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Partial equivalence relations (leftover from HOL/Quot);

(*  Title:      HOL/ex/PER.thy
    ID:         $Id$
    Author:     Oscar Slotosch and Markus Wenzel, TU Muenchen

header {* Partial equivalence relations *}

theory PER = Main:

text {*
 Higher-order quotients are defined over partial equivalence relations
 (PERs) instead of total ones.  We provide axiomatic type classes
 @{text "equiv < partial_equiv"} and a type constructor
 @{text "'a quot"} with basic operations.  This development is based

 Oscar Slotosch: \emph{Higher Order Quotients and their Implementation
 in Isabelle HOL.}  Elsa L. Gunter and Amy Felty, editors, Theorem
 Proving in Higher Order Logics: TPHOLs '97, Springer LNCS 1275, 1997.

subsection {* Partial equivalence *}

text {*
 Type class @{text partial_equiv} models partial equivalence relations
 (PERs) using the polymorphic @{text "\<sim> :: 'a => 'a => bool"} relation,
 which is required to be symmetric and transitive, but not necessarily

  eqv :: "'a => 'a => bool"    (infixl "\<sim>" 50)

axclass partial_equiv < "term"
  partial_equiv_sym [elim?]: "x \<sim> y ==> y \<sim> x"
  partial_equiv_trans [trans]: "x \<sim> y ==> y \<sim> z ==> x \<sim> z"

text {*
 \medskip The domain of a partial equivalence relation is the set of
 reflexive elements.  Due to symmetry and transitivity this
 characterizes exactly those elements that are connected with
 \emph{any} other one.

  domain :: "'a::partial_equiv set"
  "domain == {x. x \<sim> x}"

lemma domainI [intro]: "x \<sim> x ==> x \<in> domain"
  by (unfold domain_def) blast

lemma domainD [dest]: "x \<in> domain ==> x \<sim> x"
  by (unfold domain_def) blast

theorem domainI' [elim?]: "x \<sim> y ==> x \<in> domain"
  assume xy: "x \<sim> y"
  also from xy have "y \<sim> x" ..
  finally show "x \<sim> x" .

subsection {* Equivalence on function spaces *}

text {*
 The @{text \<sim>} relation is lifted to function spaces.  It is
 important to note that this is \emph{not} the direct product, but a
 structural one corresponding to the congruence property.

defs (overloaded)
  eqv_fun_def: "f \<sim> g == \<forall>x \<in> domain. \<forall>y \<in> domain. x \<sim> y --> f x \<sim> g y"

lemma partial_equiv_funI [intro?]:
    "(!!x y. x \<in> domain ==> y \<in> domain ==> x \<sim> y ==> f x \<sim> g y) ==> f \<sim> g"
  by (unfold eqv_fun_def) blast

lemma partial_equiv_funD [dest?]:
    "f \<sim> g ==> x \<in> domain ==> y \<in> domain ==> x \<sim> y ==> f x \<sim> g y"
  by (unfold eqv_fun_def) blast

text {*
 The class of partial equivalence relations is closed under function
 spaces (in \emph{both} argument positions).

instance fun :: (partial_equiv, partial_equiv) partial_equiv
  fix f g h :: "'a::partial_equiv => 'b::partial_equiv"
  assume fg: "f \<sim> g"
  show "g \<sim> f"
    fix x y :: 'a
    assume x: "x \<in> domain" and y: "y \<in> domain"
    assume "x \<sim> y" hence "y \<sim> x" ..
    with fg y x have "f y \<sim> g x" ..
    thus "g x \<sim> f y" ..
  assume gh: "g \<sim> h"
  show "f \<sim> h"
    fix x y :: 'a
    assume x: "x \<in> domain" and y: "y \<in> domain" and "x \<sim> y"
    with fg have "f x \<sim> g y" ..
    also from y have "y \<sim> y" ..
    with gh y y have "g y \<sim> h y" ..
    finally show "f x \<sim> h y" .

subsection {* Total equivalence *}

text {*
 The class of total equivalence relations on top of PERs.  It
 coincides with the standard notion of equivalence, i.e.\
 @{text "\<sim> :: 'a => 'a => bool"} is required to be reflexive, transitive
 and symmetric.

axclass equiv < partial_equiv
  eqv_refl [intro]: "x \<sim> x"

text {*
 On total equivalences all elements are reflexive, and congruence
 holds unconditionally.

theorem equiv_domain [intro]: "(x::'a::equiv) \<in> domain"
  show "x \<sim> x" ..

theorem equiv_cong [dest?]: "f \<sim> g ==> x \<sim> y ==> f x \<sim> g (y::'a::equiv)"
proof -
  assume "f \<sim> g"
  moreover have "x \<in> domain" ..
  moreover have "y \<in> domain" ..
  moreover assume "x \<sim> y"
  ultimately show ?thesis ..

subsection {* Quotient types *}

text {*
 The quotient type @{text "'a quot"} consists of all \emph{equivalence
 classes} over elements of the base type @{typ 'a}.

typedef 'a quot = "{{x. a \<sim> x}| a::'a. True}"
  by blast

lemma quotI [intro]: "{x. a \<sim> x} \<in> quot"
  by (unfold quot_def) blast

lemma quotE [elim]: "R \<in> quot ==> (!!a. R = {x. a \<sim> x} ==> C) ==> C"
  by (unfold quot_def) blast

text {*
 \medskip Abstracted equivalence classes are the canonical
 representation of elements of a quotient type.

  eqv_class :: "('a::partial_equiv) => 'a quot"    ("\<lfloor>_\<rfloor>")
  "\<lfloor>a\<rfloor> == Abs_quot {x. a \<sim> x}"

theorem quot_rep: "\<exists>a. A = \<lfloor>a\<rfloor>"
proof (cases A)
  fix R assume R: "A = Abs_quot R"
  assume "R \<in> quot" hence "\<exists>a. R = {x. a \<sim> x}" by blast
  with R have "\<exists>a. A = Abs_quot {x. a \<sim> x}" by blast
  thus ?thesis by (unfold eqv_class_def)

lemma quot_cases [case_names rep, cases type: quot]:
    "(!!a. A = \<lfloor>a\<rfloor> ==> C) ==> C"
  by (insert quot_rep) blast

subsection {* Equality on quotients *}

text {*
 Equality of canonical quotient elements corresponds to the original
 relation as follows.

theorem eqv_class_eqI [intro]: "a \<sim> b ==> \<lfloor>a\<rfloor> = \<lfloor>b\<rfloor>"
proof -
  assume ab: "a \<sim> b"
  have "{x. a \<sim> x} = {x. b \<sim> x}"
  proof (rule Collect_cong)
    fix x show "(a \<sim> x) = (b \<sim> x)"
      from ab have "b \<sim> a" ..
      also assume "a \<sim> x"
      finally show "b \<sim> x" .
      note ab
      also assume "b \<sim> x"
      finally show "a \<sim> x" .
  thus ?thesis by (simp only: eqv_class_def)

theorem eqv_class_eqD' [dest?]: "\<lfloor>a\<rfloor> = \<lfloor>b\<rfloor> ==> a \<in> domain ==> a \<sim> b"
proof (unfold eqv_class_def)
  assume "Abs_quot {x. a \<sim> x} = Abs_quot {x. b \<sim> x}"
  hence "{x. a \<sim> x} = {x. b \<sim> x}" by (simp only: Abs_quot_inject quotI)
  moreover assume "a \<in> domain" hence "a \<sim> a" ..
  ultimately have "a \<in> {x. b \<sim> x}" by blast
  hence "b \<sim> a" by blast
  thus "a \<sim> b" ..

theorem eqv_class_eqD [dest?]: "\<lfloor>a\<rfloor> = \<lfloor>b\<rfloor> ==> a \<sim> (b::'a::equiv)"
proof (rule eqv_class_eqD')
  show "a \<in> domain" ..

lemma eqv_class_eq' [simp]: "a \<in> domain ==> (\<lfloor>a\<rfloor> = \<lfloor>b\<rfloor>) = (a \<sim> b)"
  by (insert eqv_class_eqI eqv_class_eqD') blast

lemma eqv_class_eq [simp]: "(\<lfloor>a\<rfloor> = \<lfloor>b\<rfloor>) = (a \<sim> (b::'a::equiv))"
  by (insert eqv_class_eqI eqv_class_eqD) blast

subsection {* Picking representing elements *}

  pick :: "'a::partial_equiv quot => 'a"
  "pick A == SOME a. A = \<lfloor>a\<rfloor>"

theorem pick_eqv' [intro?, simp]: "a \<in> domain ==> pick \<lfloor>a\<rfloor> \<sim> a"
proof (unfold pick_def)
  assume a: "a \<in> domain"
  show "(SOME x. \<lfloor>a\<rfloor> = \<lfloor>x\<rfloor>) \<sim> a"
  proof (rule someI2)
    show "\<lfloor>a\<rfloor> = \<lfloor>a\<rfloor>" ..
    fix x assume "\<lfloor>a\<rfloor> = \<lfloor>x\<rfloor>"
    hence "a \<sim> x" ..
    thus "x \<sim> a" ..

theorem pick_eqv [intro, simp]: "pick \<lfloor>a\<rfloor> \<sim> (a::'a::equiv)"
proof (rule pick_eqv')
  show "a \<in> domain" ..

theorem pick_inverse: "\<lfloor>pick A\<rfloor> = (A::'a::equiv quot)"
proof (cases A)
  fix a assume a: "A = \<lfloor>a\<rfloor>"
  hence "pick A \<sim> a" by simp
  hence "\<lfloor>pick A\<rfloor> = \<lfloor>a\<rfloor>" by simp
  with a show ?thesis by simp