src/Provers/hypsubst.ML
author wenzelm
Sat, 17 Oct 2009 00:52:37 +0200
changeset 32957 675c0c7e6a37
parent 30515 bca05b17b618
child 35021 c839a4c670c6
permissions -rw-r--r--
explicitly qualify Drule.standard;

(*  Title:      Provers/hypsubst.ML
    ID:         $Id$
    Authors:    Martin D Coen, Tobias Nipkow and Lawrence C Paulson
    Copyright   1995  University of Cambridge

Basic equational reasoning: hyp_subst_tac and methods "hypsubst", "subst".

Tactic to substitute using (at least) the assumption x=t in the rest
of the subgoal, and to delete (at least) that assumption.  Original
version due to Martin Coen.

This version uses the simplifier, and requires it to be already present.

Test data:

Goal "!!x.[| Q(x,y,z); y=x; a=x; z=y; P(y) |] ==> P(z)";
Goal "!!x.[| Q(x,y,z); z=f(x); x=z |] ==> P(z)";
Goal "!!y. [| ?x=y; P(?x) |] ==> y = a";
Goal "!!z. [| ?x=y; P(?x) |] ==> y = a";

Goal "!!x a. [| x = f(b); g(a) = b |] ==> P(x)";

by (bound_hyp_subst_tac 1);
by (hyp_subst_tac 1);

Here hyp_subst_tac goes wrong; harder still to prove P(f(f(a))) & P(f(a))
Goal "P(a) --> (EX y. a=y --> P(f(a)))";

Goal "!!x. [| Q(x,h1); P(a,h2); R(x,y,h3); R(y,z,h4); x=f(y); \
\                 P(x,h5); P(y,h6); K(x,h7) |] ==> Q(x,c)";
by (blast_hyp_subst_tac true 1);
*)

signature HYPSUBST_DATA =
sig
  val dest_Trueprop    : term -> term
  val dest_eq          : term -> term * term
  val dest_imp         : term -> term * term
  val eq_reflection    : thm               (* a=b ==> a==b *)
  val rev_eq_reflection: thm               (* a==b ==> a=b *)
  val imp_intr         : thm               (* (P ==> Q) ==> P-->Q *)
  val rev_mp           : thm               (* [| P;  P-->Q |] ==> Q *)
  val subst            : thm               (* [| a=b;  P(a) |] ==> P(b) *)
  val sym              : thm               (* a=b ==> b=a *)
  val thin_refl        : thm               (* [|x=x; PROP W|] ==> PROP W *)
  val prop_subst       : thm               (* PROP P t ==> PROP prop (x = t ==> PROP P x) *)
end;

signature HYPSUBST =
sig
  val single_hyp_subst_tac   : int -> int -> tactic
  val single_hyp_meta_subst_tac : int -> int -> tactic
  val bound_hyp_subst_tac    : int -> tactic
  val hyp_subst_tac          : int -> tactic
  val blast_hyp_subst_tac    : bool -> int -> tactic
  val stac                   : thm -> int -> tactic
  val hypsubst_setup         : theory -> theory
end;

functor HypsubstFun(Data: HYPSUBST_DATA): HYPSUBST =
struct

exception EQ_VAR;

val meta_subst = @{lemma "PROP P t \<Longrightarrow> PROP prop (x \<equiv> t \<Longrightarrow> PROP P x)"
  by (unfold prop_def)}

(** Simple version: Just subtitute one hypothesis, specified by index k **)
fun gen_single_hyp_subst_tac subst_rule k = CSUBGOAL (fn (csubg, i) =>
 let 
   val pat = fold_rev (Logic.all o Free) (Logic.strip_params (term_of csubg)) (Term.dummy_pattern propT)
             |> cterm_of (theory_of_cterm csubg)

   val rule =
       Thm.lift_rule pat subst_rule (* lift just over parameters *)
       |> Conv.fconv_rule (MetaSimplifier.rewrite true [@{thm prop_def}])
 in
   rotate_tac k i
   THEN Thm.compose_no_flatten false (rule, 1) i
   THEN rotate_tac (~k) i
 end)

val single_hyp_meta_subst_tac = gen_single_hyp_subst_tac meta_subst
val single_hyp_subst_tac = gen_single_hyp_subst_tac Data.prop_subst

fun loose (i,t) = member (op =) (add_loose_bnos (t, i, [])) 0;

(*Simplifier turns Bound variables to special Free variables:
  change it back (any Bound variable will do)*)
fun contract t =
  (case Envir.eta_contract t of
    Free (a, T) => if Name.is_bound a then Bound 0 else Free (a, T)
  | t' => t');

val has_vars = Term.exists_subterm Term.is_Var;
val has_tvars = Term.exists_type (Term.exists_subtype Term.is_TVar);

(*If novars then we forbid Vars in the equality.
  If bnd then we only look for Bound variables to eliminate.
  When can we safely delete the equality?
    Not if it equates two constants; consider 0=1.
    Not if it resembles x=t[x], since substitution does not eliminate x.
    Not if it resembles ?x=0; consider ?x=0 ==> ?x=1 or even ?x=0 ==> P
    Not if it involves a variable free in the premises,
        but we can't check for this -- hence bnd and bound_hyp_subst_tac
  Prefer to eliminate Bound variables if possible.
  Result:  true = use as is,  false = reorient first *)
fun inspect_pair bnd novars (t, u) =
  if novars andalso (has_tvars t orelse has_tvars u)
  then raise Match   (*variables in the type!*)
  else
  case (contract t, contract u) of
       (Bound i, _) => if loose(i,u) orelse novars andalso has_vars u
                       then raise Match
                       else true                (*eliminates t*)
     | (_, Bound i) => if loose(i,t) orelse novars andalso has_vars t
                       then raise Match
                       else false               (*eliminates u*)
     | (Free _, _) =>  if bnd orelse Logic.occs(t,u) orelse
                          novars andalso has_vars u
                       then raise Match
                       else true                (*eliminates t*)
     | (_, Free _) =>  if bnd orelse Logic.occs(u,t) orelse
                          novars andalso has_vars t
                       then raise Match
                       else false               (*eliminates u*)
     | _ => raise Match;

(*Locates a substitutable variable on the left (resp. right) of an equality
   assumption.  Returns the number of intervening assumptions. *)
fun eq_var bnd novars =
  let fun eq_var_aux k (Const("all",_) $ Abs(_,_,t)) = eq_var_aux k t
        | eq_var_aux k (Const("==>",_) $ A $ B) =
              ((k, inspect_pair bnd novars
                    (Data.dest_eq (Data.dest_Trueprop A)))
               handle TERM _ => eq_var_aux (k+1) B
                 | Match => eq_var_aux (k+1) B)
        | eq_var_aux k _ = raise EQ_VAR
  in  eq_var_aux 0  end;

(*For the simpset.  Adds ALL suitable equalities, even if not first!
  No vars are allowed here, as simpsets are built from meta-assumptions*)
fun mk_eqs bnd th =
    [ if inspect_pair bnd false (Data.dest_eq
                                   (Data.dest_Trueprop (#prop (rep_thm th))))
      then th RS Data.eq_reflection
      else symmetric(th RS Data.eq_reflection) (*reorient*) ]
    handle TERM _ => [] | Match => [];

local
in

  (*Select a suitable equality assumption; substitute throughout the subgoal
    If bnd is true, then it replaces Bound variables only. *)
  fun gen_hyp_subst_tac bnd =
    let fun tac i st = SUBGOAL (fn (Bi, _) =>
      let
        val (k, _) = eq_var bnd true Bi
        val hyp_subst_ss = Simplifier.theory_context (Thm.theory_of_thm st) empty_ss
          setmksimps (mk_eqs bnd)
      in EVERY [rotate_tac k i, asm_lr_simp_tac hyp_subst_ss i,
        etac thin_rl i, rotate_tac (~k) i]
      end handle THM _ => no_tac | EQ_VAR => no_tac) i st
    in REPEAT_DETERM1 o tac end;

end;

val ssubst = Drule.standard (Data.sym RS Data.subst);

fun inst_subst_tac b rl = CSUBGOAL (fn (cBi, i) =>
  case try (Logic.strip_assums_hyp #> hd #>
      Data.dest_Trueprop #> Data.dest_eq #> pairself contract) (Thm.term_of cBi) of
    SOME (t, t') =>
      let
        val Bi = Thm.term_of cBi;
        val ps = Logic.strip_params Bi;
        val U = Term.fastype_of1 (rev (map snd ps), t);
        val Q = Data.dest_Trueprop (Logic.strip_assums_concl Bi);
        val rl' = Thm.lift_rule cBi rl;
        val Var (ixn, T) = Term.head_of (Data.dest_Trueprop
          (Logic.strip_assums_concl (Thm.prop_of rl')));
        val (v1, v2) = Data.dest_eq (Data.dest_Trueprop
          (Logic.strip_assums_concl (hd (Thm.prems_of rl'))));
        val (Ts, V) = split_last (Term.binder_types T);
        val u = list_abs (ps @ [("x", U)], case (if b then t else t') of
            Bound j => subst_bounds (map Bound
              ((1 upto j) @ 0 :: (j + 2 upto length ps)), Q)
          | t => Term.abstract_over (t, Term.incr_boundvars 1 Q));
        val thy = Thm.theory_of_thm rl';
        val (instT, _) = Thm.match (pairself (cterm_of thy o Logic.mk_type) (V, U));
      in compose_tac (true, Drule.instantiate (instT,
        map (pairself (cterm_of thy))
          [(Var (ixn, Ts ---> U --> body_type T), u),
           (Var (fst (dest_Var (head_of v1)), Ts ---> U), list_abs (ps, t)),
           (Var (fst (dest_Var (head_of v2)), Ts ---> U), list_abs (ps, t'))]) rl',
        nprems_of rl) i
      end
  | NONE => no_tac);

val imp_intr_tac = rtac Data.imp_intr;

(* FIXME: "etac Data.rev_mp i" will not behave as expected if goal has *)
(* premises containing meta-implications or quantifiers                *)

(*Old version of the tactic above -- slower but the only way
  to handle equalities containing Vars.*)
fun vars_gen_hyp_subst_tac bnd = SUBGOAL(fn (Bi,i) =>
      let val n = length(Logic.strip_assums_hyp Bi) - 1
          val (k,symopt) = eq_var bnd false Bi
      in
         DETERM
           (EVERY [REPEAT_DETERM_N k (etac Data.rev_mp i),
                   rotate_tac 1 i,
                   REPEAT_DETERM_N (n-k) (etac Data.rev_mp i),
                   inst_subst_tac symopt (if symopt then ssubst else Data.subst) i,
                   REPEAT_DETERM_N n (imp_intr_tac i THEN rotate_tac ~1 i)])
      end
      handle THM _ => no_tac | EQ_VAR => no_tac);

(*Substitutes for Free or Bound variables*)
val hyp_subst_tac = FIRST' [ematch_tac [Data.thin_refl],
        gen_hyp_subst_tac false, vars_gen_hyp_subst_tac false];

(*Substitutes for Bound variables only -- this is always safe*)
val bound_hyp_subst_tac =
    gen_hyp_subst_tac true ORELSE' vars_gen_hyp_subst_tac true;


(** Version for Blast_tac.  Hyps that are affected by the substitution are
    moved to the front.  Defect: even trivial changes are noticed, such as
    substitutions in the arguments of a function Var. **)

(*final re-reversal of the changed assumptions*)
fun reverse_n_tac 0 i = all_tac
  | reverse_n_tac 1 i = rotate_tac ~1 i
  | reverse_n_tac n i =
      REPEAT_DETERM_N n (rotate_tac ~1 i THEN etac Data.rev_mp i) THEN
      REPEAT_DETERM_N n (imp_intr_tac i THEN rotate_tac ~1 i);

(*Use imp_intr, comparing the old hyps with the new ones as they come out.*)
fun all_imp_intr_tac hyps i =
  let fun imptac (r, [])    st = reverse_n_tac r i st
        | imptac (r, hyp::hyps) st =
           let val (hyp',_) = List.nth (prems_of st, i-1) |>
                              Logic.strip_assums_concl    |>
                              Data.dest_Trueprop          |> Data.dest_imp
               val (r',tac) = if Pattern.aeconv (hyp,hyp')
                              then (r, imp_intr_tac i THEN rotate_tac ~1 i)
                              else (*leave affected hyps at end*)
                                   (r+1, imp_intr_tac i)
           in
               case Seq.pull(tac st) of
                   NONE       => Seq.single(st)
                 | SOME(st',_) => imptac (r',hyps) st'
           end
  in  imptac (0, rev hyps)  end;


fun blast_hyp_subst_tac trace = SUBGOAL(fn (Bi,i) =>
      let val (k,symopt) = eq_var false false Bi
          val hyps0 = map Data.dest_Trueprop (Logic.strip_assums_hyp Bi)
          (*omit selected equality, returning other hyps*)
          val hyps = List.take(hyps0, k) @ List.drop(hyps0, k+1)
          val n = length hyps
      in
         if trace then tracing "Substituting an equality" else ();
         DETERM
           (EVERY [REPEAT_DETERM_N k (etac Data.rev_mp i),
                   rotate_tac 1 i,
                   REPEAT_DETERM_N (n-k) (etac Data.rev_mp i),
                   inst_subst_tac symopt (if symopt then ssubst else Data.subst) i,
                   all_imp_intr_tac hyps i])
      end
      handle THM _ => no_tac | EQ_VAR => no_tac);


(*apply an equality or definition ONCE;
  fails unless the substitution has an effect*)
fun stac th =
  let val th' = th RS Data.rev_eq_reflection handle THM _ => th
  in CHANGED_GOAL (rtac (th' RS ssubst)) end;


(* theory setup *)

val hypsubst_setup =
  Method.setup @{binding hypsubst}
    (Scan.succeed (K (SIMPLE_METHOD' (CHANGED_PROP o hyp_subst_tac))))
    "substitution using an assumption (improper)" #>
  Method.setup @{binding simplesubst} (Attrib.thm >> (fn th => K (SIMPLE_METHOD' (stac th))))
    "simple substitution";

end;