NEWS
author hoelzl
Thu Apr 19 22:21:15 2012 +0200 (2012-04-19)
changeset 47616 632a1e5710e6
parent 47567 407cabf66f21
child 47617 f5eaa7fa8d72
permissions -rw-r--r--
NEWS
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
     5 ------------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
    10 
    11   - markup for bound variables
    12   - markup for types of term variables (e.g. displayed as tooltips)
    13   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
    14   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
    15     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
    16 
    17 * Updated and extended reference manuals ("isar-ref" and
    18 "implementation"); reduced remaining material in old "ref" manual.
    19 
    20 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
    21 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
    22 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
    23 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
    24 etc. was exploited.
    25 
    26 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
    27 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
    28 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
    29 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
    30 indices of schematic variables.
    31 
    32 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
    33 
    34     num ~> num_token
    35     xnum ~> xnum_token
    36     xstr ~> str_token
    37 
    38 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
    39 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
    40 position information via constraints).
    41 
    42 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
    43 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
    44 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    45 
    46 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
    47 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
    48 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
    49 
    50 
    51 *** Pure ***
    52 
    53 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
    54 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
    55 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
    56 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
    57 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
    58 
    59   context
    60     fixes x y z :: 'a
    61     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
    62   begin
    63 
    64   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
    65 
    66   end
    67 
    68   thm my_trans
    69 
    70 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
    71 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
    72 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
    73 
    74 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
    75 ... begin ... end" block as well.
    76 
    77 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
    78 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
    79 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
    80 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.
    81 
    82 See commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref
    83 manual.
    84 
    85 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
    86 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
    87 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
    88 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
    89 
    90 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
    91 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
    92 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
    93 
    94 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
    95 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
    96 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
    97 undocumented feature.)
    98 
    99 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   100 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   101 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   102 
   103 * Obsolete command 'types' has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   104 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   105 
   106 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   107 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   108 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   109 
   110 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   111 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   112 
   113 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   114 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   115 
   116   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   117 
   118 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   119 
   120 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   121 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   122 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   123 
   124   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   125 
   126   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   127     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   128 
   129 
   130 *** HOL ***
   131 
   132 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL" ("prog-prove").
   133 It completely supercedes "A Tutorial Introduction to Structured Isar Proofs",
   134 which has been removed. It supercedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant
   135 for Higher-Order Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial
   136 but does not cover all of the material of that old tutorial.
   137 
   138 * Discontinued old Tutorial on Isar ("isar-overview");
   139 
   140 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   141 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   142 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   143 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase sets S accidentally
   144 used as predicates by "%x. x : S" and predicates P accidentally used
   145 as sets by "{x. P x}".  Corresponding proofs in a first step should be
   146 pruned from any tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def
   147 as far as possible.
   148 
   149 For developments which deliberately mixed predicates and sets, a
   150 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   151 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   152 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   153 
   154 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   155 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   156 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   157 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively. (See definitions
   158 in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.) Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some user theories
   159 may require adaptations as follows:
   160 
   161   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   162     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   163 
   164   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   165     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   166     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   167 
   168   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   169     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   170 
   171   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   172     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   173     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   174 
   175   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   176     Redefine using other integer operations.
   177 
   178 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   179 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   180 
   181 * New proof import from HOL Light: Faster, simpler, and more scalable.
   182 Requires a proof bundle, which is available as an external component.
   183 Discontinued old (and mostly dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.
   184 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   185 
   186 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   187 
   188 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   189 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
   190 of some relation theorems:
   191 
   192   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   193   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   194   symp_def ~> (dropped, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   195   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   196   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   197   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   198 
   199 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   200 
   201 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
   202 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   203 
   204 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   205 
   206 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   207 to match the constant's name:
   208 
   209   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   210   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   211   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   212   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   213   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   214   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   215   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   216   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   217   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
   218   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   219   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   220   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   221   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   222   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   223   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   224   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   225   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   226   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   227   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   228   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   229   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   230   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   231   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   232   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   233 
   234 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   235 
   236 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
   237 and corresponding theorem names:
   238 
   239   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
   240 
   241   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
   242 
   243   - Renamed theorems:
   244 
   245     rel_compI ~> relcompI
   246     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
   247     rel_compE ~> relcompE
   248     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
   249     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
   250     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
   251     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
   252     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
   253     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
   254     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
   255     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
   256     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
   257     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   258     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
   259     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
   260     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
   261     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
   262     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
   263     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
   264     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
   265     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
   266     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
   267     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
   268 
   269     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
   270 
   271     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
   272 
   273 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   274 
   275 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
   276 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   277 
   278   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
   279   zdiv_self ~> div_self
   280   zmod_self ~> mod_self
   281   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
   282   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
   283   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
   284   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
   285   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
   286   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
   287   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
   288   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
   289   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
   290   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
   291   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
   292   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
   293   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
   294   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
   295   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
   296   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
   297   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
   298   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
   299 
   300 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
   301 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   302 
   303 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   304 
   305 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
   306 
   307   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
   308   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
   309   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
   310   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
   311   union_set ~> union_set_fold
   312   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
   313   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
   314   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
   315   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
   316   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
   317   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
   318   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
   319   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
   320   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
   321   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
   322   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
   323   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
   324   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
   325 
   326 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   327 
   328 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
   329 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
   330 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
   331 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
   332 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
   333 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
   334 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
   335 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
   336 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
   337 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
   338 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
   339 
   340 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
   341 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
   342 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
   343 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
   344 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
   345 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
   346 
   347 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
   348 through option types.
   349 
   350 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   351 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   352 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   353 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   354 one_case.
   355 
   356 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   357 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   358 
   359 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
   360 association lists with distinct keys.
   361 
   362 * 'datatype' specifications allow explicit sort constraints.
   363 
   364 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   365 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
   366 
   367 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
   368 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
   369 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
   370 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
   371 follows:
   372 
   373   Operations:
   374   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
   375   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
   376   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
   377   del -> rbt_del
   378   delete -> rbt_delete
   379   ins -> rbt_ins
   380   insert -> rbt_insert
   381   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
   382   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
   383   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
   384   lookup -> rbt_lookup
   385   sorted -> rbt_sorted
   386   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
   387   tree_less -> rbt_less
   388   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
   389   union -> rbt_union
   390   union_with -> rbt_union_with
   391   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
   392 
   393   Lemmas:
   394   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
   395   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
   396   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
   397   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
   398   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
   399   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
   400   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
   401   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
   402   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
   403   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
   404   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
   405   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
   406   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
   407   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
   408   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
   409   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
   410   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
   411   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
   412   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
   413   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
   414   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
   415   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
   416   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
   417   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
   418   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
   419   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
   420   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
   421   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
   422   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
   423   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
   424   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
   425   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
   426   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
   427   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
   428   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
   429   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
   430   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
   431   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
   432   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
   433   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
   434   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
   435   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
   436   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
   437   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
   438   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
   439   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
   440   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
   441   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
   442   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
   443   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
   444   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
   445   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
   446   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
   447   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
   448   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
   449   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
   450   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
   451   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
   452   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
   453   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
   454   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
   455   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
   456   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
   457   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
   458   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
   459   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
   460   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
   461   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
   462   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
   463   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
   464   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
   465   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
   466   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
   467   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
   468   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
   469   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
   470   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
   471   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
   472   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
   473   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
   474   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
   475   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
   476   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
   477 
   478 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as a
   479 subset of the real numbers. All operations are defined using the
   480 lifing-framework and most proofs use the transfer method.
   481 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   482 
   483   Changed Operations:
   484   scale   ~>   exponent
   485   pow2 x  ~>   use "2 powr (real x)"
   486 
   487 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
   488 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
   489 instead.
   490 
   491   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
   492   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
   493   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
   494   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
   495   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
   496   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
   497   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
   498   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
   499   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   500   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   501   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
   502   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
   503   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   504   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
   505   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   506   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
   507   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
   508   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
   509   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
   510   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
   511   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
   512   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
   513   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
   514   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
   515   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
   516   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
   517   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
   518   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
   519   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
   520   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
   521   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
   522   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
   523   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
   524   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
   525   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
   526   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
   527   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
   528   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
   529   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
   530   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
   531   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
   532 
   533 * New tactic "word_bitwise" for splitting machine word equalities and
   534 inequalities into logical circuits. Requires theory "WordBitwise" from HOL-Word
   535 session. Supports addition, subtraction, multiplication, shifting by
   536 constants, bitwise operators and numeric constants. Requires fixed-length word
   537 types, cannot operate on 'a word. Solves many standard word identies outright
   538 and converts more into first order problems amenable to blast or similar. See
   539 HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy and examples in HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
   540 
   541 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   542 the result of the fact expression.
   543 
   544 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
   545 relations.
   546 
   547 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   548 
   549 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
   550 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   551 
   552   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
   553   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
   554   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
   555   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
   556   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
   557   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   558   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
   559   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
   560   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
   561   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
   562   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
   563   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
   564   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
   565   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   566   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   567   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
   568   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
   569   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
   570   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   571   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   572   zle_refl ~> order_refl
   573   zle_trans ~> order_trans
   574   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
   575   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
   576   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
   577   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   578   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
   579   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
   580   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
   581   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
   582   zless_le ~> less_le
   583   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
   584   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
   585   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
   586 
   587 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
   588 
   589   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
   590 
   591 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   592 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   593 
   594   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   595 
   596 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   597 a list and a nat.
   598 
   599 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
   600 
   601 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   602 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   603 
   604 * Quickcheck:
   605 
   606   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   607     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   608     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   609     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   610     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   611 
   612     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   613     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   614     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   615 
   616     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   617     continues searching for genuine ones.
   618 
   619     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   620     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
   621     show genuine counterexamples.
   622 
   623   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   624     value generators for a given type and operations.
   625 
   626     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   627     constructors of that type.
   628 
   629   - Support for multisets.
   630 
   631   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   632 
   633   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   634     conjectures in a locale context.
   635 
   636 * Nitpick:
   637   - Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option and
   638     affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   639 
   640 * Sledgehammer:
   641   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012 paper "More
   642     SPASS with Isabelle".
   643   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
   644   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and TFF1),
   645     iProver, iProver-Eq.
   646   - Replaced remote E-SInE with remote Satallax in the default setup.
   647   - Sped up the minimizer.
   648   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   649   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   650   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   651 
   652 * Metis:
   653   - Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   654     parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   655 
   656 * SMT:
   657   - Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   658 
   659 * Command 'try0':
   660   - Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   661 
   662 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   663 eventually_elim* rules. Supports structured proofs.
   664 
   665 * HOL/TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all languages)
   666 into Isabelle/HOL.
   667 
   668 
   669 *** FOL ***
   670 
   671 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
   672 
   673 
   674 *** ZF ***
   675 
   676 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
   677 analysis.
   678 
   679 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
   680 
   681 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   682 
   683 
   684 *** ML ***
   685 
   686 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
   687 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
   688 
   689 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
   690 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
   691 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
   692 
   693 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
   694 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
   695 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
   696 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
   697 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
   698 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
   699 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
   700 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
   701 
   702 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
   703 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
   704 
   705 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
   706 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
   707 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
   708 
   709 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
   710 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   711 
   712 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
   713 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
   714 context as well.
   715 
   716 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
   717 
   718   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
   719   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
   720   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
   721   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
   722   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
   723   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
   724   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
   725   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
   726   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
   727   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
   728   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
   729   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
   730 
   731 
   732 *** System ***
   733 
   734 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
   735 (not just JRE).
   736 
   737 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
   738 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
   739 
   740 
   741 
   742 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
   743 ------------------------------------
   744 
   745 *** General ***
   746 
   747 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
   748 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
   749 
   750   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
   751     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
   752     files for checking).
   753 
   754   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
   755     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
   756     positions.
   757 
   758   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
   759     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
   760     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
   761 
   762   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
   763     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
   764     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
   765 
   766   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
   767     cores.
   768 
   769   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
   770     versions (garbage collection).
   771 
   772 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
   773 including some remaining limitations.
   774 
   775 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
   776 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
   777 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
   778 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
   779 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
   780 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   781 
   782 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
   783 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
   784 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
   785 
   786 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
   787 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
   788 usedir option -Q.
   789 
   790 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
   791 configuration options, with more conventional names:
   792 
   793   long_names   ~> names_long
   794   short_names  ~> names_short
   795   unique_names ~> names_unique
   796 
   797 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
   798 
   799   declare [[names_unique = false]]
   800 
   801 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
   802 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
   803 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
   804 
   805 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
   806 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
   807 
   808 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
   809   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
   810   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
   811   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
   812     "Classical Reasoner".
   813 
   814 
   815 *** HOL ***
   816 
   817 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
   818 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   819 
   820 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
   821 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
   822 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
   823 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
   824 class complete_linorder.
   825 
   826 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
   827 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
   828 
   829 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
   830 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
   831 
   832   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
   833   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
   834   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
   835   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
   836   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
   837   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
   838   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
   839   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
   840   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
   841   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
   842   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
   843 
   844 More consistent and comprehensive names:
   845 
   846   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
   847   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
   848   INFI_def ~> INF_def
   849   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
   850   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
   851   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
   852   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
   853   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
   854   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
   855   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
   856   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
   857   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
   858   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
   859   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
   860   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
   861   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
   862 
   863 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   864 
   865 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
   866 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   867 
   868 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
   869 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
   870 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
   871 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   872 
   873 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
   874 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
   875 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
   876 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   877 
   878 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
   879 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
   880 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
   881 
   882 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
   883 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
   884 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   885 
   886 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
   887 separate type class floor_ceiling.
   888 
   889 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
   890 
   891     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
   892     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
   893 
   894 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
   895 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   896 
   897 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
   898 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   899 
   900 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
   901 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
   902 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
   903 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   904 
   905   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
   906   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
   907   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
   908   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
   909   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
   910   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
   911   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
   912 
   913 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
   914 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   915 
   916   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
   917   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
   918   real_less_def ~> less_le
   919   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
   920   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
   921   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
   922   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   923   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   924   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   925   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
   926   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
   927   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
   928   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
   929   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
   930   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
   931   real_le_linear ~> linear
   932   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
   933   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   934   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
   935   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
   936   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
   937   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
   938   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
   939   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
   940   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
   941   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
   942   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
   943   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
   944   expi_add ~> exp_add
   945   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
   946   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
   947   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
   948   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
   949   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
   950   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
   951   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
   952   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
   953   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
   954   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
   955   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
   956   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
   957   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
   958   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
   959   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
   960   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
   961   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
   962   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
   963   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
   964   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
   965   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
   966   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
   967   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
   968   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
   969   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
   970   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
   971   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
   972   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
   973   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
   974   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
   975   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
   976   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
   977   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
   978   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
   979   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
   980   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
   981   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
   982   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
   983   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
   984   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
   985   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
   986   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
   987   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
   988   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
   989   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
   990   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
   991   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
   992   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
   993   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
   994   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
   995   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
   996   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
   997   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
   998 
   999 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  1000 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  1001 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  1002 
  1003 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  1004 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  1005 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  1006 
  1007 * Code generation:
  1008 
  1009   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  1010     characters in the target language.
  1011 
  1012   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  1013     instead.
  1014 
  1015   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  1016 
  1017   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  1018     reactivated by the following theory command:
  1019 
  1020       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  1021 
  1022 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1023 
  1024 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  1025 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  1026 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  1027 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  1028 syntax.
  1029 
  1030 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  1031 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  1032 
  1033 * Nitpick:
  1034   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  1035   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  1036   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  1037     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1038 
  1039 * Sledgehammer:
  1040   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  1041   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  1042     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  1043   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  1044     this can be done within reasonable time.
  1045   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  1046     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1047   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  1048     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  1049   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  1050     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1051 
  1052 * Metis:
  1053   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1054   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  1055     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1056 
  1057 * Command 'try':
  1058   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  1059     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1060   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  1061     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  1062 
  1063 * Quickcheck:
  1064   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  1065     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1066   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  1067     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1068   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  1069     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  1070     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  1071     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  1072   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  1073     (formly in HOL/Library).
  1074 
  1075 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1076 use 'partial_function' instead.
  1077 
  1078 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  1079 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  1080 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  1081 
  1082 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  1083 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  1084 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1085 
  1086 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  1087 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1088 
  1089 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  1090 arithmetic.
  1091 
  1092 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  1093 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  1094 and lattice type classes.
  1095 
  1096 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  1097 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  1098 
  1099 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  1100 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  1101 
  1102 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  1103 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  1104 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1105 
  1106   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  1107   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  1108   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  1109   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  1110 
  1111 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  1112 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  1113 constants:
  1114 
  1115   type inat   ~> type enat
  1116   Fin         ~> enat
  1117   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  1118   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  1119   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  1120 
  1121 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  1122 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1123 
  1124 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  1125 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  1126 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  1127 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  1128 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  1129 
  1130 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  1131 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  1132 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  1133 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  1134 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  1135 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  1136 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  1137 
  1138   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  1139   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  1140   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  1141   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  1142 
  1143 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  1144 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  1145 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1146 
  1147   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  1148   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  1149   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  1150   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  1151   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  1152   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  1153   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  1154   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  1155   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  1156   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  1157   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  1158   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  1159   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1160   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1161   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  1162   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1163   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  1164   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  1165   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  1166   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  1167   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  1168   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  1169   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  1170   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  1171   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  1172   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  1173   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  1174   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  1175   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  1176   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1177   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1178   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  1179   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  1180   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  1181   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  1182   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  1183   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  1184   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  1185   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  1186   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  1187   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  1188   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  1189   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  1190   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  1191   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  1192   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  1193   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  1194   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  1195   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  1196   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  1197   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  1198 
  1199 * Session HOL-Probability:
  1200   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  1201   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  1202   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  1203   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  1204     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1205 
  1206 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1207 
  1208   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  1209   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  1210   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1211   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  1212   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  1213   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  1214   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  1215   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  1216   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  1217   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  1218   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1219   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  1220   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  1221   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  1222   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  1223   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  1224   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  1225   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  1226   UU_I ~> bottomI
  1227   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  1228   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1229   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1230   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  1231   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  1232   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  1233 
  1234 
  1235 *** Document preparation ***
  1236 
  1237 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  1238 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  1239 same.
  1240 
  1241 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  1242 result.
  1243 
  1244 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  1245 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  1246 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  1247 
  1248 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  1249 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  1250 
  1251 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  1252 like this:
  1253 
  1254   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  1255   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  1256 
  1257 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  1258 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  1259 layouts.
  1260 
  1261 
  1262 *** ML ***
  1263 
  1264 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  1265 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  1266 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  1267 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  1268 under external program control.
  1269 
  1270 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  1271 data, which requires explicit setup.
  1272 
  1273 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  1274 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  1275 (better known as Proof General).
  1276 
  1277 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1278 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  1279 
  1280 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  1281 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  1282 
  1283 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  1284 (including quotes etc.).
  1285 
  1286 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  1287 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  1288 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  1289 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  1290 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  1291 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  1292 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  1293 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  1294 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  1295 
  1296 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  1297 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  1298 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1299 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  1300 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  1301 
  1302 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  1303 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  1304 
  1305 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  1306 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  1307 
  1308 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  1309 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  1310 
  1311 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  1312 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  1313 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  1314 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  1315 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  1316 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  1317 proper Proof.context.
  1318 
  1319 
  1320 *** System ***
  1321 
  1322 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  1323 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  1324 
  1325 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  1326 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  1327 
  1328 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  1329 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  1330 
  1331   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  1332   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  1333   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  1334   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  1335   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  1336 
  1337 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  1338 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1339 
  1340 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  1341 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  1342 example:
  1343 
  1344   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  1345 
  1346 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  1347 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  1348 
  1349 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  1350 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  1351 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  1352 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  1353 
  1354 
  1355 
  1356 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  1357 ----------------------------------
  1358 
  1359 *** General ***
  1360 
  1361 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  1362 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  1363 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  1364 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  1365 like this:
  1366 
  1367   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  1368 
  1369 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  1370 
  1371 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  1372 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  1373 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  1374 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  1375 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  1376 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  1377 
  1378 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  1379 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  1380 the following package declarations:
  1381 
  1382   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  1383   \usepackage{textcomp}
  1384 
  1385 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  1386 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  1387 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  1388 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  1389 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  1390 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  1391 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  1392 
  1393 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  1394 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1395 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  1396 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  1397 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  1398 
  1399 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  1400 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  1401 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  1402 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  1403 
  1404 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  1405 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  1406 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  1407 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  1408 
  1409   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  1410 
  1411   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  1412   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  1413   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  1414   show_types                    show_types
  1415   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  1416   show_consts                   show_consts
  1417   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  1418 
  1419   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  1420   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  1421   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  1422 
  1423   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  1424   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  1425 
  1426   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  1427 
  1428   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  1429   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  1430   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  1431   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  1432   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  1433 
  1434 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  1435 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  1436 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  1437 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  1438 
  1439 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  1440 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1441 
  1442   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  1443   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  1444 
  1445 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  1446 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  1447 float_token.
  1448 
  1449 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  1450 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  1451 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1452 
  1453 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  1454 DejaVu Sans.
  1455 
  1456 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  1457 
  1458 
  1459 *** Pure ***
  1460 
  1461 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  1462 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  1463 time.
  1464 
  1465 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  1466 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1467 
  1468 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  1469 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1470 
  1471 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  1472 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  1473 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  1474 command already provided this functionality.
  1475 
  1476 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  1477 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  1478 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  1479 without interpretations.
  1480 
  1481 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  1482 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  1483 
  1484 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  1485 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  1486 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  1487 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  1488 
  1489 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  1490 'definition' instead.
  1491 
  1492 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  1493 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  1494 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  1495 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  1496 
  1497 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  1498 constructors.
  1499 
  1500 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  1501 the local file system.
  1502 
  1503 
  1504 *** HOL ***
  1505 
  1506 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  1507 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  1508 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  1509 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  1510 
  1511   declare [[coercion f]]
  1512 
  1513 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  1514 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  1515 
  1516   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  1517 
  1518 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  1519 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  1520 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  1521 other theories like this:
  1522 
  1523   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  1524 
  1525 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  1526 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  1527 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  1528 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  1529 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  1530 for examples.
  1531 
  1532 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  1533 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1534 
  1535 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  1536 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  1537 
  1538 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  1539 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  1540 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  1541 
  1542 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  1543 functorial structure of types.
  1544 
  1545 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  1546 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  1547 
  1548 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  1549 languages.
  1550 
  1551 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  1552 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  1553 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1554 
  1555 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  1556 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1557 
  1558 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  1559 combinators any longer.
  1560 
  1561 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  1562 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  1563 
  1564 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  1565 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  1566 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  1567 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  1568 
  1569   record 'a foo = ...
  1570   ...
  1571   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  1572 
  1573 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  1574 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  1575 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1576 
  1577 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  1578 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  1579 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  1580 
  1581 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  1582 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  1583 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  1584 
  1585 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  1586 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1587 
  1588 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  1589 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  1590 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  1591 independently.
  1592 
  1593 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  1594 counter example search.
  1595 
  1596 * Sledgehammer:
  1597   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  1598     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  1599     sledgehammer").
  1600   - Renamed commands:
  1601     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  1602     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  1603     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  1604     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1605   - Renamed options:
  1606     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  1607     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  1608     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  1609     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  1610     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1611 
  1612 * Nitpick:
  1613   - Renamed options:
  1614     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  1615     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  1616     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1617   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  1618   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  1619   - Added "whack" option.
  1620   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  1621   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  1622   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  1623   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  1624     higher cardinalities.
  1625   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  1626 
  1627 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  1628 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  1629 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  1630 
  1631     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  1632 
  1633 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  1634 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  1635 
  1636 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  1637 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  1638 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  1639 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  1640 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  1641 "smt_solver".
  1642 
  1643 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  1644 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  1645 
  1646 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  1647 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  1648 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  1649 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1650 
  1651 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  1652   - Renamed:
  1653     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  1654     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  1655     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1656   - Added:
  1657     smt_verbose
  1658     smt_random_seed
  1659     smt_datatypes
  1660     smt_infer_triggers
  1661     smt_monomorph_limit
  1662     cvc3_options
  1663     remote_cvc3_options
  1664     remote_z3_options
  1665     yices_options
  1666 
  1667 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  1668 header.
  1669 
  1670 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  1671 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  1672 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  1673 
  1674   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  1675 
  1676 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1677 
  1678 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  1679 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1680 
  1681 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1682 
  1683 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  1684 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1685 
  1686 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  1687 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  1688 
  1689 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  1690 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1691 
  1692 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  1693 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  1694 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1695 
  1696 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1697 
  1698 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  1699 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1700 
  1701 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  1702 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1703 
  1704 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  1705 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  1706 for congruent(2)).
  1707 
  1708 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  1709 
  1710   types
  1711     bool ~> HOL.bool
  1712     nat ~> Nat.nat
  1713 
  1714   constants
  1715     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  1716     True ~> HOL.True
  1717     False ~> HOL.False
  1718     op & ~> HOL.conj
  1719     op | ~> HOL.disj
  1720     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  1721     op = ~> HOL.eq
  1722     Not ~> HOL.Not
  1723     The ~> HOL.The
  1724     All ~> HOL.All
  1725     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  1726     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  1727     Let ~> HOL.Let
  1728     If ~> HOL.If
  1729     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  1730     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  1731     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  1732     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  1733     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  1734     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  1735     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  1736     op : ~> Set.member
  1737     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  1738 
  1739 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1740 
  1741 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  1742 
  1743     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  1744     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  1745     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  1746     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  1747     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  1748     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  1749     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  1750     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  1751 
  1752 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1753 
  1754 * More stylized fact names:
  1755 
  1756   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  1757   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  1758   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  1759   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  1760 
  1761 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1762 
  1763 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  1764 
  1765   constants
  1766     null ~> List.null
  1767 
  1768   facts
  1769     mem_iff ~> member_def
  1770     null_empty ~> null_def
  1771 
  1772 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  1773 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  1774 generation.
  1775 
  1776 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  1777 Haskell code.
  1778 
  1779 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  1780 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  1781 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1782 
  1783 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  1784 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1785 
  1786 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  1787 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  1788 
  1789 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  1790 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  1791 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1792 
  1793 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  1794 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1795 
  1796 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  1797 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1798 
  1799 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  1800 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  1801 referred to by its qualified name.
  1802 
  1803   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  1804   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  1805   product ~>  Enum.product
  1806 
  1807 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  1808 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  1809 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1810 
  1811 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  1812 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  1813 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  1814 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1815 
  1816 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  1817 sort_key.
  1818 
  1819 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  1820 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1821 
  1822 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  1823 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  1824 instead of finite cartesian products.
  1825 
  1826   types
  1827     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  1828               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  1829               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  1830         (depends on your needs)
  1831 
  1832   constants
  1833      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  1834      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  1835      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  1836 
  1837 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  1838 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  1839 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  1840 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1841 
  1842 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  1843 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  1844 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  1845 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  1846 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1847 
  1848 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  1849 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1850 
  1851 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  1852 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  1853 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  1854 
  1855 
  1856 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  1857 
  1858 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  1859 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  1860 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  1861 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  1862 compatibility.
  1863 
  1864 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  1865 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  1866 
  1867 
  1868 *** HOLCF ***
  1869 
  1870 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  1871 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  1872 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  1873 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1874 
  1875 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  1876 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  1877 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1878 
  1879   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  1880   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  1881   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  1882 
  1883 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  1884 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  1885 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1886 
  1887 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  1888 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  1889 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  1890 domain definition now works:
  1891 
  1892   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  1893 
  1894 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  1895 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  1896 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  1897 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  1898 
  1899   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  1900     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  1901 
  1902   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  1903 
  1904 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  1905 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  1906 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1907 
  1908 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  1909 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1910 
  1911 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  1912 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  1913 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  1914 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  1915 
  1916 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  1917 
  1918 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1919 
  1920 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1921 
  1922 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  1923 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1924 
  1925 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  1926 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  1927 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  1928 
  1929 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  1930 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  1931 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1932 
  1933 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  1934 still supported as an input translation.
  1935 
  1936 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  1937 
  1938   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  1939   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  1940   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1941   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  1942   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  1943   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  1944   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1945 
  1946 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  1947 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1948 
  1949   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  1950   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  1951   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  1952   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  1953   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  1954   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  1955 
  1956 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  1957 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1958 
  1959 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  1960 
  1961   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  1962   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  1963   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  1964   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  1965 
  1966 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1967 
  1968 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  1969 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1970 
  1971 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  1972 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1973 
  1974   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  1975   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  1976   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  1977   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  1978   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  1979   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  1980   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  1981   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  1982   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  1983   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  1984   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  1985   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  1986   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  1987   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  1988   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  1989   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  1990   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  1991   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  1992   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  1993   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  1994 
  1995 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1996 
  1997   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  1998   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  1999   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  2000   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  2001   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  2002   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  2003   box_less             ~> box_below
  2004   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  2005   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  2006   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  2007   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  2008   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  2009   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  2010   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  2011   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  2012   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  2013   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  2014   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  2015   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  2016   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  2017   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  2018   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  2019   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  2020   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  2021   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  2022   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  2023   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  2024   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  2025   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  2026   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  2027   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  2028   up_less              ~> up_below
  2029   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  2030   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  2031   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  2032   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  2033   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  2034   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  2035   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  2036   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  2037   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  2038   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  2039   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  2040   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  2041   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  2042 
  2043 
  2044 *** FOL and ZF ***
  2045 
  2046 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  2047 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2048 
  2049 
  2050 *** ML ***
  2051 
  2052 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  2053 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  2054 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  2055 
  2056 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  2057 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  2058 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  2059 
  2060 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  2061 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  2062 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  2063 
  2064 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  2065 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  2066 
  2067 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  2068 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  2069 
  2070 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  2071 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  2072 
  2073 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  2074 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  2075 
  2076 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  2077 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  2078 almost all situations.
  2079 
  2080 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  2081 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  2082 Isabelle/ML.
  2083 
  2084 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  2085 meaning.
  2086 
  2087 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  2088 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  2089 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  2090 
  2091 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  2092 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  2093 
  2094 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  2095 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  2096 
  2097 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  2098 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  2099 @{thms} for most purposes.
  2100 
  2101 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  2102 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  2103 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  2104 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  2105 configuration options.
  2106 
  2107 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  2108 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  2109 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  2110 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  2111 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  2112 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  2113 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  2114 
  2115 
  2116 
  2117 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  2118 ---------------------------------
  2119 
  2120 *** General ***
  2121 
  2122 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  2123 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  2124 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  2125 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  2126 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  2127 their full internal name.
  2128 
  2129 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  2130 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  2131 Some hints on upgrading:
  2132 
  2133   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  2134     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  2135     which are independent of this issue.
  2136 
  2137   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  2138     provides the following special forms:
  2139 
  2140       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  2141       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  2142       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  2143 
  2144     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  2145     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  2146     extra variables".
  2147 
  2148     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  2149     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  2150     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  2151     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  2152     "logic".
  2153 
  2154   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  2155     antiquotations:
  2156 
  2157       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  2158       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  2159       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  2160       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  2161 
  2162   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  2163     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  2164     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  2165     antiquotations.
  2166 
  2167 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  2168 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  2169 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  2170 diagnose syntax problems.
  2171 
  2172 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  2173 
  2174 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  2175 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  2176 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  2177 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  2178 
  2179 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  2180 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  2181 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  2182 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2183 
  2184 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  2185 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  2186 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  2187 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  2188 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2189 
  2190 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  2191 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  2192 
  2193 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  2194 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  2195 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  2196 
  2197   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  2198 
  2199 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  2200 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  2201 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  2202 
  2203 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  2204 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  2205 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2206 
  2207 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  2208 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  2209 
  2210 
  2211 *** Pure ***
  2212 
  2213 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  2214 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  2215 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  2216 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  2217 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  2218 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  2219 inspect proof terms.
  2220 
  2221 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  2222 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  2223 are added internally.  For example:
  2224 
  2225   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  2226 
  2227 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  2228 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2229 
  2230 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2231 
  2232 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2233 'class' instead.
  2234 
  2235 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  2236 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  2237 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2238 
  2239 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  2240 invariants.
  2241 
  2242 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  2243 user space functionality any longer.
  2244 
  2245 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  2246 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  2247 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2248 
  2249 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  2250 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  2251 
  2252 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  2253 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  2254 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  2255 
  2256 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  2257 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  2258 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  2259 
  2260 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  2261 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2262 
  2263 
  2264 *** HOL ***
  2265 
  2266 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  2267 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  2268 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  2269 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  2270 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  2271 
  2272 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  2273 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  2274 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  2275 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  2276 
  2277   fun
  2278     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  2279   where
  2280     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  2281 
  2282   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  2283     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  2284 
  2285   quotient_definition
  2286     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  2287 
  2288 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  2289 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  2290 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  2291 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  2292 
  2293 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  2294 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  2295 
  2296 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  2297 separate HOL-SMT session.
  2298 
  2299 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  2300 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2301 
  2302 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  2303 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  2304 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  2305 
  2306 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  2307 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2308 
  2309 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  2310 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2311 
  2312 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  2313 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2314 
  2315 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  2316 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2317 
  2318 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  2319 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  2320 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2321 
  2322   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  2323   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  2324   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  2325   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  2326   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  2327   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  2328   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  2329   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  2330   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  2331   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  2332   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  2333   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  2334   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  2335   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  2336   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  2337   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  2338   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  2339   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  2340   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  2341   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  2342   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  2343   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  2344   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  2345   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  2346   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  2347   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  2348   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  2349   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  2350   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  2351   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  2352 
  2353 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  2354 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  2355 
  2356 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  2357 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  2358 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2359 
  2360 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  2361 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  2362 
  2363 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  2364 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2365 
  2366 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  2367 
  2368 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  2369 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2370 
  2371 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  2372 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2373 
  2374 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2375 
  2376 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  2377 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  2378 
  2379 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  2380 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  2381 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  2382 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2383 
  2384 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  2385   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  2386   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  2387   - inverse, divide: Rings
  2388 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2389 
  2390 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  2391 lattices):
  2392 
  2393     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  2394     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  2395 
  2396     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  2397 
  2398     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  2399     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  2400     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2401     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  2402     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2403     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  2404     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  2405     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  2406     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  2407     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  2408     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  2409     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  2410     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  2411 
  2412     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  2413     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2414     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2415     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  2416     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  2417     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  2418     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  2419     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  2420     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  2421     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  2422     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  2423     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  2424     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  2425     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  2426     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  2427     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  2428     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  2429     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  2430 
  2431   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  2432   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  2433 
  2434     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  2435     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  2436     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  2437     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  2438     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  2439 
  2440 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2441 
  2442 * Refined field classes:
  2443   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  2444     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  2445     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  2446   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  2447 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2448 
  2449 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  2450   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  2451   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  2452   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  2453     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  2454   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  2455     equal_neg_zero.
  2456 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2457 
  2458 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  2459 sets to lattices:
  2460 
  2461   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  2462   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  2463   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  2464   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  2465   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  2466   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  2467   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  2468   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  2469   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  2470   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  2471 
  2472 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  2473 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  2474 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  2475 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  2476 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  2477 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2478 
  2479 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  2480 multiset order:
  2481 
  2482   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  2483     <= and <;
  2484   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  2485     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  2486     multiset_order;
  2487   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  2488     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  2489     generation;
  2490   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  2491     if needed.
  2492 
  2493 Renamed:
  2494 
  2495   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  2496   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  2497   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  2498 
  2499 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2500 
  2501 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  2502 
  2503 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  2504 
  2505 * Theory List: added transpose.
  2506 
  2507 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  2508 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  2509 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2510 
  2511   Constants:
  2512   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  2513   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  2514   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  2515   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  2516   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  2517   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  2518   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  2519   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  2520   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  2521   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  2522   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  2523   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  2524   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  2525 
  2526   Lemmas:
  2527   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  2528   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  2529   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  2530   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  2531   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  2532   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  2533   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  2534   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  2535   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  2536   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  2537   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  2538   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  2539   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  2540 
  2541 * Sledgehammer:
  2542   - Renamed ATP commands:
  2543     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  2544     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  2545     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  2546     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  2547     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  2548     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2549   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  2550   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  2551     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  2552   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  2553     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  2554     is still experimental.)
  2555   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  2556     full-typed mode.
  2557   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  2558 
  2559 * Nitpick:
  2560   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  2561   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  2562   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  2563     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  2564   - Added support for quotient types.
  2565   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  2566     constructs.
  2567   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  2568     "termination" proofs).
  2569   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  2570   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  2571   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  2572   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  2573     record getters.
  2574   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  2575   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  2576   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  2577   - Added "atoms" option.
  2578   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  2579     problems.
  2580   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  2581     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  2582     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2583   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  2584     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2585   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2586 
  2587 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  2588   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  2589   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  2590   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  2591   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  2592   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  2593   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  2594   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  2595   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  2596   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2597 
  2598 
  2599 *** HOLCF ***
  2600 
  2601 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  2602 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  2603 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2604 
  2605 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  2606 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  2607 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  2608 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2609 
  2610 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  2611 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  2612 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  2613 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  2614 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2615 
  2616 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  2617 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  2618 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2619 
  2620 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  2621 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2622 
  2623   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  2624   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  2625 
  2626 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  2627 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2628 
  2629   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  2630   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  2631   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  2632   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  2633   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  2634 
  2635 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  2636 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2637 
  2638   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  2639   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  2640   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  2641 
  2642 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  2643 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  2644 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2645 
  2646 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  2647 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2648 
  2649 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2650 
  2651 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  2652 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2653 
  2654 
  2655 *** ML ***
  2656 
  2657 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  2658 
  2659     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  2660     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  2661 
  2662     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  2663     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  2664     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  2665     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  2666 
  2667     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  2668     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  2669     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  2670 
  2671 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  2672 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  2673 
  2674 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  2675 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  2676 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  2677 
  2678 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  2679 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  2680 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  2681 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  2682 
  2683 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  2684 the context or even global references.
  2685 
  2686 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  2687 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  2688 
  2689 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  2690 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  2691 
  2692   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  2693   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  2694   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  2695   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  2696   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  2697   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  2698   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  2699   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  2700   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  2701   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  2702 
  2703 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  2704 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  2705 
  2706 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  2707 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  2708 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  2709 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  2710 pass the proper local context through the code!
  2711 
  2712 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  2713 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  2714 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  2715 Theory_Data version.
  2716 
  2717 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  2718 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  2719 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  2720 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  2721 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  2722 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  2723 explicitly in rare situations.
  2724 
  2725 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  2726 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  2727 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2728 
  2729 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  2730 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2731 
  2732 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  2733 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  2734 quite rare).
  2735 
  2736 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  2737 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2738 
  2739 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  2740 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  2741 terms.
  2742 
  2743 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  2744 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  2745 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  2746 
  2747 
  2748 *** System ***
  2749 
  2750 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  2751 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  2752 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  2753 
  2754 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  2755 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  2756 respectively.
  2757 
  2758 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  2759 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  2760 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  2761 prefers 64 bit if available:
  2762 
  2763   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  2764 
  2765 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  2766 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  2767 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  2768 component.
  2769 
  2770 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  2771 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  2772 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  2773 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  2774 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  2775 the user for manual installation.
  2776 
  2777 
  2778 
  2779 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  2780 -------------------------------------
  2781 
  2782 *** General ***
  2783 
  2784 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  2785 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  2786 
  2787 
  2788 *** Pure ***
  2789 
  2790 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  2791 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  2792 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  2793 
  2794 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  2795 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  2796 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  2797 
  2798 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  2799 interpretation.
  2800 
  2801 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  2802 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2803 
  2804 
  2805 *** Document preparation ***
  2806 
  2807 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  2808 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  2809 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  2810 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  2811 
  2812 
  2813 *** HOL ***
  2814 
  2815 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  2816 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  2817 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  2818 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  2819 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  2820 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  2821 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  2822 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  2823 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  2824 
  2825 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  2826 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  2827 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  2828 
  2829 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  2830 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  2831 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  2832 
  2833 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  2834 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  2835 
  2836 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  2837 
  2838 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  2839 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  2840 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  2841 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  2842 
  2843 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  2844 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  2845 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  2846 "mirabelle" utility.
  2847 
  2848 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  2849 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  2850 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  2851 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  2852 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  2853 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  2854 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  2855 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  2856 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  2857 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  2858 
  2859 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  2860 procedure only.
  2861 
  2862 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  2863 
  2864 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  2865 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  2866 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  2867 that fail later.
  2868 
  2869 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  2870 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  2871 
  2872 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  2873 the same method as the approximation method.
  2874 
  2875 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  2876 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  2877 series expansion.
  2878 
  2879 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  2880 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  2881 
  2882 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  2883 reals.
  2884 
  2885 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  2886 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  2887 
  2888 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  2889 fixpoint theorem.
  2890 
  2891 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  2892   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  2893     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  2894   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  2895     accordingly
  2896   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  2897     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  2898   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  2899     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  2900 
  2901 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  2902 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  2903 lattice.
  2904 
  2905 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  2906 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  2907 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  2908 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  2909 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  2910 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  2911 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2912 
  2913 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  2914   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  2915     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  2916   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  2917     le_inf_iff
  2918   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  2919     sup_aci)
  2920   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  2921   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  2922   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  2923     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  2924     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  2925     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  2926     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  2927     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  2928     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  2929     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  2930     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  2931     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  2932     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  2933   - authentic syntax for
  2934     Set.Pow
  2935     Set.image
  2936   - mere abbreviations:
  2937     Set.empty               (for bot)
  2938     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  2939     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  2940     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  2941     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  2942     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  2943     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  2944     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  2945   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  2946 
  2947 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  2948 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  2949 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  2950 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  2951 
  2952 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  2953 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  2954 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2955 
  2956 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  2957 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2958 
  2959 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  2960 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  2961 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  2962 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2963 
  2964 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  2965 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2966 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  2967 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  2968 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  2969 
  2970 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  2971 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  2972 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2973 
  2974 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  2975 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2976 
  2977 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  2978 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  2979 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  2980 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  2981 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  2982 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  2983 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  2984 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2985 
  2986 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  2987     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  2988     code_post       replaces    code post
  2989     etc.
  2990   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2991 
  2992 * Renamed methods:
  2993     sizechange -> size_change
  2994     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  2995   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2996 
  2997 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  2998 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  2999 
  3000 * Renamed theorems:
  3001     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3002     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  3003     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3004     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  3005     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  3006   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3007 
  3008 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  3009 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3010 
  3011 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  3012 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3013 
  3014 
  3015 *** HOLCF ***
  3016 
  3017 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  3018 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  3019 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  3020 
  3021 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  3022 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  3023 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  3024 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  3025 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  3026 
  3027 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  3028 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  3029 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  3030 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  3031 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  3032 
  3033 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  3034 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  3035 constructor are pre-configured.
  3036 
  3037 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  3038 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  3039 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  3040 
  3041 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  3042 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  3043 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  3044 as well.)
  3045 
  3046 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  3047 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  3048 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  3049 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3050 examples.
  3051 
  3052 
  3053 *** ML ***
  3054 
  3055 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  3056 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  3057 
  3058 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  3059 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  3060 position, logical grouping etc.
  3061 
  3062 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  3063 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  3064 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  3065 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  3066 
  3067 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  3068 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  3069 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  3070 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  3071 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  3072 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  3073 
  3074 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  3075 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  3076 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  3077 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  3078 experiments with references.
  3079 
  3080 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  3081 parallel tactical reasoning.
  3082 
  3083 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  3084 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  3085 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  3086 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  3087 
  3088 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  3089 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  3090 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  3091 
  3092 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  3093 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  3094 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3095 
  3096 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3097 
  3098 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  3099 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3100 
  3101 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  3102 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  3103 
  3104 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  3105 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  3106 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  3107 
  3108 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  3109 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  3110 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3111 
  3112 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  3113 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  3114 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  3115 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3116 
  3117 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3118 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  3119 instead of global theory.
  3120 
  3121 
  3122 *** System ***
  3123 
  3124 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  3125 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  3126 usedir option -q.
  3127 
  3128 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  3129 also the system manual.
  3130 
  3131 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  3132 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  3133 
  3134 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  3135 this is always enabled.
  3136 
  3137 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  3138 
  3139 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  3140 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  3141 currently supported on Linux only.
  3142 
  3143 
  3144 
  3145 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  3146 --------------------------------
  3147 
  3148 *** General ***
  3149 
  3150 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  3151 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3152 
  3153   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  3154     "isatool."
  3155 
  3156   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  3157     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  3158 
  3159   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  3160     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  3161 
  3162 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  3163 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  3164 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  3165 
  3166 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  3167 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  3168 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  3169 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  3170 via "isabelle emacs".
  3171 
  3172 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  3173 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  3174 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  3175 
  3176 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  3177 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  3178 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3179 
  3180 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  3181 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  3182 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  3183 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  3184 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  3185 
  3186 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  3187 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  3188 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  3189 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3190 
  3191 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  3192 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  3193 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  3194 
  3195 
  3196 *** Pure ***
  3197 
  3198 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  3199 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  3200 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  3201 
  3202 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  3203 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  3204 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  3205 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  3206 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  3207 
  3208 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  3209 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  3210 useful in locale declarations.
  3211 
  3212 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  3213 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  3214 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  3215 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  3216 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  3217 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  3218 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  3219 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  3220 no longer generated.
  3221 
  3222 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  3223 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  3224 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  3225 
  3226 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  3227 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  3228 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  3229 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  3230 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  3231 
  3232 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3233 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  3234 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  3235 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  3236 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  3237 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  3238 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  3239 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  3240 
  3241 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  3242 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  3243 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  3244 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  3245 
  3246 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3247 
  3248 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  3249 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  3250 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  3251 
  3252 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  3253 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3254 
  3255 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  3256 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  3257 in HOL, write
  3258 
  3259     class foo = ...
  3260 
  3261 instead of
  3262 
  3263     class foo = type + ...
  3264 
  3265 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  3266 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3267 
  3268 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  3269 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  3270 
  3271 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  3272 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  3273 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  3274 
  3275 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  3276 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  3277 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  3278 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  3279 directly in regular applications.
  3280 
  3281 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  3282 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  3283 
  3284 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  3285 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  3286 
  3287 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  3288 theory context.
  3289 
  3290 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  3291 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3292 
  3293 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  3294 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  3295 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  3296 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  3297 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  3298 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  3299 
  3300   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  3301 
  3302 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  3303 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  3304 normalization.
  3305 
  3306 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  3307 addressing etc.
  3308 
  3309 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  3310 
  3311   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  3312   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  3313 
  3314 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3315 
  3316   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  3317      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  3318      parts of the code generator framework).
  3319 
  3320   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  3321      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  3322      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  3323 
  3324 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3325 
  3326 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  3327 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3328 
  3329 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  3330 patterns, e.g.
  3331 
  3332     find_consts "_ => bool"
  3333 
  3334 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  3335 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  3336 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  3337 hyphen:
  3338 
  3339     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  3340 
  3341 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  3342 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  3343 
  3344 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  3345 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  3346 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  3347 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  3348 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  3349 higher-order unification.
  3350 
  3351 
  3352 *** Document preparation ***
  3353 
  3354 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  3355 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  3356 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  3357 
  3358 
  3359 *** HOL ***
  3360 
  3361 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  3362 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  3363 
  3364 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  3365 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  3366 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  3367 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  3368 Main, as before.
  3369 
  3370 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  3371 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  3372 
  3373 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  3374 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  3375 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  3376 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  3377 
  3378 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  3379 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  3380 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  3381 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  3382 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  3383 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  3384 
  3385 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  3386 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  3387 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  3388 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  3389 
  3390 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  3391 menu.
  3392 
  3393 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  3394 (contains the empty clause).
  3395 
  3396 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  3397 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  3398 
  3399 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  3400 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  3401 
  3402 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  3403 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  3404 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3405 
  3406 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  3407 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  3408 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  3409 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  3410 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  3411 
  3412 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  3413 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  3414 
  3415 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  3416 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  3417 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  3418 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  3419 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  3420 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  3421 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  3422 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  3423 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  3424 
  3425 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  3426 
  3427 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  3428 
  3429 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  3430 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3431 
  3432 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  3433 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  3434 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  3435 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  3436 
  3437 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  3438 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3439 
  3440     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  3441     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  3442     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  3443     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  3444     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  3445     Union ~>    Set.Union
  3446     {} ~>       Set.empty
  3447     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  3448 
  3449 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  3450 theory Set.
  3451 
  3452 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  3453 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  3454 
  3455 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  3456 
  3457 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  3458 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  3459 
  3460 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  3461 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  3462 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  3463 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  3464 allowed. For examples see
  3465 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  3466 
  3467 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  3468 
  3469 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  3470 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3471 
  3472 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  3473 structure:
  3474 
  3475     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  3476     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3477     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3478     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3479     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3480     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3481     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3482     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3483     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3484     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3485     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3486     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3487     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3488     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3489     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3490     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3491     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3492     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3493     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3494     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3495     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3496     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3497     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3498     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3499     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3500     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3501     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3502     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3503     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3504     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3505     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3506     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  3507     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3508 
  3509     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3510     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3511     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3512     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  3513     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3514     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3515     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3516     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3517     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3518     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3519 
  3520     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3521     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3522     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3523     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3524     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3525     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3526 
  3527 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  3528 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  3529 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  3530 
  3531 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  3532 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  3533 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  3534 
  3535 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  3536 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3537 
  3538 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  3539 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  3540 
  3541 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  3542 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  3543 proofs, e.g.
  3544 
  3545   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  3546 
  3547 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  3548 
  3549 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  3550 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  3551 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3552 
  3553 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  3554 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  3555 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3556 
  3557 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  3558 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  3559 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  3560 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3561 
  3562 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  3563 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  3564 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  3565 preorder_class.*.
  3566 
  3567 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  3568 "diag" to "Id_on".
  3569 
  3570 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  3571 
  3572   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  3573 
  3574 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  3575 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  3576 fold_image.
  3577 
  3578 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  3579 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  3580 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  3581 the former will disappear at some point.
  3582 
  3583 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  3584 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  3585 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  3586 
  3587 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  3588 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  3589 realpow_0      -> power_0
  3590 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  3591 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  3592 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  3593 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  3594 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  3595 
  3596 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  3597 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  3598 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  3599 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  3600 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  3601 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  3602 
  3603     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  3604     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  3605     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  3606     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  3607     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  3608     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  3609     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  3610 
  3611 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  3612 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3613 rename old lemmas as follows:
  3614 
  3615 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  3616 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  3617 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  3618 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  3619 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  3620 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  3621 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  3622 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  3623 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  3624 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  3625 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  3626 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  3627 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  3628 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  3629 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  3630 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  3631 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  3632 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  3633 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  3634 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  3635 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  3636 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  3637 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  3638 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  3639 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  3640 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  3641 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  3642 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  3643 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  3644 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  3645 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  3646 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  3647 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  3648 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  3649 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  3650 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  3651 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  3652 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  3653 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  3654 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  3655 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  3656 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  3657 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  3658 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  3659 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  3660 
  3661 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3662 
  3663 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  3664 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  3665 
  3666 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  3667 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  3668 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  3669 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  3670 
  3671 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  3672 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  3673 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  3674 theory RealVector.
  3675 
  3676 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  3677 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  3678 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  3679 and inner products are included.
  3680 
  3681 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  3682 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  3683 supported.
  3684 
  3685 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  3686 first diagonalization argument.
  3687 
  3688 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  3689 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  3690 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  3691 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3692 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  3693 
  3694     hide (open) const gcd
  3695     abbreviation gcd where
  3696       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  3697     notation (output)
  3698       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  3699 
  3700 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  3701 
  3702 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  3703 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  3704 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3705 
  3706 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  3707 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  3708 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  3709 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  3710 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  3711 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  3712 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  3713 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  3714 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  3715 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  3716 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  3717 cases.
  3718 
  3719 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  3720 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  3721 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  3722 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  3723 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  3724 
  3725     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  3726     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  3727     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  3728     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  3729     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  3730 
  3731 
  3732 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3733 
  3734 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  3735 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  3736 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  3737 
  3738 * New theory of factorial domains.
  3739 
  3740 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  3741 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  3742 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  3743 
  3744 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3745 
  3746 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  3747 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  3748 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  3749 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  3750 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  3751 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  3752 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  3753 
  3754 
  3755 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  3756 
  3757 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  3758 
  3759 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  3760 theory targets.
  3761 
  3762 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  3763 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  3764 'inductive' etc.
  3765 
  3766 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  3767 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  3768 
  3769 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  3770 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  3771 
  3772 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  3773 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  3774 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  3775 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  3776 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  3777 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  3778 the algorithm W:
  3779 
  3780  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  3781  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  3782          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  3783 
  3784 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  3785 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  3786 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  3787 
  3788 
  3789 *** HOLCF ***
  3790 
  3791 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  3792 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  3793 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  3794 
  3795 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  3796 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  3797 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  3798 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  3799 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3800 
  3801 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  3802 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3803 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3804 
  3805 
  3806 *** ZF ***
  3807 
  3808 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  3809 
  3810 
  3811 *** ML ***
  3812 
  3813 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  3814 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  3815 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  3816 5.2.1!
  3817 
  3818 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  3819 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  3820 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  3821 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  3822 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  3823 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  3824 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3825 
  3826 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  3827 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  3828 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  3829 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  3830 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  3831 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  3832 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  3833 
  3834 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  3835 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  3836 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  3837 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  3838 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  3839 
  3840 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  3841 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  3842 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  3843 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  3844 Method.add_method.
  3845 
  3846 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  3847 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  3848 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  3849 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  3850 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  3851 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  3852 
  3853 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  3854 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  3855 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  3856 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  3857 examples.
  3858 
  3859 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  3860 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  3861 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  3862 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  3863 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  3864 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  3865 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  3866 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  3867 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  3868 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  3869 
  3870 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  3871 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  3872 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  3873 
  3874 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  3875 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  3876 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  3877 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  3878 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  3879 resort for legacy applications.
  3880 
  3881 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  3882 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  3883 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  3884 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  3885 explicit runtime argument.
  3886 
  3887 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  3888 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  3889 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  3890 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  3891 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3892 
  3893 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  3894 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  3895 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  3896 theory state.
  3897 
  3898 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  3899 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  3900 
  3901   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  3902   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  3903   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  3904   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  3905   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  3906   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  3907   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  3908   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  3909   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  3910   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  3911 
  3912 
  3913 *** System ***
  3914 
  3915 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  3916 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  3917 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  3918 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  3919 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  3920 
  3921 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  3922 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  3923 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  3924 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  3925 
  3926 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  3927 
  3928 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  3929 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  3930 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  3931 prover operations.
  3932 
  3933 
  3934 
  3935 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  3936 -------------------------------
  3937 
  3938 *** General ***
  3939 
  3940 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  3941 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  3942 
  3943 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  3944 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  3945 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  3946 provides a proper context already.
  3947 
  3948 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  3949 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  3950 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  3951 
  3952 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  3953 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  3954 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  3955 swap theory imports.
  3956 
  3957 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  3958 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  3959 
  3960 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  3961 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3962 white space without escapes.
  3963 
  3964 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  3965 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  3966 "foo_bar".
  3967 
  3968 
  3969 *** Pure ***
  3970 
  3971 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  3972 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  3973 
  3974 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  3975 There are three ways of invoking it:
  3976 
  3977 (1) unused_thms
  3978      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  3979 
  3980 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  3981      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  3982      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  3983 
  3984 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  3985      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  3986      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  3987      their ancestors.
  3988 
  3989 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  3990 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  3991 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  3992 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  3993 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  3994 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  3995 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  3996 
  3997 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  3998 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  3999 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  4000 
  4001 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  4002 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  4003 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  4004 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  4005 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  4006 
  4007 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  4008 
  4009 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  4010 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  4011 update of theories within ML code.
  4012 
  4013 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  4014 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  4015 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  4016 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  4017 
  4018 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  4019 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  4020 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  4021 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4022 
  4023 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  4024 
  4025 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  4026 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  4027 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  4028 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  4029 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  4030 
  4031 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  4032 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  4033 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  4034 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  4035 situations.
  4036 
  4037 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  4038 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  4039 proof text.
  4040 
  4041 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  4042 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  4043 
  4044 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  4045 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  4046 predicates.
  4047 
  4048 
  4049 *** Document preparation ***
  4050 
  4051 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  4052 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  4053 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  4054 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  4055 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  4056 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  4057 
  4058 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  4059 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  4060 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  4061 
  4062 
  4063 *** HOL ***
  4064 
  4065 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  4066 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  4067 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  4068 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  4069 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  4070 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  4071 
  4072 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  4073 with multithreading.
  4074 
  4075 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  4076 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  4077 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  4078 
  4079 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  4080 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  4081 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  4082 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4083 
  4084 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  4085 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  4086 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  4087 and makes them available separately.  See
  4088 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  4089 
  4090 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  4091 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  4092 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  4093 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  4094 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  4095 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  4096 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  4097 the declared rules.
  4098 
  4099 This setup also deals with rules like 
  4100 
  4101   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  4102 
  4103 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  4104 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  4105 
  4106 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  4107 
  4108   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4109 
  4110   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  4111     definitions on => and bool.
  4112 
  4113   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  4114     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  4115     the following theorems have been renamed:
  4116 
  4117       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  4118       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  4119       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  4120       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  4121       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  4122       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  4123       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  4124       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  4125 
  4126   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  4127     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  4128     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  4129 
  4130   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  4131     The proof pattern
  4132 
  4133       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4134       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  4135 
  4136     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  4137     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  4138 
  4139       have "EX S. P S"
  4140       proof
  4141         show "P S" <...>
  4142       qed
  4143 
  4144   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  4145     The proof pattern
  4146 
  4147       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4148       also have "S = T" <...>
  4149       finally have "P T" .
  4150 
  4151     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  4152     must be replaced by something like
  4153 
  4154       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4155       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  4156       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  4157 
  4158   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  4159     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  4160 
  4161       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  4162 
  4163     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  4164     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  4165     type of the form
  4166 
  4167       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  4168 
  4169     rather than
  4170 
  4171       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  4172 
  4173 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  4174 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  4175 
  4176 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4177 
  4178 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  4179 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  4180 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4181 
  4182 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  4183 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4184 
  4185 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  4186 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4187 
  4188 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  4189 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  4190 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4191 
  4192 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  4193 the same name in theory Orderings:
  4194 
  4195   less_trans
  4196   less_linear
  4197   le_imp_less_or_eq
  4198   le_less_trans
  4199   less_le_trans
  4200   less_not_sym
  4201   less_asym
  4202 
  4203 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  4204 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  4205 and different variable names.
  4206 
  4207 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  4208 
  4209 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  4210 finite maps.
  4211 
  4212 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  4213 
  4214 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  4215 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  4216 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  4217 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  4218 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  4219 accordingly.
  4220 
  4221 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  4222 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  4223 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  4224 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  4225 
  4226 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  4227 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  4228 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  4229 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  4230 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  4231 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4232 
  4233 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  4234 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4235 
  4236 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  4237 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  4238 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  4239 
  4240 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  4241 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4242 
  4243 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  4244 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  4245 
  4246 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  4247 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4248 
  4249 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  4250 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4251 
  4252 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  4253 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  4254 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4255 
  4256 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  4257 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4258 
  4259 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  4260 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  4261 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  4262 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  4263 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  4264 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4265 
  4266 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  4267 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  4268 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  4269 
  4270 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  4271 
  4272 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  4273 
  4274 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  4275 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  4276 well-orders on sets and on types.
  4277 
  4278 
  4279 *** ZF ***
  4280 
  4281 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  4282 same session:
  4283 
  4284   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  4285   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  4286   Int       -> Int_ZF
  4287   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  4288   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  4289   List      -> List_ZF
  4290   Main      -> Main_ZF
  4291 
  4292 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  4293 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  4294 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  4295 
  4296 
  4297 *** ML ***
  4298 
  4299 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  4300 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  4301 
  4302 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  4303 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  4304 
  4305 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  4306 
  4307 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  4308 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  4309 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  4310 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  4311 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4312 
  4313 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  4314 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  4315 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  4316 
  4317 
  4318 *** System ***
  4319 
  4320 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  4321 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  4322 
  4323 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  4324 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  4325 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  4326 
  4327 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  4328 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  4329 
  4330 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  4331 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  4332 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  4333 
  4334 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  4335 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  4336 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  4337 
  4338 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  4339 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  4340 
  4341 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  4342 way of changing the user's settings is via
  4343 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  4344 script.
  4345 
  4346 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  4347 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  4348 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  4349 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  4350 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  4351 
  4352 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  4353 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  4354 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  4355 
  4356 
  4357 
  4358 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  4359 -----------------------------------
  4360 
  4361 *** General ***
  4362 
  4363 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  4364 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  4365 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4366 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  4367 
  4368 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  4369 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  4370 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4371 
  4372 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  4373 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  4374 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  4375 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4376 
  4377 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  4378 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  4379 quotes.
  4380 
  4381 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  4382 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  4383 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  4384 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  4385 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  4386 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  4387 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  4388 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  4389 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  4390 
  4391 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  4392 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  4393 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  4394 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  4395 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  4396 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  4397 
  4398 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4399 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  4400 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  4401 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  4402 
  4403 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  4404 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  4405 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  4406 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  4407 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  4408 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  4409 
  4410 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  4411 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  4412 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  4413 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  4414 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  4415 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  4416 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  4417 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  4418 
  4419 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  4420 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  4421 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  4422 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  4423 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  4424 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  4425 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  4426 
  4427 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  4428 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  4429 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  4430 
  4431 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  4432 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  4433 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  4434 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  4435 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  4436 limit is imposed.
  4437 
  4438 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  4439 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  4440 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  4441 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  4442 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  4443 and scalability.
  4444 
  4445 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  4446 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  4447 
  4448 
  4449 *** Document preparation ***
  4450 
  4451 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  4452 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  4453 current context.
  4454 
  4455 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  4456 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  4457 
  4458 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  4459 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  4460 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  4461 
  4462 
  4463 *** Pure ***
  4464 
  4465 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  4466 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  4467 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  4468 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  4469 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  4470 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  4471 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  4472 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  4473 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  4474 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  4475 
  4476 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  4477 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  4478 sketch:
  4479 
  4480     internal compilation:
  4481         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  4482     writing SML code to a file:
  4483         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  4484     writing OCaml code to a file:
  4485         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  4486     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  4487         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  4488 
  4489     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  4490         method ``eval''
  4491 
  4492 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  4493 
  4494 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  4495 
  4496     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  4497     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  4498     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  4499     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  4500 
  4501 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  4502 
  4503     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  4504       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  4505 
  4506     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  4507       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  4508 
  4509     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  4510       {(target)}+
  4511         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  4512 
  4513     code_class <and_list of classes>
  4514       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  4515         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  4516 
  4517 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  4518 
  4519 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  4520 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  4521 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  4522 codegen".
  4523 
  4524 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  4525 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  4526 annotations).
  4527 
  4528 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  4529 syntax.
  4530 
  4531 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  4532 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  4533 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  4534 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  4535 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  4536 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  4537 
  4538 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  4539 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  4540 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  4541 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  4542 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  4543 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  4544 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  4545 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  4546 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  4547 equations, see section "definitions".
  4548 
  4549 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  4550 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  4551 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  4552 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  4553 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  4554 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  4555 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  4556 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  4557 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  4558 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  4559 
  4560 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  4561 configuration options:
  4562 
  4563   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  4564   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  4565   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  4566   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  4567   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  4568   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  4569   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  4570   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  4571   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  4572 
  4573 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  4574 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  4575 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  4576 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  4577 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  4578 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  4579 order.
  4580 
  4581 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  4582 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  4583 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  4584 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  4585 context encountered later on.
  4586 
  4587 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  4588 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  4589 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  4590 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  4591 
  4592 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  4593 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  4594 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  4595 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  4596 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  4597 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  4598 
  4599 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  4600 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  4601 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  4602 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  4603 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  4604 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  4605 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  4606 more permissive.
  4607 
  4608 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  4609 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  4610 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  4611 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  4612 maintainability of proof texts.
  4613 
  4614 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  4615 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  4616 
  4617   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  4618   then guess x and y by clarify
  4619 
  4620 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  4621 proof tools being involved here.
  4622 
  4623 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  4624 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  4625 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  4626 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  4627 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  4628 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  4629 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  4630 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  4631 
  4632 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  4633 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  4634 certain special cases of literal facts:
  4635 
  4636   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  4637   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  4638   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  4639   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  4640 
  4641 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  4642 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  4643 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  4644 
  4645 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  4646 both named and unnamed ones.
  4647 
  4648 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  4649 
  4650   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  4651 
  4652 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  4653 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  4654 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  4655 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  4656 
  4657 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  4658 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  4659 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  4660 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  4661 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  4662 
  4663 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  4664 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  4665 
  4666 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  4667 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  4668 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  4669 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  4670 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  4671 originally first one.
  4672 
  4673 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  4674 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  4675 expected.
  4676 
  4677 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  4678 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  4679 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  4680 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  4681 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  4682 
  4683   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4684     assumes "EX x. P x"
  4685     obtains x where "P x"
  4686 
  4687   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4688     assumes "A & B"
  4689     obtains A and B
  4690 
  4691   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4692     assumes "A | B"
  4693     obtains
  4694       A
  4695     | B
  4696 
  4697 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  4698 explicitly:
  4699 
  4700   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4701     obtains "~ thesis"
  4702 
  4703   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4704     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  4705 
  4706 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  4707 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  4708 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  4709 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  4710 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  4711 case_names).
  4712 
  4713 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  4714 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  4715 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  4716 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  4717 
  4718 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  4719 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  4720 top-level lemma.
  4721 
  4722 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  4723 introduction rule (default "that").
  4724 
  4725 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4726 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  4727 to occur.
  4728 
  4729 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  4730 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  4731 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  4732 representations independently of name spaces.
  4733 
  4734 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  4735 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  4736 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4737 
  4738 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  4739 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  4740 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  4741 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  4742 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  4743 current context.
  4744 
  4745 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  4746 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  4747 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  4748 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  4749 
  4750   axiomatization
  4751     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  4752     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  4753 
  4754   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  4755   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  4756 
  4757   abbreviation
  4758     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  4759     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  4760 
  4761 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  4762 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  4763 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  4764 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  4765 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  4766 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  4767 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  4768 
  4769 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  4770 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  4771 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  4772 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  4773 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  4774 
  4775 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  4776 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  4777 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  4778 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  4779 
  4780 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  4781 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  4782 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  4783 
  4784   definition "K x _ = x"
  4785 
  4786   inductive conj for A B
  4787   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  4788 
  4789 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  4790 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  4791 abbreviations on output.
  4792 
  4793 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  4794 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  4795 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  4796 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  4797 
  4798 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  4799 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  4800 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  4801 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  4802 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  4803 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  4804 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  4805 
  4806 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  4807 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  4808 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  4809 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  4810 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  4811 
  4812 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  4813 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  4814 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  4815 
  4816 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  4817 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  4818 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  4819 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  4820 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  4821 
  4822   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  4823     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  4824 
  4825 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  4826 definition specification element in the context of locale
  4827 partial_order.
  4828 
  4829 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  4830 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  4831 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  4832 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  4833 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  4834 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  4835 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  4836 examples.
  4837 
  4838 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  4839 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  4840 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  4841 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  4842 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  4843 
  4844 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  4845 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  4846 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  4847 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  4848 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  4849 
  4850   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  4851   (induct set: foo bar)
  4852   (induct pred: foo bar)
  4853   (induct type: foo bar)
  4854 
  4855 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  4856 new format.
  4857 
  4858 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  4859 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  4860 
  4861 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  4862 considered a legacy feature.
  4863 
  4864 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  4865 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4866 
  4867 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  4868 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  4869 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  4870 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  4871   
  4872 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  4873 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  4874 manipulating the claset.
  4875 
  4876 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  4877 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  4878 least one premise.
  4879 
  4880 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  4881 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  4882 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  4883 rule steps.
  4884 
  4885 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  4886 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  4887 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  4888 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  4889 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  4890 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  4891 
  4892 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  4893 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  4894 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  4895 
  4896 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  4897 the graph browser tool.
  4898 
  4899 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  4900 default; use '!' option for full details.
  4901 
  4902 
  4903 *** HOL ***
  4904 
  4905 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  4906 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  4907 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  4908 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  4909 multi-threading.
  4910   
  4911 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  4912 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  4913 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  4914 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  4915 work with multi-threading.
  4916 
  4917 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  4918 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  4919 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  4920 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  4921 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  4922 
  4923 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  4924 
  4925 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  4926 equality.
  4927 
  4928 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  4929 the new 'class' package:
  4930 
  4931     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  4932     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  4933     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  4934     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  4935     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  4936     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  4937     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  4938     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  4939     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  4940     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  4941     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  4942     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  4943     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  4944     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  4945     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  4946     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  4947     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  4948     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  4949     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  4950     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  4951 
  4952 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  4953 
  4954 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  4955 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  4956 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  4957 names.
  4958 
  4959 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  4960 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  4961 
  4962 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  4963 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  4964 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  4965 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  4966 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  4967 
  4968 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  4969 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  4970 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  4971 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  4972 
  4973 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  4974 
  4975 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  4976 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  4977 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  4978 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  4979 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4980 
  4981 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  4982 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4983 
  4984 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  4985 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  4986 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4987 
  4988 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  4989 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  4990 
  4991 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  4992 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  4993 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  4994 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  4995 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  4996 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  4997 in the current context.
  4998 
  4999 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  5000 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  5001 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5002 
  5003 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  5004 with new class dense_linear_order.
  5005 
  5006 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  5007 
  5008     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  5009     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  5010 
  5011     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  5012       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  5013     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  5014     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  5015 
  5016     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  5017     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  5018 
  5019   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  5020 
  5021     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  5022     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  5023     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  5024     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  5025     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  5026     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  5027     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  5028     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  5029     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  5030     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  5031     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  5032     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  5033     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  5034     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  5035     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  5036     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  5037     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  5038     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  5039     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  5040     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  5041     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  5042     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  5043     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  5044     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  5045     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  5046     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  5047     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  5048     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  5049     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  5050     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  5051     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  5052     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  5053     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  5054     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  5055     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  5056 
  5057     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  5058     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  5059     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  5060     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  5061     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  5062     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  5063     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  5064     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  5065     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  5066     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  5067     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  5068     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  5069     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  5070     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  5071     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  5072     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  5073     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  5074 
  5075     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  5076     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  5077     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  5078     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  5079     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  5080     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  5081     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  5082     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  5083     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  5084     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  5085     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  5086     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  5087     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  5088     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  5089     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  5090     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  5091     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  5092     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  5093     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  5094     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  5095     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5096     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  5097     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5098     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  5099     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  5100     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  5101     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  5102     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  5103 
  5104     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  5105     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  5106     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  5107     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  5108     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  5109     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  5110 
  5111     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  5112     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  5113     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  5114     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  5115 
  5116     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  5117     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  5118 
  5119     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  5120     join_max                ~> sup_max
  5121 
  5122 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  5123 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  5124 
  5125 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  5126 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  5127 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  5128 "*.size".
  5129 
  5130 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  5131 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5132 
  5133 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  5134 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  5135 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5136 
  5137 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5138 
  5139 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  5140 machine words, with arithemtic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  5141 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  5142 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  5143 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  5144 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  5145 numerals on all operations.
  5146 
  5147 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  5148 
  5149 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  5150 
  5151 * Code generator library theories:
  5152   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  5153     languages.
  5154   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  5155     languages.
  5156   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  5157     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  5158   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  5159   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  5160     denominator).
  5161   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  5162     representable by rational numbers.
  5163   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  5164     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  5165     includes Code_Integer.
  5166   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  5167     target-language built-in integers.
  5168   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  5169     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  5170 
  5171 * New package for inductive predicates
  5172 
  5173   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  5174 
  5175     inductive
  5176       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5177       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5178     where
  5179       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5180     | ...
  5181 
  5182   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  5183 
  5184     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5185 
  5186     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5187     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5188 
  5189     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  5190     intros
  5191       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5192       ...
  5193 
  5194   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  5195   sets to be defined with the new package via
  5196 
  5197     inductive_set
  5198       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5199       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5200     where
  5201       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5202     | ...
  5203 
  5204   or
  5205 
  5206     inductive_set
  5207       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5208       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5209       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5210     where
  5211       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5212     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5213     | ...
  5214 
  5215   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  5216 
  5217   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  5218   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  5219 
  5220   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5221 
  5222   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  5223     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  5224     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  5225     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  5226     than before the actual inductive definition.
  5227 
  5228   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  5229     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  5230     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  5231     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  5232     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  5233     statements of the form
  5234 
  5235       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  5236 
  5237     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  5238     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  5239 
  5240       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  5241 
  5242   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  5243 
  5244       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  5245         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5246         ==> ... ==> P
  5247 
  5248     for predicates and
  5249 
  5250       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5251         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5252         ==> ... ==> P
  5253 
  5254     for sets rather than
  5255 
  5256       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5257         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  5258         ==> ... ==> P
  5259 
  5260     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  5261     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  5262     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  5263 
  5264   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  5265     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  5266     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  5267 
  5268 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  5269 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  5270 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  5271 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  5272 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  5273 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  5274 
  5275 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  5276 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures. 
  5277 
  5278 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  5279 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  5280 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  5281 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  5282 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  5283 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  5284 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  5285 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  5286 variable.
  5287 
  5288 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  5289 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  5290 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  5291 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5292   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  5293   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  5294 
  5295 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  5296 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  5297 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  5298 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  5299 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  5300 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  5301 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  5302 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  5303 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  5304 
  5305 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  5306 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  5307 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  5308 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  5309 rat, etc.
  5310 
  5311 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  5312 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  5313 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  5314 
  5315 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  5316 
  5317 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  5318 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  5319 
  5320 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  5321 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  5322 
  5323 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  5324 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  5325 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5326 
  5327 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  5328 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  5329 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5330 
  5331 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  5332 
  5333 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  5334 
  5335 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  5336 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  5337 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  5338 positive/negative (in inequations).
  5339 
  5340 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  5341 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  5342 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  5343 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5344 
  5345 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  5346 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  5347 algebraic operations.
  5348 
  5349 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  5350 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5351 
  5352 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  5353 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5354 
  5355 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  5356 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  5357 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  5358 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  5359 adapted.
  5360  
  5361 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  5362 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  5363 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  5364 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  5365 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  5366 
  5367 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  5368 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  5369 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  5370 
  5371 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  5372 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  5373 better use 'abbreviation'.
  5374 
  5375 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5376 
  5377 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  5378 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  5379 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  5380   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  5381       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  5382   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  5383   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  5384   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  5385 
  5386 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  5387 
  5388 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  5389 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  5390 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  5391 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  5392 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  5393 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  5394 
  5395 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  5396 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  5397 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  5398 
  5399 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  5400 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  5401 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  5402 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5403 
  5404 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  5405 
  5406 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  5407 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5408 
  5409 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  5410 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  5411 
  5412 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  5413 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  5414 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  5415 
  5416 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  5417 True/False.
  5418 
  5419 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  5420 
  5421 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  5422 
  5423 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  5424 ``rule'' method.
  5425 
  5426 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  5427 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  5428 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  5429 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  5430 
  5431 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  5432 zChaff is still supported as well.
  5433 
  5434 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  5435 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  5436 
  5437 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  5438 Library.
  5439 
  5440 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  5441 
  5442 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  5443 as greatest fixed-point.
  5444 
  5445 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  5446 association lists.
  5447 
  5448 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  5449 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  5450 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  5451 
  5452 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  5453 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  5454 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5455 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  5456 behavior.
  5457 
  5458 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  5459 
  5460 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  5461 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  5462 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  5463 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  5464 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  5465 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  5466 
  5467 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  5468 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  5469 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
  5470 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
  5471 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
  5472 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
  5473 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
  5474 
  5475 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
  5476 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
  5477 
  5478 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
  5479 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
  5480 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
  5481 HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
  5482 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
  5483 
  5484 
  5485 *** HOL-Complex ***
  5486 
  5487 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
  5488 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
  5489 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
  5490 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
  5491 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5492 
  5493 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
  5494 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
  5495 and norm :: 'a => real.
  5496 
  5497 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
  5498 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
  5499 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5500 
  5501 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
  5502 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
  5503 
  5504 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
  5505 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
  5506 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
  5507 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5508 
  5509   Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5510   HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5511   HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5512   approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
  5513   monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  5514   galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  5515   (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  5516   (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5517   (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5518   (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5519   (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
  5520   is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  5521   deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
  5522   sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
  5523   exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
  5524 
  5525 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
  5526 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
  5527 hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
  5528 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5529 
  5530   approx        <-- capprox
  5531   HFinite       <-- CFinite
  5532   HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
  5533   Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
  5534   monad         <-- cmonad
  5535   galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
  5536   (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
  5537   is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
  5538   (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
  5539 
  5540 
  5541 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5542 
  5543 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
  5544 
  5545 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
  5546 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5547 
  5548 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
  5549 greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5550 
  5551 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see
  5552 Ring.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations
  5553 of algebraic structures.
  5554 
  5555 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.
  5556 
  5557 
  5558 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5559 
  5560 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding
  5561 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic.  See src/HOL/Nominal and
  5562 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples.  Prospective users should consult
  5563 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/
  5564 
  5565 
  5566 *** ML ***
  5567 
  5568 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int
  5569 (even on SML/NJ).
  5570 
  5571 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked
  5572 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at
  5573 compile-time.  For example:
  5574 
  5575 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}
  5576 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}
  5577 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}
  5578 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}
  5579 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}
  5580 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}
  5581 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}
  5582 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}
  5583 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}
  5584 ML {* @{type_name c} *}
  5585 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}
  5586 ML {* @{const_name c} *}
  5587 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}
  5588 ML {* @{context} *}
  5589 ML {* @{theory} *}
  5590 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}
  5591 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}
  5592 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}
  5593 ML {* @{simpset} *}
  5594 ML {* @{claset} *}
  5595 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}
  5596 
  5597 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.
  5598 
  5599 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with
  5600 ML_Context.trace enabled.
  5601 
  5602 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions
  5603 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and
  5604 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.
  5605 
  5606 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now
  5607 use Context.generic instead of just theory.
  5608 
  5609 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and
  5610 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of
  5611 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.
  5612 
  5613 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always
  5614 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.
  5615 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while
  5616 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and
  5617 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure
  5618 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably
  5619 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type
  5620 declarations and definitions.
  5621 
  5622 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed
  5623 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,
  5624 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need
  5625 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)
  5626 
  5627 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in
  5628 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the
  5629 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,
  5630 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5631 
  5632 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with
  5633 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed
  5634 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --
  5635 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and
  5636 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede
  5637 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.
  5638 
  5639 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --
  5640 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been
  5641 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted
  5642 accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for
  5643 attributes, methods, etc.
  5644 
  5645 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."
  5646 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to
  5647 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and
  5648 fold_map combinators.
  5649 
  5650 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional
  5651 comments (tags) are now strictly separate.  Name hints -- which are
  5652 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the
  5653 derivation.
  5654 
  5655 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an
  5656 actual goal state (thm).  Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to
  5657 achieve the old behaviour.
  5658 
  5659 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a
  5660 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule
  5661 statements.
  5662 
  5663 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now
  5664 enforced instead of silently assumed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use
  5665 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.
  5666 
  5667 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating
  5668 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc.  This replaces
  5669 some popular functions from term.ML:
  5670 
  5671   Term.variant		->  Name.variant
  5672   Term.variantlist	->  Name.variant_list
  5673   Term.invent_names	->  Name.invent_list
  5674 
  5675 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations
  5676 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).
  5677 
  5678 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper
  5679 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context.  For example,
  5680 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and
  5681 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces
  5682 various freeze_thaw operations.
  5683 
  5684 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for
  5685 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former
  5686 Tactic.prove).  Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results
  5687 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for
  5688 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard.  Note that
  5689 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is
  5690 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or
  5691 in a locale context).
  5692 
  5693 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)
  5694 and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations
  5695 (Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.
  5696 which are considered legacy and await removal.
  5697 
  5698 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking
  5699 (Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),
  5700 with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term
  5701 etc.).  Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still
  5702 available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using
  5703 a mere theory instead of a full context.
  5704 
  5705 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception
  5706 ERROR of string uniformly.  Function error now merely raises ERROR,
  5707 without any side effect on output channels.  The Isar toplevel takes
  5708 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions.  ML code may use plain
  5709 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:
  5710 
  5711   ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."
  5712 
  5713 Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be
  5714 embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like
  5715 this:
  5716 
  5717   Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)
  5718 
  5719 INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed
  5720 obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,
  5721 Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)
  5722 -- use plain ERROR instead.
  5723 
  5724 * Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a
  5725 list.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.
  5726 
  5727 * Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to
  5728 ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.
  5729 
  5730 * Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the
  5731 theory before entering a proof state.  Transactions now always see a
  5732 quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and
  5733 batch mode.
  5734 
  5735 * Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax.  Renamed
  5736 OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords.  Removed
  5737 OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in
  5738 OuterSyntax.command etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5739 
  5740 * Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now
  5741 contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the
  5742 very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by
  5743 simpset_of/local_simpset_of).  Consequently, all plug-in components
  5744 (solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.
  5745 
  5746 * Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the
  5747 local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc
  5748 etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this!  Removed
  5749 former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --
  5750 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to
  5751 specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.
  5752 
  5753 * Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces
  5754 change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a
  5755 theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --
  5756 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5757 
  5758 * Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired
  5759 "Trueprop" etc.
  5760 
  5761 
  5762 *** System ***
  5763 
  5764 * settings: the default heap location within ISABELLE_HOME_USER now
  5765 includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER.  This simplifies use of multiple
  5766 Isabelle installations.
  5767 
  5768 * isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical
  5769 operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source
  5770 code.
  5771 
  5772 * Basic Isabelle mode for jEdit, see Isabelle/lib/jedit/.
  5773 
  5774 * Support for parallel execution, using native multicore support of
  5775 Poly/ML 5.1.  The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing
  5776 independent theories, according to the given theory header
  5777 specifications. The maximum number of worker threads is specified via
  5778 usedir option -M or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. A
  5779 speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected on a 4-core machine, and up
  5780 to 6 on a 8-core machine.  User-code needs to observe certain
  5781 guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A in the Isar
  5782 Implementation manual.
  5783 
  5784 
  5785 
  5786 New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)
  5787 ----------------------------------
  5788 
  5789 *** General ***
  5790 
  5791 * Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is
  5792 
  5793   theory <name>
  5794   imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>
  5795   uses <file1> ... <fileM>
  5796   begin
  5797 
  5798 where the 'uses' part is optional.  The previous syntax
  5799 
  5800   theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:
  5801 
  5802 will disappear in the next release.  Use isatool fixheaders to convert
  5803 existing theory files.  Note that there is no change in ancient
  5804 non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.
  5805 
  5806 * Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via
  5807 relative and absolute paths.
  5808 
  5809 * Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a
  5810 list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,
  5811 simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select
  5812 theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that
  5813 match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified
  5814 name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose
  5815 lhs match term.  Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects
  5816 all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under
  5817 'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f.  Example:
  5818 
  5819   C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."
  5820 
  5821 prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",
  5822 matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."
  5823 in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).
  5824 
  5825 * Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of
  5826 'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5827 
  5828 * Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that
  5829 Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both
  5830 formal and informal parts).  Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof
  5831 General interface.  Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):
  5832 
  5833   http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html
  5834   http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html
  5835 
  5836 * Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the
  5837 Classical Reasoner.  Typical big applications run around 2 times
  5838 faster.
  5839 
  5840 
  5841 *** Document preparation ***
  5842 
  5843 * Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output
  5844 of raw sources.  Only those symbols that do not require additional
  5845 LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are
  5846 displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim.  isatool display
  5847 and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the
  5848 DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).
  5849 
  5850 * Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,
  5851 notably folding and hiding.  Predefined tags include "theory" (for
  5852 theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for
  5853 commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and
  5854 "invisible" are unused by default.  Users may give explicit tag
  5855 specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''.  The
  5856 interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document
  5857 preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of
  5858 isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,
  5859 \isadroptag.
  5860 
  5861 Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool
  5862 usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them).  Typical
  5863 specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present
  5864 theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold
  5865 proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit
  5866 these parts without any formal replacement text.  The Isabelle site
  5867 default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as
  5868 specified above.
  5869 
  5870 * Several new antiquotations:
  5871 
  5872   @{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;
  5873 
  5874   @{typeof term} prints the type of a term;
  5875 
  5876   @{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the
  5877   argument is a known logical constant;
  5878 
  5879   @{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or
  5880   theorem applying a "style" to it
  5881 
  5882   @{ML text}
  5883 
  5884 Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of
  5885 definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the
  5886 conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem19'
  5887 to print the specified premise.  TermStyle.add_style provides an ML
  5888 interface for introducing further styles.  See also the "LaTeX Sugar"
  5889 document practical applications.  The ML antiquotation prints
  5890 type-checked ML expressions verbatim.
  5891 
  5892 * Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',
  5893 and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which
  5894 specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations.  For
  5895 example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.
  5896 
  5897 * Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative
  5898 context interpreting the subsequent argument.  For example: @{thm
  5899 [locale=lattice] inf_assoc}.
  5900 
  5901 * Proper output of proof terms (@{prf ...} and @{full_prf ...}) within
  5902 a proof context.
  5903 
  5904 * Proper output of antiquotations for theory commands involving a
  5905 proof context (such as 'locale' or 'theorem (in loc) ...').
  5906 
  5907 * Delimiters of outer tokens (string etc.) now produce separate LaTeX
  5908 macros (\isachardoublequoteopen, isachardoublequoteclose etc.).
  5909 
  5910 * isatool usedir: new option -C (default true) controls whether option
  5911 -D should include a copy of the original document directory; -C false
  5912 prevents unwanted effects such as copying of administrative CVS data.
  5913 
  5914 
  5915 *** Pure ***
  5916 
  5917 * Considerably improved version of 'constdefs' command.  Now performs
  5918 automatic type-inference of declared constants; additional support for
  5919 local structure declarations (cf. locales and HOL records), see also
  5920 isar-ref manual.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to observe strictly
  5921 sequential dependencies of definitions within a single 'constdefs'
  5922 section; moreover, the declared name needs to be an identifier.  If
  5923 all fails, consider to fall back on 'consts' and 'defs' separately.
  5924 
  5925 * Improved indexed syntax and implicit structures.  First of all,
  5926 indexed syntax provides a notational device for subscripted
  5927 application, using the new syntax \<^bsub>term\<^esub> for arbitrary
  5928 expressions.  Secondly, in a local context with structure
  5929 declarations, number indexes \<^sub>n or the empty index (default
  5930 number 1) refer to a certain fixed variable implicitly; option
  5931 show_structs controls printing of implicit structures.  Typical
  5932 applications of these concepts involve record types and locales.
  5933 
  5934 * New command 'no_syntax' removes grammar declarations (and
  5935 translations) resulting from the given syntax specification, which is
  5936 interpreted in the same manner as for the 'syntax' command.
  5937 
  5938 * 'Advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) may depend
  5939 on the signature of the theory context being presently used for
  5940 parsing/printing, see also isar-ref manual.
  5941 
  5942 * Improved 'oracle' command provides a type-safe interface to turn an
  5943 ML expression of type theory -> T -> term into a primitive rule of
  5944 type theory -> T -> thm (i.e. the functionality of Thm.invoke_oracle
  5945 is already included here); see also FOL/ex/IffExample.thy;
  5946 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5947 
  5948 * axclass: name space prefix for class "c" is now "c_class" (was "c"
  5949 before); "cI" is no longer bound, use "c.intro" instead.
  5950 INCOMPATIBILITY.  This change avoids clashes of fact bindings for
  5951 axclasses vs. locales.
  5952 
  5953 * Improved internal renaming of symbolic identifiers -- attach primes
  5954 instead of base 26 numbers.
  5955 
  5956 * New flag show_question_marks controls printing of leading question
  5957 marks in schematic variable names.
  5958 
  5959 * In schematic variable names, *any* symbol following \<^isub> or
  5960 \<^isup> is now treated as part of the base name.  For example, the
  5961 following works without printing of awkward ".0" indexes:
  5962 
  5963   lemma "x\<^isub>1 = x\<^isub>2 ==> x\<^isub>2 = x\<^isub>1"
  5964     by simp
  5965 
  5966 * Inner syntax includes (*(*nested*) comments*).
  5967 
  5968 * Pretty printer now supports unbreakable blocks, specified in mixfix
  5969 annotations as "(00...)".
  5970 
  5971 * Clear separation of logical types and nonterminals, where the latter
  5972 may only occur in 'syntax' specifications or type abbreviations.
  5973 Before that distinction was only partially implemented via type class
  5974 "logic" vs. "{}".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare cases of improper
  5975 use of 'types'/'consts' instead of 'nonterminals'/'syntax'.  Some very
  5976 exotic syntax specifications may require further adaption
  5977 (e.g. Cube/Cube.thy).
  5978 
  5979 * Removed obsolete type class "logic", use the top sort {} instead.
  5980 Note that non-logical types should be declared as 'nonterminals'
  5981 rather than 'types'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for new object-logic
  5982 specifications.
  5983 
  5984 * Attributes 'induct' and 'cases': type or set names may now be
  5985 locally fixed variables as well.
  5986 
  5987 * Simplifier: can now control the depth to which conditional rewriting
  5988 is traced via the PG menu Isabelle -> Settings -> Trace Simp Depth
  5989 Limit.
  5990 
  5991 * Simplifier: simplification procedures may now take the current
  5992 simpset into account (cf. Simplifier.simproc(_i) / mk_simproc
  5993 interface), which is very useful for calling the Simplifier
  5994 recursively.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: the 'prems' argument of simprocs
  5995 is gone -- use prems_of_ss on the simpset instead.  Moreover, the
  5996 low-level mk_simproc no longer applies Logic.varify internally, to
  5997 allow for use in a context of fixed variables.
  5998 
  5999 * thin_tac now works even if the assumption being deleted contains !!
  6000 or ==>.  More generally, erule now works even if the major premise of
  6001 the elimination rule contains !! or ==>.
  6002 
  6003 * Method 'rules' has been renamed to 'iprover'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6004 
  6005 * Reorganized bootstrapping of the Pure theories; CPure is now derived
  6006 from Pure, which contains all common declarations already.  Both
  6007 theories are defined via plain Isabelle/Isar .thy files.
  6008 INCOMPATIBILITY: elements of CPure (such as the CPure.intro /
  6009 CPure.elim / CPure.dest attributes) now appear in the Pure name space;
  6010 use isatool fixcpure to adapt your theory and ML sources.
  6011 
  6012 * New syntax 'name(i-j, i-, i, ...)' for referring to specific
  6013 selections of theorems in named facts via index ranges.
  6014 
  6015 * 'print_theorems': in theory mode, really print the difference
  6016 wrt. the last state (works for interactive theory development only),
  6017 in proof mode print all local facts (cf. 'print_facts');
  6018 
  6019 * 'hide': option '(open)' hides only base names.
  6020 
  6021 * More efficient treatment of intermediate checkpoints in interactive
  6022 theory development.
  6023 
  6024 * Code generator is now invoked via code_module (incremental code
  6025 generation) and code_library (modular code generation, ML structures
  6026 for each theory).  INCOMPATIBILITY: new keywords 'file' and 'contains'
  6027 must be quoted when used as identifiers.
  6028 
  6029 * New 'value' command for reading, evaluating and printing terms using
  6030 the code generator.  INCOMPATIBILITY: command keyword 'value' must be
  6031 quoted when used as identifier.
  6032 
  6033 
  6034 *** Locales ***
  6035 
  6036 * New commands for the interpretation of locale expressions in
  6037 theories (1), locales (2) and proof contexts (3).  These generate
  6038 proof obligations from the expression specification.  After the
  6039 obligations have been discharged, theorems of the expression are added
  6040 to the theory, target locale or proof context.  The synopsis of the
  6041 commands is a follows:
  6042 
  6043   (1) interpretation expr inst
  6044   (2) interpretation target < expr
  6045   (3) interpret expr inst
  6046 
  6047 Interpretation in theories and proof contexts require a parameter
  6048 instantiation of terms from the current context.  This is applied to
  6049 specifications and theorems of the interpreted expression.
  6050 Interpretation in locales only permits parameter renaming through the
  6051 locale expression.  Interpretation is smart in that interpretations
  6052 that are active already do not occur in proof obligations, neither are
  6053 instantiated theorems stored in duplicate.  Use 'print_interps' to
  6054 inspect active interpretations of a particular locale.  For details,
  6055 see the Isar Reference manual.  Examples can be found in
  6056 HOL/Finite_Set.thy and HOL/Algebra/UnivPoly.thy.
  6057 
  6058 INCOMPATIBILITY: former 'instantiate' has been withdrawn, use
  6059 'interpret' instead.
  6060 
  6061 * New context element 'constrains' for adding type constraints to
  6062 parameters.
  6063 
  6064 * Context expressions: renaming of parameters with syntax
  6065 redeclaration.
  6066 
  6067 * Locale declaration: 'includes' disallowed.
  6068 
  6069 * Proper static binding of attribute syntax -- i.e. types / terms /
  6070 facts mentioned as arguments are always those of the locale definition
  6071 context, independently of the context of later invocations.  Moreover,
  6072 locale operations (renaming and type / term instantiation) are applied
  6073 to attribute arguments as expected.
  6074 
  6075 INCOMPATIBILITY of the ML interface: always pass Attrib.src instead of
  6076 actual attributes; rare situations may require Attrib.attribute to
  6077 embed those attributes into Attrib.src that lack concrete syntax.
  6078 Attribute implementations need to cooperate properly with the static
  6079 binding mechanism.  Basic parsers Args.XXX_typ/term/prop and
  6080 Attrib.XXX_thm etc. already do the right thing without further
  6081 intervention.  Only unusual applications -- such as "where" or "of"
  6082 (cf. src/Pure/Isar/attrib.ML), which process arguments depending both
  6083 on the context and the facts involved -- may have to assign parsed
  6084 values to argument tokens explicitly.
  6085 
  6086 * Changed parameter management in theorem generation for long goal
  6087 statements with 'includes'.  INCOMPATIBILITY: produces a different
  6088 theorem statement in rare situations.
  6089 
  6090 * Locale inspection command 'print_locale' omits notes elements.  Use
  6091 'print_locale!' to have them included in the output.
  6092 
  6093 
  6094 *** Provers ***
  6095 
  6096 * Provers/hypsubst.ML: improved version of the subst method, for
  6097 single-step rewriting: it now works in bound variable contexts. New is
  6098 'subst (asm)', for rewriting an assumption.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may
  6099 rewrite a different subterm than the original subst method, which is
  6100 still available as 'simplesubst'.
  6101 
  6102 * Provers/quasi.ML: new transitivity reasoners for transitivity only
  6103 and quasi orders.
  6104 
  6105 * Provers/trancl.ML: new transitivity reasoner for transitive and
  6106 reflexive-transitive closure of relations.
  6107 
  6108 * Provers/blast.ML: new reference depth_limit to make blast's depth
  6109 limit (previously hard-coded with a value of 20) user-definable.
  6110 
  6111 * Provers/simplifier.ML has been moved to Pure, where Simplifier.setup
  6112 is peformed already.  Object-logics merely need to finish their
  6113 initial simpset configuration as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6114 
  6115 
  6116 *** HOL ***
  6117 
  6118 * Symbolic syntax of Hilbert Choice Operator is now as follows:
  6119 
  6120   syntax (epsilon)
  6121     "_Eps" :: "[pttrn, bool] => 'a"    ("(3\<some>_./ _)" [0, 10] 10)
  6122 
  6123 The symbol \<some> is displayed as the alternative epsilon of LaTeX
  6124 and x-symbol; use option '-m epsilon' to get it actually printed.
  6125 Moreover, the mathematically important symbolic identifier \<epsilon>
  6126 becomes available as variable, constant etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  6127 
  6128 * "x > y" abbreviates "y < x" and "x >= y" abbreviates "y <= x".
  6129 Similarly for all quantifiers: "ALL x > y" etc.  The x-symbol for >=
  6130 is \<ge>. New transitivity rules have been added to HOL/Orderings.thy to
  6131 support corresponding Isar calculations.
  6132 
  6133 * "{x:A. P}" abbreviates "{x. x:A & P}", and similarly for "\<in>"
  6134 instead of ":".
  6135 
  6136 * theory SetInterval: changed the syntax for open intervals:
  6137 
  6138   Old       New
  6139   {..n(}    {..<n}
  6140   {)n..}    {n<..}
  6141   {m..n(}   {m..<n}
  6142   {)m..n}   {m<..n}
  6143   {)m..n(}  {m<..<n}
  6144 
  6145 The old syntax is still supported but will disappear in the next
  6146 release.  For conversion use the following Emacs search and replace
  6147 patterns (these are not perfect but work quite well):
  6148 
  6149   {)\([^\.]*\)\.\.  ->  {\1<\.\.}
  6150   \.\.\([^(}]*\)(}  ->  \.\.<\1}
  6151 
  6152 * Theory Commutative_Ring (in Library): method comm_ring for proving
  6153 equalities in commutative rings; method 'algebra' provides a generic
  6154 interface.
  6155 
  6156 * Theory Finite_Set: changed the syntax for 'setsum', summation over
  6157 finite sets: "setsum (%x. e) A", which used to be "\<Sum>x:A. e", is
  6158 now either "SUM x:A. e" or "\<Sum>x \<in> A. e". The bound variable can
  6159 be a tuple pattern.
  6160 
  6161 Some new syntax forms are available:
  6162 
  6163   "\<Sum>x | P. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {x. P}"
  6164   "\<Sum>x = a..b. e"   for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..b}"
  6165   "\<Sum>x = a..<b. e"  for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..<b}"
  6166   "\<Sum>x < k. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {..<k}"
  6167 
  6168 The latter form "\<Sum>x < k. e" used to be based on a separate
  6169 function "Summation", which has been discontinued.
  6170 
  6171 * theory Finite_Set: in structured induction proofs, the insert case
  6172 is now 'case (insert x F)' instead of the old counterintuitive 'case
  6173 (insert F x)'.
  6174 
  6175 * The 'refute' command has been extended to support a much larger
  6176 fragment of HOL, including axiomatic type classes, constdefs and
  6177 typedefs, inductive datatypes and recursion.
  6178 
  6179 * New tactics 'sat' and 'satx' to prove propositional tautologies.
  6180 Requires zChaff with proof generation to be installed.  See
  6181 HOL/ex/SAT_Examples.thy for examples.
  6182 
  6183 * Datatype induction via method 'induct' now preserves the name of the
  6184 induction variable. For example, when proving P(xs::'a list) by
  6185 induction on xs, the induction step is now P(xs) ==> P(a#xs) rather
  6186 than P(list) ==> P(a#list) as previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  6187 in unstructured proof scripts.
  6188 
  6189 * Reworked implementation of records.  Improved scalability for
  6190 records with many fields, avoiding performance problems for type
  6191 inference. Records are no longer composed of nested field types, but
  6192 of nested extension types. Therefore the record type only grows linear
  6193 in the number of extensions and not in the number of fields.  The
  6194 top-level (users) view on records is preserved.  Potential
  6195 INCOMPATIBILITY only in strange cases, where the theory depends on the
  6196 old record representation. The type generated for a record is called
  6197 <record_name>_ext_type.
  6198 
  6199 Flag record_quick_and_dirty_sensitive can be enabled to skip the
  6200 proofs triggered by a record definition or a simproc (if
  6201 quick_and_dirty is enabled).  Definitions of large records can take
  6202 quite long.
  6203 
  6204 New simproc record_upd_simproc for simplification of multiple record
  6205 updates enabled by default.  Moreover, trivial updates are also
  6206 removed: r(|x := x r|) = r.  INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break
  6207 occasionally, since simplification is more powerful by default.
  6208 
  6209 * typedef: proper support for polymorphic sets, which contain extra
  6210 type-variables in the term.
  6211 
  6212 * Simplifier: automatically reasons about transitivity chains
  6213 involving "trancl" (r^+) and "rtrancl" (r^*) by setting up tactics
  6214 provided by Provers/trancl.ML as additional solvers.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  6215 old proofs break occasionally as simplification may now solve more
  6216 goals than previously.
  6217 
  6218 * Simplifier: converts x <= y into x = y if assumption y <= x is
  6219 present.  Works for all partial orders (class "order"), in particular
  6220 numbers and sets.  For linear orders (e.g. numbers) it treats ~ x < y
  6221 just like y <= x.
  6222 
  6223 * Simplifier: new simproc for "let x = a in f x".  If a is a free or
  6224 bound variable or a constant then the let is unfolded.  Otherwise
  6225 first a is simplified to b, and then f b is simplified to g. If
  6226 possible we abstract b from g arriving at "let x = b in h x",
  6227 otherwise we unfold the let and arrive at g.  The simproc can be
  6228 enabled/disabled by the reference use_let_simproc.  Potential
  6229 INCOMPATIBILITY since simplification is more powerful by default.
  6230 
  6231 * Classical reasoning: the meson method now accepts theorems as arguments.
  6232 
  6233 * Prover support: pre-release of the Isabelle-ATP linkup, which runs background
  6234 jobs to provide advice on the provability of subgoals.
  6235 
  6236 * Theory OrderedGroup and Ring_and_Field: various additions and
  6237 improvements to faciliate calculations involving equalities and
  6238 inequalities.
  6239 
  6240 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
  6241 (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  6242 
  6243   abs_eq             now named abs_of_nonneg
  6244   abs_of_ge_0        now named abs_of_nonneg
  6245   abs_minus_eq       now named abs_of_nonpos
  6246   imp_abs_id         now named abs_of_nonneg
  6247   imp_abs_neg_id     now named abs_of_nonpos
  6248   mult_pos           now named mult_pos_pos
  6249   mult_pos_le        now named mult_nonneg_nonneg
  6250   mult_pos_neg_le    now named mult_nonneg_nonpos
  6251   mult_pos_neg2_le   now named mult_nonneg_nonpos2
  6252   mult_neg           now named mult_neg_neg
  6253   mult_neg_le        now named mult_nonpos_nonpos
  6254 
  6255 * The following lemmas in Ring_and_Field have been added to the simplifier: