180 
  3181 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3182 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3183 
  3184 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3185 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3186 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3187 
  3188 
  3189 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3190 
  3191 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3192 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3193 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3194 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3195 compatibility.
  3196 
  3197 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3198 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3199 
  3200 
  3201 *** HOLCF ***
  3202 
  3203 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3204 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3205 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3206 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3207 
  3208 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3209 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3210 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3211 
  3212   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3213   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3214   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3215 
  3216 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3217 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3218 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3219 
  3220 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3221 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3222 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3223 domain definition now works:
  3224 
  3225   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3226 
  3227 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3228 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3229 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3230 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3231 
  3232   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3233     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3234 
  3235   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3236 
  3237 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3238 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3239 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3240 
  3241 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3242 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3243 
  3244 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3245 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3246 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3247 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3248 
  3249 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3250 
  3251 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3252 
  3253 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3254 
  3255 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3256 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3257 
  3258 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3259 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3260 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3261 
  3262 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3263 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3264 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3265 
  3266 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3267 still supported as an input translation.
  3268 
  3269 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3270 
  3271   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3272   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3273   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3274   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3275   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3276   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3277   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3278 
  3279 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3280 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3281 
  3282   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3283   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3284   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3285   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3286   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3287   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3288 
  3289 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3290 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3291 
  3292 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3293 
  3294   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3295   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3296   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3297   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3298 
  3299 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3300 
  3301 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3302 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3303 
  3304 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3305 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3306 
  3307   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3308   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3309   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3310   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3311   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3312   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3313   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3314   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3315   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3316   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3317   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3318   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3319   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3320   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3321   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3322   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3323   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3324   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3325   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3326   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3327 
  3328 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3329 
  3330   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3331   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3332   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3333   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3334   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3335   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3336   box_less             ~> box_below
  3337   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3338   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3339   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3340   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3341   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3342   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3343   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3344   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3345   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3346   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3347   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3348   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3349   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3350   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3351   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3352   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3353   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3354   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3355   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3356   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3357   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3358   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3359   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3360   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3361   up_less              ~> up_below
  3362   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3363   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3364   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3365   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3366   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3367   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3368   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3369   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3370   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3371   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3372   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3373   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3374   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3375 
  3376 
  3377 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3378 
  3379 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3380 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3381 
  3382 
  3383 *** ML ***
  3384 
  3385 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3386 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3387 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3388 
  3389 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3390 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3391 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3392 
  3393 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3394 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3395 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3396 
  3397 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3398 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3399 
  3400 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3401 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3402 
  3403 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3404 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3405 
  3406 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3407 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3408 
  3409 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3410 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3411 almost all situations.
  3412 
  3413 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3414 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3415 Isabelle/ML.
  3416 
  3417 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3418 meaning.
  3419 
  3420 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3421 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3422 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3423 
  3424 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3425 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3426 
  3427 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3428 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3429 
  3430 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3431 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3432 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3433 
  3434 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3435 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3436 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3437 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3438 configuration options.
  3439 
  3440 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3441 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3442 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3443 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3444 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3445 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3446 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3447 
  3448 
  3449 
  3450 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3451 ---------------------------------
  3452 
  3453 *** General ***
  3454 
  3455 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3456 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3457 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3458 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3459 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3460 their full internal name.
  3461 
  3462 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3463 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3464 Some hints on upgrading:
  3465 
  3466   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3467     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3468     which are independent of this issue.
  3469 
  3470   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3471     provides the following special forms:
  3472 
  3473       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3474       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3475       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3476 
  3477     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3478     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3479     extra variables".
  3480 
  3481     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3482     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3483     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3484     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3485     "logic".
  3486 
  3487   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3488     antiquotations:
  3489 
  3490       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3491       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3492       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3493       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3494 
  3495   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3496     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3497     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3498     antiquotations.
  3499 
  3500 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3501 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3502 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3503 diagnose syntax problems.
  3504 
  3505 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3506 
  3507 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3508 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3509 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3510 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3511 
  3512 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3513 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3514 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3515 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3516 
  3517 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3518 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3519 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3520 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3521 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3522 
  3523 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3524 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3525 
  3526 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3527 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3528 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3529 
  3530   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3531 
  3532 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3533 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3534 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3535 
  3536 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3537 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3538 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3539 
  3540 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3541 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3542 
  3543 
  3544 *** Pure ***
  3545 
  3546 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3547 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3548 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3549 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3550 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3551 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3552 inspect proof terms.
  3553 
  3554 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3555 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3556 are added internally.  For example:
  3557 
  3558   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3559 
  3560 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3561 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3562 
  3563 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3564 
  3565 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3566 'class' instead.
  3567 
  3568 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3569 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3570 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3571 
  3572 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3573 invariants.
  3574 
  3575 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3576 user space functionality any longer.
  3577 
  3578 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3579 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3580 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3581 
  3582 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3583 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3584 
  3585 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3586 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3587 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3588 
  3589 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3590 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3591 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3592 
  3593 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3594 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3595 
  3596 
  3597 *** HOL ***
  3598 
  3599 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3600 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3601 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3602 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3603 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3604 
  3605 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3606 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3607 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3608 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3609 
  3610   fun
  3611     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3612   where
  3613     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3614 
  3615   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3616     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3617 
  3618   quotient_definition
  3619     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3620 
  3621 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3622 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3623 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3624 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3625 
  3626 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3627 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3628 
  3629 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3630 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3631 
  3632 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3633 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3634 
  3635 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3636 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3637 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3638 
  3639 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3640 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3641 
  3642 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3643 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3644 
  3645 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3646 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3647 
  3648 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3649 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3650 
  3651 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3652 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3653 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3654 
  3655   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3656   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3657   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3658   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3659   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3660   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3661   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3662   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3663   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3664   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3665   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3666   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3667   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3668   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3669   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3670   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3671   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3672   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3673   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3674   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3675   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3676   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3677   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3678   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3679   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3680   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3681   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3682   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3683   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3684   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3685 
  3686 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3687 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3688 
  3689 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3690 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3691 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3692 
  3693 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3694 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3695 
  3696 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3697 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3698 
  3699 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3700 
  3701 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3702 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3703 
  3704 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3705 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3706 
  3707 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3708 
  3709 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3710 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3711 
  3712 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3713 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3714 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3715 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3716 
  3717 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3718   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3719   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3720   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3721 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3722 
  3723 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3724 lattices):
  3725 
  3726     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3727     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3728 
  3729     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3730 
  3731     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3732     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3733     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3734     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3735     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3736     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3737     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3738     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3739     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3740     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3741     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3742     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3743     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3744 
  3745     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3746     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3747     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3748     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3749     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3750     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3751     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3752     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3753     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3754     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3755     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3756     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3757     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3758     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3759     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3760     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3761     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3762     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3763 
  3764   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3765   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3766 
  3767     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3768     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3769     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3770     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3771     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3772 
  3773 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3774 
  3775 * Refined field classes:
  3776   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3777     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3778     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3779   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3780 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3781 
  3782 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3783   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3784   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3785   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3786     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3787   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3788     equal_neg_zero.
  3789 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3790 
  3791 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3792 sets to lattices:
  3793 
  3794   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3795   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3796   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3797   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3798   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3799   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3800   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3801   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3802   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3803   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3804 
  3805 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3806 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3807 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3808 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3809 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3810 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3811 
  3812 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3813 multiset order:
  3814 
  3815   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3816     <= and <;
  3817   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3818     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3819     multiset_order;
  3820   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3821     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3822     generation;
  3823   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3824     if needed.
  3825 
  3826 Renamed:
  3827 
  3828   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3829   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3830   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3831 
  3832 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3833 
  3834 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3835 
  3836 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3837 
  3838 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3839 
  3840 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3841 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3842 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3843 
  3844   Constants:
  3845   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3846   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3847   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3848   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3849   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3850   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3851   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3852   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3853   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3854   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3855   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3856   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3857   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3858 
  3859   Lemmas:
  3860   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3861   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3862   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3863   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3864   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3865   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3866   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3867   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3868   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3869   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3870   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3871   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3872   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3873 
  3874 * Sledgehammer:
  3875   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3876     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3877     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3878     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3879     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3880     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3881     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3882   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3883   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3884     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3885   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3886     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3887     is still experimental.)
  3888   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3889     full-typed mode.
  3890   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3891 
  3892 * Nitpick:
  3893   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3894   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3895   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3896     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3897   - Added support for quotient types.
  3898   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3899     constructs.
  3900   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3901     "termination" proofs).
  3902   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3903   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3904   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3905   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3906     record getters.
  3907   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3908   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3909   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3910   - Added "atoms" option.
  3911   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3912     problems.
  3913   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3914     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3915     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3916   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3917     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3918   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3919 
  3920 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3921   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3922   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3923   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3924   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3925   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3926   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3927   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3928   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3929   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3930 
  3931 
  3932 *** HOLCF ***
  3933 
  3934 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3935 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3936 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3937 
  3938 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3939 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3940 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3941 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3942 
  3943 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3944 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3945 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3946 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3947 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3948 
  3949 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3950 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3951 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3952 
  3953 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3954 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3955 
  3956   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3957   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3958 
  3959 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3960 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3961 
  3962   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3963   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3964   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3965   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3966   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3967 
  3968 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3969 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3970 
  3971   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3972   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3973   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3974 
  3975 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3976 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3977 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3978 
  3979 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3980 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3981 
  3982 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3983 
  3984 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3985 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3986 
  3987 
  3988 *** ML ***
  3989 
  3990 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3991 
  3992     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3993     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3994 
  3995     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3996     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3997     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3998     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3999 
  4000     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4001     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4002     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4003 
  4004 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4005 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4006 
  4007 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4008 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4009 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4010 
  4011 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4012 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4013 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4014 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4015 
  4016 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4017 the context or even global references.
  4018 
  4019 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4020 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4021 
  4022 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4023 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4024 
  4025   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4026   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4027   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4028   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4029   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4030   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4031   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4032   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4033   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4034   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4035 
  4036 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4037 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4038 
  4039 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4040 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4041 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4042 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4043 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4044 
  4045 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4046 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4047 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4048 Theory_Data version.
  4049 
  4050 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4051 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4052 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4053 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4054 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4055 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4056 explicitly in rare situations.
  4057 
  4058 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4059 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4060 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4061 
  4062 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4063 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4064 
  4065 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4066 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4067 quite rare).
  4068 
  4069 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4070 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4071 
  4072 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4073 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4074 terms.
  4075 
  4076 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4077 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4078 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4079 
  4080 
  4081 *** System ***
  4082 
  4083 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4084 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4085 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4086 
  4087 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4088 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4089 respectively.
  4090 
  4091 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4092 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4093 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4094 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4095 
  4096   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4097 
  4098 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4099 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4100 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4101 component.
  4102 
  4103 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4104 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4105 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4106 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4107 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4108 the user for manual installation.
  4109 
  4110 
  4111 
  4112 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4113 -------------------------------------
  4114 
  4115 *** General ***
  4116 
  4117 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4118 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4119 
  4120 
  4121 *** Pure ***
  4122 
  4123 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4124 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4125 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4126 
  4127 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4128 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4129 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4130 
  4131 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4132 interpretation.
  4133 
  4134 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4135 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4136 
  4137 
  4138 *** Document preparation ***
  4139 
  4140 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4141 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4142 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4143 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4144 
  4145 
  4146 *** HOL ***
  4147 
  4148 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4149 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4150 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4151 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4152 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4153 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4154 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4155 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4156 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4157 
  4158 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4159 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4160 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4161 
  4162 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4163 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4164 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4165 
  4166 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4167 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4168 
  4169 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4170 
  4171 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4172 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4173 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4174 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4175 
  4176 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4177 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4178 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4179 "mirabelle" utility.
  4180 
  4181 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4182 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4183 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4184 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4185 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4186 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4187 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4188 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4189 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4190 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4191 
  4192 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4193 procedure only.
  4194 
  4195 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4196 
  4197 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4198 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4199 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4200 that fail later.
  4201 
  4202 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4203 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4204 
  4205 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4206 the same method as the approximation method.
  4207 
  4208 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4209 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4210 series expansion.
  4211 
  4212 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4213 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4214 
  4215 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4216 reals.
  4217 
  4218 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4219 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4220 
  4221 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4222 fixpoint theorem.
  4223 
  4224 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4225   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4226     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4227   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4228     accordingly
  4229   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4230     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4231   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4232     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4233 
  4234 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4235 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4236 lattice.
  4237 
  4238 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4239 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4240 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4241 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4242 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4243 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4244 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4245 
  4246 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4247   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4248     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4249   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4250     le_inf_iff
  4251   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4252     sup_aci)
  4253   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4254   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4255   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4256     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4257     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4258     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4259     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4260     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4261     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4262     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4263     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4264     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4265     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4266   - authentic syntax for
  4267     Set.Pow
  4268     Set.image
  4269   - mere abbreviations:
  4270     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4271     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4272     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4273     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4274     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4275     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4276     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4277     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4278   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4279 
  4280 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4281 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4282 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4283 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4284 
  4285 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4286 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4287 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4288 
  4289 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4290 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4291 
  4292 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4293 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4294 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4295 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4296 
  4297 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4298 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4299 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4300 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4301 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4302 
  4303 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4304 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4305 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4306 
  4307 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4308 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4309 
  4310 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4311 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4312 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4313 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4314 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4315 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4316 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4317 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4318 
  4319 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4320     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4321     code_post       replaces    code post
  4322     etc.
  4323   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4324 
  4325 * Renamed methods:
  4326     sizechange -> size_change
  4327     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4328   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4329 
  4330 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4331 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4332 
  4333 * Renamed theorems:
  4334     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4335     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4336     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4337     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4338     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4339   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4340 
  4341 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4342 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4343 
  4344 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4345 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4346 
  4347 
  4348 *** HOLCF ***
  4349 
  4350 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4351 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4352 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4353 
  4354 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4355 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4356 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4357 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4358 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4359 
  4360 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4361 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4362 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4363 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4364 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4365 
  4366 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4367 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4368 constructor are pre-configured.
  4369 
  4370 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4371 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4372 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4373 
  4374 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4375 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4376 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4377 as well.)
  4378 
  4379 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4380 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4381 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4382 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4383 examples.
  4384 
  4385 
  4386 *** ML ***
  4387 
  4388 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4389 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4390 
  4391 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4392 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4393 position, logical grouping etc.
  4394 
  4395 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4396 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4397 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4398 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4399 
  4400 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4401 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4402 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4403 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4404 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4405 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4406 
  4407 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4408 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4409 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4410 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4411 experiments with references.
  4412 
  4413 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4414 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4415 
  4416 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4417 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4418 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4419 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4420 
  4421 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4422 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4423 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4424 
  4425 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4426 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4427 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4428 
  4429 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4430 
  4431 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4432 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4433 
  4434 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4435 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4436 
  4437 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4438 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4439 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4440 
  4441 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4442 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4443 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4444 
  4445 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4446 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4447 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4448 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4449 
  4450 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4451 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4452 instead of global theory.
  4453 
  4454 
  4455 *** System ***
  4456 
  4457 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4458 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4459 usedir option -q.
  4460 
  4461 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4462 also the system manual.
  4463 
  4464 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4465 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4466 
  4467 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4468 this is always enabled.
  4469 
  4470 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4471 
  4472 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4473 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4474 currently supported on Linux only.
  4475 
  4476 
  4477 
  4478 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4479 --------------------------------
  4480 
  4481 *** General ***
  4482 
  4483 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4484 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4485 
  4486   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4487     "isatool."
  4488 
  4489   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4490     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4491 
  4492   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4493     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4494 
  4495 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4496 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4497 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4498 
  4499 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4500 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4501 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4502 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4503 via "isabelle emacs".
  4504 
  4505 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4506 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4507 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4508 
  4509 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4510 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4511 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4512 
  4513 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4514 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4515 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4516 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4517 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4518 
  4519 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4520 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4521 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4522 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4523 
  4524 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4525 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4526 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4527 
  4528 
  4529 *** Pure ***
  4530 
  4531 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4532 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4533 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4534 
  4535 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4536 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4537 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4538 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4539 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4540 
  4541 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4542 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4543 useful in locale declarations.
  4544 
  4545 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4546 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4547 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4548 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4549 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4550 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4551 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4552 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4553 no longer generated.
  4554 
  4555 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4556 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4557 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4558 
  4559 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4560 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4561 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4562 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4563 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4564 
  4565 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4566 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4567 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4568 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4569 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4570 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4571 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4572 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4573 
  4574 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4575 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4576 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4577 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4578 
  4579 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4580 
  4581 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4582 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4583 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4584 
  4585 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4586 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4587 
  4588 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4589 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4590 in HOL, write
  4591 
  4592     class foo = ...
  4593 
  4594 instead of
  4595 
  4596     class foo = type + ...
  4597 
  4598 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4599 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4600 
  4601 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4602 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4603 
  4604 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4605 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4606 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4607 
  4608 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4609 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4610 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4611 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4612 directly in regular applications.
  4613 
  4614 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4615 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4616 
  4617 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4618 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4619 
  4620 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4621 theory context.
  4622 
  4623 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4624 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4625 
  4626 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4627 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4628 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4629 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4630 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4631 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4632 
  4633   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4634 
  4635 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4636 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4637 normalization.
  4638 
  4639 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4640 addressing etc.
  4641 
  4642 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4643 
  4644   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4645   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4646 
  4647 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4648 
  4649   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4650      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4651      parts of the code generator framework).
  4652 
  4653   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4654      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4655      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4656 
  4657 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4658 
  4659 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4660 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4661 
  4662 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4663 patterns, e.g.
  4664 
  4665     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4666 
  4667 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4668 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4669 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4670 hyphen:
  4671 
  4672     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4673 
  4674 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4675 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4676 
  4677 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4678 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4679 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4680 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4681 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4682 higher-order unification.
  4683 
  4684 
  4685 *** Document preparation ***
  4686 
  4687 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4688 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4689 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4690 
  4691 
  4692 *** HOL ***
  4693 
  4694 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4695 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4696 
  4697 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4698 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4699 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4700 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4701 Main, as before.
  4702 
  4703 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4704 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4705 
  4706 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4707 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4708 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4709 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4710 
  4711 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4712 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4713 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4714 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4715 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4716 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4717 
  4718 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4719 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4720 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4721 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4722 
  4723 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4724 menu.
  4725 
  4726 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4727 (contains the empty clause).
  4728 
  4729 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4730 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4731 
  4732 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4733 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4734 
  4735 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4736 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4737 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4738 
  4739 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4740 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4741 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4742 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4743 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4744 
  4745 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4746 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4747 
  4748 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4749 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4750 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4751 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4752 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4753 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4754 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4755 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4756 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4757 
  4758 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4759 
  4760 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4761 
  4762 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4763 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4764 
  4765 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4766 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4767 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4768 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4769 
  4770 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4771 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4772 
  4773     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4774     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4775     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4776     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4777     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4778     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4779     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4780     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4781 
  4782 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4783 theory Set.
  4784 
  4785 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4786 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4787 
  4788 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4789 
  4790 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4791 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4792 
  4793 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4794 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4795 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4796 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4797 allowed. For examples see
  4798 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4799 
  4800 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4801 
  4802 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4803 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4804 
  4805 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4806 structure:
  4807 
  4808     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4809     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4810     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4811     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4812     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4813     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4814     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4815     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4816     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4817     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4818     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4819     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4820     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4821     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4822     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4823     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4824     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4825     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4826     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4827     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4828     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4829     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4830     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4831     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4832     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4833     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4834     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4835     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4836     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4837     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4838     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4839     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4840     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4841 
  4842     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4843     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4844     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4845     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4846     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4847     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4848     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4849     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4850     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4851     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4852 
  4853     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4854     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4855     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4856     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4857     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4858     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4859 
  4860 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4861 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4862 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4863 
  4864 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4865 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4866 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4867 
  4868 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4869 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4870 
  4871 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4872 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4873 
  4874 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4875 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4876 proofs, e.g.
  4877 
  4878   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4879 
  4880 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4881 
  4882 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4883 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4884 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4885 
  4886 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4887 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4888 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4889 
  4890 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4891 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4892 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4893 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4894 
  4895 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4896 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4897 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4898 preorder_class.*.
  4899 
  4900 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4901 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4902 
  4903 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4904 
  4905   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4906 
  4907 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4908 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4909 fold_image.
  4910 
  4911 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4912 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4913 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4914 the former will disappear at some point.
  4915 
  4916 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4917 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4918 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4919 
  4920 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4921 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4922 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4923 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4924 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4925 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4926 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4927 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4928 
  4929 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4930 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4931 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4932 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4933 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4934 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4935 
  4936     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4937     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4938     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4939     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4940     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4941     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4942     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4943 
  4944 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4945 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4946 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4947 
  4948 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4949 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4950 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4951 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4952 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4953 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4954 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4955 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4956 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4957 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4958 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4959 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4960 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4961 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4962 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4963 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4964 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4965 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4966 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4967 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4968 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4969 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4970 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4971 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4972 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4973 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4974 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4975 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4976 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4977 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4978 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4979 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4980 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4981 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4982 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4983 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4984 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4985 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4986 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4987 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4988 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4989 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4990 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4991 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4992 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4993 
  4994 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4995 
  4996 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4997 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4998 
  4999 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5000 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5001 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5002 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5003 
  5004 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5005 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5006 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5007 theory RealVector.
  5008 
  5009 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5010 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5011 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5012 and inner products are included.
  5013 
  5014 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5015 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5016 supported.
  5017 
  5018 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5019 first diagonalization argument.
  5020 
  5021 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5022 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5023 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5024 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5025 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5026 
  5027     hide (open) const gcd
  5028     abbreviation gcd where
  5029       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5030     notation (output)
  5031       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5032 
  5033 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5034 
  5035 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5036 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5037 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5038 
  5039 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5040 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5041 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5042 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5043 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5044 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5045 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5046 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5047 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5048 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5049 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5050 cases.
  5051 
  5052 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5053 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5054 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5055 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5056 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5057 
  5058     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5059     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5060     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5061     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5062     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5063 
  5064 
  5065 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5066 
  5067 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5068 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5069 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5070 
  5071 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5072 
  5073 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5074 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5075 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5076 
  5077 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5078 
  5079 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5080 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5081 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5082 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5083 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5084 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5085 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5086 
  5087 
  5088 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5089 
  5090 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5091 
  5092 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5093 theory targets.
  5094 
  5095 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5096 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5097 'inductive' etc.
  5098 
  5099 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5100 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5101 
  5102 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5103 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5104 
  5105 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5106 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5107 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5108 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5109 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5110 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5111 the algorithm W:
  5112 
  5113  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5114  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5115          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5116 
  5117 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5118 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5119 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5120 
  5121 
  5122 *** HOLCF ***
  5123 
  5124 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5125 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5126 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5127 
  5128 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5129 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5130 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5131 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5132 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5133 
  5134 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5135 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5136 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5137 
  5138 
  5139 *** ZF ***
  5140 
  5141 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5142 
  5143 
  5144 *** ML ***
  5145 
  5146 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5147 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5148 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5149 5.2.1!
  5150 
  5151 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5152 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5153 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5154 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5155 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5156 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5157 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5158 
  5159 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5160 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5161 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5162 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5163 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5164 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5165 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5166 
  5167 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5168 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5169 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5170 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5171 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5172 
  5173 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5174 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5175 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5176 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5177 Method.add_method.
  5178 
  5179 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5180 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5181 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5182 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5183 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5184 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5185 
  5186 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5187 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5188 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5189 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5190 examples.
  5191 
  5192 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5193 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5194 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5195 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5196 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5197 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5198 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5199 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5200 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5201 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5202 
  5203 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5204 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5205 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5206 
  5207 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5208 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5209 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5210 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5211 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5212 resort for legacy applications.
  5213 
  5214 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5215 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5216 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5217 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5218 explicit runtime argument.
  5219 
  5220 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5221 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5222 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5223 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5224 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5225 
  5226 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5227 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5228 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5229 theory state.
  5230 
  5231 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5232 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5233 
  5234   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5235   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5236   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5237   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5238   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5239   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5240   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5241   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5242   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5243   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5244 
  5245 
  5246 *** System ***
  5247 
  5248 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5249 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5250 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5251 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5252 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5253 
  5254 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5255 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5256 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5257 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5258 
  5259 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5260 
  5261 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5262 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5263 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5264 prover operations.
  5265 
  5266 
  5267 
  5268 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5269 -------------------------------
  5270 
  5271 *** General ***
  5272 
  5273 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5274 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5275 
  5276 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5277 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5278 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5279 provides a proper context already.
  5280 
  5281 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5282 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5283 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5284 
  5285 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5286 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5287 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5288 swap theory imports.
  5289 
  5290 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5291 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5292 
  5293 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5294 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5295 white space without escapes.
  5296 
  5297 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5298 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5299 "foo_bar".
  5300 
  5301 
  5302 *** Pure ***
  5303 
  5304 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5305 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5306 
  5307 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5308 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5309 
  5310 (1) unused_thms
  5311      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5312 
  5313 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5314      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5315      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5316 
  5317 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5318      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5319      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5320      their ancestors.
  5321 
  5322 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5323 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5324 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5325 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5326 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5327 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5328 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5329 
  5330 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5331 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5332 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5333 
  5334 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5335 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5336 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5337 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5338 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5339 
  5340 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5341 
  5342 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5343 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5344 update of theories within ML code.
  5345 
  5346 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5347 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5348 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5349 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5350 
  5351 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5352 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5353 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5354 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5355 
  5356 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5357 
  5358 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5359 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5360 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5361 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5362 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5363 
  5364 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5365 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5366 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5367 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5368 situations.
  5369 
  5370 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5371 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5372 proof text.
  5373 
  5374 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5375 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5376 
  5377 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5378 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5379 predicates.
  5380 
  5381 
  5382 *** Document preparation ***
  5383 
  5384 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5385 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5386 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5387 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5388 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5389 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5390 
  5391 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5392 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5393 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5394 
  5395 
  5396 *** HOL ***
  5397 
  5398 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5399 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5400 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5401 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5402 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5403 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5404 
  5405 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5406 with multithreading.
  5407 
  5408 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5409 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5410 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5411 
  5412 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5413 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5414 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5415 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5416 
  5417 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5418 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5419 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5420 and makes them available separately.  See
  5421 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5422 
  5423 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5424 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5425 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5426 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5427 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5428 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5429 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5430 the declared rules.
  5431 
  5432 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5433 
  5434   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5435 
  5436 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5437 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5438 
  5439 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5440 
  5441   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5442 
  5443   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5444     definitions on => and bool.
  5445 
  5446   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5447     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5448     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5449 
  5450       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5451       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5452       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5453       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5454       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5455       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5456       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5457       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5458 
  5459   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5460     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5461     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5462 
  5463   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5464     The proof pattern
  5465 
  5466       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5467       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5468 
  5469     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5470     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5471 
  5472       have "EX S. P S"
  5473       proof
  5474         show "P S" <...>
  5475       qed
  5476 
  5477   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5478     The proof pattern
  5479 
  5480       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5481       also have "S = T" <...>
  5482       finally have "P T" .
  5483 
  5484     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5485     must be replaced by something like
  5486 
  5487       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5488       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5489       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5490 
  5491   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5492     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5493 
  5494       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5495 
  5496     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5497     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5498     type of the form
  5499 
  5500       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5501 
  5502     rather than
  5503 
  5504       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5505 
  5506 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5507 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5508 
  5509 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5510 
  5511 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5512 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5513 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5514 
  5515 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5516 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5517 
  5518 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5519 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5520 
  5521 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5522 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5523 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5524 
  5525 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5526 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5527 
  5528   less_trans
  5529   less_linear
  5530   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5531   le_less_trans
  5532   less_le_trans
  5533   less_not_sym
  5534   less_asym
  5535 
  5536 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5537 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5538 and different variable names.
  5539 
  5540 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5541 
  5542 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5543 finite maps.
  5544 
  5545 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5546 
  5547 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5548 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5549 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5550 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5551 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5552 accordingly.
  5553 
  5554 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5555 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5556 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5557 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5558 
  5559 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5560 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5561 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5562 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5563 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5564 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5565 
  5566 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5567 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5568 
  5569 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5570 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5571 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5572 
  5573 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5574 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5575 
  5576 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5577 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5578 
  5579 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5580 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5581 
  5582 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5583 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5584 
  5585 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5586 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5587 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5588 
  5589 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5590 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5591 
  5592 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5593 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5594 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5595 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5596 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5597 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5598 
  5599 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5600 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5601 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5602 
  5603 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5604 
  5605 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5606 
  5607 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5608 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5609 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5610 
  5611 
  5612 *** ZF ***
  5613 
  5614 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5615 same session:
  5616 
  5617   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5618   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5619   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5620   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5621   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5622   List      -> List_ZF
  5623   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5624 
  5625 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5626 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5627 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5628 
  5629 
  5630 *** ML ***
  5631 
  5632 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5633 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5634 
  5635 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5636 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5637 
  5638 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5639 
  5640 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5641 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5642 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5643 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5644 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5645 
  5646 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5647 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5648 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5649 
  5650 
  5651 *** System ***
  5652 
  5653 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5654 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5655 
  5656 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5657 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5658 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5659 
  5660 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5661 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5662 
  5663 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5664 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5665 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5666 
  5667 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5668 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5669 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5670 
  5671 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5672 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5673 
  5674 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5675 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5676 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5677 script.
  5678 
  5679 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5680 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5681 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5682 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5683 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5684 
  5685 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5686 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5687 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5688 
  5689 
  5690 
  5691 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5692 -----------------------------------
  5693 
  5694 *** General ***
  5695 
  5696 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5697 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5698 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5699 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5700 
  5701 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5702 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5703 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5704 
  5705 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5706 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5707 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5708 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5709 
  5710 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5711 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5712 quotes.
  5713 
  5714 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5715 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5716 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5717 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5718 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5719 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5720 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5721 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5722 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5723 
  5724 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5725 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5726 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5727 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5728 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5729 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5730 
  5731 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5732 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5733 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5734 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5735 
  5736 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5737 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5738 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5739 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5740 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5741 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5742 
  5743 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5744 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5745 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5746 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5747 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5748 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5749 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5750 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5751 
  5752 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5753 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5754 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5755 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5756 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5757 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5758 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5759 
  5760 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5761 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5762 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5763 
  5764 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5765 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5766 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5767 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5768 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5769 limit is imposed.
  5770 
  5771 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5772 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5773 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5774 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5775 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5776 and scalability.
  5777 
  5778 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5779 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5780 
  5781 
  5782 *** Document preparation ***
  5783 
  5784 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5785 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5786 current context.
  5787 
  5788 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5789 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5790 
  5791 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5792 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5793 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5794 
  5795 
  5796 *** Pure ***
  5797 
  5798 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5799 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5800 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5801 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5802 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5803 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5804 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5805 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5806 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5807 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5808 
  5809 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5810 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5811 sketch:
  5812 
  5813     internal compilation:
  5814         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5815     writing SML code to a file:
  5816         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5817     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5818         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5819     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5820         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5821 
  5822     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5823         method ``eval''
  5824 
  5825 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5826 
  5827 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5828 
  5829     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5830     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5831     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5832     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5833 
  5834 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5835 
  5836     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5837       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5838 
  5839     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5840       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5841 
  5842     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5843       {(target)}+
  5844         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5845 
  5846     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5847       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5848         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5849 
  5850 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5851 
  5852 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5853 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5854 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5855 codegen".
  5856 
  5857 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5858 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5859 annotations).
  5860 
  5861 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5862 syntax.
  5863 
  5864 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5865 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5866 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5867 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5868 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5869 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5870 
  5871 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5872 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5873 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5874 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5875 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5876 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5877 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5878 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5879 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5880 equations, see section "definitions".
  5881 
  5882 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5883 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5884 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5885 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5886 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5887 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5888 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5889 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5890 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5891 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5892 
  5893 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5894 configuration options:
  5895 
  5896   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5897   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5898   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5899   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5900   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5901   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5902   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5903   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5904   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5905 
  5906 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5907 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5908 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5909 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5910 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5911 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5912 order.
  5913 
  5914 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5915 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5916 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5917 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5918 context encountered later on.
  5919 
  5920 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5921 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5922 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5923 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5924 
  5925 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5926 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5927 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5928 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5929 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5930 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5931 
  5932 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5933 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5934 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5935 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5936 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5937 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5938 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5939 more permissive.
  5940 
  5941 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5942 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5943 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5944 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5945 maintainability of proof texts.
  5946 
  5947 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5948 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5949 
  5950   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5951   then guess x and y by clarify
  5952 
  5953 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5954 proof tools being involved here.
  5955 
  5956 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5957 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5958 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5959 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5960 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5961 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5962 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5963 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5964 
  5965 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5966 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5967 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5968 
  5969   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5970   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5971   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5972   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5973 
  5974 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5975 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5976 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5977 
  5978 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5979 both named and unnamed ones.
  5980 
  5981 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5982 
  5983   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5984 
  5985 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5986 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5987 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5988 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5989 
  5990 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5991 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5992 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5993 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5994 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5995 
  5996 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5997 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5998 
  5999 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  6000 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  6001 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  6002 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  6003 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  6004 originally first one.
  6005 
  6006 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  6007 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  6008 expected.
  6009 
  6010 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  6011 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  6012 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  6013 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  6014 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  6015 
  6016   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6017     assumes "EX x. P x"
  6018     obtains x where "P x"
  6019 
  6020   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6021     assumes "A & B"
  6022     obtains A and B
  6023 
  6024   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6025     assumes "A | B"
  6026     obtains
  6027       A
  6028     | B
  6029 
  6030 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  6031 explicitly:
  6032 
  6033   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6034     obtains "~ thesis"
  6035 
  6036   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6037     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  6038 
  6039 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  6040 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  6041 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  6042 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  6043 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  6044 case_names).
  6045 
  6046 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  6047 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  6048 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  6049 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  6050 
  6051 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  6052 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  6053 top-level lemma.
  6054 
  6055 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  6056 introduction rule (default "that").
  6057 
  6058 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  6059 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  6060 to occur.
  6061 
  6062 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  6063 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  6064 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  6065 representations independently of name spaces.
  6066 
  6067 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  6068 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  6069 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6070 
  6071 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  6072 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  6073 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  6074 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  6075 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  6076 current context.
  6077 
  6078 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  6079 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  6080 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  6081 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  6082 
  6083   axiomatization
  6084     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  6085     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  6086 
  6087   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  6088   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  6089 
  6090   abbreviation
  6091     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  6092     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  6093 
  6094 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  6095 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  6096 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  6097 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  6098 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  6099 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  6100 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  6101 
  6102 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  6103 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  6104 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  6105 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  6106 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  6107 
  6108 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  6109 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  6110 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  6111 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  6112 
  6113 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  6114 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  6115 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  6116 
  6117   definition "K x _ = x"
  6118 
  6119   inductive conj for A B
  6120   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  6121 
  6122 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  6123 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  6124 abbreviations on output.
  6125 
  6126 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  6127 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  6128 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  6129 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  6130 
  6131 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  6132 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  6133 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  6134 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  6135 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  6136 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  6137 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  6138 
  6139 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  6140 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  6141 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  6142 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  6143 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  6144 
  6145 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  6146 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  6147 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  6148 
  6149 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  6150 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  6151 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  6152 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  6153 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  6154 
  6155   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  6156     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  6157 
  6158 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  6159 definition specification element in the context of locale
  6160 partial_order.
  6161 
  6162 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  6163 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  6164 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  6165 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  6166 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  6167 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  6168 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  6169 examples.
  6170 
  6171 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  6172 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  6173 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  6174 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  6175 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  6176 
  6177 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  6178 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  6179 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  6180 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  6181 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  6182 
  6183   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  6184   (induct set: foo bar)
  6185   (induct pred: foo bar)
  6186   (induct type: foo bar)
  6187 
  6188 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  6189 new format.
  6190 
  6191 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  6192 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  6193 
  6194 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  6195 considered a legacy feature.
  6196 
  6197 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  6198 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6199 
  6200 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  6201 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  6202 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  6203 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  6204   
  6205 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  6206 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  6207 manipulating the claset.
  6208 
  6209 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  6210 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  6211 least one premise.
  6212 
  6213 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  6214 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  6215 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  6216 rule steps.
  6217 
  6218 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  6219 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  6220 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  6221 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  6222 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  6223 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  6224 
  6225 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  6226 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  6227 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  6228 
  6229 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  6230 the graph browser tool.
  6231 
  6232 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  6233 default; use '!' option for full details.
  6234 
  6235 
  6236 *** HOL ***
  6237 
  6238 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  6239 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  6240 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  6241 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  6242 multi-threading.
  6243   
  6244 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  6245 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  6246 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  6247 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  6248 work with multi-threading.
  6249 
  6250 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  6251 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  6252 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  6253 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of