NEWS
author nipkow
Tue Oct 18 16:04:44 2016 +0200 (2016-10-18)
changeset 64322 72060e61ca9d
parent 64280 7ad033e28dbd
child 64323 20d15328b248
permissions -rw-r--r--
NEWS
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history of user-relevant changes
     2 =================================================
     3 
     4 (Note: Isabelle/jEdit shows a tree-view of the NEWS file in Sidekick.)
     5 
     6 
     7 New in Isabelle2016-1 (December 2016)
     8 -------------------------------------
     9 
    10 *** General ***
    11 
    12 * Command 'bundle' provides a local theory target to define a bundle
    13 from the body of specification commands (such as 'declare',
    14 'declaration', 'notation', 'lemmas', 'lemma'). For example:
    15 
    16 bundle foo
    17 begin
    18   declare a [simp]
    19   declare b [intro]
    20 end
    21 
    22 * Command 'unbundle' is like 'include', but works within a local theory
    23 context. Unlike "context includes ... begin", the effect of 'unbundle'
    24 on the target context persists, until different declarations are given.
    25 
    26 * Simplified outer syntax: uniform category "name" includes long
    27 identifiers. Former "xname" / "nameref" / "name reference" has been
    28 discontinued.
    29 
    30 * Embedded content (e.g. the inner syntax of types, terms, props) may be
    31 delimited uniformly via cartouches. This works better than old-fashioned
    32 quotes when sub-languages are nested.
    33 
    34 * Mixfix annotations support general block properties, with syntax
    35 "(\<open>x=a y=b z \<dots>\<close>". Notable property names are "indent", "consistent",
    36 "unbreakable", "markup". The existing notation "(DIGITS" is equivalent
    37 to "(\<open>indent=DIGITS\<close>". The former notation "(00" for unbreakable blocks
    38 is superseded by "(\<open>unbreabable\<close>" --- rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
    39 
    40 * Proof method "blast" is more robust wrt. corner cases of Pure
    41 statements without object-logic judgment.
    42 
    43 * Commands 'prf' and 'full_prf' are somewhat more informative (again):
    44 proof terms are reconstructed and cleaned from administrative thm nodes.
    45 
    46 * Code generator: config option "code_timing" triggers measurements of
    47 different phases of code generation. See src/HOL/ex/Code_Timing.thy for
    48 examples.
    49 
    50 * Code generator: implicits in Scala (stemming from type class
    51 instances) are generated into companion object of corresponding type
    52 class, to resolve some situations where ambiguities may occur.
    53 
    54 * Splitter in simp, auto and friends:
    55   - The syntax "split add" has been discontinued, use plain "split",
    56     INCOMPATIBILITY.
    57   - For situations with many conditional or case expressions, there is
    58     an alternative splitting strategy that can be much faster. It is
    59     selected by writing "split!" instead of "split". It applies safe
    60     introduction and elimination rules after each split rule. As a
    61     result the subgoal may be split into several subgoals.
    62 
    63 * Solve direct: option 'solve_direct_strict_warnings' gives explicit
    64   warnings for lemma statements with trivial proofs.
    65 
    66 
    67 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    68 
    69 * Highlighting of entity def/ref positions wrt. cursor.
    70 
    71 * Action "isabelle.select-entity" (shortcut CS+ENTER) selects all
    72 occurences of the formal entity at the caret position. This facilitates
    73 systematic renaming.
    74 
    75 * PIDE document markup works across multiple Isar commands, e.g. the
    76 results established at the end of a proof are properly identified in the
    77 theorem statement.
    78 
    79 * Cartouche abbreviations work both for " and ` to accomodate typical
    80 situations where old ASCII notation may be updated.
    81 
    82 * Dockable window "Symbols" also provides access to 'abbrevs' from the
    83 outer syntax of the current theory buffer. This provides clickable
    84 syntax templates, including entries with empty abbrevs name (which are
    85 inaccessible via keyboard completion).
    86 
    87 * IDE support for the Isabelle/Pure bootstrap process, with the
    88 following independent stages:
    89 
    90   src/Pure/ROOT0.ML
    91   src/Pure/ROOT.ML
    92   src/Pure/Pure.thy
    93   src/Pure/ML_Bootstrap.thy
    94 
    95 The ML ROOT files act like quasi-theories in the context of theory
    96 ML_Bootstrap: this allows continuous checking of all loaded ML files.
    97 The theory files are presented with a modified header to import Pure
    98 from the running Isabelle instance. Results from changed versions of
    99 each stage are *not* propagated to the next stage, and isolated from the
   100 actual Isabelle/Pure that runs the IDE itself. The sequential
   101 dependencies of the above files are only observed for batch build.
   102 
   103 * Isabelle/ML and Standard ML files are presented in Sidekick with the
   104 tree structure of section headings: this special comment format is
   105 described in "implementation" chapter 0, e.g. (*** section ***).
   106 
   107 * Sidekick parser "isabelle-context" shows nesting of context blocks
   108 according to 'begin' and 'end' structure.
   109 
   110 * Syntactic indentation according to Isabelle outer syntax. Action
   111 "indent-lines" (shortcut C+i) indents the current line according to
   112 command keywords and some command substructure. Action
   113 "isabelle.newline" (shortcut ENTER) indents the old and the new line
   114 according to command keywords only; see also option
   115 "jedit_indent_newline".
   116 
   117 * Semantic indentation for unstructured proof scripts ('apply' etc.) via
   118 number of subgoals. This requires information of ongoing document
   119 processing and may thus lag behind, when the user is editing too
   120 quickly; see also option "jedit_script_indent" and
   121 "jedit_script_indent_limit".
   122 
   123 * Refined folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax: 'next' and 'qed'
   124 are treated as delimiters for fold structure; 'begin' and 'end'
   125 structure of theory specifications is treated as well.
   126 
   127 * Action "isabelle.keymap-merge" asks the user to resolve pending
   128 Isabelle keymap changes that are in conflict with the current jEdit
   129 keymap; non-conflicting changes are always applied implicitly. This
   130 action is automatically invoked on Isabelle/jEdit startup and thus
   131 increases chances that users see new keyboard shortcuts when re-using
   132 old keymaps.
   133 
   134 * Command 'proof' provides information about proof outline with cases,
   135 e.g. for proof methods "cases", "induct", "goal_cases".
   136 
   137 * Completion templates for commands involving "begin ... end" blocks,
   138 e.g. 'context', 'notepad'.
   139 
   140 * Additional abbreviations for syntactic completion may be specified
   141 within the theory header as 'abbrevs'. The theory syntax for 'keywords'
   142 has been simplified accordingly: optional abbrevs need to go into the
   143 new 'abbrevs' section.
   144 
   145 * Global abbreviations via $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/abbrevs and
   146 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs are no longer supported. Minor
   147 INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'abbrevs' within theory header instead.
   148 
   149 * ML and document antiquotations for file-systems paths are more uniform
   150 and diverse:
   151 
   152   @{path NAME}   -- no file-system check
   153   @{file NAME}   -- check for plain file
   154   @{dir NAME}    -- check for directory
   155 
   156 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, former uses of @{file} and @{file_unchecked} may
   157 have to be changed.
   158 
   159 
   160 *** Document preparation ***
   161 
   162 * New symbol \<circle>, e.g. for temporal operator.
   163 
   164 * New document and ML antiquotation @{locale} for locales, similar to
   165 existing antiquotation @{class}.
   166 
   167 * Mixfix annotations support delimiters like \<^control>\<open>cartouche\<close> --
   168 this allows special forms of document output.
   169 
   170 * Raw LaTeX output now works via \<^latex>\<open>...\<close> instead of raw control
   171 symbol \<^raw:...>. INCOMPATIBILITY, notably for LaTeXsugar.thy and its
   172 derivatives.
   173 
   174 * \<^raw:...> symbols are no longer supported.
   175 
   176 * Old 'header' command is no longer supported (legacy since
   177 Isabelle2015).
   178 
   179 
   180 *** Isar ***
   181 
   182 * Many specification elements support structured statements with 'if' /
   183 'for' eigen-context, e.g. 'axiomatization', 'abbreviation',
   184 'definition', 'inductive', 'function'.
   185 
   186 * Toplevel theorem statements support eigen-context notation with 'if' /
   187 'for' (in postfix), which corresponds to 'assumes' / 'fixes' in the
   188 traditional long statement form (in prefix). Local premises are called
   189 "that" or "assms", respectively. Empty premises are *not* bound in the
   190 context: INCOMPATIBILITY.
   191 
   192 * Command 'define' introduces a local (non-polymorphic) definition, with
   193 optional abstraction over local parameters. The syntax resembles
   194 'definition' and 'obtain'. It fits better into the Isar language than
   195 old 'def', which is now a legacy feature.
   196 
   197 * Command 'obtain' supports structured statements with 'if' / 'for'
   198 context.
   199 
   200 * Command '\<proof>' is an alias for 'sorry', with different
   201 typesetting. E.g. to produce proof holes in examples and documentation.
   202 
   203 * The defining position of a literal fact \<open>prop\<close> is maintained more
   204 carefully, and made accessible as hyperlink in the Prover IDE.
   205 
   206 * Commands 'finally' and 'ultimately' used to expose the result as
   207 literal fact: this accidental behaviour has been discontinued. Rare
   208 INCOMPATIBILITY, use more explicit means to refer to facts in Isar.
   209 
   210 * Command 'axiomatization' has become more restrictive to correspond
   211 better to internal axioms as singleton facts with mandatory name. Minor
   212 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   213 
   214 * Proof methods may refer to the main facts via the dynamic fact
   215 "method_facts". This is particularly useful for Eisbach method
   216 definitions.
   217 
   218 * Proof method "use" allows to modify the main facts of a given method
   219 expression, e.g.
   220 
   221   (use facts in simp)
   222   (use facts in \<open>simp add: ...\<close>)
   223 
   224 * The old proof method "default" has been removed (legacy since
   225 Isabelle2016). INCOMPATIBILITY, use "standard" instead.
   226 
   227 
   228 *** Pure ***
   229 
   230 * Pure provides basic versions of proof methods "simp" and "simp_all"
   231 that only know about meta-equality (==). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in
   232 theory imports that merge Pure with e.g. Main of Isabelle/HOL: the order
   233 is relevant to avoid confusion of Pure.simp vs. HOL.simp.
   234 
   235 * The command 'unfolding' and proof method "unfold" include a second
   236 stage where given equations are passed through the attribute "abs_def"
   237 before rewriting. This ensures that definitions are fully expanded,
   238 regardless of the actual parameters that are provided. Rare
   239 INCOMPATIBILITY in some corner cases: use proof method (simp only:)
   240 instead, or declare [[unfold_abs_def = false]] in the proof context.
   241 
   242 * Type-inference improves sorts of newly introduced type variables for
   243 the object-logic, using its base sort (i.e. HOL.type for Isabelle/HOL).
   244 Thus terms like "f x" or "\<And>x. P x" without any further syntactic context
   245 produce x::'a::type in HOL instead of x::'a::{} in Pure. Rare
   246 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide explicit type constraints for Pure
   247 types where this is really intended.
   248 
   249 
   250 *** HOL ***
   251 
   252 * Sligthly more standardized theorem names:
   253     sgn_times ~> sgn_mult
   254     sgn_mult' ~> Real_Vector_Spaces.sgn_mult
   255     divide_zero_left ~> div_0
   256     zero_mod_left ~> mod_0
   257     divide_zero ~> div_by_0
   258     divide_1 ~> div_by_1
   259     nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_left ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_left
   260     div_mult_self1_is_id ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_left
   261     nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_right ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_right
   262     div_mult_self2_is_id ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_right
   263     is_unit_divide_mult_cancel_left ~> is_unit_div_mult_cancel_left
   264     is_unit_divide_mult_cancel_right ~> is_unit_div_mult_cancel_right
   265     mod_div_equality ~> div_mult_mod_eq
   266     mod_div_equality2 ~> mult_div_mod_eq
   267     mod_div_equality3 ~> mod_div_mult_eq
   268     mod_div_equality4 ~> mod_mult_div_eq
   269     minus_div_eq_mod ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod
   270     minus_div_eq_mod2 ~> minus_mult_div_eq_mod
   271     minus_mod_eq_div ~> minus_mod_eq_div_mult
   272     minus_mod_eq_div2 ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div
   273     div_mod_equality' ~> minus_mod_eq_div_mult [symmetric]
   274     mod_div_equality' ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod [symmetric]
   275     zmod_zdiv_equality ~> mult_div_mod_eq [symmetric]
   276     zmod_zdiv_equality' ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod [symmetric]
   277     Divides.mult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
   278     mult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
   279     zmult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
   280     div_1 ~> div_by_Suc_0
   281     mod_1 ~> mod_by_Suc_0
   282 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   283 
   284 * Renamed "setsum" ~> "sum" and "setprod" ~> "prod".
   285 
   286 * Dedicated syntax LENGTH('a) for length of types.
   287 
   288 * New proof method "argo" using the built-in Argo solver based on SMT
   289 technology. The method can be used to prove goals of quantifier-free
   290 propositional logic, goals based on a combination of quantifier-free
   291 propositional logic with equality, and goals based on a combination of
   292 quantifier-free propositional logic with linear real arithmetic
   293 including min/max/abs. See HOL/ex/Argo_Examples.thy for examples.
   294 
   295 * Metis: The problem encoding has changed very slightly. This might
   296 break existing proofs. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   297 
   298 * Sledgehammer:
   299   - The MaSh relevance filter is now faster than before.
   300   - Produce syntactically correct Vampire 4.0 problem files.
   301 
   302 * (Co)datatype package:
   303   - New commands for defining corecursive functions and reasoning about
   304     them in "~~/src/HOL/Library/BNF_Corec.thy": 'corec', 'corecursive',
   305     'friend_of_corec', and 'corecursion_upto'; and 'corec_unique' proof
   306     method. See 'isabelle doc corec'.
   307   - The predicator :: ('a \<Rightarrow> bool) \<Rightarrow> 'a F \<Rightarrow> bool is now a first-class
   308     citizen in bounded natural functors.
   309   - 'primrec' now allows nested calls through the predicator in addition
   310     to the map function.
   311   - 'bnf' automatically discharges reflexive proof obligations.
   312   - 'bnf' outputs a slightly modified proof obligation expressing rel in
   313        terms of map and set
   314        (not giving a specification for rel makes this one reflexive).
   315   - 'bnf' outputs a new proof obligation expressing pred in terms of set
   316        (not giving a specification for pred makes this one reflexive).
   317     INCOMPATIBILITY: manual 'bnf' declarations may need adjustment.
   318   - Renamed lemmas:
   319       rel_prod_apply ~> rel_prod_inject
   320       pred_prod_apply ~> pred_prod_inject
   321     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   322   - The "size" plugin has been made compatible again with locales.
   323   - The theorems about "rel" and "set" may have a slightly different (but
   324     equivalent) form.
   325     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   326 
   327 * The 'coinductive' command produces a proper coinduction rule for
   328 mutual coinductive predicates. This new rule replaces the old rule,
   329 which exposed details of the internal fixpoint construction and was
   330 hard to use. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   331 
   332 * New abbreviations for negated existence (but not bounded existence):
   333 
   334   \<nexists>x. P x \<equiv> \<not> (\<exists>x. P x)
   335   \<nexists>!x. P x \<equiv> \<not> (\<exists>!x. P x)
   336 
   337 * The print mode "HOL" for ASCII syntax of binders "!", "?", "?!", "@"
   338 has been removed for output. It is retained for input only, until it is
   339 eliminated altogether.
   340 
   341 * The unique existence quantifier no longer provides 'binder' syntax,
   342 but uses syntax translations (as for bounded unique existence). Thus
   343 iterated quantification \<exists>!x y. P x y with its slightly confusing
   344 sequential meaning \<exists>!x. \<exists>!y. P x y is no longer possible. Instead,
   345 pattern abstraction admits simultaneous unique existence \<exists>!(x, y). P x y
   346 (analogous to existing notation \<exists>!(x, y)\<in>A. P x y). Potential
   347 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.
   348 
   349 * Conventional syntax "%(). t" for unit abstractions. Slight syntactic
   350 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   351 
   352 * Characters (type char) are modelled as finite algebraic type
   353 corresponding to {0..255}.
   354 
   355   - Logical representation:
   356     * 0 is instantiated to the ASCII zero character.
   357     * All other characters are represented as "Char n"
   358       with n being a raw numeral expression less than 256.
   359     * Expressions of the form "Char n" with n greater than 255
   360       are non-canonical.
   361   - Printing and parsing:
   362     * Printable characters are printed and parsed as "CHR ''\<dots>''"
   363       (as before).
   364     * The ASCII zero character is printed and parsed as "0".
   365     * All other canonical characters are printed as "CHR 0xXX"
   366       with XX being the hexadecimal character code.  "CHR n"
   367       is parsable for every numeral expression n.
   368     * Non-canonical characters have no special syntax and are
   369       printed as their logical representation.
   370   - Explicit conversions from and to the natural numbers are
   371     provided as char_of_nat, nat_of_char (as before).
   372   - The auxiliary nibble type has been discontinued.
   373 
   374 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   375 
   376 * Type class "div" with operation "mod" renamed to type class "modulo"
   377 with operation "modulo", analogously to type class "divide". This
   378 eliminates the need to qualify any of those names in the presence of
   379 infix "mod" syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   380 
   381 * Statements and proofs of Knaster-Tarski fixpoint combinators lfp/gfp
   382 have been clarified. The fixpoint properties are lfp_fixpoint, its
   383 symmetric lfp_unfold (as before), and the duals for gfp. Auxiliary items
   384 for the proof (lfp_lemma2 etc.) are no longer exported, but can be
   385 easily recovered by composition with eq_refl. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   386 
   387 * Constant "surj" is a mere input abbreviation, to avoid hiding an
   388 equation in term output. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   389 
   390 * Command 'code_reflect' accepts empty constructor lists for datatypes,
   391 which renders those abstract effectively.
   392 
   393 * Command 'export_code' checks given constants for abstraction
   394 violations: a small guarantee that given constants specify a safe
   395 interface for the generated code.
   396 
   397 * Code generation for Scala: ambiguous implicts in class diagrams are
   398 spelt out explicitly.
   399 
   400 * Static evaluators (Code_Evaluation.static_* in Isabelle/ML) rely on
   401 explicitly provided auxiliary definitions for required type class
   402 dictionaries rather than half-working magic.  INCOMPATIBILITY, see
   403 the tutorial on code generation for details.
   404 
   405 * Theory Set_Interval.thy: substantial new theorems on indexed sums
   406 and products.
   407 
   408 * Theory List.thy: ranaming of listsum ~> sum_list, listprod ~>
   409 prod_list, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   410 
   411 * Locale bijection establishes convenient default simp rules such as
   412 "inv f (f a) = a" for total bijections.
   413 
   414 * Abstract locales semigroup, abel_semigroup, semilattice,
   415 semilattice_neutr, ordering, ordering_top, semilattice_order,
   416 semilattice_neutr_order, comm_monoid_set, semilattice_set,
   417 semilattice_neutr_set, semilattice_order_set,
   418 semilattice_order_neutr_set monoid_list, comm_monoid_list,
   419 comm_monoid_list_set, comm_monoid_mset, comm_monoid_fun use boldified
   420 syntax uniformly that does not clash with corresponding global syntax.
   421 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   422 
   423 * Former locale lifting_syntax is now a bundle, which is easier to
   424 include in a local context or theorem statement, e.g. "context includes
   425 lifting_syntax begin ... end". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   426 
   427 * Some old / obsolete theorems have been renamed / removed, potential
   428 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   429 
   430   nat_less_cases  --  removed, use linorder_cases instead
   431   inv_image_comp  --  removed, use image_inv_f_f instead
   432   image_surj_f_inv_f  ~>  image_f_inv_f
   433 
   434 * Some theorems about groups and orders have been generalised from
   435   groups to semi-groups that are also monoids:
   436     le_add_same_cancel1
   437     le_add_same_cancel2
   438     less_add_same_cancel1
   439     less_add_same_cancel2
   440     add_le_same_cancel1
   441     add_le_same_cancel2
   442     add_less_same_cancel1
   443     add_less_same_cancel2
   444 
   445 * Some simplifications theorems about rings have been removed, since
   446   superseeded by a more general version:
   447     less_add_cancel_left_greater_zero ~> less_add_same_cancel1
   448     less_add_cancel_right_greater_zero ~> less_add_same_cancel2
   449     less_eq_add_cancel_left_greater_eq_zero ~> le_add_same_cancel1
   450     less_eq_add_cancel_right_greater_eq_zero ~> le_add_same_cancel2
   451     less_eq_add_cancel_left_less_eq_zero ~> add_le_same_cancel1
   452     less_eq_add_cancel_right_less_eq_zero ~> add_le_same_cancel2
   453     less_add_cancel_left_less_zero ~> add_less_same_cancel1
   454     less_add_cancel_right_less_zero ~> add_less_same_cancel2
   455 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   456 
   457 * Renamed split_if -> if_split and split_if_asm -> if_split_asm to
   458 resemble the f.split naming convention, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   459 
   460 * Added class topological_monoid.
   461 
   462 * HOL-Library: theory FinFun bundles "finfun_syntax" and
   463 "no_finfun_syntax" allow to control optional syntax in local contexts;
   464 this supersedes former theory FinFun_Syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY, e.g. use
   465 "unbundle finfun_syntax" to imitate import of
   466 "~~/src/HOL/Library/FinFun_Syntax".
   467 
   468 * HOL-Library: theory Multiset_Permutations (executably) defines the set of
   469 permutations of a given set or multiset, i.e. the set of all lists that
   470 contain every element of the carrier (multi-)set exactly once.
   471 
   472 * HOL-Library: multiset membership is now expressed using set_mset
   473 rather than count.
   474 
   475   - Expressions "count M a > 0" and similar simplify to membership
   476     by default.
   477 
   478   - Converting between "count M a = 0" and non-membership happens using
   479     equations count_eq_zero_iff and not_in_iff.
   480 
   481   - Rules count_inI and in_countE obtain facts of the form
   482     "count M a = n" from membership.
   483 
   484   - Rules count_in_diffI and in_diff_countE obtain facts of the form
   485     "count M a = n + count N a" from membership on difference sets.
   486 
   487 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   488 
   489 * HOL-Library: theory LaTeXsugar uses new-style "dummy_pats" for
   490 displaying equations in functional programming style --- variables
   491 present on the left-hand but not on the righ-hand side are replaced by
   492 underscores.
   493 
   494 * HOL-Library: theory Combinator_PER provides combinator to build
   495 partial equivalence relations from a predicate and an equivalence
   496 relation.
   497 
   498 * HOL-Library: theory Perm provides basic facts about almost everywhere
   499 fix bijections.
   500 
   501 * HOL-Library: theory Normalized_Fraction allows viewing an element of a
   502 field of fractions as a normalized fraction (i.e. a pair of numerator
   503 and denominator such that the two are coprime and the denominator is
   504 normalized wrt. unit factors).
   505 
   506 * Session HOL-NSA has been renamed to HOL-Nonstandard_Analysis.
   507 
   508 * Session HOL-Multivariate_Analysis has been renamed to HOL-Analysis.
   509 
   510 * HOL-Analysis: measure theory has been moved here from HOL-Probability.
   511 When importing HOL-Analysis some theorems need additional name spaces
   512 prefixes due to name clashes. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   513 
   514 * HOL-Analysis: more complex analysis including Cauchy's inequality,
   515 Liouville theorem, open mapping theorem, maximum modulus principle,
   516 Residue theorem, Schwarz Lemma.
   517 
   518 * HOL-Analysis: Theory of polyhedra: faces, extreme points, polytopes,
   519 and the Krein–Milman Minkowski theorem.
   520 
   521 * HOL-Analysis: Numerous results ported from the HOL Light libraries:
   522 homeomorphisms, continuous function extensions, invariance of domain.
   523 
   524 * HOL-Probability: the type of emeasure and nn_integral was changed from
   525 ereal to ennreal, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   526 
   527   emeasure :: 'a measure \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> ennreal
   528   nn_integral :: 'a measure \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> ennreal) \<Rightarrow> ennreal
   529 
   530 * HOL-Probability: Code generation and QuickCheck for Probability Mass
   531 Functions.
   532 
   533 * HOL-Probability: theory Random_Permutations contains some theory about
   534 choosing a permutation of a set uniformly at random and folding over a
   535 list in random order.
   536 
   537 * HOL-Probability: theory SPMF formalises discrete subprobability
   538 distributions.
   539 
   540 * HOL-Number_Theory: algebraic foundation for primes: Generalisation of
   541 predicate "prime" and introduction of predicates "prime_elem",
   542 "irreducible", a "prime_factorization" function, and the
   543 "factorial_ring" typeclass with instance proofs for nat, int, poly. Some
   544 theorems now have different names, most notably "prime_def" is now
   545 "prime_nat_iff". INCOMPATIBILITY.
   546 
   547 * HOL-Library: the names of multiset theorems have been normalised to
   548 distinguish which ordering the theorems are about
   549 
   550     mset_less_eqI ~> mset_subset_eqI
   551     mset_less_insertD ~> mset_subset_insertD
   552     mset_less_eq_count ~> mset_subset_eq_count
   553     mset_less_diff_self ~> mset_subset_diff_self
   554     mset_le_exists_conv ~> mset_subset_eq_exists_conv
   555     mset_le_mono_add_right_cancel ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add_right_cancel
   556     mset_le_mono_add_left_cancel ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add_left_cancel
   557     mset_le_mono_add ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add
   558     mset_le_add_left ~> mset_subset_eq_add_left
   559     mset_le_add_right ~> mset_subset_eq_add_right
   560     mset_le_single ~> mset_subset_eq_single
   561     mset_le_multiset_union_diff_commute ~> mset_subset_eq_multiset_union_diff_commute
   562     diff_le_self ~> diff_subset_eq_self
   563     mset_leD ~> mset_subset_eqD
   564     mset_lessD ~> mset_subsetD
   565     mset_le_insertD ~> mset_subset_eq_insertD
   566     mset_less_of_empty ~> mset_subset_of_empty
   567     mset_less_size ~> mset_subset_size
   568     wf_less_mset_rel ~> wf_subset_mset_rel
   569     count_le_replicate_mset_le ~> count_le_replicate_mset_subset_eq
   570     mset_remdups_le ~> mset_remdups_subset_eq
   571     ms_lesseq_impl ~> subset_eq_mset_impl
   572 
   573 Some functions have been renamed:
   574     ms_lesseq_impl -> subset_eq_mset_impl
   575 
   576 * HOL-Library: multisets are now ordered with the multiset ordering
   577     #\<subseteq># ~> \<le>
   578     #\<subset># ~> <
   579     le_multiset ~> less_eq_multiset
   580     less_multiset ~> le_multiset
   581 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   582 
   583 * HOL-Library: the prefix multiset_order has been discontinued: the
   584 theorems can be directly accessed. As a consequence, the lemmas
   585 "order_multiset" and "linorder_multiset" have been discontinued, and the
   586 interpretations "multiset_linorder" and "multiset_wellorder" have been
   587 replaced by instantiations. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   588 
   589 * HOL-Library: some theorems about the multiset ordering have been
   590 renamed:
   591 
   592     le_multiset_def ~> less_eq_multiset_def
   593     less_multiset_def ~> le_multiset_def
   594     less_eq_imp_le_multiset ~> subset_eq_imp_le_multiset
   595     mult_less_not_refl ~> mset_le_not_refl
   596     mult_less_trans ~> mset_le_trans
   597     mult_less_not_sym ~> mset_le_not_sym
   598     mult_less_asym ~> mset_le_asym
   599     mult_less_irrefl ~> mset_le_irrefl
   600     union_less_mono2{,1,2} ~> union_le_mono2{,1,2}
   601 
   602     le_multiset\<^sub>H\<^sub>O ~> less_eq_multiset\<^sub>H\<^sub>O
   603     le_multiset_total ~> less_eq_multiset_total
   604     less_multiset_right_total ~> subset_eq_imp_le_multiset
   605     le_multiset_empty_left ~> less_eq_multiset_empty_left
   606     le_multiset_empty_right ~> less_eq_multiset_empty_right
   607     less_multiset_empty_right ~> le_multiset_empty_left
   608     less_multiset_empty_left ~> le_multiset_empty_right
   609     union_less_diff_plus ~> union_le_diff_plus
   610     ex_gt_count_imp_less_multiset ~> ex_gt_count_imp_le_multiset
   611     less_multiset_plus_left_nonempty ~> le_multiset_plus_left_nonempty
   612     le_multiset_plus_right_nonempty ~> le_multiset_plus_right_nonempty
   613 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   614 
   615 * HOL-Library: the lemma mset_map has now the attribute [simp].
   616 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   617 
   618 * HOL-Library: some theorems about multisets have been removed.
   619 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the following replacements:
   620 
   621     le_multiset_plus_plus_left_iff ~> add_less_cancel_right
   622     less_multiset_plus_plus_left_iff ~> add_less_cancel_right
   623     le_multiset_plus_plus_right_iff ~> add_less_cancel_left
   624     less_multiset_plus_plus_right_iff ~> add_less_cancel_left
   625     add_eq_self_empty_iff ~> add_cancel_left_right
   626     mset_subset_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
   627     mset_less_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
   628     mset_le_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
   629     empty_inter ~> subset_mset.inf_bot_left
   630     inter_empty ~> subset_mset.inf_bot_right
   631     empty_sup ~> subset_mset.sup_bot_left
   632     sup_empty ~> subset_mset.sup_bot_right
   633     bdd_below_multiset ~> subset_mset.bdd_above_bot
   634     subset_eq_empty ~> subset_mset.le_zero_eq
   635     le_empty ~> subset_mset.le_zero_eq
   636     mset_subset_empty_nonempty ~> subset_mset.zero_less_iff_neq_zero
   637     mset_less_empty_nonempty ~> subset_mset.zero_less_iff_neq_zero
   638 
   639 * HOL-Library: some typeclass constraints about multisets have been
   640 reduced from ordered or linordered to preorder. Multisets have the
   641 additional typeclasses order_bot, no_top,
   642 ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le, ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_add,
   643 linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add, and
   644 ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   645 
   646 * HOL-Library: there are some new simplification rules about multisets,
   647 the multiset ordering, and the subset ordering on multisets.
   648 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   649 
   650 * HOL-Library: the subset ordering on multisets has now the
   651 interpretations ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le and
   652 bounded_lattice_bot. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   653 
   654 * HOL-Library/Multiset: single has been removed in favor of add_mset
   655 that roughly corresponds to Set.insert. Some theorems have removed or
   656 changed:
   657 
   658   single_not_empty ~> add_mset_not_empty or empty_not_add_mset
   659   fold_mset_insert ~> fold_mset_add_mset
   660   image_mset_insert ~> image_mset_add_mset
   661   union_single_eq_diff
   662   multi_self_add_other_not_self
   663   diff_single_eq_union
   664 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   665 
   666 * HOL-Library/Multiset: some theorems have been changed to use add_mset
   667 instead of single:
   668 
   669   mset_add
   670   multi_self_add_other_not_self
   671   diff_single_eq_union
   672   union_single_eq_diff
   673   union_single_eq_member
   674   add_eq_conv_diff
   675   insert_noteq_member
   676   add_eq_conv_ex
   677   multi_member_split
   678   multiset_add_sub_el_shuffle
   679   mset_subset_eq_insertD
   680   mset_subset_insertD
   681   insert_subset_eq_iff
   682   insert_union_subset_iff
   683   multi_psub_of_add_self
   684   inter_add_left1
   685   inter_add_left2
   686   inter_add_right1
   687   inter_add_right2
   688   sup_union_left1
   689   sup_union_left2
   690   sup_union_right1
   691   sup_union_right2
   692   size_eq_Suc_imp_eq_union
   693   multi_nonempty_split
   694   mset_insort
   695   mset_update
   696   mult1I
   697   less_add
   698   mset_zip_take_Cons_drop_twice
   699   rel_mset_Zero
   700   msed_map_invL
   701   msed_map_invR
   702   msed_rel_invL
   703   msed_rel_invR
   704   le_multiset_right_total
   705   multiset_induct
   706   multiset_induct2_size
   707   multiset_induct2
   708 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   709 
   710 * HOL-Library/Multiset. The definitions of some constants have changed
   711 to use add_mset instead of adding a single element:
   712   image_mset
   713   mset
   714   replicate_mset
   715   mult1
   716   pred_mset
   717   rel_mset'
   718   mset_insort
   719 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   720 
   721 * HOL-Library/Multiset. Due to the above changes, the attributes of some
   722 multiset theorems have been changed:
   723   insert_DiffM  [] ~> [simp]
   724   insert_DiffM2 [simp] ~> []
   725   diff_add_mset_swap [simp]
   726   fold_mset_add_mset [simp]
   727   diff_diff_add [simp] (for multisets only)
   728   diff_cancel [simp] ~> []
   729   count_single [simp] ~> []
   730   set_mset_single [simp] ~> []
   731   size_multiset_single [simp] ~> []
   732   size_single [simp] ~> []
   733   image_mset_single [simp] ~> []
   734   mset_subset_eq_mono_add_right_cancel [simp] ~> []
   735   mset_subset_eq_mono_add_left_cancel [simp] ~> []
   736   fold_mset_single [simp] ~> []
   737   subset_eq_empty [simp] ~> []
   738   empty_sup [simp] ~> []
   739   sup_empty [simp] ~> []
   740   inter_empty [simp] ~> []
   741   empty_inter [simp] ~> []
   742 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   743 
   744 * HOL-Library/Multiset. The order of the variables in the second cases
   745 of multiset_induct, multiset_induct2_size, multiset_induct2 has been
   746 changed (e.g. Add A a ~> Add a A). INCOMPATIBILITY.
   747 
   748 * HOL-Library/Multiset. There is now a simplification procedure on
   749 multisets. It mimics the behavior of the procedure on natural numbers.
   750 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   751 
   752 * HOL-Library/Multiset. Renamed sums and products of multisets:
   753   msetsum ~> sum_mset
   754   msetprod ~> prod_mset
   755 
   756 * HOL-Library/Multiset. The notation for intersection and union of
   757 multisets have been changed:
   758   #\<inter> ~> \<inter>#
   759   #\<union> ~> \<union>#
   760 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   761 
   762 * HOL-Library/Multiset. The lemma one_step_implies_mult_aux on multisets
   763 has been removed, use one_step_implies_mult instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   764 
   765 * The following theorems have been renamed:
   766   setsum_left_distrib ~> setsum_distrib_right
   767   setsum_right_distrib ~> setsum_distrib_left
   768 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   769 
   770 * Compound constants INFIMUM and SUPREMUM are mere abbreviations now.
   771 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   772 
   773 * "Gcd (f ` A)" and "Lcm (f ` A)" are printed with optional
   774 comprehension-like syntax analogously to "Inf (f ` A)" and "Sup (f ` A)".
   775 
   776 * Class semiring_Lcd merged into semiring_Gcd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   777 
   778 * The type class ordered_comm_monoid_add is now called
   779 ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_add. A new type class ordered_comm_monoid_add
   780 is introduced as the combination of ordered_ab_semigroup_add +
   781 comm_monoid_add. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   782 
   783 * Introduced the type classes canonically_ordered_comm_monoid_add and
   784 dioid.
   785 
   786 * Introduced the type class ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le. When
   787 instantiating linordered_semiring_strict and ordered_ab_group_add, an
   788 explicit instantiation of ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le might
   789 be required. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   790 
   791 * HOL-Library: theory Complete_Partial_Order2 provides reasoning support
   792 for monotonicity and continuity in chain-complete partial orders and
   793 about admissibility conditions for fixpoint inductions.
   794 
   795 * HOL-Library: theory Polynomial contains also derivation of polynomials
   796 but not gcd/lcm on polynomials over fields. This has been moved to a
   797 separate theory Library/Polynomial_GCD_euclidean.thy, to pave way for a
   798 possible future different type class instantiation for polynomials over
   799 factorial rings. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   800 
   801 * HOL-Library: theory Sublist.thy provides function "prefixes" with the
   802 following renaming
   803 
   804   prefixeq -> prefix
   805   prefix -> strict_prefix
   806   suffixeq -> suffix
   807   suffix -> strict_suffix
   808 
   809 Added theory of longest common prefixes.
   810 
   811 * Dropped various legacy fact bindings, whose replacements are often
   812 of a more general type also:
   813   lcm_left_commute_nat ~> lcm.left_commute
   814   lcm_left_commute_int ~> lcm.left_commute
   815   gcd_left_commute_nat ~> gcd.left_commute
   816   gcd_left_commute_int ~> gcd.left_commute
   817   gcd_greatest_iff_nat ~> gcd_greatest_iff
   818   gcd_greatest_iff_int ~> gcd_greatest_iff
   819   coprime_dvd_mult_nat ~> coprime_dvd_mult
   820   coprime_dvd_mult_int ~> coprime_dvd_mult
   821   zpower_numeral_even ~> power_numeral_even
   822   gcd_mult_cancel_nat ~> gcd_mult_cancel
   823   gcd_mult_cancel_int ~> gcd_mult_cancel
   824   div_gcd_coprime_nat ~> div_gcd_coprime
   825   div_gcd_coprime_int ~> div_gcd_coprime
   826   zpower_numeral_odd ~> power_numeral_odd
   827   zero_less_int_conv ~> of_nat_0_less_iff
   828   gcd_greatest_nat ~> gcd_greatest
   829   gcd_greatest_int ~> gcd_greatest
   830   coprime_mult_nat ~> coprime_mult
   831   coprime_mult_int ~> coprime_mult
   832   lcm_commute_nat ~> lcm.commute
   833   lcm_commute_int ~> lcm.commute
   834   int_less_0_conv ~> of_nat_less_0_iff
   835   gcd_commute_nat ~> gcd.commute
   836   gcd_commute_int ~> gcd.commute
   837   Gcd_insert_nat ~> Gcd_insert
   838   Gcd_insert_int ~> Gcd_insert
   839   of_int_int_eq ~> of_int_of_nat_eq
   840   lcm_least_nat ~> lcm_least
   841   lcm_least_int ~> lcm_least
   842   lcm_assoc_nat ~> lcm.assoc
   843   lcm_assoc_int ~> lcm.assoc
   844   int_le_0_conv ~> of_nat_le_0_iff
   845   int_eq_0_conv ~> of_nat_eq_0_iff
   846   Gcd_empty_nat ~> Gcd_empty
   847   Gcd_empty_int ~> Gcd_empty
   848   gcd_assoc_nat ~> gcd.assoc
   849   gcd_assoc_int ~> gcd.assoc
   850   zero_zle_int ~> of_nat_0_le_iff
   851   lcm_dvd2_nat ~> dvd_lcm2
   852   lcm_dvd2_int ~> dvd_lcm2
   853   lcm_dvd1_nat ~> dvd_lcm1
   854   lcm_dvd1_int ~> dvd_lcm1
   855   gcd_zero_nat ~> gcd_eq_0_iff
   856   gcd_zero_int ~> gcd_eq_0_iff
   857   gcd_dvd2_nat ~> gcd_dvd2
   858   gcd_dvd2_int ~> gcd_dvd2
   859   gcd_dvd1_nat ~> gcd_dvd1
   860   gcd_dvd1_int ~> gcd_dvd1
   861   int_numeral ~> of_nat_numeral
   862   lcm_ac_nat ~> ac_simps
   863   lcm_ac_int ~> ac_simps
   864   gcd_ac_nat ~> ac_simps
   865   gcd_ac_int ~> ac_simps
   866   abs_int_eq ~> abs_of_nat
   867   zless_int ~> of_nat_less_iff
   868   zdiff_int ~> of_nat_diff
   869   zadd_int ~> of_nat_add
   870   int_mult ~> of_nat_mult
   871   int_Suc ~> of_nat_Suc
   872   inj_int ~> inj_of_nat
   873   int_1 ~> of_nat_1
   874   int_0 ~> of_nat_0
   875   Lcm_empty_nat ~> Lcm_empty
   876   Lcm_empty_int ~> Lcm_empty
   877   Lcm_insert_nat ~> Lcm_insert
   878   Lcm_insert_int ~> Lcm_insert
   879   comp_fun_idem_gcd_nat ~> comp_fun_idem_gcd
   880   comp_fun_idem_gcd_int ~> comp_fun_idem_gcd
   881   comp_fun_idem_lcm_nat ~> comp_fun_idem_lcm
   882   comp_fun_idem_lcm_int ~> comp_fun_idem_lcm
   883   Lcm_eq_0 ~> Lcm_eq_0_I
   884   Lcm0_iff ~> Lcm_0_iff
   885   Lcm_dvd_int ~> Lcm_least
   886   divides_mult_nat ~> divides_mult
   887   divides_mult_int ~> divides_mult
   888   lcm_0_nat ~> lcm_0_right
   889   lcm_0_int ~> lcm_0_right
   890   lcm_0_left_nat ~> lcm_0_left
   891   lcm_0_left_int ~> lcm_0_left
   892   dvd_gcd_D1_nat ~> dvd_gcdD1
   893   dvd_gcd_D1_int ~> dvd_gcdD1
   894   dvd_gcd_D2_nat ~> dvd_gcdD2
   895   dvd_gcd_D2_int ~> dvd_gcdD2
   896   coprime_dvd_mult_iff_nat ~> coprime_dvd_mult_iff
   897   coprime_dvd_mult_iff_int ~> coprime_dvd_mult_iff
   898   realpow_minus_mult ~> power_minus_mult
   899   realpow_Suc_le_self ~> power_Suc_le_self
   900   dvd_Gcd, dvd_Gcd_nat, dvd_Gcd_int removed in favour of Gcd_greatest
   901 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   902 
   903 * Renamed HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy to
   904 HOL/Quotient_Examples/Quotient_FSet.thy INCOMPATIBILITY.
   905 
   906 
   907 *** ML ***
   908 
   909 * ML antiquotation @{path} is superseded by @{file}, which ensures that
   910 the argument is a plain file. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   911 
   912 * Integer.gcd and Integer.lcm use efficient operations from the Poly/ML
   913 library (notably for big integers). Subtle change of semantics:
   914 Integer.gcd and Integer.lcm both normalize the sign, results are never
   915 negative. This coincides with the definitions in HOL/GCD.thy.
   916 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   917 
   918 * Structure Rat for rational numbers is now an integral part of
   919 Isabelle/ML, with special notation @int/nat or @int for numerals (an
   920 abbreviation for antiquotation @{Pure.rat argument}) and ML pretty
   921 printing. Standard operations on type Rat.rat are provided via ad-hoc
   922 overloading of + - * / < <= > >= ~ abs. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   923 use + instead of +/ etc. Moreover, exception Rat.DIVZERO has been
   924 superseded by General.Div.
   925 
   926 * The ML function "ML" provides easy access to run-time compilation.
   927 This is particularly useful for conditional compilation, without
   928 requiring separate files.
   929 
   930 * Low-level ML system structures (like PolyML and RunCall) are no longer
   931 exposed to Isabelle/ML user-space. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   932 
   933 * Antiquotation @{make_string} is available during Pure bootstrap --
   934 with approximative output quality.
   935 
   936 * Option ML_exception_debugger controls detailed exception trace via the
   937 Poly/ML debugger. Relevant ML modules need to be compiled beforehand
   938 with ML_file_debug, or with ML_file and option ML_debugger enabled. Note
   939 debugger information requires consirable time and space: main
   940 Isabelle/HOL with full debugger support may need ML_system_64.
   941 
   942 * Local_Theory.restore has been renamed to Local_Theory.reset to
   943 emphasize its disruptive impact on the cumulative context, notably the
   944 scope of 'private' or 'qualified' names. Note that Local_Theory.reset is
   945 only appropriate when targets are managed, e.g. starting from a global
   946 theory and returning to it. Regular definitional packages should use
   947 balanced blocks of Local_Theory.open_target versus
   948 Local_Theory.close_target instead. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   949 
   950 * Structure TimeLimit (originally from the SML/NJ library) has been
   951 replaced by structure Timeout, with slightly different signature.
   952 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   953 
   954 * Discontinued cd and pwd operations, which are not well-defined in a
   955 multi-threaded environment. Note that files are usually located
   956 relatively to the master directory of a theory (see also
   957 File.full_path). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   958 
   959 * Binding.empty_atts supersedes Thm.empty_binding and
   960 Attrib.empty_binding. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   961 
   962 
   963 *** System ***
   964 
   965 * Isabelle/Scala: the SSH module supports ssh and sftp connections, for
   966 remote command-execution and file-system access. This resembles
   967 operations from module File and Isabelle_System to some extent. Note
   968 that Path specifications need to be resolved remotely via
   969 ssh.remote_path instead of File.standard_path: the implicit process
   970 environment is different, Isabelle settings are not available remotely.
   971 
   972 * Isabelle/Scala: the Mercurial module supports repositories via the
   973 regular hg command-line interface. The repositroy clone and working
   974 directory may reside on a local or remote file-system (via ssh
   975 connection).
   976 
   977 * Many Isabelle tools that require a Java runtime system refer to the
   978 settings ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS32 / ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS64,
   979 depending on the underlying platform. The settings for "isabelle build"
   980 ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS32 / ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS64 have been
   981 discontinued. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   982 
   983 * The Isabelle system environment always ensures that the main
   984 executables are found within the shell search $PATH: "isabelle" and
   985 "isabelle_scala_script".
   986 
   987 * Isabelle tools may consist of .scala files: the Scala compiler is
   988 invoked on the spot. The source needs to define some object that extends
   989 Isabelle_Tool.Body.
   990 
   991 * The Isabelle ML process is now managed directly by Isabelle/Scala, and
   992 shell scripts merely provide optional command-line access. In
   993 particular:
   994 
   995   . Scala module ML_Process to connect to the raw ML process,
   996     with interaction via stdin/stdout/stderr or in batch mode;
   997   . command-line tool "isabelle console" as interactive wrapper;
   998   . command-line tool "isabelle process" as batch mode wrapper.
   999 
  1000 * The executable "isabelle_process" has been discontinued. Tools and
  1001 prover front-ends should use ML_Process or Isabelle_Process in
  1002 Isabelle/Scala. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1003 
  1004 * New command-line tool "isabelle process" supports ML evaluation of
  1005 literal expressions (option -e) or files (option -f) in the context of a
  1006 given heap image. Errors lead to premature exit of the ML process with
  1007 return code 1.
  1008 
  1009 * The system option "threads" (for the size of the Isabelle/ML thread
  1010 farm) is also passed to the underlying ML runtime system as --gcthreads,
  1011 unless there is already a default provided via ML_OPTIONS settings.
  1012 
  1013 * Command-line tool "isabelle console" provides option -r to help to
  1014 bootstrapping Isabelle/Pure interactively.
  1015 
  1016 * Command-line tool "isabelle yxml" has been discontinued.
  1017 INCOMPATIBILITY, use operations from the modules "XML" and "YXML" in
  1018 Isabelle/ML or Isabelle/Scala.
  1019 
  1020 * File.bash_string, File.bash_path etc. represent Isabelle/ML and
  1021 Isabelle/Scala strings authentically within GNU bash. This is useful to
  1022 produce robust shell scripts under program control, without worrying
  1023 about spaces or special characters. Note that user output works via
  1024 Path.print (ML) or Path.toString (Scala). INCOMPATIBILITY, the old (and
  1025 less versatile) operations File.shell_quote, File.shell_path etc. have
  1026 been discontinued.
  1027 
  1028 * SML/NJ and old versions of Poly/ML are no longer supported.
  1029 
  1030 * Poly/ML heaps now follow the hierarchy of sessions, and thus require
  1031 much less disk space.
  1032 
  1033 * System option "checkpoint" helps to fine-tune the global heap space
  1034 management of isabelle build. This is relevant for big sessions that may
  1035 exhaust the small 32-bit address space of the ML process (which is used
  1036 by default).
  1037 
  1038 * System option "ML_process_policy" specifies an optional command prefix
  1039 for the underlying ML process, e.g. to control CPU affinity on
  1040 multiprocessor systems. The "isabelle jedit" tool allows to override the
  1041 implicit default via option -p.
  1042 
  1043 * The isabelle_java executable allows to run a Java process within the
  1044 name space of Java and Scala components that are bundled with Isabelle,
  1045 but without the Isabelle settings environment.
  1046 
  1047 * The command-line tool "isabelle build" supports option -N for cyclic
  1048 shuffling of NUMA CPU nodes. This may help performance tuning on Linux
  1049 servers with separate CPU/memory modules.
  1050 
  1051 
  1052 
  1053 New in Isabelle2016 (February 2016)
  1054 -----------------------------------
  1055 
  1056 *** General ***
  1057 
  1058 * Eisbach is now based on Pure instead of HOL. Objects-logics may import
  1059 either the theory ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/Eisbach (for HOL etc.) or
  1060 ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/Eisbach_Old_Appl_Syntax (for FOL, ZF etc.). Note that
  1061 the HOL-Eisbach session located in ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/ contains further
  1062 examples that do require HOL.
  1063 
  1064 * Better resource usage on all platforms (Linux, Windows, Mac OS X) for
  1065 both Isabelle/ML and Isabelle/Scala.  Slightly reduced heap space usage.
  1066 
  1067 * Former "xsymbols" syntax with Isabelle symbols is used by default,
  1068 without any special print mode. Important ASCII replacement syntax
  1069 remains available under print mode "ASCII", but less important syntax
  1070 has been removed (see below).
  1071 
  1072 * Support for more arrow symbols, with rendering in LaTeX and Isabelle
  1073 fonts: \<Lleftarrow> \<Rrightarrow> \<longlongleftarrow> \<longlongrightarrow> \<longlonglongleftarrow> \<longlonglongrightarrow>.
  1074 
  1075 * Special notation \<struct> for the first implicit 'structure' in the
  1076 context has been discontinued. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit
  1077 structure name instead, notably in indexed notation with block-subscript
  1078 (e.g. \<odot>\<^bsub>A\<^esub>).
  1079 
  1080 * The glyph for \<diamond> in the IsabelleText font now corresponds better to its
  1081 counterpart \<box> as quantifier-like symbol. A small diamond is available as
  1082 \<diamondop>; the old symbol \<struct> loses this rendering and any special
  1083 meaning.
  1084 
  1085 * Syntax for formal comments "-- text" now also supports the symbolic
  1086 form "\<comment> text". Command-line tool "isabelle update_cartouches -c" helps
  1087 to update old sources.
  1088 
  1089 * Toplevel theorem statements have been simplified as follows:
  1090 
  1091   theorems             ~>  lemmas
  1092   schematic_lemma      ~>  schematic_goal
  1093   schematic_theorem    ~>  schematic_goal
  1094   schematic_corollary  ~>  schematic_goal
  1095 
  1096 Command-line tool "isabelle update_theorems" updates theory sources
  1097 accordingly.
  1098 
  1099 * Toplevel theorem statement 'proposition' is another alias for
  1100 'theorem'.
  1101 
  1102 * The old 'defs' command has been removed (legacy since Isabelle2014).
  1103 INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular 'definition' instead. Overloaded and/or
  1104 deferred definitions require a surrounding 'overloading' block.
  1105 
  1106 
  1107 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1108 
  1109 * IDE support for the source-level debugger of Poly/ML, to work with
  1110 Isabelle/ML and official Standard ML. Option "ML_debugger" and commands
  1111 'ML_file_debug', 'ML_file_no_debug', 'SML_file_debug',
  1112 'SML_file_no_debug' control compilation of sources with or without
  1113 debugging information. The Debugger panel allows to set breakpoints (via
  1114 context menu), step through stopped threads, evaluate local ML
  1115 expressions etc. At least one Debugger view needs to be active to have
  1116 any effect on the running ML program.
  1117 
  1118 * The State panel manages explicit proof state output, with dynamic
  1119 auto-update according to cursor movement. Alternatively, the jEdit
  1120 action "isabelle.update-state" (shortcut S+ENTER) triggers manual
  1121 update.
  1122 
  1123 * The Output panel no longer shows proof state output by default, to
  1124 avoid GUI overcrowding. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the State panel instead or
  1125 enable option "editor_output_state".
  1126 
  1127 * The text overview column (status of errors, warnings etc.) is updated
  1128 asynchronously, leading to much better editor reactivity. Moreover, the
  1129 full document node content is taken into account. The width of the
  1130 column is scaled according to the main text area font, for improved
  1131 visibility.
  1132 
  1133 * The main text area no longer changes its color hue in outdated
  1134 situations. The text overview column takes over the role to indicate
  1135 unfinished edits in the PIDE pipeline. This avoids flashing text display
  1136 due to ad-hoc updates by auxiliary GUI components, such as the State
  1137 panel.
  1138 
  1139 * Slightly improved scheduling for urgent print tasks (e.g. command
  1140 state output, interactive queries) wrt. long-running background tasks.
  1141 
  1142 * Completion of symbols via prefix of \<name> or \<^name> or \name is
  1143 always possible, independently of the language context. It is never
  1144 implicit: a popup will show up unconditionally.
  1145 
  1146 * Additional abbreviations for syntactic completion may be specified in
  1147 $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/abbrevs and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs, with
  1148 support for simple templates using ASCII 007 (bell) as placeholder.
  1149 
  1150 * Symbols \<oplus>, \<Oplus>, \<otimes>, \<Otimes>, \<odot>, \<Odot>, \<ominus>, \<oslash> no longer provide abbreviations for
  1151 completion like "+o", "*o", ".o" etc. -- due to conflicts with other
  1152 ASCII syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain backslash-completion or define
  1153 suitable abbreviations in $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs.
  1154 
  1155 * Action "isabelle-emph" (with keyboard shortcut C+e LEFT) controls
  1156 emphasized text style; the effect is visible in document output, not in
  1157 the editor.
  1158 
  1159 * Action "isabelle-reset" now uses keyboard shortcut C+e BACK_SPACE,
  1160 instead of former C+e LEFT.
  1161 
  1162 * The command-line tool "isabelle jedit" and the isabelle.Main
  1163 application wrapper treat the default $USER_HOME/Scratch.thy more
  1164 uniformly, and allow the dummy file argument ":" to open an empty buffer
  1165 instead.
  1166 
  1167 * New command-line tool "isabelle jedit_client" allows to connect to an
  1168 already running Isabelle/jEdit process. This achieves the effect of
  1169 single-instance applications seen on common GUI desktops.
  1170 
  1171 * The default look-and-feel for Linux is the traditional "Metal", which
  1172 works better with GUI scaling for very high-resolution displays (e.g.
  1173 4K). Moreover, it is generally more robust than "Nimbus".
  1174 
  1175 * Update to jedit-5.3.0, with improved GUI scaling and support of
  1176 high-resolution displays (e.g. 4K).
  1177 
  1178 * The main Isabelle executable is managed as single-instance Desktop
  1179 application uniformly on all platforms: Linux, Windows, Mac OS X.
  1180 
  1181 
  1182 *** Document preparation ***
  1183 
  1184 * Commands 'paragraph' and 'subparagraph' provide additional section
  1185 headings. Thus there are 6 levels of standard headings, as in HTML.
  1186 
  1187 * Command 'text_raw' has been clarified: input text is processed as in
  1188 'text' (with antiquotations and control symbols). The key difference is
  1189 the lack of the surrounding isabelle markup environment in output.
  1190 
  1191 * Text is structured in paragraphs and nested lists, using notation that
  1192 is similar to Markdown. The control symbols for list items are as
  1193 follows:
  1194 
  1195   \<^item>  itemize
  1196   \<^enum>  enumerate
  1197   \<^descr>  description
  1198 
  1199 * There is a new short form for antiquotations with a single argument
  1200 that is a cartouche: \<^name>\<open>...\<close> is equivalent to @{name \<open>...\<close>} and
  1201 \<open>...\<close> without control symbol is equivalent to @{cartouche \<open>...\<close>}.
  1202 \<^name> without following cartouche is equivalent to @{name}. The
  1203 standard Isabelle fonts provide glyphs to render important control
  1204 symbols, e.g. "\<^verbatim>", "\<^emph>", "\<^bold>".
  1205 
  1206 * Antiquotations @{noindent}, @{smallskip}, @{medskip}, @{bigskip} with
  1207 corresponding control symbols \<^noindent>, \<^smallskip>, \<^medskip>, \<^bigskip> specify spacing formally, using
  1208 standard LaTeX macros of the same names.
  1209 
  1210 * Antiquotation @{cartouche} in Isabelle/Pure is the same as @{text}.
  1211 Consequently, \<open>...\<close> without any decoration prints literal quasi-formal
  1212 text. Command-line tool "isabelle update_cartouches -t" helps to update
  1213 old sources, by approximative patching of the content of string and
  1214 cartouche tokens seen in theory sources.
  1215 
  1216 * The @{text} antiquotation now ignores the antiquotation option
  1217 "source". The given text content is output unconditionally, without any
  1218 surrounding quotes etc. Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, put quotes into the
  1219 argument where they are really intended, e.g. @{text \<open>"foo"\<close>}. Initial
  1220 or terminal spaces are ignored.
  1221 
  1222 * Antiquotations @{emph} and @{bold} output LaTeX source recursively,
  1223 adding appropriate text style markup. These may be used in the short
  1224 form \<^emph>\<open>...\<close> and \<^bold>\<open>...\<close>.
  1225 
  1226 * Document antiquotation @{footnote} outputs LaTeX source recursively,
  1227 marked as \footnote{}. This may be used in the short form \<^footnote>\<open>...\<close>.
  1228 
  1229 * Antiquotation @{verbatim [display]} supports option "indent".
  1230 
  1231 * Antiquotation @{theory_text} prints uninterpreted theory source text
  1232 (Isar outer syntax with command keywords etc.). This may be used in the
  1233 short form \<^theory_text>\<open>...\<close>. @{theory_text [display]} supports option "indent".
  1234 
  1235 * Antiquotation @{doc ENTRY} provides a reference to the given
  1236 documentation, with a hyperlink in the Prover IDE.
  1237 
  1238 * Antiquotations @{command}, @{method}, @{attribute} print checked
  1239 entities of the Isar language.
  1240 
  1241 * HTML presentation uses the standard IsabelleText font and Unicode
  1242 rendering of Isabelle symbols like Isabelle/Scala/jEdit.  The former
  1243 print mode "HTML" loses its special meaning.
  1244 
  1245 
  1246 *** Isar ***
  1247 
  1248 * Local goals ('have', 'show', 'hence', 'thus') allow structured rule
  1249 statements like fixes/assumes/shows in theorem specifications, but the
  1250 notation is postfix with keywords 'if' (or 'when') and 'for'. For
  1251 example:
  1252 
  1253   have result: "C x y"
  1254     if "A x" and "B y"
  1255     for x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  1256     <proof>
  1257 
  1258 The local assumptions are bound to the name "that". The result is
  1259 exported from context of the statement as usual. The above roughly
  1260 corresponds to a raw proof block like this:
  1261 
  1262   {
  1263     fix x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  1264     assume that: "A x" "B y"
  1265     have "C x y" <proof>
  1266   }
  1267   note result = this
  1268 
  1269 The keyword 'when' may be used instead of 'if', to indicate 'presume'
  1270 instead of 'assume' above.
  1271 
  1272 * Assumptions ('assume', 'presume') allow structured rule statements
  1273 using 'if' and 'for', similar to 'have' etc. above. For example:
  1274 
  1275   assume result: "C x y"
  1276     if "A x" and "B y"
  1277     for x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  1278 
  1279 This assumes "\<And>x y::'a. A x \<Longrightarrow> B y \<Longrightarrow> C x y" and produces a general
  1280 result as usual: "A ?x \<Longrightarrow> B ?y \<Longrightarrow> C ?x ?y".
  1281 
  1282 Vacuous quantification in assumptions is omitted, i.e. a for-context
  1283 only effects propositions according to actual use of variables. For
  1284 example:
  1285 
  1286   assume "A x" and "B y" for x and y
  1287 
  1288 is equivalent to:
  1289 
  1290   assume "\<And>x. A x" and "\<And>y. B y"
  1291 
  1292 * The meaning of 'show' with Pure rule statements has changed: premises
  1293 are treated in the sense of 'assume', instead of 'presume'. This means,
  1294 a goal like "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x" can be solved completely as
  1295 follows:
  1296 
  1297   show "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  1298 
  1299 or:
  1300 
  1301   show "C x" if "A x" "B x" for x
  1302 
  1303 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, the old behaviour may be recovered as follows:
  1304 
  1305   show "C x" when "A x" "B x" for x
  1306 
  1307 * New command 'consider' states rules for generalized elimination and
  1308 case splitting. This is like a toplevel statement "theorem obtains" used
  1309 within a proof body; or like a multi-branch 'obtain' without activation
  1310 of the local context elements yet.
  1311 
  1312 * Proof method "cases" allows to specify the rule as first entry of
  1313 chained facts.  This is particularly useful with 'consider':
  1314 
  1315   consider (a) A | (b) B | (c) C <proof>
  1316   then have something
  1317   proof cases
  1318     case a
  1319     then show ?thesis <proof>
  1320   next
  1321     case b
  1322     then show ?thesis <proof>
  1323   next
  1324     case c
  1325     then show ?thesis <proof>
  1326   qed
  1327 
  1328 * Command 'case' allows fact name and attribute specification like this:
  1329 
  1330   case a: (c xs)
  1331   case a [attributes]: (c xs)
  1332 
  1333 Facts that are introduced by invoking the case context are uniformly
  1334 qualified by "a"; the same name is used for the cumulative fact. The old
  1335 form "case (c xs) [attributes]" is no longer supported. Rare
  1336 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt uses of case facts in exotic situations,
  1337 and always put attributes in front.
  1338 
  1339 * The standard proof method of commands 'proof' and '..' is now called
  1340 "standard" to make semantically clear what it is; the old name "default"
  1341 is still available as legacy for some time. Documentation now explains
  1342 '..' more accurately as "by standard" instead of "by rule".
  1343 
  1344 * Nesting of Isar goal structure has been clarified: the context after
  1345 the initial backwards refinement is retained for the whole proof, within
  1346 all its context sections (as indicated via 'next'). This is e.g.
  1347 relevant for 'using', 'including', 'supply':
  1348 
  1349   have "A \<and> A" if a: A for A
  1350     supply [simp] = a
  1351   proof
  1352     show A by simp
  1353   next
  1354     show A by simp
  1355   qed
  1356 
  1357 * Command 'obtain' binds term abbreviations (via 'is' patterns) in the
  1358 proof body as well, abstracted over relevant parameters.
  1359 
  1360 * Improved type-inference for theorem statement 'obtains': separate
  1361 parameter scope for of each clause.
  1362 
  1363 * Term abbreviations via 'is' patterns also work for schematic
  1364 statements: result is abstracted over unknowns.
  1365 
  1366 * Command 'subgoal' allows to impose some structure on backward
  1367 refinements, to avoid proof scripts degenerating into long of 'apply'
  1368 sequences. Further explanations and examples are given in the isar-ref
  1369 manual.
  1370 
  1371 * Command 'supply' supports fact definitions during goal refinement
  1372 ('apply' scripts).
  1373 
  1374 * Proof method "goal_cases" turns the current subgoals into cases within
  1375 the context; the conclusion is bound to variable ?case in each case. For
  1376 example:
  1377 
  1378 lemma "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  1379   and "\<And>y z. U y \<Longrightarrow> V z \<Longrightarrow> W y z"
  1380 proof goal_cases
  1381   case (1 x)
  1382   then show ?case using \<open>A x\<close> \<open>B x\<close> sorry
  1383 next
  1384   case (2 y z)
  1385   then show ?case using \<open>U y\<close> \<open>V z\<close> sorry
  1386 qed
  1387 
  1388 lemma "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  1389   and "\<And>y z. U y \<Longrightarrow> V z \<Longrightarrow> W y z"
  1390 proof goal_cases
  1391   case prems: 1
  1392   then show ?case using prems sorry
  1393 next
  1394   case prems: 2
  1395   then show ?case using prems sorry
  1396 qed
  1397 
  1398 * The undocumented feature of implicit cases goal1, goal2, goal3, etc.
  1399 is marked as legacy, and will be removed eventually. The proof method
  1400 "goals" achieves a similar effect within regular Isar; often it can be
  1401 done more adequately by other means (e.g. 'consider').
  1402 
  1403 * The vacuous fact "TERM x" may be established "by fact" or as `TERM x`
  1404 as well, not just "by this" or "." as before.
  1405 
  1406 * Method "sleep" succeeds after a real-time delay (in seconds). This is
  1407 occasionally useful for demonstration and testing purposes.
  1408 
  1409 
  1410 *** Pure ***
  1411 
  1412 * Qualifiers in locale expressions default to mandatory ('!') regardless
  1413 of the command. Previously, for 'locale' and 'sublocale' the default was
  1414 optional ('?'). The old synatx '!' has been discontinued.
  1415 INCOMPATIBILITY, remove '!' and add '?' as required.
  1416 
  1417 * Keyword 'rewrites' identifies rewrite morphisms in interpretation
  1418 commands. Previously, the keyword was 'where'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1419 
  1420 * More gentle suppression of syntax along locale morphisms while
  1421 printing terms. Previously 'abbreviation' and 'notation' declarations
  1422 would be suppressed for morphisms except term identity. Now
  1423 'abbreviation' is also kept for morphims that only change the involved
  1424 parameters, and only 'notation' is suppressed. This can be of great help
  1425 when working with complex locale hierarchies, because proof states are
  1426 displayed much more succinctly. It also means that only notation needs
  1427 to be redeclared if desired, as illustrated by this example:
  1428 
  1429   locale struct = fixes composition :: "'a => 'a => 'a" (infixl "\<cdot>" 65)
  1430   begin
  1431     definition derived (infixl "\<odot>" 65) where ...
  1432   end
  1433 
  1434   locale morphism =
  1435     left: struct composition + right: struct composition'
  1436     for composition (infix "\<cdot>" 65) and composition' (infix "\<cdot>''" 65)
  1437   begin
  1438     notation right.derived ("\<odot>''")
  1439   end
  1440 
  1441 * Command 'global_interpretation' issues interpretations into global
  1442 theories, with optional rewrite definitions following keyword 'defines'.
  1443 
  1444 * Command 'sublocale' accepts optional rewrite definitions after keyword
  1445 'defines'.
  1446 
  1447 * Command 'permanent_interpretation' has been discontinued. Use
  1448 'global_interpretation' or 'sublocale' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1449 
  1450 * Command 'print_definitions' prints dependencies of definitional
  1451 specifications. This functionality used to be part of 'print_theory'.
  1452 
  1453 * Configuration option rule_insts_schematic has been discontinued
  1454 (intermediate legacy feature in Isabelle2015). INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1455 
  1456 * Abbreviations in type classes now carry proper sort constraint. Rare
  1457 INCOMPATIBILITY in situations where the previous misbehaviour has been
  1458 exploited.
  1459 
  1460 * Refinement of user-space type system in type classes: pseudo-local
  1461 operations behave more similar to abbreviations. Potential
  1462 INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
  1463 
  1464 
  1465 *** HOL ***
  1466 
  1467 * The 'typedef' command has been upgraded from a partially checked
  1468 "axiomatization", to a full definitional specification that takes the
  1469 global collection of overloaded constant / type definitions into
  1470 account. Type definitions with open dependencies on overloaded
  1471 definitions need to be specified as "typedef (overloaded)". This
  1472 provides extra robustness in theory construction. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1473 
  1474 * Qualification of various formal entities in the libraries is done more
  1475 uniformly via "context begin qualified definition ... end" instead of
  1476 old-style "hide_const (open) ...". Consequently, both the defined
  1477 constant and its defining fact become qualified, e.g. Option.is_none and
  1478 Option.is_none_def. Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY in applications.
  1479 
  1480 * Some old and rarely used ASCII replacement syntax has been removed.
  1481 INCOMPATIBILITY, standard syntax with symbols should be used instead.
  1482 The subsequent commands help to reproduce the old forms, e.g. to
  1483 simplify porting old theories:
  1484 
  1485   notation iff  (infixr "<->" 25)
  1486 
  1487   notation Times  (infixr "<*>" 80)
  1488 
  1489   type_notation Map.map  (infixr "~=>" 0)
  1490   notation Map.map_comp  (infixl "o'_m" 55)
  1491 
  1492   type_notation FinFun.finfun ("(_ =>f /_)" [22, 21] 21)
  1493 
  1494   notation FuncSet.funcset  (infixr "->" 60)
  1495   notation FuncSet.extensional_funcset  (infixr "->\<^sub>E" 60)
  1496 
  1497   notation Omega_Words_Fun.conc (infixr "conc" 65)
  1498 
  1499   notation Preorder.equiv ("op ~~")
  1500     and Preorder.equiv ("(_/ ~~ _)" [51, 51] 50)
  1501 
  1502   notation (in topological_space) tendsto (infixr "--->" 55)
  1503   notation (in topological_space) LIMSEQ ("((_)/ ----> (_))" [60, 60] 60)
  1504   notation LIM ("((_)/ -- (_)/ --> (_))" [60, 0, 60] 60)
  1505 
  1506   notation NSA.approx (infixl "@=" 50)
  1507   notation NSLIMSEQ ("((_)/ ----NS> (_))" [60, 60] 60)
  1508   notation NSLIM ("((_)/ -- (_)/ --NS> (_))" [60, 0, 60] 60)
  1509 
  1510 * The alternative notation "\<Colon>" for type and sort constraints has been
  1511 removed: in LaTeX document output it looks the same as "::".
  1512 INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain "::" instead.
  1513 
  1514 * Commands 'inductive' and 'inductive_set' work better when names for
  1515 intro rules are omitted: the "cases" and "induct" rules no longer
  1516 declare empty case_names, but no case_names at all. This allows to use
  1517 numbered cases in proofs, without requiring method "goal_cases".
  1518 
  1519 * Inductive definitions ('inductive', 'coinductive', etc.) expose
  1520 low-level facts of the internal construction only if the option
  1521 "inductive_internals" is enabled. This refers to the internal predicate
  1522 definition and its monotonicity result. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1523 
  1524 * Recursive function definitions ('fun', 'function', 'partial_function')
  1525 expose low-level facts of the internal construction only if the option
  1526 "function_internals" is enabled. Its internal inductive definition is
  1527 also subject to "inductive_internals". Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1528 
  1529 * BNF datatypes ('datatype', 'codatatype', etc.) expose low-level facts
  1530 of the internal construction only if the option "bnf_internals" is
  1531 enabled. This supersedes the former option "bnf_note_all". Rare
  1532 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1533 
  1534 * Combinator to represent case distinction on products is named
  1535 "case_prod", uniformly, discontinuing any input aliasses. Very popular
  1536 theorem aliasses have been retained.
  1537 
  1538 Consolidated facts:
  1539   PairE ~> prod.exhaust
  1540   Pair_eq ~> prod.inject
  1541   pair_collapse ~> prod.collapse
  1542   Pair_fst_snd_eq ~> prod_eq_iff
  1543   split_twice ~> prod.case_distrib
  1544   split_weak_cong ~> prod.case_cong_weak
  1545   split_split ~> prod.split
  1546   split_split_asm ~> prod.split_asm
  1547   splitI ~> case_prodI
  1548   splitD ~> case_prodD
  1549   splitI2 ~> case_prodI2
  1550   splitI2' ~> case_prodI2'
  1551   splitE ~> case_prodE
  1552   splitE' ~> case_prodE'
  1553   split_pair ~> case_prod_Pair
  1554   split_eta ~> case_prod_eta
  1555   split_comp ~> case_prod_comp
  1556   mem_splitI ~> mem_case_prodI
  1557   mem_splitI2 ~> mem_case_prodI2
  1558   mem_splitE ~> mem_case_prodE
  1559   The_split ~> The_case_prod
  1560   cond_split_eta ~> cond_case_prod_eta
  1561   Collect_split_in_rel_leE ~> Collect_case_prod_in_rel_leE
  1562   Collect_split_in_rel_leI ~> Collect_case_prod_in_rel_leI
  1563   in_rel_Collect_split_eq ~> in_rel_Collect_case_prod_eq
  1564   Collect_split_Grp_eqD ~> Collect_case_prod_Grp_eqD
  1565   Collect_split_Grp_inD ~> Collect_case_prod_Grp_in
  1566   Domain_Collect_split ~> Domain_Collect_case_prod
  1567   Image_Collect_split ~> Image_Collect_case_prod
  1568   Range_Collect_split ~> Range_Collect_case_prod
  1569   Eps_split ~> Eps_case_prod
  1570   Eps_split_eq ~> Eps_case_prod_eq
  1571   split_rsp ~> case_prod_rsp
  1572   curry_split ~> curry_case_prod
  1573   split_curry ~> case_prod_curry
  1574 
  1575 Changes in structure HOLogic:
  1576   split_const ~> case_prod_const
  1577   mk_split ~> mk_case_prod
  1578   mk_psplits ~> mk_ptupleabs
  1579   strip_psplits ~> strip_ptupleabs
  1580 
  1581 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1582 
  1583 * The coercions to type 'real' have been reorganised. The function
  1584 'real' is no longer overloaded, but has type 'nat => real' and
  1585 abbreviates of_nat for that type. Also 'real_of_int :: int => real'
  1586 abbreviates of_int for that type. Other overloaded instances of 'real'
  1587 have been replaced by 'real_of_ereal' and 'real_of_float'.
  1588 
  1589 Consolidated facts (among others):
  1590   real_of_nat_le_iff -> of_nat_le_iff
  1591   real_of_nat_numeral of_nat_numeral
  1592   real_of_int_zero of_int_0
  1593   real_of_nat_zero of_nat_0
  1594   real_of_one of_int_1
  1595   real_of_int_add of_int_add
  1596   real_of_nat_add of_nat_add
  1597   real_of_int_diff of_int_diff
  1598   real_of_nat_diff of_nat_diff
  1599   floor_subtract floor_diff_of_int
  1600   real_of_int_inject of_int_eq_iff
  1601   real_of_int_gt_zero_cancel_iff of_int_0_less_iff
  1602   real_of_int_ge_zero_cancel_iff of_int_0_le_iff
  1603   real_of_nat_ge_zero of_nat_0_le_iff
  1604   real_of_int_ceiling_ge le_of_int_ceiling
  1605   ceiling_less_eq ceiling_less_iff
  1606   ceiling_le_eq ceiling_le_iff
  1607   less_floor_eq less_floor_iff
  1608   floor_less_eq floor_less_iff
  1609   floor_divide_eq_div floor_divide_of_int_eq
  1610   real_of_int_zero_cancel of_nat_eq_0_iff
  1611   ceiling_real_of_int ceiling_of_int
  1612 
  1613 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1614 
  1615 * Theory Map: lemma map_of_is_SomeD was a clone of map_of_SomeD and has
  1616 been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1617 
  1618 * Quickcheck setup for finite sets.
  1619 
  1620 * Discontinued simp_legacy_precond. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1621 
  1622 * Sledgehammer:
  1623   - The MaSh relevance filter has been sped up.
  1624   - Proof reconstruction has been improved, to minimize the incidence of
  1625     cases where Sledgehammer gives a proof that does not work.
  1626   - Auto Sledgehammer now minimizes and preplays the results.
  1627   - Handle Vampire 4.0 proof output without raising exception.
  1628   - Eliminated "MASH" environment variable. Use the "MaSh" option in
  1629     Isabelle/jEdit instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1630   - Eliminated obsolete "blocking" option and related subcommands.
  1631 
  1632 * Nitpick:
  1633   - Fixed soundness bug in translation of "finite" predicate.
  1634   - Fixed soundness bug in "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  1635   - Fixed soundness bug in translation of "rat" type.
  1636   - Removed "check_potential" and "check_genuine" options.
  1637   - Eliminated obsolete "blocking" option.
  1638 
  1639 * (Co)datatype package:
  1640   - New commands "lift_bnf" and "copy_bnf" for lifting (copying) a BNF
  1641     structure on the raw type to an abstract type defined using typedef.
  1642   - Always generate "case_transfer" theorem.
  1643   - For mutual types, generate slightly stronger "rel_induct",
  1644     "rel_coinduct", and "coinduct" theorems. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1645   - Allow discriminators and selectors with the same name as the type
  1646     being defined.
  1647   - Avoid various internal name clashes (e.g., 'datatype f = f').
  1648 
  1649 * Transfer: new methods for interactive debugging of 'transfer' and
  1650 'transfer_prover': 'transfer_start', 'transfer_step', 'transfer_end',
  1651 'transfer_prover_start' and 'transfer_prover_end'.
  1652 
  1653 * New diagnostic command print_record for displaying record definitions.
  1654 
  1655 * Division on integers is bootstrapped directly from division on
  1656 naturals and uses generic numeral algorithm for computations. Slight
  1657 INCOMPATIBILITY, simproc numeral_divmod replaces and generalizes former
  1658 simprocs binary_int_div and binary_int_mod
  1659 
  1660 * Tightened specification of class semiring_no_zero_divisors. Minor
  1661 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1662 
  1663 * Class algebraic_semidom introduces common algebraic notions of
  1664 integral (semi)domains, particularly units. Although logically subsumed
  1665 by fields, is is not a super class of these in order not to burden
  1666 fields with notions that are trivial there.
  1667 
  1668 * Class normalization_semidom specifies canonical representants for
  1669 equivalence classes of associated elements in an integral (semi)domain.
  1670 This formalizes associated elements as well.
  1671 
  1672 * Abstract specification of gcd/lcm operations in classes semiring_gcd,
  1673 semiring_Gcd, semiring_Lcd. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: facts gcd_nat.commute
  1674 and gcd_int.commute are subsumed by gcd.commute, as well as
  1675 gcd_nat.assoc and gcd_int.assoc by gcd.assoc.
  1676 
  1677 * Former constants Fields.divide (_ / _) and Divides.div (_ div _) are
  1678 logically unified to Rings.divide in syntactic type class Rings.divide,
  1679 with infix syntax (_ div _). Infix syntax (_ / _) for field division is
  1680 added later as abbreviation in class Fields.inverse. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1681 instantiations must refer to Rings.divide rather than the former
  1682 separate constants, hence infix syntax (_ / _) is usually not available
  1683 during instantiation.
  1684 
  1685 * New cancellation simprocs for boolean algebras to cancel complementary
  1686 terms for sup and inf. For example, "sup x (sup y (- x))" simplifies to
  1687 "top". INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1688 
  1689 * Class uniform_space introduces uniform spaces btw topological spaces
  1690 and metric spaces. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: open_<type>_def needs to be
  1691 introduced in the form of an uniformity. Some constants are more general
  1692 now, it may be necessary to add type class constraints.
  1693 
  1694   open_real_def \<leadsto> open_dist
  1695   open_complex_def \<leadsto> open_dist
  1696 
  1697 * Library/Monad_Syntax: notation uses symbols \<bind> and \<then>. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1698 
  1699 * Library/Multiset:
  1700   - Renamed multiset inclusion operators:
  1701       < ~> <#
  1702       > ~> >#
  1703       <= ~> <=#
  1704       >= ~> >=#
  1705       \<le> ~> \<le>#
  1706       \<ge> ~> \<ge>#
  1707     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1708   - Added multiset inclusion operator syntax:
  1709       \<subset>#
  1710       \<subseteq>#
  1711       \<supset>#
  1712       \<supseteq>#
  1713   - "'a multiset" is no longer an instance of the "order",
  1714     "ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le", "ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_diff",
  1715     "semilattice_inf", and "semilattice_sup" type classes. The theorems
  1716     previously provided by these type classes (directly or indirectly)
  1717     are now available through the "subset_mset" interpretation
  1718     (e.g. add_mono ~> subset_mset.add_mono).
  1719     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1720   - Renamed conversions:
  1721       multiset_of ~> mset
  1722       multiset_of_set ~> mset_set
  1723       set_of ~> set_mset
  1724     INCOMPATIBILITY
  1725   - Renamed lemmas:
  1726       mset_le_def ~> subseteq_mset_def
  1727       mset_less_def ~> subset_mset_def
  1728       less_eq_multiset.rep_eq ~> subseteq_mset_def
  1729     INCOMPATIBILITY
  1730   - Removed lemmas generated by lift_definition:
  1731     less_eq_multiset.abs_eq, less_eq_multiset.rsp,
  1732     less_eq_multiset.transfer, less_eq_multiset_def
  1733     INCOMPATIBILITY
  1734 
  1735 * Library/Omega_Words_Fun: Infinite words modeled as functions nat \<Rightarrow> 'a.
  1736 
  1737 * Library/Bourbaki_Witt_Fixpoint: Added formalisation of the
  1738 Bourbaki-Witt fixpoint theorem for increasing functions in
  1739 chain-complete partial orders.
  1740 
  1741 * Library/Old_Recdef: discontinued obsolete 'defer_recdef' command.
  1742 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'function' instead.
  1743 
  1744 * Library/Periodic_Fun: a locale that provides convenient lemmas for
  1745 periodic functions.
  1746 
  1747 * Library/Formal_Power_Series: proper definition of division (with
  1748 remainder) for formal power series; instances for Euclidean Ring and
  1749 GCD.
  1750 
  1751 * HOL-Imperative_HOL: obsolete theory Legacy_Mrec has been removed.
  1752 
  1753 * HOL-Statespace: command 'statespace' uses mandatory qualifier for
  1754 import of parent, as for general 'locale' expressions. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1755 remove '!' and add '?' as required.
  1756 
  1757 * HOL-Decision_Procs: The "approximation" method works with "powr"
  1758 (exponentiation on real numbers) again.
  1759 
  1760 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: theory Cauchy_Integral_Thm with Contour
  1761 integrals (= complex path integrals), Cauchy's integral theorem, winding
  1762 numbers and Cauchy's integral formula, Liouville theorem, Fundamental
  1763 Theorem of Algebra. Ported from HOL Light.
  1764 
  1765 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: topological concepts such as connected
  1766 components, homotopic paths and the inside or outside of a set.
  1767 
  1768 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: radius of convergence of power series and
  1769 various summability tests; Harmonic numbers and the Euler–Mascheroni
  1770 constant; the Generalised Binomial Theorem; the complex and real
  1771 Gamma/log-Gamma/Digamma/ Polygamma functions and their most important
  1772 properties.
  1773 
  1774 * HOL-Probability: The central limit theorem based on Levy's uniqueness
  1775 and continuity theorems, weak convergence, and characterisitc functions.
  1776 
  1777 * HOL-Data_Structures: new and growing session of standard data
  1778 structures.
  1779 
  1780 
  1781 *** ML ***
  1782 
  1783 * The following combinators for low-level profiling of the ML runtime
  1784 system are available:
  1785 
  1786   profile_time          (*CPU time*)
  1787   profile_time_thread   (*CPU time on this thread*)
  1788   profile_allocations   (*overall heap allocations*)
  1789 
  1790 * Antiquotation @{undefined} or \<^undefined> inlines (raise Match).
  1791 
  1792 * Antiquotation @{method NAME} inlines the (checked) name of the given
  1793 Isar proof method.
  1794 
  1795 * Pretty printing of Poly/ML compiler output in Isabelle has been
  1796 improved: proper treatment of break offsets and blocks with consistent
  1797 breaks.
  1798 
  1799 * The auxiliary module Pure/display.ML has been eliminated. Its
  1800 elementary thm print operations are now in Pure/more_thm.ML and thus
  1801 called Thm.pretty_thm, Thm.string_of_thm etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1802 
  1803 * Simproc programming interfaces have been simplified:
  1804 Simplifier.make_simproc and Simplifier.define_simproc supersede various
  1805 forms of Simplifier.mk_simproc, Simplifier.simproc_global etc. Note that
  1806 term patterns for the left-hand sides are specified with implicitly
  1807 fixed variables, like top-level theorem statements. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1808 
  1809 * Instantiation rules have been re-organized as follows:
  1810 
  1811   Thm.instantiate  (*low-level instantiation with named arguments*)
  1812   Thm.instantiate' (*version with positional arguments*)
  1813 
  1814   Drule.infer_instantiate  (*instantiation with type inference*)
  1815   Drule.infer_instantiate'  (*version with positional arguments*)
  1816 
  1817 The LHS only requires variable specifications, instead of full terms.
  1818 Old cterm_instantiate is superseded by infer_instantiate.
  1819 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to re-adjust some ML names and types accordingly.
  1820 
  1821 * Old tactic shorthands atac, rtac, etac, dtac, ftac have been
  1822 discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular assume_tac, resolve_tac etc.
  1823 instead (with proper context).
  1824 
  1825 * Thm.instantiate (and derivatives) no longer require the LHS of the
  1826 instantiation to be certified: plain variables are given directly.
  1827 
  1828 * Subgoal.SUBPROOF and Subgoal.FOCUS combinators use anonymous
  1829 quasi-bound variables (like the Simplifier), instead of accidentally
  1830 named local fixes. This has the potential to improve stability of proof
  1831 tools, but can also cause INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that don't observe
  1832 the proof context discipline.
  1833 
  1834 * Isar proof methods are based on a slightly more general type
  1835 context_tactic, which allows to change the proof context dynamically
  1836 (e.g. to update cases) and indicate explicit Seq.Error results. Former
  1837 METHOD_CASES is superseded by CONTEXT_METHOD; further combinators are
  1838 provided in src/Pure/Isar/method.ML for convenience. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1839 
  1840 
  1841 *** System ***
  1842 
  1843 * Command-line tool "isabelle console" enables print mode "ASCII".
  1844 
  1845 * Command-line tool "isabelle update_then" expands old Isar command
  1846 conflations:
  1847 
  1848     hence  ~>  then have
  1849     thus   ~>  then show
  1850 
  1851 This syntax is more orthogonal and improves readability and
  1852 maintainability of proofs.
  1853 
  1854 * Global session timeout is multiplied by timeout_scale factor. This
  1855 allows to adjust large-scale tests (e.g. AFP) to overall hardware
  1856 performance.
  1857 
  1858 * Property values in etc/symbols may contain spaces, if written with the
  1859 replacement character "␣" (Unicode point 0x2324). For example:
  1860 
  1861     \<star>  code: 0x0022c6  group: operator  font: Deja␣Vu␣Sans␣Mono
  1862 
  1863 * Java runtime environment for x86_64-windows allows to use larger heap
  1864 space.
  1865 
  1866 * Java runtime options are determined separately for 32bit vs. 64bit
  1867 platforms as follows.
  1868 
  1869   - Isabelle desktop application: platform-specific files that are
  1870     associated with the main app bundle
  1871 
  1872   - isabelle jedit: settings
  1873     JEDIT_JAVA_SYSTEM_OPTIONS
  1874     JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS32 vs. JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS64
  1875 
  1876   - isabelle build: settings
  1877     ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS32 vs. ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS64
  1878 
  1879 * Bash shell function "jvmpath" has been renamed to "platform_path": it
  1880 is relevant both for Poly/ML and JVM processes.
  1881 
  1882 * Poly/ML default platform architecture may be changed from 32bit to
  1883 64bit via system option ML_system_64. A system restart (and rebuild) is
  1884 required after change.
  1885 
  1886 * Poly/ML 5.6 runs natively on x86-windows and x86_64-windows, which
  1887 both allow larger heap space than former x86-cygwin.
  1888 
  1889 * Heap images are 10-15% smaller due to less wasteful persistent theory
  1890 content (using ML type theory_id instead of theory);
  1891 
  1892 
  1893 
  1894 New in Isabelle2015 (May 2015)
  1895 ------------------------------
  1896 
  1897 *** General ***
  1898 
  1899 * Local theory specification commands may have a 'private' or
  1900 'qualified' modifier to restrict name space accesses to the local scope,
  1901 as provided by some "context begin ... end" block. For example:
  1902 
  1903   context
  1904   begin
  1905 
  1906   private definition ...
  1907   private lemma ...
  1908 
  1909   qualified definition ...
  1910   qualified lemma ...
  1911 
  1912   lemma ...
  1913   theorem ...
  1914 
  1915   end
  1916 
  1917 * Command 'experiment' opens an anonymous locale context with private
  1918 naming policy.
  1919 
  1920 * Command 'notepad' requires proper nesting of begin/end and its proof
  1921 structure in the body: 'oops' is no longer supported here. Minor
  1922 INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'sorry' instead.
  1923 
  1924 * Command 'named_theorems' declares a dynamic fact within the context,
  1925 together with an attribute to maintain the content incrementally. This
  1926 supersedes functor Named_Thms in Isabelle/ML, but with a subtle change
  1927 of semantics due to external visual order vs. internal reverse order.
  1928 
  1929 * 'find_theorems': search patterns which are abstractions are
  1930 schematically expanded before search. Search results match the naive
  1931 expectation more closely, particularly wrt. abbreviations.
  1932 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1933 
  1934 * Commands 'method_setup' and 'attribute_setup' now work within a local
  1935 theory context.
  1936 
  1937 * Outer syntax commands are managed authentically within the theory
  1938 context, without implicit global state. Potential for accidental
  1939 INCOMPATIBILITY, make sure that required theories are really imported.
  1940 
  1941 * Historical command-line terminator ";" is no longer accepted (and
  1942 already used differently in Isar). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle
  1943 update_semicolons" to remove obsolete semicolons from old theory
  1944 sources.
  1945 
  1946 * Structural composition of proof methods (meth1; meth2) in Isar
  1947 corresponds to (tac1 THEN_ALL_NEW tac2) in ML.
  1948 
  1949 * The Eisbach proof method language allows to define new proof methods
  1950 by combining existing ones with their usual syntax. The "match" proof
  1951 method provides basic fact/term matching in addition to
  1952 premise/conclusion matching through Subgoal.focus, and binds fact names
  1953 from matches as well as term patterns within matches. The Isabelle
  1954 documentation provides an entry "eisbach" for the Eisbach User Manual.
  1955 Sources and various examples are in ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/.
  1956 
  1957 
  1958 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1959 
  1960 * Improved folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax. Alternatively,
  1961 the "sidekick" mode may be used for document structure.
  1962 
  1963 * Extended bracket matching based on Isar language structure. System
  1964 option jedit_structure_limit determines maximum number of lines to scan
  1965 in the buffer.
  1966 
  1967 * Support for BibTeX files: context menu, context-sensitive token
  1968 marker, SideKick parser.
  1969 
  1970 * Document antiquotation @{cite} provides formal markup, which is
  1971 interpreted semi-formally based on .bib files that happen to be open in
  1972 the editor (hyperlinks, completion etc.).
  1973 
  1974 * Less waste of vertical space via negative line spacing (see Global
  1975 Options / Text Area).
  1976 
  1977 * Improved graphview panel with optional output of PNG or PDF, for
  1978 display of 'thy_deps', 'class_deps' etc.
  1979 
  1980 * The commands 'thy_deps' and 'class_deps' allow optional bounds to
  1981 restrict the visualized hierarchy.
  1982 
  1983 * Improved scheduling for asynchronous print commands (e.g. provers
  1984 managed by the Sledgehammer panel) wrt. ongoing document processing.
  1985 
  1986 
  1987 *** Document preparation ***
  1988 
  1989 * Document markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection',
  1990 'subsubsection', 'text', 'txt', 'text_raw' work uniformly in any
  1991 context, even before the initial 'theory' command. Obsolete proof
  1992 commands 'sect', 'subsect', 'subsubsect', 'txt_raw' have been
  1993 discontinued, use 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection', 'text_raw'
  1994 instead. The old 'header' command is still retained for some time, but
  1995 should be replaced by 'chapter', 'section' etc. (using "isabelle
  1996 update_header"). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1997 
  1998 * Official support for "tt" style variants, via \isatt{...} or
  1999 \begin{isabellett}...\end{isabellett}. The somewhat fragile \verb or
  2000 verbatim environment of LaTeX is no longer used. This allows @{ML} etc.
  2001 as argument to other macros (such as footnotes).
  2002 
  2003 * Document antiquotation @{verbatim} prints ASCII text literally in "tt"
  2004 style.
  2005 
  2006 * Discontinued obsolete option "document_graph": session_graph.pdf is
  2007 produced unconditionally for HTML browser_info and PDF-LaTeX document.
  2008 
  2009 * Diagnostic commands and document markup commands within a proof do not
  2010 affect the command tag for output. Thus commands like 'thm' are subject
  2011 to proof document structure, and no longer "stick out" accidentally.
  2012 Commands 'text' and 'txt' merely differ in the LaTeX style, not their
  2013 tags. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
  2014 
  2015 * System option "pretty_margin" is superseded by "thy_output_margin",
  2016 which is also accessible via document antiquotation option "margin".
  2017 Only the margin for document output may be changed, but not the global
  2018 pretty printing: that is 76 for plain console output, and adapted
  2019 dynamically in GUI front-ends. Implementations of document
  2020 antiquotations need to observe the margin explicitly according to
  2021 Thy_Output.string_of_margin. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2022 
  2023 * Specification of 'document_files' in the session ROOT file is
  2024 mandatory for document preparation. The legacy mode with implicit
  2025 copying of the document/ directory is no longer supported. Minor
  2026 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2027 
  2028 
  2029 *** Pure ***
  2030 
  2031 * Proof methods with explicit instantiation ("rule_tac", "subgoal_tac"
  2032 etc.) allow an optional context of local variables ('for' declaration):
  2033 these variables become schematic in the instantiated theorem; this
  2034 behaviour is analogous to 'for' in attributes "where" and "of".
  2035 Configuration option rule_insts_schematic (default false) controls use
  2036 of schematic variables outside the context. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2037 declare rule_insts_schematic = true temporarily and update to use local
  2038 variable declarations or dummy patterns instead.
  2039 
  2040 * Explicit instantiation via attributes "where", "of", and proof methods
  2041 "rule_tac" with derivatives like "subgoal_tac" etc. admit dummy patterns
  2042 ("_") that stand for anonymous local variables.
  2043 
  2044 * Generated schematic variables in standard format of exported facts are
  2045 incremented to avoid material in the proof context. Rare
  2046 INCOMPATIBILITY, explicit instantiation sometimes needs to refer to
  2047 different index.
  2048 
  2049 * Lexical separation of signed and unsigned numerals: categories "num"
  2050 and "float" are unsigned. INCOMPATIBILITY: subtle change in precedence
  2051 of numeral signs, particularly in expressions involving infix syntax
  2052 like "(- 1) ^ n".
  2053 
  2054 * Old inner token category "xnum" has been discontinued.  Potential
  2055 INCOMPATIBILITY for exotic syntax: may use mixfix grammar with "num"
  2056 token category instead.
  2057 
  2058 
  2059 *** HOL ***
  2060 
  2061 * New (co)datatype package:
  2062   - The 'datatype_new' command has been renamed 'datatype'. The old
  2063     command of that name is now called 'old_datatype' and is provided
  2064     by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
  2065     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
  2066     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2067   - Renamed theorems:
  2068       disc_corec ~> corec_disc
  2069       disc_corec_iff ~> corec_disc_iff
  2070       disc_exclude ~> distinct_disc
  2071       disc_exhaust ~> exhaust_disc
  2072       disc_map_iff ~> map_disc_iff
  2073       sel_corec ~> corec_sel
  2074       sel_exhaust ~> exhaust_sel
  2075       sel_map ~> map_sel
  2076       sel_set ~> set_sel
  2077       sel_split ~> split_sel
  2078       sel_split_asm ~> split_sel_asm
  2079       strong_coinduct ~> coinduct_strong
  2080       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
  2081     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2082   - The "no_code" option to "free_constructors", "datatype_new", and
  2083     "codatatype" has been renamed "plugins del: code".
  2084     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2085   - The rules "set_empty" have been removed. They are easy
  2086     consequences of other set rules "by auto".
  2087     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2088   - The rule "set_cases" is now registered with the "[cases set]"
  2089     attribute. This can influence the behavior of the "cases" proof
  2090     method when more than one case rule is applicable (e.g., an
  2091     assumption is of the form "w : set ws" and the method "cases w"
  2092     is invoked). The solution is to specify the case rule explicitly
  2093     (e.g. "cases w rule: widget.exhaust").
  2094     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2095   - Renamed theories:
  2096       BNF_Comp ~> BNF_Composition
  2097       BNF_FP_Base ~> BNF_Fixpoint_Base
  2098       BNF_GFP ~> BNF_Greatest_Fixpoint
  2099       BNF_LFP ~> BNF_Least_Fixpoint
  2100       BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> BNF_Wellorder_Constructions
  2101       Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> Cardinals/Wellorder_Constructions
  2102     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2103   - Lifting and Transfer setup for basic HOL types sum and prod (also
  2104     option) is now performed by the BNF package. Theories Lifting_Sum,
  2105     Lifting_Product and Lifting_Option from Main became obsolete and
  2106     were removed. Changed definitions of the relators rel_prod and
  2107     rel_sum (using inductive).
  2108     INCOMPATIBILITY: use rel_prod.simps and rel_sum.simps instead
  2109     of rel_prod_def and rel_sum_def.
  2110     Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: (rarely used by name) transfer theorem names
  2111     changed (e.g. map_prod_transfer ~> prod.map_transfer).
  2112   - Parametricity theorems for map functions, relators, set functions,
  2113     constructors, case combinators, discriminators, selectors and
  2114     (co)recursors are automatically proved and registered as transfer
  2115     rules.
  2116 
  2117 * Old datatype package:
  2118   - The old 'datatype' command has been renamed 'old_datatype', and
  2119     'rep_datatype' has been renamed 'old_rep_datatype'. They are
  2120     provided by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
  2121     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
  2122     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2123   - Renamed theorems:
  2124       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
  2125     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2126   - Renamed theory:
  2127       ~~/src/HOL/Datatype.thy ~> ~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy
  2128     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2129 
  2130 * Nitpick:
  2131   - Fixed soundness bug related to the strict and non-strict subset
  2132     operations.
  2133 
  2134 * Sledgehammer:
  2135   - CVC4 is now included with Isabelle instead of CVC3 and run by
  2136     default.
  2137   - Z3 is now always enabled by default, now that it is fully open
  2138     source. The "z3_non_commercial" option is discontinued.
  2139   - Minimization is now always enabled by default.
  2140     Removed sub-command:
  2141       min
  2142   - Proof reconstruction, both one-liners and Isar, has been
  2143     dramatically improved.
  2144   - Improved support for CVC4 and veriT.
  2145 
  2146 * Old and new SMT modules:
  2147   - The old 'smt' method has been renamed 'old_smt' and moved to
  2148     'src/HOL/Library/Old_SMT.thy'. It is provided for compatibility,
  2149     until applications have been ported to use the new 'smt' method. For
  2150     the method to work, an older version of Z3 (e.g. Z3 3.2 or 4.0) must
  2151     be installed, and the environment variable "OLD_Z3_SOLVER" must
  2152     point to it.
  2153     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2154   - The 'smt2' method has been renamed 'smt'.
  2155     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2156   - New option 'smt_reconstruction_step_timeout' to limit the
  2157     reconstruction time of Z3 proof steps in the new 'smt' method.
  2158   - New option 'smt_statistics' to display statistics of the new 'smt'
  2159     method, especially runtime statistics of Z3 proof reconstruction.
  2160 
  2161 * Lifting: command 'lift_definition' allows to execute lifted constants
  2162 that have as a return type a datatype containing a subtype. This
  2163 overcomes long-time limitations in the area of code generation and
  2164 lifting, and avoids tedious workarounds.
  2165 
  2166 * Command and antiquotation "value" provide different evaluation slots
  2167 (again), where the previous strategy (NBE after ML) serves as default.
  2168 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2169 
  2170 * Add NO_MATCH-simproc, allows to check for syntactic non-equality.
  2171 
  2172 * field_simps: Use NO_MATCH-simproc for distribution rules, to avoid
  2173 non-termination in case of distributing a division. With this change
  2174 field_simps is in some cases slightly less powerful, if it fails try to
  2175 add algebra_simps, or use divide_simps. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2176 
  2177 * Separate class no_zero_divisors has been given up in favour of fully
  2178 algebraic semiring_no_zero_divisors. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2179 
  2180 * Class linordered_semidom really requires no zero divisors.
  2181 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2182 
  2183 * Classes division_ring, field and linordered_field always demand
  2184 "inverse 0 = 0". Given up separate classes division_ring_inverse_zero,
  2185 field_inverse_zero and linordered_field_inverse_zero. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2186 
  2187 * Classes cancel_ab_semigroup_add / cancel_monoid_add specify explicit
  2188 additive inverse operation. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2189 
  2190 * Complex powers and square roots. The functions "ln" and "powr" are now
  2191 overloaded for types real and complex, and 0 powr y = 0 by definition.
  2192 INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be necessary.
  2193 
  2194 * The functions "sin" and "cos" are now defined for any type of sort
  2195 "{real_normed_algebra_1,banach}" type, so in particular on "real" and
  2196 "complex" uniformly. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be
  2197 needed.
  2198 
  2199 * New library of properties of the complex transcendental functions sin,
  2200 cos, tan, exp, Ln, Arctan, Arcsin, Arccos. Ported from HOL Light.
  2201 
  2202 * The factorial function, "fact", now has type "nat => 'a" (of a sort
  2203 that admits numeric types including nat, int, real and complex.
  2204 INCOMPATIBILITY: an expression such as "fact 3 = 6" may require a type
  2205 constraint, and the combination "real (fact k)" is likely to be
  2206 unsatisfactory. If a type conversion is still necessary, then use
  2207 "of_nat (fact k)" or "real_of_nat (fact k)".
  2208 
  2209 * Removed functions "natfloor" and "natceiling", use "nat o floor" and
  2210 "nat o ceiling" instead. A few of the lemmas have been retained and
  2211 adapted: in their names "natfloor"/"natceiling" has been replaced by
  2212 "nat_floor"/"nat_ceiling".
  2213 
  2214 * Qualified some duplicated fact names required for boostrapping the
  2215 type class hierarchy:
  2216   ab_add_uminus_conv_diff ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  2217   field_inverse_zero ~> inverse_zero
  2218   field_divide_inverse ~> divide_inverse
  2219   field_inverse ~> left_inverse
  2220 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2221 
  2222 * Eliminated fact duplicates:
  2223   mult_less_imp_less_right ~> mult_right_less_imp_less
  2224   mult_less_imp_less_left ~> mult_left_less_imp_less
  2225 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2226 
  2227 * Fact consolidation: even_less_0_iff is subsumed by
  2228 double_add_less_zero_iff_single_add_less_zero (simp by default anyway).
  2229 
  2230 * Generalized and consolidated some theorems concerning divsibility:
  2231   dvd_reduce ~> dvd_add_triv_right_iff
  2232   dvd_plus_eq_right ~> dvd_add_right_iff
  2233   dvd_plus_eq_left ~> dvd_add_left_iff
  2234 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2235 
  2236 * "even" and "odd" are mere abbreviations for "2 dvd _" and "~ 2 dvd _"
  2237 and part of theory Main.
  2238   even_def ~> even_iff_mod_2_eq_zero
  2239 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2240 
  2241 * Lemma name consolidation: divide_Numeral1 ~> divide_numeral_1. Minor
  2242 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2243 
  2244 * Bootstrap of listsum as special case of abstract product over lists.
  2245 Fact rename:
  2246     listsum_def ~> listsum.eq_foldr
  2247 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2248 
  2249 * Product over lists via constant "listprod".
  2250 
  2251 * Theory List: renamed drop_Suc_conv_tl and nth_drop' to
  2252 Cons_nth_drop_Suc.
  2253 
  2254 * New infrastructure for compiling, running, evaluating and testing
  2255 generated code in target languages in HOL/Library/Code_Test. See
  2256 HOL/Codegenerator_Test/Code_Test* for examples.
  2257 
  2258 * Library/Multiset:
  2259   - Introduced "replicate_mset" operation.
  2260   - Introduced alternative characterizations of the multiset ordering in
  2261     "Library/Multiset_Order".
  2262   - Renamed multiset ordering:
  2263       <# ~> #<#
  2264       <=# ~> #<=#
  2265       \<subset># ~> #\<subset>#
  2266       \<subseteq># ~> #\<subseteq>#
  2267     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2268   - Introduced abbreviations for ill-named multiset operations:
  2269       <#, \<subset># abbreviate < (strict subset)
  2270       <=#, \<le>#, \<subseteq># abbreviate <= (subset or equal)
  2271     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2272   - Renamed
  2273       in_multiset_of ~> in_multiset_in_set
  2274       Multiset.fold ~> fold_mset
  2275       Multiset.filter ~> filter_mset
  2276     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2277   - Removed mcard, is equal to size.
  2278   - Added attributes:
  2279       image_mset.id [simp]
  2280       image_mset_id [simp]
  2281       elem_multiset_of_set [simp, intro]
  2282       comp_fun_commute_plus_mset [simp]
  2283       comp_fun_commute.fold_mset_insert [OF comp_fun_commute_plus_mset, simp]
  2284       in_mset_fold_plus_iff [iff]
  2285       set_of_Union_mset [simp]
  2286       in_Union_mset_iff [iff]
  2287     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2288 
  2289 * Library/Sum_of_Squares: simplified and improved "sos" method. Always
  2290 use local CSDP executable, which is much faster than the NEOS server.
  2291 The "sos_cert" functionality is invoked as "sos" with additional
  2292 argument. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2293 
  2294 * HOL-Decision_Procs: New counterexample generator quickcheck
  2295 [approximation] for inequalities of transcendental functions. Uses
  2296 hardware floating point arithmetic to randomly discover potential
  2297 counterexamples. Counterexamples are certified with the "approximation"
  2298 method. See HOL/Decision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Quickcheck_Ex.thy for
  2299 examples.
  2300 
  2301 * HOL-Probability: Reworked measurability prover
  2302   - applies destructor rules repeatedly
  2303   - removed application splitting (replaced by destructor rule)
  2304   - added congruence rules to rewrite measure spaces under the sets
  2305     projection
  2306 
  2307 * New proof method "rewrite" (in theory ~~/src/HOL/Library/Rewrite) for
  2308 single-step rewriting with subterm selection based on patterns.
  2309 
  2310 
  2311 *** ML ***
  2312 
  2313 * Subtle change of name space policy: undeclared entries are now
  2314 considered inaccessible, instead of accessible via the fully-qualified
  2315 internal name. This mainly affects Name_Space.intern (and derivatives),
  2316 which may produce an unexpected Long_Name.hidden prefix. Note that
  2317 contemporary applications use the strict Name_Space.check (and
  2318 derivatives) instead, which is not affected by the change. Potential
  2319 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare applications of Name_Space.intern.
  2320 
  2321 * Subtle change of error semantics of Toplevel.proof_of: regular user
  2322 ERROR instead of internal Toplevel.UNDEF.
  2323 
  2324 * Basic combinators map, fold, fold_map, split_list, apply are available
  2325 as parameterized antiquotations, e.g. @{map 4} for lists of quadruples.
  2326 
  2327 * Renamed "pairself" to "apply2", in accordance to @{apply 2}.
  2328 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2329 
  2330 * Former combinators NAMED_CRITICAL and CRITICAL for central critical
  2331 sections have been discontinued, in favour of the more elementary
  2332 Multithreading.synchronized and its high-level derivative
  2333 Synchronized.var (which is usually sufficient in applications). Subtle
  2334 INCOMPATIBILITY: synchronized access needs to be atomic and cannot be
  2335 nested.
  2336 
  2337 * Synchronized.value (ML) is actually synchronized (as in Scala): subtle
  2338 change of semantics with minimal potential for INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2339 
  2340 * The main operations to certify logical entities are Thm.ctyp_of and
  2341 Thm.cterm_of with a local context; old-style global theory variants are
  2342 available as Thm.global_ctyp_of and Thm.global_cterm_of.
  2343 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2344 
  2345 * Elementary operations in module Thm are no longer pervasive.
  2346 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use qualified Thm.prop_of, Thm.cterm_of,
  2347 Thm.term_of etc.
  2348 
  2349 * Proper context for various elementary tactics: assume_tac,
  2350 resolve_tac, eresolve_tac, dresolve_tac, forward_tac, match_tac,
  2351 compose_tac, Splitter.split_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2352 
  2353 * Tactical PARALLEL_ALLGOALS is the most common way to refer to
  2354 PARALLEL_GOALS.
  2355 
  2356 * Goal.prove_multi is superseded by the fully general Goal.prove_common,
  2357 which also allows to specify a fork priority.
  2358 
  2359 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "COMMAND"} is superseded by
  2360 @{command_keyword COMMAND} (usually without quotes and with PIDE
  2361 markup). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2362 
  2363 * Cartouches within ML sources are turned into values of type
  2364 Input.source (with formal position information).
  2365 
  2366 
  2367 *** System ***
  2368 
  2369 * The Isabelle tool "update_cartouches" changes theory files to use
  2370 cartouches instead of old-style {* verbatim *} or `alt_string` tokens.
  2371 
  2372 * The Isabelle tool "build" provides new options -X, -k, -x.
  2373 
  2374 * Discontinued old-fashioned "codegen" tool. Code generation can always
  2375 be externally triggered using an appropriate ROOT file plus a
  2376 corresponding theory. Parametrization is possible using environment
  2377 variables, or ML snippets in the most extreme cases. Minor
  2378 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2379 
  2380 * JVM system property "isabelle.threads" determines size of Scala thread
  2381 pool, like Isabelle system option "threads" for ML.
  2382 
  2383 * JVM system property "isabelle.laf" determines the default Swing
  2384 look-and-feel, via internal class name or symbolic name as in the jEdit
  2385 menu Global Options / Appearance.
  2386 
  2387 * Support for Proof General and Isar TTY loop has been discontinued.
  2388 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use standard PIDE infrastructure instead.
  2389 
  2390 
  2391 
  2392 New in Isabelle2014 (August 2014)
  2393 ---------------------------------
  2394 
  2395 *** General ***
  2396 
  2397 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
  2398 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
  2399 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
  2400 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
  2401 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
  2402 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
  2403 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
  2404 some examples.
  2405 
  2406 * Standard tactics and proof methods such as "clarsimp", "auto" and
  2407 "safe" now preserve equality hypotheses "x = expr" where x is a free
  2408 variable.  Locale assumptions and chained facts containing "x"
  2409 continue to be useful.  The new method "hypsubst_thin" and the
  2410 configuration option "hypsubst_thin" (within the attribute name space)
  2411 restore the previous behavior.  INCOMPATIBILITY, especially where
  2412 induction is done after these methods or when the names of free and
  2413 bound variables clash.  As first approximation, old proofs may be
  2414 repaired by "using [[hypsubst_thin = true]]" in the critical spot.
  2415 
  2416 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
  2417 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
  2418 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
  2419 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
  2420 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
  2421 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
  2422 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
  2423 proof tools.
  2424 
  2425 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
  2426 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
  2427 supports input via ` (backquote).
  2428 
  2429 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
  2430 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
  2431 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
  2432 
  2433 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
  2434 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
  2435 string token.  General renovation of its syntax using text cartouches.
  2436 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2437 
  2438 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary workaround for
  2439 Isabelle/ML in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
  2440 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.  Potential
  2441 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2442 
  2443 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
  2444 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
  2445 
  2446 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
  2447 not check existence within the file-system.
  2448 
  2449 * Updated and extended manuals: codegen, datatypes, implementation,
  2450 isar-ref, jedit, system.
  2451 
  2452 
  2453 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  2454 
  2455 * Improved Document panel: simplified interaction where every single
  2456 mouse click (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit
  2457 buffer.
  2458 
  2459 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons), with connection
  2460 to PIDE hyperlinks.
  2461 
  2462 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
  2463 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
  2464 
  2465 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
  2466 auxiliary ML files.
  2467 
  2468 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism, with simple
  2469 templates, completion language context, name-space completion,
  2470 file-name completion, spell-checker completion.
  2471 
  2472 * Refined GUI popup for completion: more robust key/mouse event
  2473 handling and propagation to enclosing text area -- avoid loosing
  2474 keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
  2475 
  2476 * Completion popup supports both ENTER and TAB (default) to select an
  2477 item, depending on Isabelle options.
  2478 
  2479 * Refined insertion of completion items wrt. jEdit text: multiple
  2480 selections, rectangular selections, rectangular selection as "tall
  2481 caret".
  2482 
  2483 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
  2484 completion popup and context-menu.
  2485 
  2486 * More general "Query" panel supersedes "Find" panel, with GUI access
  2487 to commands 'find_theorems' and 'find_consts', as well as print
  2488 operations for the context.  Minor incompatibility in keyboard
  2489 shortcuts etc.: replace action isabelle-find by isabelle-query.
  2490 
  2491 * Search field for all output panels ("Output", "Query", "Info" etc.)
  2492 to highlight text via regular expression.
  2493 
  2494 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
  2495 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
  2496 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
  2497 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
  2498 
  2499 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
  2500 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
  2501 
  2502 * Empty editors buffers that are no longer required (e.g.\ via theory
  2503 imports) are automatically removed from the document model.
  2504 
  2505 * Improved monitor panel.
  2506 
  2507 * Improved Console/Scala plugin: more uniform scala.Console output,
  2508 more robust treatment of threads and interrupts.
  2509 
  2510 * Improved management of dockable windows: clarified keyboard focus
  2511 and window placement wrt. main editor view; optional menu item to
  2512 "Detach" a copy where this makes sense.
  2513 
  2514 * New Simplifier Trace panel provides an interactive view of the
  2515 simplification process, enabled by the "simp_trace_new" attribute
  2516 within the context.
  2517 
  2518 
  2519 *** Pure ***
  2520 
  2521 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
  2522 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
  2523 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
  2524 'instance' command with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem
  2525 might be postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof
  2526 finished trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous
  2527 (without any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
  2528 Axclass.class_axiomatization, Axclass.classrel_axiomatization,
  2529 Axclass.arity_axiomatization.
  2530 
  2531 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
  2532 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
  2533 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
  2534 renaming needs to be applied:
  2535 
  2536   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
  2537   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
  2538   all            ~>  Pure.all
  2539   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
  2540   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
  2541 
  2542 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
  2543 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
  2544 old constants:
  2545 
  2546 setup {*
  2547   fn thy => thy
  2548     |> Sign.root_path
  2549     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
  2550     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
  2551     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
  2552     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
  2553 *}
  2554 
  2555 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
  2556 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
  2557 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
  2558 
  2559 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
  2560 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
  2561 instantiated theorem.
  2562 
  2563 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
  2564 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
  2565 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
  2566 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
  2567 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
  2568 
  2569   attribute_setup standard =
  2570     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
  2571 
  2572 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
  2573 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
  2574 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
  2575 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
  2576 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
  2577 
  2578 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
  2579 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
  2580 differently, e.g. via cartouches).
  2581 
  2582 * Command 'print_term_bindings' supersedes 'print_binds' for clarity,
  2583 but the latter is retained some time as Proof General legacy.
  2584 
  2585 * Code generator preprocessor: explicit control of simp tracing on a
  2586 per-constant basis.  See attribute "code_preproc".
  2587 
  2588 
  2589 *** HOL ***
  2590 
  2591 * Code generator: enforce case of identifiers only for strict target
  2592 language requirements.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2593 
  2594 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
  2595 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2596 
  2597 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.  Minor
  2598 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2599 
  2600 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures"
  2601 option.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2602 
  2603 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
  2604 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2605 
  2606 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
  2607 with the given constants.
  2608 
  2609 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
  2610 operations on records.
  2611 
  2612 * Command and antiquotation "value" are now hardcoded against nbe and
  2613 ML.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2614 
  2615 * Renamed command 'enriched_type' to 'functor'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2616 
  2617 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
  2618 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
  2619 
  2620 * Qualified String.implode and String.explode.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2621 
  2622 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules can
  2623 now deal with conjunctions.  For help with converting proofs, the old
  2624 behaviour of the simplifier can be restored like this: declare/using
  2625 [[simp_legacy_precond]].  This configuration option will disappear
  2626 again in the future.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2627 
  2628 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
  2629 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2630 
  2631 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from session
  2632   "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".  The commands 'bnf', 'wrap_free_constructors',
  2633   'datatype_new', 'codatatype', 'primcorec', 'primcorecursive' are now
  2634   part of theory "Main".
  2635 
  2636   Theory renamings:
  2637     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
  2638     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
  2639     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
  2640     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
  2641     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
  2642     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
  2643     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
  2644     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
  2645     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
  2646     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
  2647     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
  2648     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
  2649     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
  2650     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
  2651     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
  2652     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
  2653     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
  2654     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
  2655     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
  2656     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
  2657     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
  2658     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
  2659 
  2660   New theories:
  2661     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
  2662     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
  2663     Library/BNF_Axomatization.thy
  2664     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
  2665     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
  2666 
  2667   Discontinued theories:
  2668     BNF/BNF.thy
  2669     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
  2670 
  2671 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2672 
  2673 * New (co)datatype package:
  2674   - Command 'primcorec' is fully implemented.
  2675   - Command 'datatype_new' generates size functions ("size_xxx" and
  2676     "size") as required by 'fun'.
  2677   - BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style
  2678     (co)datatypes with Transfer.
  2679   - Renamed commands:
  2680       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
  2681       primrec_new ~> primrec
  2682       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
  2683     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2684   - The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
  2685     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
  2686     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2687   - The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer
  2688     generated.  Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually
  2689     using "prim(co)rec".
  2690     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2691   - No discriminators are generated for nullary constructors by
  2692     default, eliminating the need for the odd "=:" syntax.
  2693     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2694   - No discriminators or selectors are generated by default by
  2695     "datatype_new", unless custom names are specified or the new
  2696     "discs_sels" option is passed.
  2697     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2698 
  2699 * Old datatype package:
  2700   - The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been
  2701     renamed "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" ->
  2702     "sum.case").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2703   - The generated constants "xxx_case", "xxx_rec", and "xxx_size" have
  2704     been renamed "case_xxx", "rec_xxx", and "size_xxx" (e.g.,
  2705     "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2706 
  2707 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions,
  2708   their relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new
  2709   BNF-based datatype package.
  2710 
  2711   Renamed constants:
  2712     Option.set ~> set_option
  2713     Option.map ~> map_option
  2714     option_rel ~> rel_option
  2715 
  2716   Renamed theorems:
  2717     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
  2718     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
  2719     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
  2720     option.recs ~> option.rec
  2721     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
  2722     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
  2723     map.simps ~> list.map
  2724     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
  2725     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
  2726     the.simps ~> option.sel
  2727 
  2728 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2729 
  2730 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
  2731     sum_map ~> map_sum
  2732     map_pair ~> map_prod
  2733     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
  2734     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
  2735     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
  2736     set_rel ~> rel_set
  2737     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
  2738     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "src/HOL/Library/FSet.thy")
  2739     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "src/HOL/Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
  2740     vset ~> rel_vset (in "src/HOL/Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
  2741 
  2742 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2743 
  2744 * Lifting and Transfer:
  2745   - a type variable as a raw type is supported
  2746   - stronger reflexivity prover
  2747   - rep_eq is always generated by lift_definition
  2748   - setup for Lifting/Transfer is now automated for BNFs
  2749     + holds for BNFs that do not contain a dead variable
  2750     + relator_eq, relator_mono, relator_distr, relator_domain,
  2751       relator_eq_onp, quot_map, transfer rules for bi_unique, bi_total,
  2752       right_unique, right_total, left_unique, left_total are proved
  2753       automatically
  2754     + definition of a predicator is generated automatically
  2755     + simplification rules for a predicator definition are proved
  2756       automatically for datatypes
  2757   - consolidation of the setup of Lifting/Transfer
  2758     + property that a relator preservers reflexivity is not needed any
  2759       more
  2760       Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2761     + left_total and left_unique rules are now transfer rules
  2762       (reflexivity_rule attribute not needed anymore)
  2763       INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2764     + Domainp does not have to be a separate assumption in
  2765       relator_domain theorems (=> more natural statement)
  2766       INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2767   - registration of code equations is more robust
  2768     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2769   - respectfulness proof obligation is preprocessed to a more readable
  2770     form
  2771     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2772   - eq_onp is always unfolded in respectfulness proof obligation
  2773     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2774   - unregister lifting setup for Code_Numeral.integer and
  2775     Code_Numeral.natural
  2776     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2777   - Lifting.invariant -> eq_onp
  2778     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2779 
  2780 * New internal SAT solver "cdclite" that produces models and proof
  2781 traces.  This solver replaces the internal SAT solvers "enumerate" and
  2782 "dpll".  Applications that explicitly used one of these two SAT
  2783 solvers should use "cdclite" instead. In addition, "cdclite" is now
  2784 the default SAT solver for the "sat" and "satx" proof methods and
  2785 corresponding tactics; the old default can be restored using "declare
  2786 [[sat_solver = zchaff_with_proofs]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2787 
  2788 * SMT module: A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called
  2789 "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2 and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g.,
  2790 4.3). The new proof method is called "smt2". CVC3 and CVC4 are also
  2791 supported as oracles. Yices is no longer supported, because no version
  2792 of the solver can handle both SMT-LIB 2 and quantifiers.
  2793 
  2794 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
  2795 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
  2796 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
  2797 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
  2798 
  2799 * Sledgehammer:
  2800   - Z3 can now produce Isar proofs.
  2801   - MaSh overhaul:
  2802     . New SML-based learning algorithms eliminate the dependency on
  2803       Python and increase performance and reliability.
  2804     . MaSh and MeSh are now used by default together with the
  2805       traditional MePo (Meng-Paulson) relevance filter. To disable
  2806       MaSh, set the "MaSh" system option in Isabelle/jEdit Plugin
  2807       Options / Isabelle / General to "none".
  2808   - New option:
  2809       smt_proofs
  2810   - Renamed options:
  2811       isar_compress ~> compress
  2812       isar_try0 ~> try0
  2813 
  2814 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2815 
  2816 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
  2817 
  2818 * Nitpick:
  2819   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could
  2820     take infinite values.
  2821   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as
  2822     "Abs_Integ" and "Rep_Integ".
  2823   - Removed "std" option.
  2824   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
  2825     "hide_types".
  2826 
  2827 * Metis: Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis
  2828 (full_types)' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2829 
  2830 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
  2831 
  2832 * Adjustion of INF and SUP operations:
  2833   - Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
  2834   - Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF and
  2835     SUP instead uniformly.
  2836   - More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
  2837     or SUP and Sup.
  2838   - INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
  2839   - Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.
  2840   - Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong, with
  2841     simplifier implication in premises.  Generalize and replace former
  2842     INT_cong, SUP_cong
  2843 
  2844 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2845 
  2846 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice.
  2847 
  2848 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
  2849 
  2850   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
  2851   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
  2852   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
  2853   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
  2854 
  2855 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2856 
  2857 * Theory reorganization: split of Big_Operators.thy into
  2858 Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy.
  2859 
  2860 * Consolidated some facts about big group operators:
  2861 
  2862     setsum_0' ~> setsum.neutral
  2863     setsum_0 ~> setsum.neutral_const
  2864     setsum_addf ~> setsum.distrib
  2865     setsum_cartesian_product ~> setsum.cartesian_product
  2866     setsum_cases ~> setsum.If_cases
  2867     setsum_commute ~> setsum.commute
  2868     setsum_cong ~> setsum.cong
  2869     setsum_delta ~> setsum.delta
  2870     setsum_delta' ~> setsum.delta'
  2871     setsum_diff1' ~> setsum.remove
  2872     setsum_empty ~> setsum.empty
  2873     setsum_infinite ~> setsum.infinite
  2874     setsum_insert ~> setsum.insert
  2875     setsum_inter_restrict'' ~> setsum.inter_filter
  2876     setsum_mono_zero_cong_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_left
  2877     setsum_mono_zero_cong_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_right
  2878     setsum_mono_zero_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_left
  2879     setsum_mono_zero_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_right
  2880     setsum_reindex ~> setsum.reindex
  2881     setsum_reindex_cong ~> setsum.reindex_cong
  2882     setsum_reindex_nonzero ~> setsum.reindex_nontrivial
  2883     setsum_restrict_set ~> setsum.inter_restrict
  2884     setsum_Plus ~> setsum.Plus
  2885     setsum_setsum_restrict ~> setsum.commute_restrict
  2886     setsum_Sigma ~> setsum.Sigma
  2887     setsum_subset_diff ~> setsum.subset_diff
  2888     setsum_Un_disjoint ~> setsum.union_disjoint
  2889     setsum_UN_disjoint ~> setsum.UNION_disjoint
  2890     setsum_Un_Int ~> setsum.union_inter
  2891     setsum_Union_disjoint ~> setsum.Union_disjoint
  2892     setsum_UNION_zero ~> setsum.Union_comp
  2893     setsum_Un_zero ~> setsum.union_inter_neutral
  2894     strong_setprod_cong ~> setprod.strong_cong
  2895     strong_setsum_cong ~> setsum.strong_cong
  2896     setprod_1' ~> setprod.neutral
  2897     setprod_1 ~> setprod.neutral_const
  2898     setprod_cartesian_product ~> setprod.cartesian_product
  2899     setprod_cong ~> setprod.cong
  2900     setprod_delta ~> setprod.delta
  2901     setprod_delta' ~> setprod.delta'
  2902     setprod_empty ~> setprod.empty
  2903     setprod_infinite ~> setprod.infinite
  2904     setprod_insert ~> setprod.insert
  2905     setprod_mono_one_cong_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_left
  2906     setprod_mono_one_cong_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_right
  2907     setprod_mono_one_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_left
  2908     setprod_mono_one_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_right
  2909     setprod_reindex ~> setprod.reindex
  2910     setprod_reindex_cong ~> setprod.reindex_cong
  2911     setprod_reindex_nonzero ~> setprod.reindex_nontrivial
  2912     setprod_Sigma ~> setprod.Sigma
  2913     setprod_subset_diff ~> setprod.subset_diff
  2914     setprod_timesf ~> setprod.distrib
  2915     setprod_Un2 ~> setprod.union_diff2
  2916     setprod_Un_disjoint ~> setprod.union_disjoint
  2917     setprod_UN_disjoint ~> setprod.UNION_disjoint
  2918     setprod_Un_Int ~> setprod.union_inter
  2919     setprod_Union_disjoint ~> setprod.Union_disjoint
  2920     setprod_Un_one ~> setprod.union_inter_neutral
  2921 
  2922   Dropped setsum_cong2 (simple variant of setsum.cong).
  2923   Dropped setsum_inter_restrict' (simple variant of setsum.inter_restrict)
  2924   Dropped setsum_reindex_id, setprod_reindex_id
  2925     (simple variants of setsum.reindex [symmetric], setprod.reindex [symmetric]).
  2926 
  2927 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2928 
  2929 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
  2930 
  2931   Fact consolidations:
  2932     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
  2933     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
  2934     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
  2935     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
  2936     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
  2937     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
  2938     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
  2939     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
  2940     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
  2941     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
  2942     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
  2943     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
  2944     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
  2945     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
  2946     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
  2947     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
  2948     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
  2949     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
  2950     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
  2951     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
  2952     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
  2953     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
  2954     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
  2955     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
  2956     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
  2957     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
  2958     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
  2959     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
  2960     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
  2961     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
  2962     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
  2963     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
  2964     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
  2965     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
  2966     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
  2967     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
  2968     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
  2969     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
  2970     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
  2971     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
  2972 
  2973 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
  2974 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
  2975 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
  2976 
  2977 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1,
  2978 min.cobounded2, max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
  2979 
  2980 For min_ac or max_ac, prefer more general collection ac_simps.
  2981 
  2982 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2983 
  2984 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~>
  2985 Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2986 
  2987 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
  2988 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2989 
  2990 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
  2991     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
  2992 
  2993 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2994 
  2995 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and
  2996   consolidation:
  2997     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
  2998     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
  2999 
  3000 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3001 
  3002 * Abolished neg_numeral.
  3003   - Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
  3004   - Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
  3005   - When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
  3006     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
  3007   - HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
  3008     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
  3009   - Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
  3010 
  3011 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3012 
  3013 * Reduced name variants for rules on associativity and commutativity:
  3014 
  3015     add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  3016     add_commute ~> add.commute
  3017     add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  3018     mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  3019     mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  3020     mult_left_commute ~> mult.left_commute
  3021     nat_add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  3022     nat_add_commute ~> add.commute
  3023     nat_add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  3024     nat_mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  3025     nat_mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  3026     eq_assoc ~> iff_assoc
  3027     eq_left_commute ~> iff_left_commute
  3028 
  3029 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3030 
  3031 * Fact collections add_ac and mult_ac are considered old-fashioned.
  3032 Prefer ac_simps instead, or specify rules
  3033 (add|mult).(assoc|commute|left_commute) individually.
  3034 
  3035 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
  3036     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
  3037     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
  3038     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
  3039     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
  3040 
  3041 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3042 
  3043 * Fact name consolidation:
  3044     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  3045     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
  3046     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
  3047     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
  3048     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
  3049 
  3050 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3051 
  3052 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
  3053 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
  3054 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
  3055 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
  3056 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
  3057 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly have
  3058 been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and field_simps.
  3059 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3060 
  3061 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
  3062 
  3063 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
  3064 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
  3065 
  3066 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
  3067 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
  3068 
  3069 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
  3070 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
  3071 or the brute way with
  3072 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
  3073 
  3074 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in theory
  3075 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them instead of explicitly
  3076 stating boundedness of sets.
  3077 
  3078 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow more
  3079 syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain shows up as
  3080 additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3081 
  3082 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
  3083   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
  3084   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
  3085   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
  3086   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
  3087   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
  3088   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
  3089   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
  3090   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
  3091   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
  3092   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
  3093   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
  3094 
  3095   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
  3096 
  3097   removed auxiliary lemmas:
  3098 
  3099     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
  3100     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr,
  3101     real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded, summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2,
  3102     sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom, sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero,
  3103     summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
  3104 
  3105 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3106 
  3107 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
  3108   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
  3109 
  3110   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
  3111 
  3112   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
  3113 
  3114   - removed constant isDiff
  3115 
  3116   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as
  3117     input syntax.
  3118 
  3119   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed.
  3120 
  3121   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
  3122 
  3123   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
  3124 
  3125   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
  3126 
  3127   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which
  3128     includes now rules for DERIV, has_derivative and
  3129     has_vector_derivative.
  3130 
  3131   - Other renamings:
  3132     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
  3133     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
  3134     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
  3135     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
  3136     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
  3137     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
  3138     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
  3139 
  3140 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3141 
  3142 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the
  3143 continuous_on_intros, isCont_intros collections, these facts are now
  3144 in continuous_intros.
  3145 
  3146 * Theorems about complex numbers are now stated only using Re and Im,
  3147 the Complex constructor is not used anymore. It is possible to use
  3148 primcorec to defined the behaviour of a complex-valued function.
  3149 
  3150 Removed theorems about the Complex constructor from the simpset, they
  3151 are available as the lemma collection legacy_Complex_simps. This
  3152 especially removes
  3153 
  3154     i_complex_of_real: "ii * complex_of_real r = Complex 0 r".
  3155 
  3156 Instead the reverse direction is supported with
  3157     Complex_eq: "Complex a b = a + \<i> * b"
  3158 
  3159 Moved csqrt from Fundamental_Algebra_Theorem to Complex.
  3160 
  3161   Renamings:
  3162     Re/Im                  ~>  complex.sel
  3163     complex_Re/Im_zero     ~>  zero_complex.sel
  3164     complex_Re/Im_add      ~>  plus_complex.sel
  3165     complex_Re/Im_minus    ~>  uminus_complex.sel
  3166     complex_Re/Im_diff     ~>  minus_complex.sel
  3167     complex_Re/Im_one      ~>  one_complex.sel
  3168     complex_Re/Im_mult     ~>  times_complex.sel
  3169     complex_Re/Im_inverse  ~>  inverse_complex.sel
  3170     complex_Re/Im_scaleR   ~>  scaleR_complex.sel
  3171     complex_Re/Im_i        ~>  ii.sel
  3172     complex_Re/Im_cnj      ~>  cnj.sel
  3173     Re/Im_cis              ~>  cis.sel
  3174 
  3175     complex_divide_def   ~>  divide_complex_def
  3176     complex_norm_def     ~>  norm_complex_def
  3177     cmod_def             ~>  norm_complex_de
  3178 
  3179   Removed theorems:
  3180     complex_zero_def
  3181     complex_add_def
  3182     complex_minus_def
  3183     complex_diff_def
  3184     complex_one_def
  3185     complex_mult_def
  3186     complex_inverse_def
  3187     complex_scaleR_def
  3188 
  3189 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3190 
  3191 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
  3192 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3193 
  3194 * HOL-Library: new theory src/HOL/Library/Tree.thy.
  3195 
  3196 * HOL-Library: removed theory src/HOL/Library/Kleene_Algebra.thy; it
  3197 is subsumed by session Kleene_Algebra in AFP.
  3198 
  3199 * HOL-Library / theory RBT: various constants and facts are hidden;
  3200 lifting setup is unregistered.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3201 
  3202 * HOL-Cardinals: new theory src/HOL/Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy.
  3203 
  3204 * HOL-Word: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
  3205 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3206 
  3207 * HOL-Word:
  3208   - Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a duplicate
  3209     of "word_arith_wis".
  3210   - Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
  3211     "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
  3212     "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
  3213 
  3214 * HOL-Number_Theory:
  3215   - consolidated the proofs of the binomial theorem
  3216   - the function fib is again of type nat => nat and not overloaded
  3217   - no more references to Old_Number_Theory in the HOL libraries
  3218     (except the AFP)
  3219 
  3220 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3221 
  3222 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
  3223   - Type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces.
  3224   - New theory Complex_Basic_Analysis defining complex derivatives,
  3225     holomorphic functions, etc., ported from HOL Light's canal.ml.
  3226   - Changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
  3227     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
  3228     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
  3229     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
  3230     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-)open
  3231     intervals.
  3232   - removed dependencies on type class ordered_euclidean_space with
  3233     introduction of "cbox" on euclidean_space
  3234     - renamed theorems:
  3235         interval ~> box
  3236         mem_interval ~> mem_box
  3237         interval_eq_empty ~> box_eq_empty
  3238         interval_ne_empty ~> box_ne_empty
  3239         interval_sing(1) ~> cbox_sing
  3240         interval_sing(2) ~> box_sing
  3241         subset_interval_imp ~> subset_box_imp
  3242         subset_interval ~> subset_box
  3243         open_interval ~> open_box
  3244         closed_interval ~> closed_cbox
  3245         interior_closed_interval ~> interior_cbox
  3246         bounded_closed_interval ~> bounded_cbox
  3247         compact_interval ~> compact_cbox
  3248         bounded_subset_closed_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_cbox_symmetric
  3249         bounded_subset_closed_interval ~> bounded_subset_cbox
  3250         mem_interval_componentwiseI ~> mem_box_componentwiseI
  3251         convex_box ~> convex_prod
  3252         rel_interior_real_interval ~> rel_interior_real_box
  3253         convex_interval ~> convex_box
  3254         convex_hull_eq_real_interval ~> convex_hull_eq_real_cbox
  3255         frechet_derivative_within_closed_interval ~> frechet_derivative_within_cbox
  3256         content_closed_interval' ~> content_cbox'
  3257         elementary_subset_interval ~> elementary_subset_box
  3258         diameter_closed_interval ~> diameter_cbox
  3259         frontier_closed_interval ~> frontier_cbox
  3260         frontier_open_interval ~> frontier_box
  3261         bounded_subset_open_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_box_symmetric
  3262         closure_open_interval ~> closure_box
  3263         open_closed_interval_convex ~> open_cbox_convex
  3264         open_interval_midpoint ~> box_midpoint
  3265         content_image_affinity_interval ~> content_image_affinity_cbox
  3266         is_interval_interval ~> is_interval_cbox + is_interval_box + is_interval_closed_interval
  3267         bounded_interval ~> bounded_closed_interval + bounded_boxes
  3268 
  3269     - respective theorems for intervals over the reals:
  3270         content_closed_interval + content_cbox
  3271         has_integral + has_integral_real
  3272         fine_division_exists + fine_division_exists_real
  3273         has_integral_null + has_integral_null_real
  3274         tagged_division_union_interval + tagged_division_union_interval_real
  3275         has_integral_const + has_integral_const_real
  3276         integral_const + integral_const_real
  3277         has_integral_bound + has_integral_bound_real
  3278         integrable_continuous + integrable_continuous_real
  3279         integrable_subinterval + integrable_subinterval_real
  3280         has_integral_reflect_lemma + has_integral_reflect_lemma_real
  3281         integrable_reflect + integrable_reflect_real
  3282         integral_reflect + integral_reflect_real
  3283         image_affinity_interval + image_affinity_cbox
  3284         image_smult_interval + image_smult_cbox
  3285         integrable_const + integrable_const_ivl
  3286         integrable_on_subinterval + integrable_on_subcbox
  3287 
  3288   - renamed theorems:
  3289     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
  3290     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
  3291     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
  3292 
  3293 * HOL-Probability:
  3294   - Renamed positive_integral to nn_integral:
  3295 
  3296     . Renamed all lemmas "*positive_integral*" to *nn_integral*"
  3297       positive_integral_positive ~> nn_integral_nonneg
  3298 
  3299     . Renamed abbreviation integral\<^sup>P to integral\<^sup>N.
  3300 
  3301   - replaced the Lebesgue integral on real numbers by the more general
  3302     Bochner integral for functions into a real-normed vector space.
  3303 
  3304     integral_zero               ~>  integral_zero / integrable_zero
  3305     integral_minus              ~>  integral_minus / integrable_minus
  3306     integral_add                ~>  integral_add / integrable_add
  3307     integral_diff               ~>  integral_diff / integrable_diff
  3308     integral_setsum             ~>  integral_setsum / integrable_setsum
  3309     integral_multc              ~>  integral_mult_left / integrable_mult_left
  3310     integral_cmult              ~>  integral_mult_right / integrable_mult_right
  3311     integral_triangle_inequality~>  integral_norm_bound
  3312     integrable_nonneg           ~>  integrableI_nonneg
  3313     integral_positive           ~>  integral_nonneg_AE
  3314     integrable_abs_iff          ~>  integrable_abs_cancel
  3315     positive_integral_lim_INF   ~>  nn_integral_liminf
  3316     lebesgue_real_affine        ~>  lborel_real_affine
  3317     borel_integral_has_integral ~>  has_integral_lebesgue_integral
  3318     integral_indicator          ~>
  3319          integral_real_indicator / integrable_real_indicator
  3320     positive_integral_fst       ~>  nn_integral_fst'
  3321     positive_integral_fst_measurable ~> nn_integral_fst
  3322     positive_integral_snd_measurable ~> nn_integral_snd
  3323 
  3324     integrable_fst_measurable   ~>
  3325          integral_fst / integrable_fst / AE_integrable_fst
  3326 
  3327     integrable_snd_measurable   ~>
  3328          integral_snd / integrable_snd / AE_integrable_snd
  3329 
  3330     integral_monotone_convergence  ~>
  3331          integral_monotone_convergence / integrable_monotone_convergence
  3332 
  3333     integral_monotone_convergence_at_top  ~>
  3334          integral_monotone_convergence_at_top /
  3335          integrable_monotone_convergence_at_top
  3336 
  3337     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lebesgue  ~>
  3338          has_integral_iff_has_bochner_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  3339 
  3340     lebesgue_integral_has_integral  ~>
  3341          has_integral_integrable_lebesgue_nonneg
  3342 
  3343     positive_integral_lebesgue_has_integral  ~>
  3344          integral_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg /
  3345          integrable_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  3346 
  3347     lebesgue_integral_real_affine  ~>
  3348          nn_integral_real_affine
  3349 
  3350     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lborel  ~>
  3351          integral_has_integral_nonneg / integrable_has_integral_nonneg
  3352 
  3353     The following theorems where removed:
  3354 
  3355     lebesgue_integral_nonneg
  3356     lebesgue_integral_uminus
  3357     lebesgue_integral_cmult
  3358     lebesgue_integral_multc
  3359     lebesgue_integral_cmult_nonneg
  3360     integral_cmul_indicator
  3361     integral_real
  3362 
  3363   - Formalized properties about exponentially, Erlang, and normal
  3364     distributed random variables.
  3365 
  3366 * HOL-Decision_Procs: Separate command 'approximate' for approximative
  3367 computation in src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation.  Minor
  3368 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3369 
  3370 
  3371 *** Scala ***
  3372 
  3373 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
  3374 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
  3375 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
  3376 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
  3377 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3378 
  3379 * Substantial reworking of internal PIDE protocol communication
  3380 channels.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3381 
  3382 
  3383 *** ML ***
  3384 
  3385 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
  3386 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
  3387 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
  3388 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
  3389 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
  3390 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
  3391 
  3392 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
  3393 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
  3394 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
  3395 actually belongs to it).
  3396 
  3397 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
  3398 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
  3399 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
  3400 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
  3401 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
  3402 of schematic variables.
  3403 
  3404 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
  3405 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3406 
  3407 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
  3408 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context
  3409 via "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3410 
  3411 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
  3412 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3413 
  3414 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
  3415 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
  3416 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
  3417 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3418 
  3419 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
  3420 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3421 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
  3422 formal context.
  3423 
  3424 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
  3425 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3426 
  3427 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
  3428 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
  3429 
  3430 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
  3431 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
  3432 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
  3433 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
  3434 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
  3435 
  3436 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
  3437 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
  3438 purposes.
  3439 
  3440 
  3441 *** System ***
  3442 
  3443 * Proof General with its traditional helper scripts is now an optional
  3444 Isabelle component, e.g. see ProofGeneral-4.2-2 from the Isabelle
  3445 component repository http://isabelle.in.tum.de/components/.  Note that
  3446 the "system" manual provides general explanations about add-on
  3447 components, especially those that are not bundled with the release.
  3448 
  3449 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
  3450 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
  3451 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
  3452 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
  3453 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the ISABELLE_PROCESS
  3454 settings variable.
  3455 
  3456 * Former "isabelle tty" has been superseded by "isabelle console",
  3457 with implicit build like "isabelle jedit", and without the mostly
  3458 obsolete Isar TTY loop.
  3459 
  3460 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
  3461 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
  3462 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
  3463 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
  3464 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
  3465 
  3466 * Removed obsolete "isabelle unsymbolize".  Note that the usual format
  3467 for email communication is the Unicode rendering of Isabelle symbols,
  3468 as produced by Isabelle/jEdit, for example.
  3469 
  3470 * Removed obsolete tool "wwwfind". Similar functionality may be
  3471 integrated into Isabelle/jEdit eventually.
  3472 
  3473 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
  3474 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
  3475 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
  3476 
  3477 * Session ROOT specifications require explicit 'document_files' for
  3478 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
  3479 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
  3480 processing is started.
  3481 
  3482 * Windows: support for regular TeX installation (e.g. MiKTeX) instead
  3483 of TeX Live from Cygwin.
  3484 
  3485 
  3486 
  3487 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
  3488 -------------------------------------
  3489 
  3490 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  3491 
  3492 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
  3493 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
  3494 
  3495 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
  3496 after edits surrounding the command location.
  3497 
  3498 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
  3499 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
  3500 e.g. out-of-memory).
  3501 
  3502 
  3503 *** System ***
  3504 
  3505 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
  3506 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
  3507 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
  3508 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
  3509 
  3510 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
  3511 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
  3512 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
  3513 
  3514 
  3515 
  3516 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
  3517 -------------------------------------
  3518 
  3519 *** General ***
  3520 
  3521 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
  3522 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
  3523 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3524 
  3525 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
  3526 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3527 
  3528 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
  3529 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
  3530 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
  3531 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
  3532 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
  3533 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
  3534 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
  3535 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
  3536 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
  3537 syntax.
  3538 
  3539 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
  3540 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3541 
  3542 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
  3543 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
  3544 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
  3545 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
  3546 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
  3547 
  3548 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
  3549 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3550 
  3551 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
  3552 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
  3553 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
  3554 
  3555 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
  3556 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
  3557 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
  3558 
  3559 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
  3560 eliminated old "ref" manual.
  3561 
  3562 
  3563 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  3564 
  3565 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
  3566 Documentation panel.
  3567 
  3568 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
  3569 documentation.
  3570 
  3571 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
  3572 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
  3573 
  3574 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
  3575 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
  3576 normal editing and checking process.
  3577 
  3578 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
  3579 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
  3580 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
  3581 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
  3582 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
  3583 
  3584 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
  3585 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
  3586 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
  3587 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
  3588 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
  3589 
  3590 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
  3591 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
  3592 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
  3593 
  3594 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
  3595 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
  3596 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
  3597 to resolve conflict.
  3598 
  3599 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
  3600 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
  3601 
  3602 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
  3603 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
  3604 such command executions while editing.
  3605 
  3606 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
  3607 document content.
  3608 
  3609 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
  3610 toplevel theorem statements.
  3611 
  3612 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
  3613 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
  3614 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
  3615 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
  3616 
  3617 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
  3618 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
  3619 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
  3620 
  3621 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
  3622 / Global Options / Appearance".
  3623 
  3624 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
  3625 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
  3626 
  3627 
  3628 *** Pure ***
  3629 
  3630 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
  3631 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
  3632 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
  3633 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
  3634 details.
  3635 
  3636 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
  3637 
  3638 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
  3639 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
  3640 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
  3641 
  3642 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
  3643 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3644 
  3645 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
  3646 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
  3647 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
  3648 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3649 
  3650 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
  3651 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
  3652 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3653 
  3654 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
  3655 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
  3656 
  3657 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
  3658 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
  3659 situations.
  3660 
  3661 
  3662 *** HOL ***
  3663 
  3664 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
  3665 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
  3666 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3667 
  3668 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
  3669 
  3670 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
  3671 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
  3672 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
  3673 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
  3674 
  3675   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
  3676 
  3677 * Code generator:
  3678   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
  3679     'code_instance'.
  3680   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
  3681     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
  3682 
  3683 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
  3684 examples.
  3685 
  3686 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
  3687 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
  3688 to distinguish both when desired.
  3689 
  3690 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
  3691 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
  3692 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
  3693 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3694 
  3695 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
  3696 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
  3697 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
  3698 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
  3699 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
  3700 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3701 
  3702 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
  3703 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
  3704 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3705 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
  3706 
  3707 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
  3708 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
  3709 
  3710 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
  3711 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
  3712 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
  3713 
  3714 * Lifting:
  3715   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
  3716     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
  3717       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
  3718       transfer rules
  3719     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
  3720       correspondence relation can be generated
  3721     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
  3722       parametricity
  3723     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
  3724   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
  3725   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
  3726     copies
  3727   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
  3728     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
  3729     anonymous context)
  3730   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
  3731     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  3732   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
  3733     lifting_forget, lifting_update
  3734   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
  3735     INCOMPATIBILITY
  3736 
  3737 * Transfer:
  3738   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
  3739     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
  3740   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
  3741   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
  3742     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
  3743   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
  3744 
  3745 * Reification and reflection:
  3746   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
  3747     "Reification".
  3748   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
  3749   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
  3750 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3751 
  3752 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
  3753   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
  3754     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  3755     This is now identity on infinite sets.
  3756   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
  3757     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
  3758   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
  3759     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
  3760     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
  3761     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
  3762     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
  3763     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
  3764     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
  3765     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
  3766   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
  3767     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
  3768   - Fact renames:
  3769       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
  3770       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
  3771 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3772 
  3773 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
  3774 
  3775 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
  3776 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
  3777 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
  3778 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3779 
  3780 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
  3781 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
  3782 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
  3783 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
  3784 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
  3785 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
  3786 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
  3787 lemmas.
  3788 
  3789 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
  3790 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
  3791 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3792 
  3793 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
  3794 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3795 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  3796 
  3797 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  3798 top and bottom elements.
  3799 
  3800 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  3801 
  3802 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  3803 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  3804 
  3805  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  3806    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  3807    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  3808 
  3809  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  3810    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  3811    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  3812 
  3813    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  3814    arbitrary filter.
  3815 
  3816  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  3817    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  3818    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  3819    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  3820    on a compact set.
  3821 
  3822  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  3823    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  3824    linear_continuum_topology).
  3825 
  3826  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  3827    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  3828    on all sequences converging to x.
  3829 
  3830  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  3831    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  3832    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  3833    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  3834    left or right.
  3835 
  3836  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  3837 
  3838      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  3839 
  3840  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  3841    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  3842 
  3843  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  3844    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  3845    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  3846    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  3847    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  3848    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  3849 
  3850  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  3851 
  3852    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  3853 
  3854    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  3855      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  3856 
  3857    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  3858 
  3859    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  3860      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  3861 
  3862    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  3863 
  3864    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  3865 
  3866  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  3867 
  3868 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3869 
  3870 * Nitpick:
  3871   - Added option "spy".
  3872   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  3873 
  3874 * Sledgehammer:
  3875   - Renamed option:
  3876       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  3877     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3878   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  3879   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  3880   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  3881 
  3882 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  3883 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  3884 
  3885 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  3886   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  3887   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  3888     generated code.
  3889   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  3890   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  3891   - Fact renames:
  3892     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  3893     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  3894     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  3895 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  3896 
  3897 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  3898 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  3899 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  3900 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  3901 
  3902 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  3903 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  3904 
  3905 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3906 
  3907 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  3908 
  3909     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  3910     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  3911 
  3912 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3913 
  3914 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  3915 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  3916 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  3917 
  3918 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  3919 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  3920 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  3921 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3922 
  3923 * HOL-BNF:
  3924   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  3925     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  3926     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  3927     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  3928   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  3929     coinduct).
  3930   - Renamed keywords:
  3931     data ~> datatype_new
  3932     codata ~> codatatype
  3933     bnf_def ~> bnf
  3934   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  3935     discs ~> disc
  3936     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  3937     map_id' ~> map_id
  3938     sels ~> sel
  3939     set_map' ~> set_map
  3940     sets ~> set
  3941 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  3942 
  3943 
  3944 *** ML ***
  3945 
  3946 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  3947 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  3948 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  3949 Examples.thy in particular.
  3950 
  3951 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  3952 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  3953 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  3954 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  3955 
  3956 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  3957 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  3958 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  3959 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  3960 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3961 
  3962 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  3963 
  3964     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  3965     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  3966 
  3967 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3968 
  3969 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  3970 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  3971 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  3972 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  3973 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  3974 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  3975 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  3976 
  3977 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  3978 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  3979 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  3980 clasets separately from the context.
  3981 
  3982 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  3983 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  3984 
  3985 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  3986 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  3987 
  3988 
  3989 *** System ***
  3990 
  3991 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  3992 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3993 
  3994 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  3995 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3996 
  3997 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  3998 settings variable.
  3999 
  4000 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  4001 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  4002 always pdf.
  4003 
  4004 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  4005 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  4006 
  4007 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  4008 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  4009 
  4010 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  4011 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  4012 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  4013 
  4014 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  4015 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  4016 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  4017 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  4018 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  4019 for HTML presentation of theories.
  4020 
  4021 
  4022 
  4023 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  4024 -----------------------------------
  4025 
  4026 *** General ***
  4027 
  4028 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  4029 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  4030 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  4031 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  4032 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  4033 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  4034 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  4035 
  4036 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  4037 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  4038 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  4039 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  4040 
  4041 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  4042 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  4043 
  4044 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  4045 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  4046 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  4047 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  4048 dependencies properly.
  4049 
  4050 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  4051 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  4052 
  4053 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  4054 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  4055 
  4056 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  4057 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  4058 and "class ... context ...".
  4059 
  4060 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  4061 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  4062 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  4063 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  4064 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  4065 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  4066 
  4067 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  4068 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  4069 
  4070 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  4071 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  4072 
  4073 
  4074 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  4075 
  4076 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  4077 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  4078 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  4079 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  4080 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  4081 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  4082 
  4083 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  4084 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  4085 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  4086 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  4087 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  4088 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  4089 
  4090 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  4091 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  4092 browser on demand.
  4093 
  4094 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  4095 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  4096 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  4097 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  4098 
  4099 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  4100 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  4101 
  4102 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  4103 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  4104 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  4105 potentially infinite message streams.
  4106 
  4107 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  4108 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  4109 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  4110 schemes.
  4111 
  4112 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  4113 symbols.
  4114 
  4115 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  4116 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  4117 
  4118 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  4119 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  4120 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  4121 
  4122 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  4123 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  4124 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  4125 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  4126 
  4127 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  4128 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  4129 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  4130 
  4131 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  4132 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  4133 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  4134 Isabelle distribution.
  4135 
  4136 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  4137 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  4138 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  4139 
  4140 
  4141 *** Pure ***
  4142 
  4143 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  4144 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  4145 
  4146 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  4147 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  4148 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4149 
  4150 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4151 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  4152 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  4153 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  4154 with some care where this is really required.
  4155 
  4156 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  4157 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  4158 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  4159 
  4160   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  4161 
  4162 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  4163 a Hasse diagram.
  4164 
  4165 
  4166 *** HOL ***
  4167 
  4168 * Sledgehammer:
  4169 
  4170   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  4171     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  4172   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  4173   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  4174   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  4175   - Renamed options:
  4176       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  4177       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  4178       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  4179       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  4180 
  4181 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  4182 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  4183 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  4184 
  4185 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  4186 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4187 
  4188 * Lifting:
  4189   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  4190   - quot_del attribute
  4191   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  4192 
  4193 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  4194 expressions.
  4195 
  4196 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  4197 pointfree expressions.
  4198 
  4199 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  4200 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  4201 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  4202 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  4203 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4204 
  4205 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  4206 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  4207 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  4208 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  4209 accordingly.
  4210 
  4211 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  4212 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4213 
  4214 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  4215 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4216 
  4217 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4218 
  4219 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  4220 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  4221 
  4222 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  4223 
  4224 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  4225 
  4226   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  4227   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  4228 
  4229 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4230 
  4231 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  4232 
  4233   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  4234   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  4235 
  4236 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4237 
  4238 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  4239 
  4240   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  4241     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  4242     output f x converges to G.
  4243 
  4244   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  4245     infinity (at_bot).
  4246 
  4247   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  4248     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  4249 
  4250   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  4251     at_top".
  4252 
  4253 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4254 
  4255 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  4256 lattice type classes.
  4257 
  4258 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  4259 
  4260     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  4261     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  4262 
  4263 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4264 
  4265 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  4266 changes as follows.
  4267 
  4268   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  4269 
  4270       prefix ~> prefixeq
  4271       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  4272 
  4273   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  4274     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  4275     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  4276     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  4277 
  4278   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  4279     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  4280     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  4281 
  4282   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  4283     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  4284     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  4285     Library/Prefix_Order.
  4286 
  4287   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  4288     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  4289 
  4290       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  4291       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  4292       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  4293       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  4294       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  4295       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  4296       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  4297       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  4298       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  4299       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  4300       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  4301       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  4302       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  4303       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  4304       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  4305       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  4306 
  4307 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4308 
  4309 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  4310 
  4311 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  4312 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  4313 
  4314 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  4315 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  4316 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  4317 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  4318 
  4319   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  4320   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  4321   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  4322   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  4323   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  4324   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  4325   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  4326   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  4327   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  4328   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  4329 
  4330 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4331 
  4332 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  4333 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  4334 Data").
  4335 
  4336 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  4337 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  4338 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  4339 code.
  4340 
  4341 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  4342 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  4343 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  4344 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4345 
  4346 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  4347 
  4348 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  4349 
  4350 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  4351 
  4352   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  4353   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  4354 
  4355 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  4356 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  4357 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  4358 
  4359   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  4360 
  4361     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  4362     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  4363     cart_base i  removed
  4364     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  4365 
  4366   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  4367 
  4368   Renamed lemmas:
  4369 
  4370     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  4371     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  4372     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  4373     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  4374     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  4375     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  4376     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  4377     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  4378     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  4379     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  4380 
  4381 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4382 
  4383 * HOL/Probability:
  4384 
  4385   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  4386 
  4387   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  4388     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  4389     (borel_measurable_induct).
  4390 
  4391   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  4392     projective family).
  4393 
  4394 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  4395 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  4396 
  4397 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  4398 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  4399 datatypes.
  4400 
  4401 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  4402 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  4403 
  4404 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  4405 trees for the code generator.
  4406 
  4407 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  4408 Lifting/Transfer.
  4409 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4410 
  4411 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  4412 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4413 
  4414 
  4415 *** Document preparation ***
  4416 
  4417 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  4418 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  4419 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  4420 
  4421 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  4422 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  4423 
  4424 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  4425 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  4426 document/root.tex.
  4427 
  4428 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  4429 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4430 
  4431 
  4432 *** ML ***
  4433 
  4434 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  4435 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  4436 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  4437 
  4438 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  4439 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  4440 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  4441 
  4442 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  4443 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  4444 necessarily printing visible text.
  4445 
  4446 
  4447 *** System ***
  4448 
  4449 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  4450 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  4451 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  4452 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  4453 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  4454 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  4455 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  4456 
  4457 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  4458 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  4459 
  4460   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  4461 
  4462 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  4463 
  4464 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  4465 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  4466 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  4467 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  4468 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  4469 
  4470 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  4471 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  4472 
  4473 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  4474 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  4475 
  4476 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  4477 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4478 
  4479 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  4480 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  4481 version of Isabelle.
  4482 
  4483 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  4484 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  4485 
  4486 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  4487 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  4488 for home-made settings.
  4489 
  4490 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  4491 
  4492 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  4493 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  4494 configuration.
  4495 
  4496 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  4497 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  4498 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  4499 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  4500 bundled as Isabelle component.
  4501 
  4502 
  4503 
  4504 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  4505 ------------------------------
  4506 
  4507 *** General ***
  4508 
  4509 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  4510 
  4511   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  4512     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  4513   - markup for bound variables
  4514   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  4515   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  4516   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  4517     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  4518 
  4519 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  4520 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  4521 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  4522 
  4523 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  4524 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  4525 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  4526 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  4527 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  4528 
  4529   context
  4530     fixes x y z :: 'a
  4531     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  4532   begin
  4533 
  4534   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  4535 
  4536   end
  4537 
  4538   thm my_trans
  4539 
  4540 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  4541 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  4542 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  4543 
  4544 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  4545 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  4546 
  4547 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  4548 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  4549 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  4550 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  4551 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  4552 
  4553 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  4554 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  4555 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  4556 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  4557 indices of schematic variables.
  4558 
  4559 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  4560 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  4561 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  4562 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  4563 etc. was exploited.
  4564 
  4565 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  4566 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  4567 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  4568 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  4569 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  4570 of the material of that old tutorial.
  4571 
  4572 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  4573 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  4574 manual.
  4575 
  4576 
  4577 *** Pure ***
  4578 
  4579 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  4580 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  4581 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  4582 
  4583 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  4584 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  4585 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  4586 undocumented feature.)
  4587 
  4588 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  4589 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  4590 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  4591 
  4592   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  4593 
  4594   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  4595     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  4596 
  4597 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  4598 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  4599 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  4600 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  4601 
  4602 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  4603 
  4604     num ~> num_token
  4605     xnum ~> xnum_token
  4606     xstr ~> str_token
  4607 
  4608 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  4609 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  4610 position information via constraints).
  4611 
  4612 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  4613 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  4614 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4615 
  4616 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  4617 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  4618 
  4619 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  4620 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  4621 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4622 
  4623 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  4624 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4625 
  4626 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  4627 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  4628 
  4629   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  4630 
  4631 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4632 
  4633 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  4634 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4635 
  4636 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  4637 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  4638 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  4639 
  4640 
  4641 *** HOL ***
  4642 
  4643 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  4644 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  4645 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  4646 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  4647 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  4648 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  4649 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  4650 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  4651 possible.
  4652 
  4653 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  4654 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  4655 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  4656 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  4657 
  4658 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  4659 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4660 
  4661 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  4662 
  4663 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  4664 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  4665 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  4666 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  4667 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  4668 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  4669 
  4670   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  4671     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  4672 
  4673   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  4674     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  4675     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  4676 
  4677   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  4678     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  4679 
  4680   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  4681     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  4682     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  4683 
  4684   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  4685     Redefine using other integer operations.
  4686 
  4687 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  4688 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  4689 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  4690 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  4691 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  4692 
  4693   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  4694     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  4695     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  4696     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  4697     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  4698 
  4699     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  4700     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  4701 
  4702   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  4703     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  4704     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  4705     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  4706     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  4707     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  4708     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  4709     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  4710 
  4711   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  4712     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  4713     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  4714     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  4715 
  4716   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  4717     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  4718     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  4719     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  4720 
  4721   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  4722     from type nat to type int.
  4723 
  4724 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  4725 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  4726 
  4727   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  4728     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  4729     type.  Example syntax:
  4730 
  4731     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  4732       is List.insert
  4733 
  4734     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  4735     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  4736     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  4737     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  4738     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  4739     by the package.
  4740 
  4741   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  4742     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  4743     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  4744     code generation for each constant.
  4745 
  4746   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  4747     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  4748     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  4749     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  4750     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  4751 
  4752   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  4753     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  4754     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  4755 
  4756 * Quotient package:
  4757 
  4758   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  4759     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  4760 
  4761   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  4762     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  4763 
  4764   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  4765     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  4766     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4767 
  4768   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  4769     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4770 
  4771 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  4772 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  4773 
  4774 * Quickcheck:
  4775 
  4776   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  4777     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  4778     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  4779     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  4780     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  4781 
  4782     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  4783     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  4784     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  4785 
  4786     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  4787     continues searching for genuine ones.
  4788 
  4789     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  4790     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  4791     show genuine counterexamples.
  4792 
  4793   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  4794     value generators for a given type and operations.
  4795 
  4796     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  4797     constructors of that type.
  4798 
  4799   - Support for multisets.
  4800 
  4801   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  4802 
  4803   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  4804     conjectures in a locale context.
  4805 
  4806 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  4807 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  4808 
  4809 * Sledgehammer:
  4810   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  4811     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  4812   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  4813   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  4814     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  4815   - Sped up the minimizer.
  4816   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  4817   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  4818   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  4819 
  4820 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  4821 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  4822 
  4823 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  4824 
  4825 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4826 
  4827 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  4828 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  4829 
  4830   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  4831 
  4832 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  4833 a list and a nat.
  4834 
  4835 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  4836 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  4837 
  4838 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  4839 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  4840 default.
  4841 
  4842 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  4843 
  4844   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  4845 
  4846 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  4847 
  4848 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  4849 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  4850 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  4851 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  4852 one_case.
  4853 
  4854 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  4855 the result of the fact expression.
  4856 
  4857 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  4858 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  4859 of some relation theorems:
  4860 
  4861   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  4862   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  4863   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  4864   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  4865   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  4866   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  4867 
  4868 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  4869 
  4870 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  4871 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  4872 
  4873 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4874 
  4875 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  4876 to match the constant's name:
  4877 
  4878   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  4879   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  4880   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  4881   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  4882   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  4883   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  4884   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  4885   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  4886   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  4887   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  4888   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  4889   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  4890   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  4891   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  4892   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  4893   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  4894   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  4895   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  4896   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  4897   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  4898   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  4899   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  4900   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  4901   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  4902 
  4903 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4904 
  4905 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  4906 and corresponding theorem names:
  4907 
  4908   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  4909 
  4910   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  4911 
  4912   - Renamed theorems:
  4913 
  4914     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  4915     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  4916     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  4917     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  4918     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  4919     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  4920     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  4921     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  4922     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  4923     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  4924     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  4925     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  4926     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  4927     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  4928     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  4929     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  4930     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  4931     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  4932     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  4933     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  4934     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  4935     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  4936     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  4937 
  4938     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  4939 
  4940     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  4941 
  4942 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4943 
  4944 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  4945 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  4946 
  4947   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  4948   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  4949   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  4950   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  4951   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  4952   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  4953   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  4954   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  4955   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  4956   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  4957   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  4958   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  4959   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  4960   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  4961   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  4962   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  4963   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  4964   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  4965   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  4966   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  4967   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  4968 
  4969 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  4970 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4971 
  4972 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4973 
  4974 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  4975 
  4976   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  4977   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  4978   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  4979   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  4980   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  4981   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  4982   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  4983   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  4984   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  4985   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  4986   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  4987   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  4988   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  4989   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  4990   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  4991   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  4992   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  4993   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  4994 
  4995 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4996 
  4997 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  4998 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  4999 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  5000 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  5001 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  5002 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  5003 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  5004 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  5005 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  5006 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  5007 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  5008 
  5009 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  5010 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  5011 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  5012 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  5013 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  5014 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  5015 
  5016 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  5017 through option types.
  5018 
  5019 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  5020 relations.
  5021 
  5022 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5023 
  5024 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  5025 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  5026 
  5027   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  5028   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  5029   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  5030   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  5031   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  5032   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  5033   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  5034   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  5035   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  5036   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  5037   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  5038   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  5039   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  5040   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  5041   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  5042   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  5043   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  5044   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  5045   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  5046   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  5047   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  5048   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  5049   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  5050   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  5051   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  5052   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  5053   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  5054   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  5055   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  5056   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  5057   zless_le ~> less_le
  5058   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  5059   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  5060   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  5061 
  5062 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  5063 
  5064   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  5065 
  5066 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  5067 
  5068 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  5069 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  5070 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  5071 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  5072 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5073 
  5074 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5075 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  5076 
  5077 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  5078 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  5079 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  5080 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  5081 follows:
  5082 
  5083   Operations:
  5084   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  5085   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  5086   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  5087   del -> rbt_del
  5088   delete -> rbt_delete
  5089   ins -> rbt_ins
  5090   insert -> rbt_insert
  5091   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  5092   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  5093   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  5094   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  5095   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  5096   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  5097   tree_less -> rbt_less
  5098   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  5099   union -> rbt_union
  5100   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  5101   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  5102 
  5103   Lemmas:
  5104   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  5105   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  5106   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  5107   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  5108   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  5109   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  5110   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  5111   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  5112   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  5113   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  5114   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  5115   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  5116   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  5117   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  5118   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  5119   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  5120   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  5121   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  5122   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  5123   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  5124   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  5125   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  5126   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  5127   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  5128   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  5129   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  5130   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  5131   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  5132   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  5133   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  5134   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  5135   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  5136   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  5137   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  5138   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  5139   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  5140   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  5141   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  5142   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  5143   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  5144   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  5145   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  5146   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  5147   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  5148   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  5149   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  5150   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  5151   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  5152   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  5153   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  5154   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  5155   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  5156   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  5157   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  5158   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  5159   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  5160   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  5161   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  5162   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  5163   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  5164   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  5165   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  5166   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  5167   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  5168   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  5169   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  5170   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  5171   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  5172   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  5173   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  5174   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  5175   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  5176   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  5177   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  5178   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  5179   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  5180   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  5181   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  5182   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  5183   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  5184   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  5185   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  5186   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  5187 
  5188 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  5189 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  5190 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5191 
  5192   Changed Operations:
  5193   float_abs -> abs
  5194   float_nprt -> nprt
  5195   float_pprt -> pprt
  5196   pow2 -> use powr
  5197   round_down -> float_round_down
  5198   round_up -> float_round_up
  5199   scale -> exponent
  5200 
  5201   Removed Operations:
  5202   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  5203 
  5204   Renamed Lemmas:
  5205   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  5206   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  5207   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  5208   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  5209   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  5210   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  5211   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  5212   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  5213   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  5214   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  5215   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  5216   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  5217   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  5218   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  5219   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  5220   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  5221   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  5222   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  5223   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  5224   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  5225   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  5226   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  5227   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  5228   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  5229   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  5230   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  5231   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  5232   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  5233   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  5234   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  5235   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  5236   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  5237   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  5238   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  5239   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  5240   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  5241 
  5242   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  5243   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  5244   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  5245   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  5246   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  5247   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  5248   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  5249   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  5250   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  5251   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  5252 
  5253 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  5254 association lists with distinct keys.
  5255 
  5256 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  5257 annotated commands.
  5258 
  5259 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  5260 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  5261 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  5262 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5263 
  5264 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  5265 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  5266 instead.
  5267 
  5268   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  5269   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  5270   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  5271   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  5272   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  5273   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  5274   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  5275   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  5276   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  5277   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  5278   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  5279   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  5280   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  5281   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  5282   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  5283   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  5284   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  5285   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  5286   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  5287   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  5288   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  5289   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  5290   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  5291   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  5292   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  5293   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  5294   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  5295   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  5296   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  5297   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  5298   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  5299   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  5300   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  5301   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  5302   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  5303   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  5304   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  5305   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  5306   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  5307   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  5308   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  5309 
  5310 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  5311 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  5312 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  5313 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  5314 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  5315 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  5316 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  5317 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  5318 
  5319 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  5320 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  5321 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  5322 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  5323 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  5324 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  5325 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  5326 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  5327 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  5328 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  5329 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  5330 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5331 
  5332   Renamed constants:
  5333   measure -> emeasure
  5334   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  5335   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  5336   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  5337   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  5338 
  5339   Removed locales:
  5340   completeable_measure_space
  5341   finite_measure_space
  5342   finite_prob_space
  5343   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  5344   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  5345   finite_sigma_algebra
  5346   measure_space
  5347   pair_finite_prob_space
  5348   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  5349   pair_finite_space
  5350   pair_sigma_algebra
  5351   product_sigma_algebra
  5352 
  5353   Removed constants:
  5354   conditional_space
  5355   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  5356   image_space
  5357   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  5358   pair_measure_generator
  5359   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  5360   subvimage
  5361 
  5362   Replacement theorems:
  5363   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  5364   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  5365   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  5366   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  5367   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  5368   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  5369   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  5370   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  5371   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  5372   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  5373   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  5374   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  5375   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  5376   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  5377   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  5378   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  5379   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  5380   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  5381   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  5382   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  5383   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  5384   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  5385   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  5386   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  5387   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  5388   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  5389   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  5390   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  5391   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  5392   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  5393   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  5394   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  5395   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  5396   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  5397   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  5398   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  5399   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  5400   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  5401   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  5402   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  5403   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  5404   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  5405   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  5406   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  5407   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  5408   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  5409   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  5410   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  5411   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  5412   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  5413   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  5414   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  5415   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  5416   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  5417   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  5418   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  5419   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  5420   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  5421   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  5422   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  5423   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  5424   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  5425   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  5426   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  5427   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  5428   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  5429   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  5430   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  5431   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  5432   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  5433   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  5434   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  5435   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  5436   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  5437   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  5438   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  5439   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  5440   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  5441   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  5442   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  5443   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  5444   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  5445   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  5446   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  5447   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  5448   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  5449   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  5450   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  5451   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  5452   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  5453   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  5454   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  5455   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  5456   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  5457   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  5458   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  5459   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  5460   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  5461   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  5462   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  5463   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  5464   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  5465   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  5466   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  5467   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  5468   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  5469   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  5470   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  5471   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  5472   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  5473   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  5474   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  5475   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  5476   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  5477   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  5478   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  5479   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  5480   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  5481   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  5482   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  5483   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  5484   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  5485   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  5486   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  5487   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  5488   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  5489   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  5490   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  5491 
  5492 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  5493 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  5494 
  5495 
  5496 *** FOL ***
  5497 
  5498 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  5499 
  5500 
  5501 *** ZF ***
  5502 
  5503 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  5504 analysis.
  5505 
  5506 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  5507 
  5508 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5509 
  5510 
  5511 *** ML ***
  5512 
  5513 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  5514 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  5515 
  5516 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  5517 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  5518 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  5519 
  5520 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  5521 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  5522 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  5523 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  5524 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  5525 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  5526 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  5527 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  5528 
  5529 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  5530 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  5531 
  5532 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  5533 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  5534 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  5535 
  5536 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  5537 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5538 
  5539 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  5540 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  5541 context as well.
  5542 
  5543 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  5544 
  5545   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  5546   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  5547   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  5548   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  5549   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  5550   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  5551   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  5552   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  5553   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  5554   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  5555   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  5556   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  5557 
  5558 
  5559 *** System ***
  5560 
  5561 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  5562 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  5563 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  5564 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  5565 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  5566 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  5567 the generic user home was intended.
  5568 
  5569 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  5570 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  5571 
  5572 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  5573 (not just JRE).
  5574 
  5575 
  5576 
  5577 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  5578 ------------------------------------
  5579 
  5580 *** General ***
  5581 
  5582 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  5583 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  5584 
  5585   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  5586     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  5587     files for checking).
  5588 
  5589   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  5590     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  5591     positions.
  5592 
  5593   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  5594     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  5595     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  5596 
  5597   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  5598     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  5599     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  5600 
  5601   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  5602     cores.
  5603 
  5604   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  5605     versions (garbage collection).
  5606 
  5607 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  5608 including some remaining limitations.
  5609 
  5610 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  5611 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  5612 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  5613 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  5614 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  5615 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5616 
  5617 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  5618 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  5619 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  5620 
  5621 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  5622 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  5623 usedir option -Q.
  5624 
  5625 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  5626 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  5627 
  5628   long_names   ~> names_long
  5629   short_names  ~> names_short
  5630   unique_names ~> names_unique
  5631 
  5632 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  5633 
  5634   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  5635 
  5636 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  5637 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  5638 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  5639 
  5640 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  5641 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  5642 
  5643 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  5644   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  5645   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  5646   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  5647     "Classical Reasoner".
  5648 
  5649 
  5650 *** HOL ***
  5651 
  5652 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  5653 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5654 
  5655 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  5656 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  5657 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  5658 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  5659 class complete_linorder.
  5660 
  5661 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  5662 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  5663 
  5664 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  5665 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  5666 
  5667   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  5668   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  5669   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  5670   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  5671   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  5672   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  5673   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  5674   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  5675   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  5676   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  5677   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  5678 
  5679 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  5680 
  5681   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  5682   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  5683   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  5684   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  5685   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  5686   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  5687   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  5688   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  5689   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  5690   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  5691   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  5692   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  5693   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  5694   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  5695   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  5696   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  5697 
  5698 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5699 
  5700 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  5701 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5702 
  5703 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  5704 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  5705 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  5706 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5707 
  5708 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  5709 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  5710 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  5711 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5712 
  5713 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  5714 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  5715 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  5716 
  5717 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  5718 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  5719 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5720 
  5721 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  5722 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  5723 
  5724 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  5725 
  5726     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  5727     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  5728 
  5729 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  5730 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5731 
  5732 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  5733 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5734 
  5735 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  5736 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  5737 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  5738 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5739 
  5740   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  5741   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  5742   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  5743   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  5744   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  5745   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  5746   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  5747 
  5748 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  5749 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5750 
  5751   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  5752   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  5753   real_less_def ~> less_le
  5754   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  5755   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  5756   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  5757   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  5758   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  5759   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  5760   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  5761   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  5762   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  5763   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  5764   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  5765   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  5766   real_le_linear ~> linear
  5767   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  5768   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  5769   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  5770   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  5771   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  5772   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  5773   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  5774   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  5775   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  5776   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  5777   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  5778   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  5779   expi_add ~> exp_add
  5780   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  5781   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  5782   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  5783   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  5784   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  5785   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  5786   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  5787   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  5788   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  5789   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  5790   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  5791   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  5792   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  5793   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  5794   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  5795   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  5796   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  5797   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  5798   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  5799   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  5800   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  5801   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  5802   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  5803   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  5804   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  5805   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  5806   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  5807   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  5808   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  5809   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  5810   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  5811   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  5812   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  5813   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  5814   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  5815   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  5816   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  5817   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  5818   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  5819   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  5820   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  5821   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  5822   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  5823   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  5824   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  5825   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  5826   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  5827   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  5828   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  5829   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  5830   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  5831   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  5832   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  5833 
  5834 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  5835 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  5836 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  5837 
  5838 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  5839 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  5840 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  5841 
  5842 * Code generation:
  5843 
  5844   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  5845     characters in the target language.
  5846 
  5847   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  5848     instead.
  5849 
  5850   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  5851 
  5852   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  5853     reactivated by the following theory command:
  5854 
  5855       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  5856 
  5857 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5858 
  5859 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  5860 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  5861 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  5862 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  5863 syntax.
  5864 
  5865 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  5866 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  5867 
  5868 * Nitpick:
  5869   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  5870   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  5871   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  5872     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5873 
  5874 * Sledgehammer:
  5875   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  5876   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  5877     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  5878   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  5879     this can be done within reasonable time.
  5880   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  5881     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5882   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  5883     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  5884   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  5885     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5886 
  5887 * Metis:
  5888   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5889   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  5890     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5891 
  5892 * Command 'try':
  5893   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  5894     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5895   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  5896     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  5897 
  5898 * Quickcheck:
  5899   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  5900     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  5901   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  5902     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  5903   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  5904     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  5905     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  5906     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  5907   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  5908     (formly in HOL/Library).
  5909 
  5910 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5911 use 'partial_function' instead.
  5912 
  5913 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  5914 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  5915 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  5916 
  5917 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  5918 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  5919 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5920 
  5921 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  5922 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5923 
  5924 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  5925 arithmetic.
  5926 
  5927 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  5928 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  5929 and lattice type classes.
  5930 
  5931 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  5932 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  5933 
  5934 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  5935 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  5936 
  5937 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  5938 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  5939 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5940 
  5941   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  5942   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  5943   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  5944   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  5945 
  5946 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  5947 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  5948 constants:
  5949 
  5950   type inat   ~> type enat
  5951   Fin         ~> enat
  5952   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  5953   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  5954   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  5955 
  5956 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  5957 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5958 
  5959 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  5960 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  5961 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  5962 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  5963 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  5964 
  5965 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  5966 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  5967 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  5968 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  5969 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  5970 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  5971 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5972 
  5973   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  5974   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  5975   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  5976   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  5977 
  5978 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  5979 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  5980 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5981 
  5982   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  5983   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  5984   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  5985   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  5986   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  5987   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  5988   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  5989   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  5990   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  5991   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  5992   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  5993   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  5994   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  5995   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  5996   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  5997   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  5998   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  5999   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  6000   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  6001   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  6002   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  6003   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  6004   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  6005   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  6006   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  6007   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  6008   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  6009   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  6010   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  6011   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  6012   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  6013   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  6014   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  6015   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  6016   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  6017   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  6018   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  6019   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  6020   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  6021   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  6022   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  6023   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  6024   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  6025   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  6026   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  6027   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  6028   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  6029   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  6030   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  6031   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  6032   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  6033 
  6034 * Session HOL-Probability:
  6035   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  6036   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  6037   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  6038   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  6039     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6040 
  6041 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6042 
  6043   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  6044   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  6045   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  6046   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  6047   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  6048   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  6049   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  6050   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  6051   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  6052   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  6053   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  6054   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  6055   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  6056   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  6057   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  6058   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  6059   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  6060   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  6061   UU_I ~> bottomI
  6062   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  6063   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  6064   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  6065   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  6066   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  6067   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  6068 
  6069 
  6070 *** Document preparation ***
  6071 
  6072 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  6073 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  6074 same.
  6075 
  6076 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  6077 result.
  6078 
  6079 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  6080 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  6081 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  6082 
  6083 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  6084 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  6085 
  6086 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  6087 like this:
  6088 
  6089   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  6090   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  6091 
  6092 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  6093 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  6094 layouts.
  6095 
  6096 
  6097 *** ML ***
  6098 
  6099 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  6100 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  6101 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  6102 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  6103 under external program control.
  6104 
  6105 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  6106 data, which requires explicit setup.
  6107 
  6108 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  6109 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  6110 (better known as Proof General).
  6111 
  6112 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  6113 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  6114 
  6115 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  6116 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  6117 
  6118 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  6119 (including quotes etc.).
  6120 
  6121 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  6122 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  6123 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  6124 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  6125 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  6126 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  6127 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  6128 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  6129 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  6130 
  6131 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  6132 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  6133 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  6134 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  6135 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  6136 
  6137 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  6138 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  6139 
  6140 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  6141 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  6142 
  6143 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  6144 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  6145 
  6146 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  6147 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  6148 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  6149 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  6150 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  6151 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  6152 proper Proof.context.
  6153 
  6154 
  6155 *** System ***
  6156 
  6157 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  6158 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  6159 
  6160 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  6161 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  6162 
  6163 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  6164 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  6165 
  6166   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  6167   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  6168   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  6169   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  6170   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  6171 
  6172 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  6173 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6174 
  6175 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  6176 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  6177 example:
  6178 
  6179   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  6180 
  6181 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  6182 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  6183 
  6184 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  6185 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  6186 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  6187 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  6188 
  6189 
  6190 
  6191 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  6192 ----------------------------------
  6193 
  6194 *** General ***
  6195 
  6196 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  6197 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  6198 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  6199 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  6200 like this:
  6201 
  6202   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  6203 
  6204 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  6205 
  6206 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  6207 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  6208 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  6209 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  6210 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  6211 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  6212 
  6213 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  6214 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  6215 the following package declarations:
  6216 
  6217   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  6218   \usepackage{textcomp}
  6219 
  6220 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  6221 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  6222 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  6223 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  6224 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  6225 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  6226 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  6227 
  6228 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  6229 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  6230 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  6231 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  6232 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  6233 
  6234 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  6235 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  6236 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  6237 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6238 
  6239 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  6240 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  6241 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  6242 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  6243 
  6244   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  6245 
  6246   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  6247   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  6248   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  6249   show_types                    show_types
  6250   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  6251   show_consts                   show_consts
  6252   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  6253 
  6254   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  6255   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  6256   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  6257 
  6258   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  6259   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  6260 
  6261   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  6262