src/HOL/Int.thy
 author wenzelm Mon Dec 28 01:26:34 2015 +0100 (2015-12-28) changeset 61944 5d06ecfdb472 parent 61799 4cf66f21b764 child 62128 3201ddb00097 permissions -rw-r--r--
prefer symbols for "abs";
```     1 (*  Title:      HOL/Int.thy
```
```     2     Author:     Lawrence C Paulson, Cambridge University Computer Laboratory
```
```     3     Author:     Tobias Nipkow, Florian Haftmann, TU Muenchen
```
```     4 *)
```
```     5
```
```     6 section \<open>The Integers as Equivalence Classes over Pairs of Natural Numbers\<close>
```
```     7
```
```     8 theory Int
```
```     9 imports Equiv_Relations Power Quotient Fun_Def
```
```    10 begin
```
```    11
```
```    12 subsection \<open>Definition of integers as a quotient type\<close>
```
```    13
```
```    14 definition intrel :: "(nat \<times> nat) \<Rightarrow> (nat \<times> nat) \<Rightarrow> bool" where
```
```    15   "intrel = (\<lambda>(x, y) (u, v). x + v = u + y)"
```
```    16
```
```    17 lemma intrel_iff [simp]: "intrel (x, y) (u, v) \<longleftrightarrow> x + v = u + y"
```
```    18   by (simp add: intrel_def)
```
```    19
```
```    20 quotient_type int = "nat \<times> nat" / "intrel"
```
```    21   morphisms Rep_Integ Abs_Integ
```
```    22 proof (rule equivpI)
```
```    23   show "reflp intrel"
```
```    24     unfolding reflp_def by auto
```
```    25   show "symp intrel"
```
```    26     unfolding symp_def by auto
```
```    27   show "transp intrel"
```
```    28     unfolding transp_def by auto
```
```    29 qed
```
```    30
```
```    31 lemma eq_Abs_Integ [case_names Abs_Integ, cases type: int]:
```
```    32      "(!!x y. z = Abs_Integ (x, y) ==> P) ==> P"
```
```    33 by (induct z) auto
```
```    34
```
```    35 subsection \<open>Integers form a commutative ring\<close>
```
```    36
```
```    37 instantiation int :: comm_ring_1
```
```    38 begin
```
```    39
```
```    40 lift_definition zero_int :: "int" is "(0, 0)" .
```
```    41
```
```    42 lift_definition one_int :: "int" is "(1, 0)" .
```
```    43
```
```    44 lift_definition plus_int :: "int \<Rightarrow> int \<Rightarrow> int"
```
```    45   is "\<lambda>(x, y) (u, v). (x + u, y + v)"
```
```    46   by clarsimp
```
```    47
```
```    48 lift_definition uminus_int :: "int \<Rightarrow> int"
```
```    49   is "\<lambda>(x, y). (y, x)"
```
```    50   by clarsimp
```
```    51
```
```    52 lift_definition minus_int :: "int \<Rightarrow> int \<Rightarrow> int"
```
```    53   is "\<lambda>(x, y) (u, v). (x + v, y + u)"
```
```    54   by clarsimp
```
```    55
```
```    56 lift_definition times_int :: "int \<Rightarrow> int \<Rightarrow> int"
```
```    57   is "\<lambda>(x, y) (u, v). (x*u + y*v, x*v + y*u)"
```
```    58 proof (clarsimp)
```
```    59   fix s t u v w x y z :: nat
```
```    60   assume "s + v = u + t" and "w + z = y + x"
```
```    61   hence "(s + v) * w + (u + t) * x + u * (w + z) + v * (y + x)
```
```    62        = (u + t) * w + (s + v) * x + u * (y + x) + v * (w + z)"
```
```    63     by simp
```
```    64   thus "(s * w + t * x) + (u * z + v * y) = (u * y + v * z) + (s * x + t * w)"
```
```    65     by (simp add: algebra_simps)
```
```    66 qed
```
```    67
```
```    68 instance
```
```    69   by standard (transfer, clarsimp simp: algebra_simps)+
```
```    70
```
```    71 end
```
```    72
```
```    73 abbreviation int :: "nat \<Rightarrow> int" where
```
```    74   "int \<equiv> of_nat"
```
```    75
```
```    76 lemma int_def: "int n = Abs_Integ (n, 0)"
```
```    77   by (induct n, simp add: zero_int.abs_eq,
```
```    78     simp add: one_int.abs_eq plus_int.abs_eq)
```
```    79
```
```    80 lemma int_transfer [transfer_rule]:
```
```    81   "(rel_fun (op =) pcr_int) (\<lambda>n. (n, 0)) int"
```
```    82   unfolding rel_fun_def int.pcr_cr_eq cr_int_def int_def by simp
```
```    83
```
```    84 lemma int_diff_cases:
```
```    85   obtains (diff) m n where "z = int m - int n"
```
```    86   by transfer clarsimp
```
```    87
```
```    88 subsection \<open>Integers are totally ordered\<close>
```
```    89
```
```    90 instantiation int :: linorder
```
```    91 begin
```
```    92
```
```    93 lift_definition less_eq_int :: "int \<Rightarrow> int \<Rightarrow> bool"
```
```    94   is "\<lambda>(x, y) (u, v). x + v \<le> u + y"
```
```    95   by auto
```
```    96
```
```    97 lift_definition less_int :: "int \<Rightarrow> int \<Rightarrow> bool"
```
```    98   is "\<lambda>(x, y) (u, v). x + v < u + y"
```
```    99   by auto
```
```   100
```
```   101 instance
```
```   102   by standard (transfer, force)+
```
```   103
```
```   104 end
```
```   105
```
```   106 instantiation int :: distrib_lattice
```
```   107 begin
```
```   108
```
```   109 definition
```
```   110   "(inf :: int \<Rightarrow> int \<Rightarrow> int) = min"
```
```   111
```
```   112 definition
```
```   113   "(sup :: int \<Rightarrow> int \<Rightarrow> int) = max"
```
```   114
```
```   115 instance
```
```   116   by intro_classes
```
```   117     (auto simp add: inf_int_def sup_int_def max_min_distrib2)
```
```   118
```
```   119 end
```
```   120
```
```   121 subsection \<open>Ordering properties of arithmetic operations\<close>
```
```   122
```
```   123 instance int :: ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
```
```   124 proof
```
```   125   fix i j k :: int
```
```   126   show "i \<le> j \<Longrightarrow> k + i \<le> k + j"
```
```   127     by transfer clarsimp
```
```   128 qed
```
```   129
```
```   130 text\<open>Strict Monotonicity of Multiplication\<close>
```
```   131
```
```   132 text\<open>strict, in 1st argument; proof is by induction on k>0\<close>
```
```   133 lemma zmult_zless_mono2_lemma:
```
```   134      "(i::int)<j ==> 0<k ==> int k * i < int k * j"
```
```   135 apply (induct k)
```
```   136 apply simp
```
```   137 apply (simp add: distrib_right)
```
```   138 apply (case_tac "k=0")
```
```   139 apply (simp_all add: add_strict_mono)
```
```   140 done
```
```   141
```
```   142 lemma zero_le_imp_eq_int: "(0::int) \<le> k ==> \<exists>n. k = int n"
```
```   143 apply transfer
```
```   144 apply clarsimp
```
```   145 apply (rule_tac x="a - b" in exI, simp)
```
```   146 done
```
```   147
```
```   148 lemma zero_less_imp_eq_int: "(0::int) < k ==> \<exists>n>0. k = int n"
```
```   149 apply transfer
```
```   150 apply clarsimp
```
```   151 apply (rule_tac x="a - b" in exI, simp)
```
```   152 done
```
```   153
```
```   154 lemma zmult_zless_mono2: "[| i<j;  (0::int) < k |] ==> k*i < k*j"
```
```   155 apply (drule zero_less_imp_eq_int)
```
```   156 apply (auto simp add: zmult_zless_mono2_lemma)
```
```   157 done
```
```   158
```
```   159 text\<open>The integers form an ordered integral domain\<close>
```
```   160 instantiation int :: linordered_idom
```
```   161 begin
```
```   162
```
```   163 definition
```
```   164   zabs_def: "\<bar>i::int\<bar> = (if i < 0 then - i else i)"
```
```   165
```
```   166 definition
```
```   167   zsgn_def: "sgn (i::int) = (if i=0 then 0 else if 0<i then 1 else - 1)"
```
```   168
```
```   169 instance proof
```
```   170   fix i j k :: int
```
```   171   show "i < j \<Longrightarrow> 0 < k \<Longrightarrow> k * i < k * j"
```
```   172     by (rule zmult_zless_mono2)
```
```   173   show "\<bar>i\<bar> = (if i < 0 then -i else i)"
```
```   174     by (simp only: zabs_def)
```
```   175   show "sgn (i::int) = (if i=0 then 0 else if 0<i then 1 else - 1)"
```
```   176     by (simp only: zsgn_def)
```
```   177 qed
```
```   178
```
```   179 end
```
```   180
```
```   181 lemma zless_imp_add1_zle: "w < z \<Longrightarrow> w + (1::int) \<le> z"
```
```   182   by transfer clarsimp
```
```   183
```
```   184 lemma zless_iff_Suc_zadd:
```
```   185   "(w :: int) < z \<longleftrightarrow> (\<exists>n. z = w + int (Suc n))"
```
```   186 apply transfer
```
```   187 apply auto
```
```   188 apply (rename_tac a b c d)
```
```   189 apply (rule_tac x="c+b - Suc(a+d)" in exI)
```
```   190 apply arith
```
```   191 done
```
```   192
```
```   193 lemmas int_distrib =
```
```   194   distrib_right [of z1 z2 w]
```
```   195   distrib_left [of w z1 z2]
```
```   196   left_diff_distrib [of z1 z2 w]
```
```   197   right_diff_distrib [of w z1 z2]
```
```   198   for z1 z2 w :: int
```
```   199
```
```   200
```
```   201 subsection \<open>Embedding of the Integers into any \<open>ring_1\<close>: \<open>of_int\<close>\<close>
```
```   202
```
```   203 context ring_1
```
```   204 begin
```
```   205
```
```   206 lift_definition of_int :: "int \<Rightarrow> 'a" is "\<lambda>(i, j). of_nat i - of_nat j"
```
```   207   by (clarsimp simp add: diff_eq_eq eq_diff_eq diff_add_eq
```
```   208     of_nat_add [symmetric] simp del: of_nat_add)
```
```   209
```
```   210 lemma of_int_0 [simp]: "of_int 0 = 0"
```
```   211   by transfer simp
```
```   212
```
```   213 lemma of_int_1 [simp]: "of_int 1 = 1"
```
```   214   by transfer simp
```
```   215
```
```   216 lemma of_int_add [simp]: "of_int (w+z) = of_int w + of_int z"
```
```   217   by transfer (clarsimp simp add: algebra_simps)
```
```   218
```
```   219 lemma of_int_minus [simp]: "of_int (-z) = - (of_int z)"
```
```   220   by (transfer fixing: uminus) clarsimp
```
```   221
```
```   222 lemma of_int_diff [simp]: "of_int (w - z) = of_int w - of_int z"
```
```   223   using of_int_add [of w "- z"] by simp
```
```   224
```
```   225 lemma of_int_mult [simp]: "of_int (w*z) = of_int w * of_int z"
```
```   226   by (transfer fixing: times) (clarsimp simp add: algebra_simps of_nat_mult)
```
```   227
```
```   228 lemma mult_of_int_commute: "of_int x * y = y * of_int x"
```
```   229   by (transfer fixing: times) (auto simp: algebra_simps mult_of_nat_commute)
```
```   230
```
```   231 text\<open>Collapse nested embeddings\<close>
```
```   232 lemma of_int_of_nat_eq [simp]: "of_int (int n) = of_nat n"
```
```   233 by (induct n) auto
```
```   234
```
```   235 lemma of_int_numeral [simp, code_post]: "of_int (numeral k) = numeral k"
```
```   236   by (simp add: of_nat_numeral [symmetric] of_int_of_nat_eq [symmetric])
```
```   237
```
```   238 lemma of_int_neg_numeral [code_post]: "of_int (- numeral k) = - numeral k"
```
```   239   by simp
```
```   240
```
```   241 lemma of_int_power [simp]:
```
```   242   "of_int (z ^ n) = of_int z ^ n"
```
```   243   by (induct n) simp_all
```
```   244
```
```   245 end
```
```   246
```
```   247 context ring_char_0
```
```   248 begin
```
```   249
```
```   250 lemma of_int_eq_iff [simp]:
```
```   251    "of_int w = of_int z \<longleftrightarrow> w = z"
```
```   252   by transfer (clarsimp simp add: algebra_simps
```
```   253     of_nat_add [symmetric] simp del: of_nat_add)
```
```   254
```
```   255 text\<open>Special cases where either operand is zero\<close>
```
```   256 lemma of_int_eq_0_iff [simp]:
```
```   257   "of_int z = 0 \<longleftrightarrow> z = 0"
```
```   258   using of_int_eq_iff [of z 0] by simp
```
```   259
```
```   260 lemma of_int_0_eq_iff [simp]:
```
```   261   "0 = of_int z \<longleftrightarrow> z = 0"
```
```   262   using of_int_eq_iff [of 0 z] by simp
```
```   263
```
```   264 lemma of_int_eq_1_iff [iff]:
```
```   265    "of_int z = 1 \<longleftrightarrow> z = 1"
```
```   266   using of_int_eq_iff [of z 1] by simp
```
```   267
```
```   268 end
```
```   269
```
```   270 context linordered_idom
```
```   271 begin
```
```   272
```
```   273 text\<open>Every \<open>linordered_idom\<close> has characteristic zero.\<close>
```
```   274 subclass ring_char_0 ..
```
```   275
```
```   276 lemma of_int_le_iff [simp]:
```
```   277   "of_int w \<le> of_int z \<longleftrightarrow> w \<le> z"
```
```   278   by (transfer fixing: less_eq) (clarsimp simp add: algebra_simps
```
```   279     of_nat_add [symmetric] simp del: of_nat_add)
```
```   280
```
```   281 lemma of_int_less_iff [simp]:
```
```   282   "of_int w < of_int z \<longleftrightarrow> w < z"
```
```   283   by (simp add: less_le order_less_le)
```
```   284
```
```   285 lemma of_int_0_le_iff [simp]:
```
```   286   "0 \<le> of_int z \<longleftrightarrow> 0 \<le> z"
```
```   287   using of_int_le_iff [of 0 z] by simp
```
```   288
```
```   289 lemma of_int_le_0_iff [simp]:
```
```   290   "of_int z \<le> 0 \<longleftrightarrow> z \<le> 0"
```
```   291   using of_int_le_iff [of z 0] by simp
```
```   292
```
```   293 lemma of_int_0_less_iff [simp]:
```
```   294   "0 < of_int z \<longleftrightarrow> 0 < z"
```
```   295   using of_int_less_iff [of 0 z] by simp
```
```   296
```
```   297 lemma of_int_less_0_iff [simp]:
```
```   298   "of_int z < 0 \<longleftrightarrow> z < 0"
```
```   299   using of_int_less_iff [of z 0] by simp
```
```   300
```
```   301 lemma of_int_1_le_iff [simp]:
```
```   302   "1 \<le> of_int z \<longleftrightarrow> 1 \<le> z"
```
```   303   using of_int_le_iff [of 1 z] by simp
```
```   304
```
```   305 lemma of_int_le_1_iff [simp]:
```
```   306   "of_int z \<le> 1 \<longleftrightarrow> z \<le> 1"
```
```   307   using of_int_le_iff [of z 1] by simp
```
```   308
```
```   309 lemma of_int_1_less_iff [simp]:
```
```   310   "1 < of_int z \<longleftrightarrow> 1 < z"
```
```   311   using of_int_less_iff [of 1 z] by simp
```
```   312
```
```   313 lemma of_int_less_1_iff [simp]:
```
```   314   "of_int z < 1 \<longleftrightarrow> z < 1"
```
```   315   using of_int_less_iff [of z 1] by simp
```
```   316
```
```   317 end
```
```   318
```
```   319 text \<open>Comparisons involving @{term of_int}.\<close>
```
```   320
```
```   321 lemma of_int_eq_numeral_iff [iff]:
```
```   322    "of_int z = (numeral n :: 'a::ring_char_0)
```
```   323    \<longleftrightarrow> z = numeral n"
```
```   324   using of_int_eq_iff by fastforce
```
```   325
```
```   326 lemma of_int_le_numeral_iff [simp]:
```
```   327    "of_int z \<le> (numeral n :: 'a::linordered_idom)
```
```   328    \<longleftrightarrow> z \<le> numeral n"
```
```   329   using of_int_le_iff [of z "numeral n"] by simp
```
```   330
```
```   331 lemma of_int_numeral_le_iff [simp]:
```
```   332    "(numeral n :: 'a::linordered_idom) \<le> of_int z \<longleftrightarrow> numeral n \<le> z"
```
```   333   using of_int_le_iff [of "numeral n"] by simp
```
```   334
```
```   335 lemma of_int_less_numeral_iff [simp]:
```
```   336    "of_int z < (numeral n :: 'a::linordered_idom)
```
```   337    \<longleftrightarrow> z < numeral n"
```
```   338   using of_int_less_iff [of z "numeral n"] by simp
```
```   339
```
```   340 lemma of_int_numeral_less_iff [simp]:
```
```   341    "(numeral n :: 'a::linordered_idom) < of_int z \<longleftrightarrow> numeral n < z"
```
```   342   using of_int_less_iff [of "numeral n" z] by simp
```
```   343
```
```   344 lemma of_nat_less_of_int_iff:
```
```   345   "(of_nat n::'a::linordered_idom) < of_int x \<longleftrightarrow> int n < x"
```
```   346   by (metis of_int_of_nat_eq of_int_less_iff)
```
```   347
```
```   348 lemma of_int_eq_id [simp]: "of_int = id"
```
```   349 proof
```
```   350   fix z show "of_int z = id z"
```
```   351     by (cases z rule: int_diff_cases, simp)
```
```   352 qed
```
```   353
```
```   354
```
```   355 instance int :: no_top
```
```   356   apply standard
```
```   357   apply (rule_tac x="x + 1" in exI)
```
```   358   apply simp
```
```   359   done
```
```   360
```
```   361 instance int :: no_bot
```
```   362   apply standard
```
```   363   apply (rule_tac x="x - 1" in exI)
```
```   364   apply simp
```
```   365   done
```
```   366
```
```   367 subsection \<open>Magnitude of an Integer, as a Natural Number: \<open>nat\<close>\<close>
```
```   368
```
```   369 lift_definition nat :: "int \<Rightarrow> nat" is "\<lambda>(x, y). x - y"
```
```   370   by auto
```
```   371
```
```   372 lemma nat_int [simp]: "nat (int n) = n"
```
```   373   by transfer simp
```
```   374
```
```   375 lemma int_nat_eq [simp]: "int (nat z) = (if 0 \<le> z then z else 0)"
```
```   376   by transfer clarsimp
```
```   377
```
```   378 corollary nat_0_le: "0 \<le> z ==> int (nat z) = z"
```
```   379 by simp
```
```   380
```
```   381 lemma nat_le_0 [simp]: "z \<le> 0 ==> nat z = 0"
```
```   382   by transfer clarsimp
```
```   383
```
```   384 lemma nat_le_eq_zle: "0 < w | 0 \<le> z ==> (nat w \<le> nat z) = (w\<le>z)"
```
```   385   by transfer (clarsimp, arith)
```
```   386
```
```   387 text\<open>An alternative condition is @{term "0 \<le> w"}\<close>
```
```   388 corollary nat_mono_iff: "0 < z ==> (nat w < nat z) = (w < z)"
```
```   389 by (simp add: nat_le_eq_zle linorder_not_le [symmetric])
```
```   390
```
```   391 corollary nat_less_eq_zless: "0 \<le> w ==> (nat w < nat z) = (w<z)"
```
```   392 by (simp add: nat_le_eq_zle linorder_not_le [symmetric])
```
```   393
```
```   394 lemma zless_nat_conj [simp]: "(nat w < nat z) = (0 < z & w < z)"
```
```   395   by transfer (clarsimp, arith)
```
```   396
```
```   397 lemma nonneg_eq_int:
```
```   398   fixes z :: int
```
```   399   assumes "0 \<le> z" and "\<And>m. z = int m \<Longrightarrow> P"
```
```   400   shows P
```
```   401   using assms by (blast dest: nat_0_le sym)
```
```   402
```
```   403 lemma nat_eq_iff:
```
```   404   "nat w = m \<longleftrightarrow> (if 0 \<le> w then w = int m else m = 0)"
```
```   405   by transfer (clarsimp simp add: le_imp_diff_is_add)
```
```   406
```
```   407 corollary nat_eq_iff2:
```
```   408   "m = nat w \<longleftrightarrow> (if 0 \<le> w then w = int m else m = 0)"
```
```   409   using nat_eq_iff [of w m] by auto
```
```   410
```
```   411 lemma nat_0 [simp]:
```
```   412   "nat 0 = 0"
```
```   413   by (simp add: nat_eq_iff)
```
```   414
```
```   415 lemma nat_1 [simp]:
```
```   416   "nat 1 = Suc 0"
```
```   417   by (simp add: nat_eq_iff)
```
```   418
```
```   419 lemma nat_numeral [simp]:
```
```   420   "nat (numeral k) = numeral k"
```
```   421   by (simp add: nat_eq_iff)
```
```   422
```
```   423 lemma nat_neg_numeral [simp]:
```
```   424   "nat (- numeral k) = 0"
```
```   425   by simp
```
```   426
```
```   427 lemma nat_2: "nat 2 = Suc (Suc 0)"
```
```   428   by simp
```
```   429
```
```   430 lemma nat_less_iff: "0 \<le> w ==> (nat w < m) = (w < of_nat m)"
```
```   431   by transfer (clarsimp, arith)
```
```   432
```
```   433 lemma nat_le_iff: "nat x \<le> n \<longleftrightarrow> x \<le> int n"
```
```   434   by transfer (clarsimp simp add: le_diff_conv)
```
```   435
```
```   436 lemma nat_mono: "x \<le> y \<Longrightarrow> nat x \<le> nat y"
```
```   437   by transfer auto
```
```   438
```
```   439 lemma nat_0_iff[simp]: "nat(i::int) = 0 \<longleftrightarrow> i\<le>0"
```
```   440   by transfer clarsimp
```
```   441
```
```   442 lemma int_eq_iff: "(of_nat m = z) = (m = nat z & 0 \<le> z)"
```
```   443 by (auto simp add: nat_eq_iff2)
```
```   444
```
```   445 lemma zero_less_nat_eq [simp]: "(0 < nat z) = (0 < z)"
```
```   446 by (insert zless_nat_conj [of 0], auto)
```
```   447
```
```   448 lemma nat_add_distrib:
```
```   449   "0 \<le> z \<Longrightarrow> 0 \<le> z' \<Longrightarrow> nat (z + z') = nat z + nat z'"
```
```   450   by transfer clarsimp
```
```   451
```
```   452 lemma nat_diff_distrib':
```
```   453   "0 \<le> x \<Longrightarrow> 0 \<le> y \<Longrightarrow> nat (x - y) = nat x - nat y"
```
```   454   by transfer clarsimp
```
```   455
```
```   456 lemma nat_diff_distrib:
```
```   457   "0 \<le> z' \<Longrightarrow> z' \<le> z \<Longrightarrow> nat (z - z') = nat z - nat z'"
```
```   458   by (rule nat_diff_distrib') auto
```
```   459
```
```   460 lemma nat_zminus_int [simp]: "nat (- int n) = 0"
```
```   461   by transfer simp
```
```   462
```
```   463 lemma le_nat_iff:
```
```   464   "k \<ge> 0 \<Longrightarrow> n \<le> nat k \<longleftrightarrow> int n \<le> k"
```
```   465   by transfer auto
```
```   466
```
```   467 lemma zless_nat_eq_int_zless: "(m < nat z) = (int m < z)"
```
```   468   by transfer (clarsimp simp add: less_diff_conv)
```
```   469
```
```   470 context ring_1
```
```   471 begin
```
```   472
```
```   473 lemma of_nat_nat [simp]: "0 \<le> z \<Longrightarrow> of_nat (nat z) = of_int z"
```
```   474   by transfer (clarsimp simp add: of_nat_diff)
```
```   475
```
```   476 end
```
```   477
```
```   478 lemma diff_nat_numeral [simp]:
```
```   479   "(numeral v :: nat) - numeral v' = nat (numeral v - numeral v')"
```
```   480   by (simp only: nat_diff_distrib' zero_le_numeral nat_numeral)
```
```   481
```
```   482
```
```   483 text \<open>For termination proofs:\<close>
```
```   484 lemma measure_function_int[measure_function]: "is_measure (nat o abs)" ..
```
```   485
```
```   486
```
```   487 subsection\<open>Lemmas about the Function @{term of_nat} and Orderings\<close>
```
```   488
```
```   489 lemma negative_zless_0: "- (int (Suc n)) < (0 :: int)"
```
```   490 by (simp add: order_less_le del: of_nat_Suc)
```
```   491
```
```   492 lemma negative_zless [iff]: "- (int (Suc n)) < int m"
```
```   493 by (rule negative_zless_0 [THEN order_less_le_trans], simp)
```
```   494
```
```   495 lemma negative_zle_0: "- int n \<le> 0"
```
```   496 by (simp add: minus_le_iff)
```
```   497
```
```   498 lemma negative_zle [iff]: "- int n \<le> int m"
```
```   499 by (rule order_trans [OF negative_zle_0 of_nat_0_le_iff])
```
```   500
```
```   501 lemma not_zle_0_negative [simp]: "~ (0 \<le> - (int (Suc n)))"
```
```   502 by (subst le_minus_iff, simp del: of_nat_Suc)
```
```   503
```
```   504 lemma int_zle_neg: "(int n \<le> - int m) = (n = 0 & m = 0)"
```
```   505   by transfer simp
```
```   506
```
```   507 lemma not_int_zless_negative [simp]: "~ (int n < - int m)"
```
```   508 by (simp add: linorder_not_less)
```
```   509
```
```   510 lemma negative_eq_positive [simp]: "(- int n = of_nat m) = (n = 0 & m = 0)"
```
```   511 by (force simp add: order_eq_iff [of "- of_nat n"] int_zle_neg)
```
```   512
```
```   513 lemma zle_iff_zadd: "w \<le> z \<longleftrightarrow> (\<exists>n. z = w + int n)"
```
```   514 proof -
```
```   515   have "(w \<le> z) = (0 \<le> z - w)"
```
```   516     by (simp only: le_diff_eq add_0_left)
```
```   517   also have "\<dots> = (\<exists>n. z - w = of_nat n)"
```
```   518     by (auto elim: zero_le_imp_eq_int)
```
```   519   also have "\<dots> = (\<exists>n. z = w + of_nat n)"
```
```   520     by (simp only: algebra_simps)
```
```   521   finally show ?thesis .
```
```   522 qed
```
```   523
```
```   524 lemma zadd_int_left: "int m + (int n + z) = int (m + n) + z"
```
```   525 by simp
```
```   526
```
```   527 text\<open>This version is proved for all ordered rings, not just integers!
```
```   528       It is proved here because attribute \<open>arith_split\<close> is not available
```
```   529       in theory \<open>Rings\<close>.
```
```   530       But is it really better than just rewriting with \<open>abs_if\<close>?\<close>
```
```   531 lemma abs_split [arith_split, no_atp]:
```
```   532      "P \<bar>a::'a::linordered_idom\<bar> = ((0 \<le> a --> P a) & (a < 0 --> P(-a)))"
```
```   533 by (force dest: order_less_le_trans simp add: abs_if linorder_not_less)
```
```   534
```
```   535 lemma negD: "x < 0 \<Longrightarrow> \<exists>n. x = - (int (Suc n))"
```
```   536 apply transfer
```
```   537 apply clarsimp
```
```   538 apply (rule_tac x="b - Suc a" in exI, arith)
```
```   539 done
```
```   540
```
```   541 subsection \<open>Cases and induction\<close>
```
```   542
```
```   543 text\<open>Now we replace the case analysis rule by a more conventional one:
```
```   544 whether an integer is negative or not.\<close>
```
```   545
```
```   546 text\<open>This version is symmetric in the two subgoals.\<close>
```
```   547 theorem int_cases2 [case_names nonneg nonpos, cases type: int]:
```
```   548   "\<lbrakk>!! n. z = int n \<Longrightarrow> P;  !! n. z = - (int n) \<Longrightarrow> P\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> P"
```
```   549 apply (cases "z < 0")
```
```   550 apply (auto simp add: linorder_not_less dest!: negD nat_0_le [THEN sym])
```
```   551 done
```
```   552
```
```   553 text\<open>This is the default, with a negative case.\<close>
```
```   554 theorem int_cases [case_names nonneg neg, cases type: int]:
```
```   555   "[|!! n. z = int n ==> P;  !! n. z = - (int (Suc n)) ==> P |] ==> P"
```
```   556 apply (cases "z < 0")
```
```   557 apply (blast dest!: negD)
```
```   558 apply (simp add: linorder_not_less del: of_nat_Suc)
```
```   559 apply auto
```
```   560 apply (blast dest: nat_0_le [THEN sym])
```
```   561 done
```
```   562
```
```   563 lemma int_cases3 [case_names zero pos neg]:
```
```   564   fixes k :: int
```
```   565   assumes "k = 0 \<Longrightarrow> P" and "\<And>n. k = int n \<Longrightarrow> n > 0 \<Longrightarrow> P"
```
```   566     and "\<And>n. k = - int n \<Longrightarrow> n > 0 \<Longrightarrow> P"
```
```   567   shows "P"
```
```   568 proof (cases k "0::int" rule: linorder_cases)
```
```   569   case equal with assms(1) show P by simp
```
```   570 next
```
```   571   case greater
```
```   572   then have "nat k > 0" by simp
```
```   573   moreover from this have "k = int (nat k)" by auto
```
```   574   ultimately show P using assms(2) by blast
```
```   575 next
```
```   576   case less
```
```   577   then have "nat (- k) > 0" by simp
```
```   578   moreover from this have "k = - int (nat (- k))" by auto
```
```   579   ultimately show P using assms(3) by blast
```
```   580 qed
```
```   581
```
```   582 theorem int_of_nat_induct [case_names nonneg neg, induct type: int]:
```
```   583      "[|!! n. P (int n);  !!n. P (- (int (Suc n))) |] ==> P z"
```
```   584   by (cases z) auto
```
```   585
```
```   586 lemma nonneg_int_cases:
```
```   587   assumes "0 \<le> k" obtains n where "k = int n"
```
```   588   using assms by (rule nonneg_eq_int)
```
```   589
```
```   590 lemma Let_numeral [simp]: "Let (numeral v) f = f (numeral v)"
```
```   591   \<comment> \<open>Unfold all \<open>let\<close>s involving constants\<close>
```
```   592   by (fact Let_numeral) \<comment> \<open>FIXME drop\<close>
```
```   593
```
```   594 lemma Let_neg_numeral [simp]: "Let (- numeral v) f = f (- numeral v)"
```
```   595   \<comment> \<open>Unfold all \<open>let\<close>s involving constants\<close>
```
```   596   by (fact Let_neg_numeral) \<comment> \<open>FIXME drop\<close>
```
```   597
```
```   598 text \<open>Unfold \<open>min\<close> and \<open>max\<close> on numerals.\<close>
```
```   599
```
```   600 lemmas max_number_of [simp] =
```
```   601   max_def [of "numeral u" "numeral v"]
```
```   602   max_def [of "numeral u" "- numeral v"]
```
```   603   max_def [of "- numeral u" "numeral v"]
```
```   604   max_def [of "- numeral u" "- numeral v"] for u v
```
```   605
```
```   606 lemmas min_number_of [simp] =
```
```   607   min_def [of "numeral u" "numeral v"]
```
```   608   min_def [of "numeral u" "- numeral v"]
```
```   609   min_def [of "- numeral u" "numeral v"]
```
```   610   min_def [of "- numeral u" "- numeral v"] for u v
```
```   611
```
```   612
```
```   613 subsubsection \<open>Binary comparisons\<close>
```
```   614
```
```   615 text \<open>Preliminaries\<close>
```
```   616
```
```   617 lemma le_imp_0_less:
```
```   618   assumes le: "0 \<le> z"
```
```   619   shows "(0::int) < 1 + z"
```
```   620 proof -
```
```   621   have "0 \<le> z" by fact
```
```   622   also have "... < z + 1" by (rule less_add_one)
```
```   623   also have "... = 1 + z" by (simp add: ac_simps)
```
```   624   finally show "0 < 1 + z" .
```
```   625 qed
```
```   626
```
```   627 lemma odd_less_0_iff:
```
```   628   "(1 + z + z < 0) = (z < (0::int))"
```
```   629 proof (cases z)
```
```   630   case (nonneg n)
```
```   631   thus ?thesis by (simp add: linorder_not_less add.assoc add_increasing
```
```   632                              le_imp_0_less [THEN order_less_imp_le])
```
```   633 next
```
```   634   case (neg n)
```
```   635   thus ?thesis by (simp del: of_nat_Suc of_nat_add of_nat_1
```
```   636     add: algebra_simps of_nat_1 [where 'a=int, symmetric] of_nat_add [symmetric])
```
```   637 qed
```
```   638
```
```   639 subsubsection \<open>Comparisons, for Ordered Rings\<close>
```
```   640
```
```   641 lemmas double_eq_0_iff = double_zero
```
```   642
```
```   643 lemma odd_nonzero:
```
```   644   "1 + z + z \<noteq> (0::int)"
```
```   645 proof (cases z)
```
```   646   case (nonneg n)
```
```   647   have le: "0 \<le> z+z" by (simp add: nonneg add_increasing)
```
```   648   thus ?thesis using  le_imp_0_less [OF le]
```
```   649     by (auto simp add: add.assoc)
```
```   650 next
```
```   651   case (neg n)
```
```   652   show ?thesis
```
```   653   proof
```
```   654     assume eq: "1 + z + z = 0"
```
```   655     have "(0::int) < 1 + (int n + int n)"
```
```   656       by (simp add: le_imp_0_less add_increasing)
```
```   657     also have "... = - (1 + z + z)"
```
```   658       by (simp add: neg add.assoc [symmetric])
```
```   659     also have "... = 0" by (simp add: eq)
```
```   660     finally have "0<0" ..
```
```   661     thus False by blast
```
```   662   qed
```
```   663 qed
```
```   664
```
```   665
```
```   666 subsection \<open>The Set of Integers\<close>
```
```   667
```
```   668 context ring_1
```
```   669 begin
```
```   670
```
```   671 definition Ints :: "'a set"  ("\<int>")
```
```   672   where "\<int> = range of_int"
```
```   673
```
```   674 lemma Ints_of_int [simp]: "of_int z \<in> \<int>"
```
```   675   by (simp add: Ints_def)
```
```   676
```
```   677 lemma Ints_of_nat [simp]: "of_nat n \<in> \<int>"
```
```   678   using Ints_of_int [of "of_nat n"] by simp
```
```   679
```
```   680 lemma Ints_0 [simp]: "0 \<in> \<int>"
```
```   681   using Ints_of_int [of "0"] by simp
```
```   682
```
```   683 lemma Ints_1 [simp]: "1 \<in> \<int>"
```
```   684   using Ints_of_int [of "1"] by simp
```
```   685
```
```   686 lemma Ints_numeral [simp]: "numeral n \<in> \<int>"
```
```   687   by (subst of_nat_numeral [symmetric], rule Ints_of_nat)
```
```   688
```
```   689 lemma Ints_add [simp]: "a \<in> \<int> \<Longrightarrow> b \<in> \<int> \<Longrightarrow> a + b \<in> \<int>"
```
```   690 apply (auto simp add: Ints_def)
```
```   691 apply (rule range_eqI)
```
```   692 apply (rule of_int_add [symmetric])
```
```   693 done
```
```   694
```
```   695 lemma Ints_minus [simp]: "a \<in> \<int> \<Longrightarrow> -a \<in> \<int>"
```
```   696 apply (auto simp add: Ints_def)
```
```   697 apply (rule range_eqI)
```
```   698 apply (rule of_int_minus [symmetric])
```
```   699 done
```
```   700
```
```   701 lemma Ints_diff [simp]: "a \<in> \<int> \<Longrightarrow> b \<in> \<int> \<Longrightarrow> a - b \<in> \<int>"
```
```   702 apply (auto simp add: Ints_def)
```
```   703 apply (rule range_eqI)
```
```   704 apply (rule of_int_diff [symmetric])
```
```   705 done
```
```   706
```
```   707 lemma Ints_mult [simp]: "a \<in> \<int> \<Longrightarrow> b \<in> \<int> \<Longrightarrow> a * b \<in> \<int>"
```
```   708 apply (auto simp add: Ints_def)
```
```   709 apply (rule range_eqI)
```
```   710 apply (rule of_int_mult [symmetric])
```
```   711 done
```
```   712
```
```   713 lemma Ints_power [simp]: "a \<in> \<int> \<Longrightarrow> a ^ n \<in> \<int>"
```
```   714 by (induct n) simp_all
```
```   715
```
```   716 lemma Ints_cases [cases set: Ints]:
```
```   717   assumes "q \<in> \<int>"
```
```   718   obtains (of_int) z where "q = of_int z"
```
```   719   unfolding Ints_def
```
```   720 proof -
```
```   721   from \<open>q \<in> \<int>\<close> have "q \<in> range of_int" unfolding Ints_def .
```
```   722   then obtain z where "q = of_int z" ..
```
```   723   then show thesis ..
```
```   724 qed
```
```   725
```
```   726 lemma Ints_induct [case_names of_int, induct set: Ints]:
```
```   727   "q \<in> \<int> \<Longrightarrow> (\<And>z. P (of_int z)) \<Longrightarrow> P q"
```
```   728   by (rule Ints_cases) auto
```
```   729
```
```   730 lemma Nats_subset_Ints: "\<nat> \<subseteq> \<int>"
```
```   731   unfolding Nats_def Ints_def
```
```   732   by (rule subsetI, elim imageE, hypsubst, subst of_int_of_nat_eq[symmetric], rule imageI) simp_all
```
```   733
```
```   734 lemma Nats_altdef1: "\<nat> = {of_int n |n. n \<ge> 0}"
```
```   735 proof (intro subsetI equalityI)
```
```   736   fix x :: 'a assume "x \<in> {of_int n |n. n \<ge> 0}"
```
```   737   then obtain n where "x = of_int n" "n \<ge> 0" by (auto elim!: Ints_cases)
```
```   738   hence "x = of_nat (nat n)" by (subst of_nat_nat) simp_all
```
```   739   thus "x \<in> \<nat>" by simp
```
```   740 next
```
```   741   fix x :: 'a assume "x \<in> \<nat>"
```
```   742   then obtain n where "x = of_nat n" by (auto elim!: Nats_cases)
```
```   743   hence "x = of_int (int n)" by simp
```
```   744   also have "int n \<ge> 0" by simp
```
```   745   hence "of_int (int n) \<in> {of_int n |n. n \<ge> 0}" by blast
```
```   746   finally show "x \<in> {of_int n |n. n \<ge> 0}" .
```
```   747 qed
```
```   748
```
```   749 end
```
```   750
```
```   751 lemma (in linordered_idom) Nats_altdef2: "\<nat> = {n \<in> \<int>. n \<ge> 0}"
```
```   752 proof (intro subsetI equalityI)
```
```   753   fix x :: 'a assume "x \<in> {n \<in> \<int>. n \<ge> 0}"
```
```   754   then obtain n where "x = of_int n" "n \<ge> 0" by (auto elim!: Ints_cases)
```
```   755   hence "x = of_nat (nat n)" by (subst of_nat_nat) simp_all
```
```   756   thus "x \<in> \<nat>" by simp
```
```   757 qed (auto elim!: Nats_cases)
```
```   758
```
```   759
```
```   760 text \<open>The premise involving @{term Ints} prevents @{term "a = 1/2"}.\<close>
```
```   761
```
```   762 lemma Ints_double_eq_0_iff:
```
```   763   assumes in_Ints: "a \<in> \<int>"
```
```   764   shows "(a + a = 0) = (a = (0::'a::ring_char_0))"
```
```   765 proof -
```
```   766   from in_Ints have "a \<in> range of_int" unfolding Ints_def [symmetric] .
```
```   767   then obtain z where a: "a = of_int z" ..
```
```   768   show ?thesis
```
```   769   proof
```
```   770     assume "a = 0"
```
```   771     thus "a + a = 0" by simp
```
```   772   next
```
```   773     assume eq: "a + a = 0"
```
```   774     hence "of_int (z + z) = (of_int 0 :: 'a)" by (simp add: a)
```
```   775     hence "z + z = 0" by (simp only: of_int_eq_iff)
```
```   776     hence "z = 0" by (simp only: double_eq_0_iff)
```
```   777     thus "a = 0" by (simp add: a)
```
```   778   qed
```
```   779 qed
```
```   780
```
```   781 lemma Ints_odd_nonzero:
```
```   782   assumes in_Ints: "a \<in> \<int>"
```
```   783   shows "1 + a + a \<noteq> (0::'a::ring_char_0)"
```
```   784 proof -
```
```   785   from in_Ints have "a \<in> range of_int" unfolding Ints_def [symmetric] .
```
```   786   then obtain z where a: "a = of_int z" ..
```
```   787   show ?thesis
```
```   788   proof
```
```   789     assume eq: "1 + a + a = 0"
```
```   790     hence "of_int (1 + z + z) = (of_int 0 :: 'a)" by (simp add: a)
```
```   791     hence "1 + z + z = 0" by (simp only: of_int_eq_iff)
```
```   792     with odd_nonzero show False by blast
```
```   793   qed
```
```   794 qed
```
```   795
```
```   796 lemma Nats_numeral [simp]: "numeral w \<in> \<nat>"
```
```   797   using of_nat_in_Nats [of "numeral w"] by simp
```
```   798
```
```   799 lemma Ints_odd_less_0:
```
```   800   assumes in_Ints: "a \<in> \<int>"
```
```   801   shows "(1 + a + a < 0) = (a < (0::'a::linordered_idom))"
```
```   802 proof -
```
```   803   from in_Ints have "a \<in> range of_int" unfolding Ints_def [symmetric] .
```
```   804   then obtain z where a: "a = of_int z" ..
```
```   805   hence "((1::'a) + a + a < 0) = (of_int (1 + z + z) < (of_int 0 :: 'a))"
```
```   806     by (simp add: a)
```
```   807   also have "... = (z < 0)" by (simp only: of_int_less_iff odd_less_0_iff)
```
```   808   also have "... = (a < 0)" by (simp add: a)
```
```   809   finally show ?thesis .
```
```   810 qed
```
```   811
```
```   812
```
```   813 subsection \<open>@{term setsum} and @{term setprod}\<close>
```
```   814
```
```   815 lemma of_nat_setsum [simp]: "of_nat (setsum f A) = (\<Sum>x\<in>A. of_nat(f x))"
```
```   816   apply (cases "finite A")
```
```   817   apply (erule finite_induct, auto)
```
```   818   done
```
```   819
```
```   820 lemma of_int_setsum [simp]: "of_int (setsum f A) = (\<Sum>x\<in>A. of_int(f x))"
```
```   821   apply (cases "finite A")
```
```   822   apply (erule finite_induct, auto)
```
```   823   done
```
```   824
```
```   825 lemma of_nat_setprod [simp]: "of_nat (setprod f A) = (\<Prod>x\<in>A. of_nat(f x))"
```
```   826   apply (cases "finite A")
```
```   827   apply (erule finite_induct, auto simp add: of_nat_mult)
```
```   828   done
```
```   829
```
```   830 lemma of_int_setprod [simp]: "of_int (setprod f A) = (\<Prod>x\<in>A. of_int(f x))"
```
```   831   apply (cases "finite A")
```
```   832   apply (erule finite_induct, auto)
```
```   833   done
```
```   834
```
```   835 lemmas int_setsum = of_nat_setsum [where 'a=int]
```
```   836 lemmas int_setprod = of_nat_setprod [where 'a=int]
```
```   837
```
```   838
```
```   839 text \<open>Legacy theorems\<close>
```
```   840
```
```   841 lemmas zle_int = of_nat_le_iff [where 'a=int]
```
```   842 lemmas int_int_eq = of_nat_eq_iff [where 'a=int]
```
```   843
```
```   844 subsection \<open>Setting up simplification procedures\<close>
```
```   845
```
```   846 lemmas of_int_simps =
```
```   847   of_int_0 of_int_1 of_int_add of_int_mult
```
```   848
```
```   849 ML_file "Tools/int_arith.ML"
```
```   850 declaration \<open>K Int_Arith.setup\<close>
```
```   851
```
```   852 simproc_setup fast_arith ("(m::'a::linordered_idom) < n" |
```
```   853   "(m::'a::linordered_idom) \<le> n" |
```
```   854   "(m::'a::linordered_idom) = n") =
```
```   855   \<open>K Lin_Arith.simproc\<close>
```
```   856
```
```   857
```
```   858 subsection\<open>More Inequality Reasoning\<close>
```
```   859
```
```   860 lemma zless_add1_eq: "(w < z + (1::int)) = (w<z | w=z)"
```
```   861 by arith
```
```   862
```
```   863 lemma add1_zle_eq: "(w + (1::int) \<le> z) = (w<z)"
```
```   864 by arith
```
```   865
```
```   866 lemma zle_diff1_eq [simp]: "(w \<le> z - (1::int)) = (w<z)"
```
```   867 by arith
```
```   868
```
```   869 lemma zle_add1_eq_le [simp]: "(w < z + (1::int)) = (w\<le>z)"
```
```   870 by arith
```
```   871
```
```   872 lemma int_one_le_iff_zero_less: "((1::int) \<le> z) = (0 < z)"
```
```   873 by arith
```
```   874
```
```   875
```
```   876 subsection\<open>The functions @{term nat} and @{term int}\<close>
```
```   877
```
```   878 text\<open>Simplify the term @{term "w + - z"}\<close>
```
```   879
```
```   880 lemma one_less_nat_eq [simp]: "(Suc 0 < nat z) = (1 < z)"
```
```   881   using zless_nat_conj [of 1 z] by auto
```
```   882
```
```   883 text\<open>This simplifies expressions of the form @{term "int n = z"} where
```
```   884       z is an integer literal.\<close>
```
```   885 lemmas int_eq_iff_numeral [simp] = int_eq_iff [of _ "numeral v"] for v
```
```   886
```
```   887 lemma split_nat [arith_split]:
```
```   888   "P(nat(i::int)) = ((\<forall>n. i = int n \<longrightarrow> P n) & (i < 0 \<longrightarrow> P 0))"
```
```   889   (is "?P = (?L & ?R)")
```
```   890 proof (cases "i < 0")
```
```   891   case True thus ?thesis by auto
```
```   892 next
```
```   893   case False
```
```   894   have "?P = ?L"
```
```   895   proof
```
```   896     assume ?P thus ?L using False by clarsimp
```
```   897   next
```
```   898     assume ?L thus ?P using False by simp
```
```   899   qed
```
```   900   with False show ?thesis by simp
```
```   901 qed
```
```   902
```
```   903 lemma nat_abs_int_diff: "nat \<bar>int a - int b\<bar> = (if a \<le> b then b - a else a - b)"
```
```   904   by auto
```
```   905
```
```   906 lemma nat_int_add: "nat (int a + int b) = a + b"
```
```   907   by auto
```
```   908
```
```   909 context ring_1
```
```   910 begin
```
```   911
```
```   912 lemma of_int_of_nat [nitpick_simp]:
```
```   913   "of_int k = (if k < 0 then - of_nat (nat (- k)) else of_nat (nat k))"
```
```   914 proof (cases "k < 0")
```
```   915   case True then have "0 \<le> - k" by simp
```
```   916   then have "of_nat (nat (- k)) = of_int (- k)" by (rule of_nat_nat)
```
```   917   with True show ?thesis by simp
```
```   918 next
```
```   919   case False then show ?thesis by (simp add: not_less of_nat_nat)
```
```   920 qed
```
```   921
```
```   922 end
```
```   923
```
```   924 lemma nat_mult_distrib:
```
```   925   fixes z z' :: int
```
```   926   assumes "0 \<le> z"
```
```   927   shows "nat (z * z') = nat z * nat z'"
```
```   928 proof (cases "0 \<le> z'")
```
```   929   case False with assms have "z * z' \<le> 0"
```
```   930     by (simp add: not_le mult_le_0_iff)
```
```   931   then have "nat (z * z') = 0" by simp
```
```   932   moreover from False have "nat z' = 0" by simp
```
```   933   ultimately show ?thesis by simp
```
```   934 next
```
```   935   case True with assms have ge_0: "z * z' \<ge> 0" by (simp add: zero_le_mult_iff)
```
```   936   show ?thesis
```
```   937     by (rule injD [of "of_nat :: nat \<Rightarrow> int", OF inj_of_nat])
```
```   938       (simp only: of_nat_mult of_nat_nat [OF True]
```
```   939          of_nat_nat [OF assms] of_nat_nat [OF ge_0], simp)
```
```   940 qed
```
```   941
```
```   942 lemma nat_mult_distrib_neg: "z \<le> (0::int) ==> nat(z*z') = nat(-z) * nat(-z')"
```
```   943 apply (rule trans)
```
```   944 apply (rule_tac  nat_mult_distrib, auto)
```
```   945 done
```
```   946
```
```   947 lemma nat_abs_mult_distrib: "nat \<bar>w * z\<bar> = nat \<bar>w\<bar> * nat \<bar>z\<bar>"
```
```   948 apply (cases "z=0 | w=0")
```
```   949 apply (auto simp add: abs_if nat_mult_distrib [symmetric]
```
```   950                       nat_mult_distrib_neg [symmetric] mult_less_0_iff)
```
```   951 done
```
```   952
```
```   953 lemma int_in_range_abs [simp]:
```
```   954   "int n \<in> range abs"
```
```   955 proof (rule range_eqI)
```
```   956   show "int n = \<bar>int n\<bar>"
```
```   957     by simp
```
```   958 qed
```
```   959
```
```   960 lemma range_abs_Nats [simp]:
```
```   961   "range abs = (\<nat> :: int set)"
```
```   962 proof -
```
```   963   have "\<bar>k\<bar> \<in> \<nat>" for k :: int
```
```   964     by (cases k) simp_all
```
```   965   moreover have "k \<in> range abs" if "k \<in> \<nat>" for k :: int
```
```   966     using that by induct simp
```
```   967   ultimately show ?thesis by blast
```
```   968 qed
```
```   969
```
```   970 lemma Suc_nat_eq_nat_zadd1: "(0::int) <= z ==> Suc (nat z) = nat (1 + z)"
```
```   971 apply (rule sym)
```
```   972 apply (simp add: nat_eq_iff)
```
```   973 done
```
```   974
```
```   975 lemma diff_nat_eq_if:
```
```   976      "nat z - nat z' =
```
```   977         (if z' < 0 then nat z
```
```   978          else let d = z-z' in
```
```   979               if d < 0 then 0 else nat d)"
```
```   980 by (simp add: Let_def nat_diff_distrib [symmetric])
```
```   981
```
```   982 lemma nat_numeral_diff_1 [simp]:
```
```   983   "numeral v - (1::nat) = nat (numeral v - 1)"
```
```   984   using diff_nat_numeral [of v Num.One] by simp
```
```   985
```
```   986
```
```   987 subsection "Induction principles for int"
```
```   988
```
```   989 text\<open>Well-founded segments of the integers\<close>
```
```   990
```
```   991 definition
```
```   992   int_ge_less_than  ::  "int => (int * int) set"
```
```   993 where
```
```   994   "int_ge_less_than d = {(z',z). d \<le> z' & z' < z}"
```
```   995
```
```   996 theorem wf_int_ge_less_than: "wf (int_ge_less_than d)"
```
```   997 proof -
```
```   998   have "int_ge_less_than d \<subseteq> measure (%z. nat (z-d))"
```
```   999     by (auto simp add: int_ge_less_than_def)
```
```  1000   thus ?thesis
```
```  1001     by (rule wf_subset [OF wf_measure])
```
```  1002 qed
```
```  1003
```
```  1004 text\<open>This variant looks odd, but is typical of the relations suggested
```
```  1005 by RankFinder.\<close>
```
```  1006
```
```  1007 definition
```
```  1008   int_ge_less_than2 ::  "int => (int * int) set"
```
```  1009 where
```
```  1010   "int_ge_less_than2 d = {(z',z). d \<le> z & z' < z}"
```
```  1011
```
```  1012 theorem wf_int_ge_less_than2: "wf (int_ge_less_than2 d)"
```
```  1013 proof -
```
```  1014   have "int_ge_less_than2 d \<subseteq> measure (%z. nat (1+z-d))"
```
```  1015     by (auto simp add: int_ge_less_than2_def)
```
```  1016   thus ?thesis
```
```  1017     by (rule wf_subset [OF wf_measure])
```
```  1018 qed
```
```  1019
```
```  1020 (* `set:int': dummy construction *)
```
```  1021 theorem int_ge_induct [case_names base step, induct set: int]:
```
```  1022   fixes i :: int
```
```  1023   assumes ge: "k \<le> i" and
```
```  1024     base: "P k" and
```
```  1025     step: "\<And>i. k \<le> i \<Longrightarrow> P i \<Longrightarrow> P (i + 1)"
```
```  1026   shows "P i"
```
```  1027 proof -
```
```  1028   { fix n
```
```  1029     have "\<And>i::int. n = nat (i - k) \<Longrightarrow> k \<le> i \<Longrightarrow> P i"
```
```  1030     proof (induct n)
```
```  1031       case 0
```
```  1032       hence "i = k" by arith
```
```  1033       thus "P i" using base by simp
```
```  1034     next
```
```  1035       case (Suc n)
```
```  1036       then have "n = nat((i - 1) - k)" by arith
```
```  1037       moreover
```
```  1038       have ki1: "k \<le> i - 1" using Suc.prems by arith
```
```  1039       ultimately
```
```  1040       have "P (i - 1)" by (rule Suc.hyps)
```
```  1041       from step [OF ki1 this] show ?case by simp
```
```  1042     qed
```
```  1043   }
```
```  1044   with ge show ?thesis by fast
```
```  1045 qed
```
```  1046
```
```  1047 (* `set:int': dummy construction *)
```
```  1048 theorem int_gr_induct [case_names base step, induct set: int]:
```
```  1049   assumes gr: "k < (i::int)" and
```
```  1050         base: "P(k+1)" and
```
```  1051         step: "\<And>i. \<lbrakk>k < i; P i\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> P(i+1)"
```
```  1052   shows "P i"
```
```  1053 apply(rule int_ge_induct[of "k + 1"])
```
```  1054   using gr apply arith
```
```  1055  apply(rule base)
```
```  1056 apply (rule step, simp+)
```
```  1057 done
```
```  1058
```
```  1059 theorem int_le_induct [consumes 1, case_names base step]:
```
```  1060   assumes le: "i \<le> (k::int)" and
```
```  1061         base: "P(k)" and
```
```  1062         step: "\<And>i. \<lbrakk>i \<le> k; P i\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> P(i - 1)"
```
```  1063   shows "P i"
```
```  1064 proof -
```
```  1065   { fix n
```
```  1066     have "\<And>i::int. n = nat(k-i) \<Longrightarrow> i \<le> k \<Longrightarrow> P i"
```
```  1067     proof (induct n)
```
```  1068       case 0
```
```  1069       hence "i = k" by arith
```
```  1070       thus "P i" using base by simp
```
```  1071     next
```
```  1072       case (Suc n)
```
```  1073       hence "n = nat (k - (i + 1))" by arith
```
```  1074       moreover
```
```  1075       have ki1: "i + 1 \<le> k" using Suc.prems by arith
```
```  1076       ultimately
```
```  1077       have "P (i + 1)" by(rule Suc.hyps)
```
```  1078       from step[OF ki1 this] show ?case by simp
```
```  1079     qed
```
```  1080   }
```
```  1081   with le show ?thesis by fast
```
```  1082 qed
```
```  1083
```
```  1084 theorem int_less_induct [consumes 1, case_names base step]:
```
```  1085   assumes less: "(i::int) < k" and
```
```  1086         base: "P(k - 1)" and
```
```  1087         step: "\<And>i. \<lbrakk>i < k; P i\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> P(i - 1)"
```
```  1088   shows "P i"
```
```  1089 apply(rule int_le_induct[of _ "k - 1"])
```
```  1090   using less apply arith
```
```  1091  apply(rule base)
```
```  1092 apply (rule step, simp+)
```
```  1093 done
```
```  1094
```
```  1095 theorem int_induct [case_names base step1 step2]:
```
```  1096   fixes k :: int
```
```  1097   assumes base: "P k"
```
```  1098     and step1: "\<And>i. k \<le> i \<Longrightarrow> P i \<Longrightarrow> P (i + 1)"
```
```  1099     and step2: "\<And>i. k \<ge> i \<Longrightarrow> P i \<Longrightarrow> P (i - 1)"
```
```  1100   shows "P i"
```
```  1101 proof -
```
```  1102   have "i \<le> k \<or> i \<ge> k" by arith
```
```  1103   then show ?thesis
```
```  1104   proof
```
```  1105     assume "i \<ge> k"
```
```  1106     then show ?thesis using base
```
```  1107       by (rule int_ge_induct) (fact step1)
```
```  1108   next
```
```  1109     assume "i \<le> k"
```
```  1110     then show ?thesis using base
```
```  1111       by (rule int_le_induct) (fact step2)
```
```  1112   qed
```
```  1113 qed
```
```  1114
```
```  1115 subsection\<open>Intermediate value theorems\<close>
```
```  1116
```
```  1117 lemma int_val_lemma:
```
```  1118      "(\<forall>i<n::nat. \<bar>f(i+1) - f i\<bar> \<le> 1) -->
```
```  1119       f 0 \<le> k --> k \<le> f n --> (\<exists>i \<le> n. f i = (k::int))"
```
```  1120 unfolding One_nat_def
```
```  1121 apply (induct n)
```
```  1122 apply simp
```
```  1123 apply (intro strip)
```
```  1124 apply (erule impE, simp)
```
```  1125 apply (erule_tac x = n in allE, simp)
```
```  1126 apply (case_tac "k = f (Suc n)")
```
```  1127 apply force
```
```  1128 apply (erule impE)
```
```  1129  apply (simp add: abs_if split add: split_if_asm)
```
```  1130 apply (blast intro: le_SucI)
```
```  1131 done
```
```  1132
```
```  1133 lemmas nat0_intermed_int_val = int_val_lemma [rule_format (no_asm)]
```
```  1134
```
```  1135 lemma nat_intermed_int_val:
```
```  1136      "[| \<forall>i. m \<le> i & i < n --> \<bar>f(i + 1::nat) - f i\<bar> \<le> 1; m < n;
```
```  1137          f m \<le> k; k \<le> f n |] ==> ? i. m \<le> i & i \<le> n & f i = (k::int)"
```
```  1138 apply (cut_tac n = "n-m" and f = "%i. f (i+m) " and k = k
```
```  1139        in int_val_lemma)
```
```  1140 unfolding One_nat_def
```
```  1141 apply simp
```
```  1142 apply (erule exE)
```
```  1143 apply (rule_tac x = "i+m" in exI, arith)
```
```  1144 done
```
```  1145
```
```  1146
```
```  1147 subsection\<open>Products and 1, by T. M. Rasmussen\<close>
```
```  1148
```
```  1149 lemma zabs_less_one_iff [simp]: "(\<bar>z\<bar> < 1) = (z = (0::int))"
```
```  1150 by arith
```
```  1151
```
```  1152 lemma abs_zmult_eq_1:
```
```  1153   assumes mn: "\<bar>m * n\<bar> = 1"
```
```  1154   shows "\<bar>m\<bar> = (1::int)"
```
```  1155 proof -
```
```  1156   have 0: "m \<noteq> 0 & n \<noteq> 0" using mn
```
```  1157     by auto
```
```  1158   have "~ (2 \<le> \<bar>m\<bar>)"
```
```  1159   proof
```
```  1160     assume "2 \<le> \<bar>m\<bar>"
```
```  1161     hence "2*\<bar>n\<bar> \<le> \<bar>m\<bar>*\<bar>n\<bar>"
```
```  1162       by (simp add: mult_mono 0)
```
```  1163     also have "... = \<bar>m*n\<bar>"
```
```  1164       by (simp add: abs_mult)
```
```  1165     also have "... = 1"
```
```  1166       by (simp add: mn)
```
```  1167     finally have "2*\<bar>n\<bar> \<le> 1" .
```
```  1168     thus "False" using 0
```
```  1169       by arith
```
```  1170   qed
```
```  1171   thus ?thesis using 0
```
```  1172     by auto
```
```  1173 qed
```
```  1174
```
```  1175 lemma pos_zmult_eq_1_iff_lemma: "(m * n = 1) ==> m = (1::int) | m = -1"
```
```  1176 by (insert abs_zmult_eq_1 [of m n], arith)
```
```  1177
```
```  1178 lemma pos_zmult_eq_1_iff:
```
```  1179   assumes "0 < (m::int)" shows "(m * n = 1) = (m = 1 & n = 1)"
```
```  1180 proof -
```
```  1181   from assms have "m * n = 1 ==> m = 1" by (auto dest: pos_zmult_eq_1_iff_lemma)
```
```  1182   thus ?thesis by (auto dest: pos_zmult_eq_1_iff_lemma)
```
```  1183 qed
```
```  1184
```
```  1185 lemma zmult_eq_1_iff: "(m*n = (1::int)) = ((m = 1 & n = 1) | (m = -1 & n = -1))"
```
```  1186 apply (rule iffI)
```
```  1187  apply (frule pos_zmult_eq_1_iff_lemma)
```
```  1188  apply (simp add: mult.commute [of m])
```
```  1189  apply (frule pos_zmult_eq_1_iff_lemma, auto)
```
```  1190 done
```
```  1191
```
```  1192 lemma infinite_UNIV_int: "\<not> finite (UNIV::int set)"
```
```  1193 proof
```
```  1194   assume "finite (UNIV::int set)"
```
```  1195   moreover have "inj (\<lambda>i::int. 2 * i)"
```
```  1196     by (rule injI) simp
```
```  1197   ultimately have "surj (\<lambda>i::int. 2 * i)"
```
```  1198     by (rule finite_UNIV_inj_surj)
```
```  1199   then obtain i :: int where "1 = 2 * i" by (rule surjE)
```
```  1200   then show False by (simp add: pos_zmult_eq_1_iff)
```
```  1201 qed
```
```  1202
```
```  1203
```
```  1204 subsection \<open>Further theorems on numerals\<close>
```
```  1205
```
```  1206 subsubsection\<open>Special Simplification for Constants\<close>
```
```  1207
```
```  1208 text\<open>These distributive laws move literals inside sums and differences.\<close>
```
```  1209
```
```  1210 lemmas distrib_right_numeral [simp] = distrib_right [of _ _ "numeral v"] for v
```
```  1211 lemmas distrib_left_numeral [simp] = distrib_left [of "numeral v"] for v
```
```  1212 lemmas left_diff_distrib_numeral [simp] = left_diff_distrib [of _ _ "numeral v"] for v
```
```  1213 lemmas right_diff_distrib_numeral [simp] = right_diff_distrib [of "numeral v"] for v
```
```  1214
```
```  1215 text\<open>These are actually for fields, like real: but where else to put them?\<close>
```
```  1216
```
```  1217 lemmas zero_less_divide_iff_numeral [simp, no_atp] = zero_less_divide_iff [of "numeral w"] for w
```
```  1218 lemmas divide_less_0_iff_numeral [simp, no_atp] = divide_less_0_iff [of "numeral w"] for w
```
```  1219 lemmas zero_le_divide_iff_numeral [simp, no_atp] = zero_le_divide_iff [of "numeral w"] for w
```
```  1220 lemmas divide_le_0_iff_numeral [simp, no_atp] = divide_le_0_iff [of "numeral w"] for w
```
```  1221
```
```  1222
```
```  1223 text \<open>Replaces \<open>inverse #nn\<close> by \<open>1/#nn\<close>.  It looks
```
```  1224   strange, but then other simprocs simplify the quotient.\<close>
```
```  1225
```
```  1226 lemmas inverse_eq_divide_numeral [simp] =
```
```  1227   inverse_eq_divide [of "numeral w"] for w
```
```  1228
```
```  1229 lemmas inverse_eq_divide_neg_numeral [simp] =
```
```  1230   inverse_eq_divide [of "- numeral w"] for w
```
```  1231
```
```  1232 text \<open>These laws simplify inequalities, moving unary minus from a term
```
```  1233 into the literal.\<close>
```
```  1234
```
```  1235 lemmas equation_minus_iff_numeral [no_atp] =
```
```  1236   equation_minus_iff [of "numeral v"] for v
```
```  1237
```
```  1238 lemmas minus_equation_iff_numeral [no_atp] =
```
```  1239   minus_equation_iff [of _ "numeral v"] for v
```
```  1240
```
```  1241 lemmas le_minus_iff_numeral [no_atp] =
```
```  1242   le_minus_iff [of "numeral v"] for v
```
```  1243
```
```  1244 lemmas minus_le_iff_numeral [no_atp] =
```
```  1245   minus_le_iff [of _ "numeral v"] for v
```
```  1246
```
```  1247 lemmas less_minus_iff_numeral [no_atp] =
```
```  1248   less_minus_iff [of "numeral v"] for v
```
```  1249
```
```  1250 lemmas minus_less_iff_numeral [no_atp] =
```
```  1251   minus_less_iff [of _ "numeral v"] for v
```
```  1252
```
```  1253 \<comment> \<open>FIXME maybe simproc\<close>
```
```  1254
```
```  1255
```
```  1256 text \<open>Cancellation of constant factors in comparisons (\<open><\<close> and \<open>\<le>\<close>)\<close>
```
```  1257
```
```  1258 lemmas mult_less_cancel_left_numeral [simp, no_atp] = mult_less_cancel_left [of "numeral v"] for v
```
```  1259 lemmas mult_less_cancel_right_numeral [simp, no_atp] = mult_less_cancel_right [of _ "numeral v"] for v
```
```  1260 lemmas mult_le_cancel_left_numeral [simp, no_atp] = mult_le_cancel_left [of "numeral v"] for v
```
```  1261 lemmas mult_le_cancel_right_numeral [simp, no_atp] = mult_le_cancel_right [of _ "numeral v"] for v
```
```  1262
```
```  1263
```
```  1264 text \<open>Multiplying out constant divisors in comparisons (\<open><\<close>, \<open>\<le>\<close> and \<open>=\<close>)\<close>
```
```  1265
```
```  1266 named_theorems divide_const_simps "simplification rules to simplify comparisons involving constant divisors"
```
```  1267
```
```  1268 lemmas le_divide_eq_numeral1 [simp,divide_const_simps] =
```
```  1269   pos_le_divide_eq [of "numeral w", OF zero_less_numeral]
```
```  1270   neg_le_divide_eq [of "- numeral w", OF neg_numeral_less_zero] for w
```
```  1271
```
```  1272 lemmas divide_le_eq_numeral1 [simp,divide_const_simps] =
```
```  1273   pos_divide_le_eq [of "numeral w", OF zero_less_numeral]
```
```  1274   neg_divide_le_eq [of "- numeral w", OF neg_numeral_less_zero] for w
```
```  1275
```
```  1276 lemmas less_divide_eq_numeral1 [simp,divide_const_simps] =
```
```  1277   pos_less_divide_eq [of "numeral w", OF zero_less_numeral]
```
```  1278   neg_less_divide_eq [of "- numeral w", OF neg_numeral_less_zero] for w
```
```  1279
```
```  1280 lemmas divide_less_eq_numeral1 [simp,divide_const_simps] =
```
```  1281   pos_divide_less_eq [of "numeral w", OF zero_less_numeral]
```
```  1282   neg_divide_less_eq [of "- numeral w", OF neg_numeral_less_zero] for w
```
```  1283
```
```  1284 lemmas eq_divide_eq_numeral1 [simp,divide_const_simps] =
```
```  1285   eq_divide_eq [of _ _ "numeral w"]
```
```  1286   eq_divide_eq [of _ _ "- numeral w"] for w
```
```  1287
```
```  1288 lemmas divide_eq_eq_numeral1 [simp,divide_const_simps] =
```
```  1289   divide_eq_eq [of _ "numeral w"]
```
```  1290   divide_eq_eq [of _ "- numeral w"] for w
```
```  1291
```
```  1292
```
```  1293 subsubsection\<open>Optional Simplification Rules Involving Constants\<close>
```
```  1294
```
```  1295 text\<open>Simplify quotients that are compared with a literal constant.\<close>
```
```  1296
```
```  1297 lemmas le_divide_eq_numeral [divide_const_simps] =
```
```  1298   le_divide_eq [of "numeral w"]
```
```  1299   le_divide_eq [of "- numeral w"] for w
```
```  1300
```
```  1301 lemmas divide_le_eq_numeral [divide_const_simps] =
```
```  1302   divide_le_eq [of _ _ "numeral w"]
```
```  1303   divide_le_eq [of _ _ "- numeral w"] for w
```
```  1304
```
```  1305 lemmas less_divide_eq_numeral [divide_const_simps] =
```
```  1306   less_divide_eq [of "numeral w"]
```
```  1307   less_divide_eq [of "- numeral w"] for w
```
```  1308
```
```  1309 lemmas divide_less_eq_numeral [divide_const_simps] =
```
```  1310   divide_less_eq [of _ _ "numeral w"]
```
```  1311   divide_less_eq [of _ _ "- numeral w"] for w
```
```  1312
```
```  1313 lemmas eq_divide_eq_numeral [divide_const_simps] =
```
```  1314   eq_divide_eq [of "numeral w"]
```
```  1315   eq_divide_eq [of "- numeral w"] for w
```
```  1316
```
```  1317 lemmas divide_eq_eq_numeral [divide_const_simps] =
```
```  1318   divide_eq_eq [of _ _ "numeral w"]
```
```  1319   divide_eq_eq [of _ _ "- numeral w"] for w
```
```  1320
```
```  1321
```
```  1322 text\<open>Not good as automatic simprules because they cause case splits.\<close>
```
```  1323 lemmas [divide_const_simps] = le_divide_eq_1 divide_le_eq_1 less_divide_eq_1 divide_less_eq_1
```
```  1324
```
```  1325
```
```  1326 subsection \<open>The divides relation\<close>
```
```  1327
```
```  1328 lemma zdvd_antisym_nonneg:
```
```  1329     "0 <= m ==> 0 <= n ==> m dvd n ==> n dvd m ==> m = (n::int)"
```
```  1330   apply (simp add: dvd_def, auto)
```
```  1331   apply (auto simp add: mult.assoc zero_le_mult_iff zmult_eq_1_iff)
```
```  1332   done
```
```  1333
```
```  1334 lemma zdvd_antisym_abs: assumes "(a::int) dvd b" and "b dvd a"
```
```  1335   shows "\<bar>a\<bar> = \<bar>b\<bar>"
```
```  1336 proof cases
```
```  1337   assume "a = 0" with assms show ?thesis by simp
```
```  1338 next
```
```  1339   assume "a \<noteq> 0"
```
```  1340   from \<open>a dvd b\<close> obtain k where k:"b = a*k" unfolding dvd_def by blast
```
```  1341   from \<open>b dvd a\<close> obtain k' where k':"a = b*k'" unfolding dvd_def by blast
```
```  1342   from k k' have "a = a*k*k'" by simp
```
```  1343   with mult_cancel_left1[where c="a" and b="k*k'"]
```
```  1344   have kk':"k*k' = 1" using \<open>a\<noteq>0\<close> by (simp add: mult.assoc)
```
```  1345   hence "k = 1 \<and> k' = 1 \<or> k = -1 \<and> k' = -1" by (simp add: zmult_eq_1_iff)
```
```  1346   thus ?thesis using k k' by auto
```
```  1347 qed
```
```  1348
```
```  1349 lemma zdvd_zdiffD: "k dvd m - n ==> k dvd n ==> k dvd (m::int)"
```
```  1350   using dvd_add_right_iff [of k "- n" m] by simp
```
```  1351
```
```  1352 lemma zdvd_reduce: "(k dvd n + k * m) = (k dvd (n::int))"
```
```  1353   using dvd_add_times_triv_right_iff [of k n m] by (simp add: ac_simps)
```
```  1354
```
```  1355 lemma dvd_imp_le_int:
```
```  1356   fixes d i :: int
```
```  1357   assumes "i \<noteq> 0" and "d dvd i"
```
```  1358   shows "\<bar>d\<bar> \<le> \<bar>i\<bar>"
```
```  1359 proof -
```
```  1360   from \<open>d dvd i\<close> obtain k where "i = d * k" ..
```
```  1361   with \<open>i \<noteq> 0\<close> have "k \<noteq> 0" by auto
```
```  1362   then have "1 \<le> \<bar>k\<bar>" and "0 \<le> \<bar>d\<bar>" by auto
```
```  1363   then have "\<bar>d\<bar> * 1 \<le> \<bar>d\<bar> * \<bar>k\<bar>" by (rule mult_left_mono)
```
```  1364   with \<open>i = d * k\<close> show ?thesis by (simp add: abs_mult)
```
```  1365 qed
```
```  1366
```
```  1367 lemma zdvd_not_zless:
```
```  1368   fixes m n :: int
```
```  1369   assumes "0 < m" and "m < n"
```
```  1370   shows "\<not> n dvd m"
```
```  1371 proof
```
```  1372   from assms have "0 < n" by auto
```
```  1373   assume "n dvd m" then obtain k where k: "m = n * k" ..
```
```  1374   with \<open>0 < m\<close> have "0 < n * k" by auto
```
```  1375   with \<open>0 < n\<close> have "0 < k" by (simp add: zero_less_mult_iff)
```
```  1376   with k \<open>0 < n\<close> \<open>m < n\<close> have "n * k < n * 1" by simp
```
```  1377   with \<open>0 < n\<close> \<open>0 < k\<close> show False unfolding mult_less_cancel_left by auto
```
```  1378 qed
```
```  1379
```
```  1380 lemma zdvd_mult_cancel: assumes d:"k * m dvd k * n" and kz:"k \<noteq> (0::int)"
```
```  1381   shows "m dvd n"
```
```  1382 proof-
```
```  1383   from d obtain h where h: "k*n = k*m * h" unfolding dvd_def by blast
```
```  1384   {assume "n \<noteq> m*h" hence "k* n \<noteq> k* (m*h)" using kz by simp
```
```  1385     with h have False by (simp add: mult.assoc)}
```
```  1386   hence "n = m * h" by blast
```
```  1387   thus ?thesis by simp
```
```  1388 qed
```
```  1389
```
```  1390 theorem zdvd_int: "(x dvd y) = (int x dvd int y)"
```
```  1391 proof -
```
```  1392   have "\<And>k. int y = int x * k \<Longrightarrow> x dvd y"
```
```  1393   proof -
```
```  1394     fix k
```
```  1395     assume A: "int y = int x * k"
```
```  1396     then show "x dvd y"
```
```  1397     proof (cases k)
```
```  1398       case (nonneg n)
```
```  1399       with A have "y = x * n" by (simp del: of_nat_mult add: of_nat_mult [symmetric])
```
```  1400       then show ?thesis ..
```
```  1401     next
```
```  1402       case (neg n)
```
```  1403       with A have "int y = int x * (- int (Suc n))" by simp
```
```  1404       also have "\<dots> = - (int x * int (Suc n))" by (simp only: mult_minus_right)
```
```  1405       also have "\<dots> = - int (x * Suc n)" by (simp only: of_nat_mult [symmetric])
```
```  1406       finally have "- int (x * Suc n) = int y" ..
```
```  1407       then show ?thesis by (simp only: negative_eq_positive) auto
```
```  1408     qed
```
```  1409   qed
```
```  1410   then show ?thesis by (auto elim!: dvdE simp only: dvd_triv_left of_nat_mult)
```
```  1411 qed
```
```  1412
```
```  1413 lemma zdvd1_eq[simp]: "(x::int) dvd 1 = (\<bar>x\<bar> = 1)"
```
```  1414 proof
```
```  1415   assume d: "x dvd 1" hence "int (nat \<bar>x\<bar>) dvd int (nat 1)" by simp
```
```  1416   hence "nat \<bar>x\<bar> dvd 1" by (simp add: zdvd_int)
```
```  1417   hence "nat \<bar>x\<bar> = 1"  by simp
```
```  1418   thus "\<bar>x\<bar> = 1" by (cases "x < 0") auto
```
```  1419 next
```
```  1420   assume "\<bar>x\<bar>=1"
```
```  1421   then have "x = 1 \<or> x = -1" by auto
```
```  1422   then show "x dvd 1" by (auto intro: dvdI)
```
```  1423 qed
```
```  1424
```
```  1425 lemma zdvd_mult_cancel1:
```
```  1426   assumes mp:"m \<noteq>(0::int)" shows "(m * n dvd m) = (\<bar>n\<bar> = 1)"
```
```  1427 proof
```
```  1428   assume n1: "\<bar>n\<bar> = 1" thus "m * n dvd m"
```
```  1429     by (cases "n >0") (auto simp add: minus_equation_iff)
```
```  1430 next
```
```  1431   assume H: "m * n dvd m" hence H2: "m * n dvd m * 1" by simp
```
```  1432   from zdvd_mult_cancel[OF H2 mp] show "\<bar>n\<bar> = 1" by (simp only: zdvd1_eq)
```
```  1433 qed
```
```  1434
```
```  1435 lemma int_dvd_iff: "(int m dvd z) = (m dvd nat \<bar>z\<bar>)"
```
```  1436   unfolding zdvd_int by (cases "z \<ge> 0") simp_all
```
```  1437
```
```  1438 lemma dvd_int_iff: "(z dvd int m) = (nat \<bar>z\<bar> dvd m)"
```
```  1439   unfolding zdvd_int by (cases "z \<ge> 0") simp_all
```
```  1440
```
```  1441 lemma dvd_int_unfold_dvd_nat:
```
```  1442   "k dvd l \<longleftrightarrow> nat \<bar>k\<bar> dvd nat \<bar>l\<bar>"
```
```  1443   unfolding dvd_int_iff [symmetric] by simp
```
```  1444
```
```  1445 lemma nat_dvd_iff: "(nat z dvd m) = (if 0 \<le> z then (z dvd int m) else m = 0)"
```
```  1446   by (auto simp add: dvd_int_iff)
```
```  1447
```
```  1448 lemma eq_nat_nat_iff:
```
```  1449   "0 \<le> z \<Longrightarrow> 0 \<le> z' \<Longrightarrow> nat z = nat z' \<longleftrightarrow> z = z'"
```
```  1450   by (auto elim!: nonneg_eq_int)
```
```  1451
```
```  1452 lemma nat_power_eq:
```
```  1453   "0 \<le> z \<Longrightarrow> nat (z ^ n) = nat z ^ n"
```
```  1454   by (induct n) (simp_all add: nat_mult_distrib)
```
```  1455
```
```  1456 lemma zdvd_imp_le: "[| z dvd n; 0 < n |] ==> z \<le> (n::int)"
```
```  1457   apply (cases n)
```
```  1458   apply (auto simp add: dvd_int_iff)
```
```  1459   apply (cases z)
```
```  1460   apply (auto simp add: dvd_imp_le)
```
```  1461   done
```
```  1462
```
```  1463 lemma zdvd_period:
```
```  1464   fixes a d :: int
```
```  1465   assumes "a dvd d"
```
```  1466   shows "a dvd (x + t) \<longleftrightarrow> a dvd ((x + c * d) + t)"
```
```  1467 proof -
```
```  1468   from assms obtain k where "d = a * k" by (rule dvdE)
```
```  1469   show ?thesis
```
```  1470   proof
```
```  1471     assume "a dvd (x + t)"
```
```  1472     then obtain l where "x + t = a * l" by (rule dvdE)
```
```  1473     then have "x = a * l - t" by simp
```
```  1474     with \<open>d = a * k\<close> show "a dvd x + c * d + t" by simp
```
```  1475   next
```
```  1476     assume "a dvd x + c * d + t"
```
```  1477     then obtain l where "x + c * d + t = a * l" by (rule dvdE)
```
```  1478     then have "x = a * l - c * d - t" by simp
```
```  1479     with \<open>d = a * k\<close> show "a dvd (x + t)" by simp
```
```  1480   qed
```
```  1481 qed
```
```  1482
```
```  1483
```
```  1484 subsection \<open>Finiteness of intervals\<close>
```
```  1485
```
```  1486 lemma finite_interval_int1 [iff]: "finite {i :: int. a <= i & i <= b}"
```
```  1487 proof (cases "a <= b")
```
```  1488   case True
```
```  1489   from this show ?thesis
```
```  1490   proof (induct b rule: int_ge_induct)
```
```  1491     case base
```
```  1492     have "{i. a <= i & i <= a} = {a}" by auto
```
```  1493     from this show ?case by simp
```
```  1494   next
```
```  1495     case (step b)
```
```  1496     from this have "{i. a <= i & i <= b + 1} = {i. a <= i & i <= b} \<union> {b + 1}" by auto
```
```  1497     from this step show ?case by simp
```
```  1498   qed
```
```  1499 next
```
```  1500   case False from this show ?thesis
```
```  1501     by (metis (lifting, no_types) Collect_empty_eq finite.emptyI order_trans)
```
```  1502 qed
```
```  1503
```
```  1504 lemma finite_interval_int2 [iff]: "finite {i :: int. a <= i & i < b}"
```
```  1505 by (rule rev_finite_subset[OF finite_interval_int1[of "a" "b"]]) auto
```
```  1506
```
```  1507 lemma finite_interval_int3 [iff]: "finite {i :: int. a < i & i <= b}"
```
```  1508 by (rule rev_finite_subset[OF finite_interval_int1[of "a" "b"]]) auto
```
```  1509
```
```  1510 lemma finite_interval_int4 [iff]: "finite {i :: int. a < i & i < b}"
```
```  1511 by (rule rev_finite_subset[OF finite_interval_int1[of "a" "b"]]) auto
```
```  1512
```
```  1513
```
```  1514 subsection \<open>Configuration of the code generator\<close>
```
```  1515
```
```  1516 text \<open>Constructors\<close>
```
```  1517
```
```  1518 definition Pos :: "num \<Rightarrow> int" where
```
```  1519   [simp, code_abbrev]: "Pos = numeral"
```
```  1520
```
```  1521 definition Neg :: "num \<Rightarrow> int" where
```
```  1522   [simp, code_abbrev]: "Neg n = - (Pos n)"
```
```  1523
```
```  1524 code_datatype "0::int" Pos Neg
```
```  1525
```
```  1526
```
```  1527 text \<open>Auxiliary operations\<close>
```
```  1528
```
```  1529 definition dup :: "int \<Rightarrow> int" where
```
```  1530   [simp]: "dup k = k + k"
```
```  1531
```
```  1532 lemma dup_code [code]:
```
```  1533   "dup 0 = 0"
```
```  1534   "dup (Pos n) = Pos (Num.Bit0 n)"
```
```  1535   "dup (Neg n) = Neg (Num.Bit0 n)"
```
```  1536   unfolding Pos_def Neg_def
```
```  1537   by (simp_all add: numeral_Bit0)
```
```  1538
```
```  1539 definition sub :: "num \<Rightarrow> num \<Rightarrow> int" where
```
```  1540   [simp]: "sub m n = numeral m - numeral n"
```
```  1541
```
```  1542 lemma sub_code [code]:
```
```  1543   "sub Num.One Num.One = 0"
```
```  1544   "sub (Num.Bit0 m) Num.One = Pos (Num.BitM m)"
```
```  1545   "sub (Num.Bit1 m) Num.One = Pos (Num.Bit0 m)"
```
```  1546   "sub Num.One (Num.Bit0 n) = Neg (Num.BitM n)"
```
```  1547   "sub Num.One (Num.Bit1 n) = Neg (Num.Bit0 n)"
```
```  1548   "sub (Num.Bit0 m) (Num.Bit0 n) = dup (sub m n)"
```
```  1549   "sub (Num.Bit1 m) (Num.Bit1 n) = dup (sub m n)"
```
```  1550   "sub (Num.Bit1 m) (Num.Bit0 n) = dup (sub m n) + 1"
```
```  1551   "sub (Num.Bit0 m) (Num.Bit1 n) = dup (sub m n) - 1"
```
```  1552   apply (simp_all only: sub_def dup_def numeral.simps Pos_def Neg_def numeral_BitM)
```
```  1553   apply (simp_all only: algebra_simps minus_diff_eq)
```
```  1554   apply (simp_all only: add.commute [of _ "- (numeral n + numeral n)"])
```
```  1555   apply (simp_all only: minus_add add.assoc left_minus)
```
```  1556   done
```
```  1557
```
```  1558 text \<open>Implementations\<close>
```
```  1559
```
```  1560 lemma one_int_code [code, code_unfold]:
```
```  1561   "1 = Pos Num.One"
```
```  1562   by simp
```
```  1563
```
```  1564 lemma plus_int_code [code]:
```
```  1565   "k + 0 = (k::int)"
```
```  1566   "0 + l = (l::int)"
```
```  1567   "Pos m + Pos n = Pos (m + n)"
```
```  1568   "Pos m + Neg n = sub m n"
```
```  1569   "Neg m + Pos n = sub n m"
```
```  1570   "Neg m + Neg n = Neg (m + n)"
```
```  1571   by simp_all
```
```  1572
```
```  1573 lemma uminus_int_code [code]:
```
```  1574   "uminus 0 = (0::int)"
```
```  1575   "uminus (Pos m) = Neg m"
```
```  1576   "uminus (Neg m) = Pos m"
```
```  1577   by simp_all
```
```  1578
```
```  1579 lemma minus_int_code [code]:
```
```  1580   "k - 0 = (k::int)"
```
```  1581   "0 - l = uminus (l::int)"
```
```  1582   "Pos m - Pos n = sub m n"
```
```  1583   "Pos m - Neg n = Pos (m + n)"
```
```  1584   "Neg m - Pos n = Neg (m + n)"
```
```  1585   "Neg m - Neg n = sub n m"
```
```  1586   by simp_all
```
```  1587
```
```  1588 lemma times_int_code [code]:
```
```  1589   "k * 0 = (0::int)"
```
```  1590   "0 * l = (0::int)"
```
```  1591   "Pos m * Pos n = Pos (m * n)"
```
```  1592   "Pos m * Neg n = Neg (m * n)"
```
```  1593   "Neg m * Pos n = Neg (m * n)"
```
```  1594   "Neg m * Neg n = Pos (m * n)"
```
```  1595   by simp_all
```
```  1596
```
```  1597 instantiation int :: equal
```
```  1598 begin
```
```  1599
```
```  1600 definition
```
```  1601   "HOL.equal k l \<longleftrightarrow> k = (l::int)"
```
```  1602
```
```  1603 instance
```
```  1604   by standard (rule equal_int_def)
```
```  1605
```
```  1606 end
```
```  1607
```
```  1608 lemma equal_int_code [code]:
```
```  1609   "HOL.equal 0 (0::int) \<longleftrightarrow> True"
```
```  1610   "HOL.equal 0 (Pos l) \<longleftrightarrow> False"
```
```  1611   "HOL.equal 0 (Neg l) \<longleftrightarrow> False"
```
```  1612   "HOL.equal (Pos k) 0 \<longleftrightarrow> False"
```
```  1613   "HOL.equal (Pos k) (Pos l) \<longleftrightarrow> HOL.equal k l"
```
```  1614   "HOL.equal (Pos k) (Neg l) \<longleftrightarrow> False"
```
```  1615   "HOL.equal (Neg k) 0 \<longleftrightarrow> False"
```
```  1616   "HOL.equal (Neg k) (Pos l) \<longleftrightarrow> False"
```
```  1617   "HOL.equal (Neg k) (Neg l) \<longleftrightarrow> HOL.equal k l"
```
```  1618   by (auto simp add: equal)
```
```  1619
```
```  1620 lemma equal_int_refl [code nbe]:
```
```  1621   "HOL.equal (k::int) k \<longleftrightarrow> True"
```
```  1622   by (fact equal_refl)
```
```  1623
```
```  1624 lemma less_eq_int_code [code]:
```
```  1625   "0 \<le> (0::int) \<longleftrightarrow> True"
```
```  1626   "0 \<le> Pos l \<longleftrightarrow> True"
```
```  1627   "0 \<le> Neg l \<longleftrightarrow> False"
```
```  1628   "Pos k \<le> 0 \<longleftrightarrow> False"
```
```  1629   "Pos k \<le> Pos l \<longleftrightarrow> k \<le> l"
```
```  1630   "Pos k \<le> Neg l \<longleftrightarrow> False"
```
```  1631   "Neg k \<le> 0 \<longleftrightarrow> True"
```
```  1632   "Neg k \<le> Pos l \<longleftrightarrow> True"
```
```  1633   "Neg k \<le> Neg l \<longleftrightarrow> l \<le> k"
```
```  1634   by simp_all
```
```  1635
```
```  1636 lemma less_int_code [code]:
```
```  1637   "0 < (0::int) \<longleftrightarrow> False"
```
```  1638   "0 < Pos l \<longleftrightarrow> True"
```
```  1639   "0 < Neg l \<longleftrightarrow> False"
```
```  1640   "Pos k < 0 \<longleftrightarrow> False"
```
```  1641   "Pos k < Pos l \<longleftrightarrow> k < l"
```
```  1642   "Pos k < Neg l \<longleftrightarrow> False"
```
```  1643   "Neg k < 0 \<longleftrightarrow> True"
```
```  1644   "Neg k < Pos l \<longleftrightarrow> True"
```
```  1645   "Neg k < Neg l \<longleftrightarrow> l < k"
```
```  1646   by simp_all
```
```  1647
```
```  1648 lemma nat_code [code]:
```
```  1649   "nat (Int.Neg k) = 0"
```
```  1650   "nat 0 = 0"
```
```  1651   "nat (Int.Pos k) = nat_of_num k"
```
```  1652   by (simp_all add: nat_of_num_numeral)
```
```  1653
```
```  1654 lemma (in ring_1) of_int_code [code]:
```
```  1655   "of_int (Int.Neg k) = - numeral k"
```
```  1656   "of_int 0 = 0"
```
```  1657   "of_int (Int.Pos k) = numeral k"
```
```  1658   by simp_all
```
```  1659
```
```  1660
```
```  1661 text \<open>Serializer setup\<close>
```
```  1662
```
```  1663 code_identifier
```
```  1664   code_module Int \<rightharpoonup> (SML) Arith and (OCaml) Arith and (Haskell) Arith
```
```  1665
```
```  1666 quickcheck_params [default_type = int]
```
```  1667
```
```  1668 hide_const (open) Pos Neg sub dup
```
```  1669
```
```  1670
```
```  1671 subsection \<open>Legacy theorems\<close>
```
```  1672
```
```  1673 lemmas inj_int = inj_of_nat [where 'a=int]
```
```  1674 lemmas zadd_int = of_nat_add [where 'a=int, symmetric]
```
```  1675 lemmas int_mult = of_nat_mult [where 'a=int]
```
```  1676 lemmas int_eq_0_conv = of_nat_eq_0_iff [where 'a=int and m="n"] for n
```
```  1677 lemmas zless_int = of_nat_less_iff [where 'a=int]
```
```  1678 lemmas int_less_0_conv = of_nat_less_0_iff [where 'a=int and m="k"] for k
```
```  1679 lemmas zero_less_int_conv = of_nat_0_less_iff [where 'a=int]
```
```  1680 lemmas zero_zle_int = of_nat_0_le_iff [where 'a=int]
```
```  1681 lemmas int_le_0_conv = of_nat_le_0_iff [where 'a=int and m="n"] for n
```
```  1682 lemmas int_0 = of_nat_0 [where 'a=int]
```
```  1683 lemmas int_1 = of_nat_1 [where 'a=int]
```
```  1684 lemmas int_Suc = of_nat_Suc [where 'a=int]
```
```  1685 lemmas int_numeral = of_nat_numeral [where 'a=int]
```
```  1686 lemmas abs_int_eq = abs_of_nat [where 'a=int and n="m"] for m
```
```  1687 lemmas of_int_int_eq = of_int_of_nat_eq [where 'a=int]
```
```  1688 lemmas zdiff_int = of_nat_diff [where 'a=int, symmetric]
```
```  1689 lemmas zpower_numeral_even = power_numeral_even [where 'a=int]
```
```  1690 lemmas zpower_numeral_odd = power_numeral_odd [where 'a=int]
```
```  1691
```
```  1692 text \<open>De-register \<open>int\<close> as a quotient type:\<close>
```
```  1693
```
```  1694 lifting_update int.lifting
```
```  1695 lifting_forget int.lifting
```
```  1696
```
```  1697 text\<open>Also the class for fields with characteristic zero.\<close>
```
```  1698 class field_char_0 = field + ring_char_0
```
```  1699 subclass (in linordered_field) field_char_0 ..
```
```  1700
```
```  1701 end
```