NEWS
author wenzelm
Sun Oct 16 22:43:51 2016 +0200 (2016-10-16)
changeset 64265 8eb6365f5916
parent 64246 15d1ee6e847b
child 64274 c8990e5feac9
permissions -rw-r--r--
isabelle build -N;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history of user-relevant changes
     2 =================================================
     3 
     4 (Note: Isabelle/jEdit shows a tree-view of the NEWS file in Sidekick.)
     5 
     6 
     7 New in Isabelle2016-1 (December 2016)
     8 -------------------------------------
     9 
    10 *** General ***
    11 
    12 * Command 'bundle' provides a local theory target to define a bundle
    13 from the body of specification commands (such as 'declare',
    14 'declaration', 'notation', 'lemmas', 'lemma'). For example:
    15 
    16 bundle foo
    17 begin
    18   declare a [simp]
    19   declare b [intro]
    20 end
    21 
    22 * Command 'unbundle' is like 'include', but works within a local theory
    23 context. Unlike "context includes ... begin", the effect of 'unbundle'
    24 on the target context persists, until different declarations are given.
    25 
    26 * Simplified outer syntax: uniform category "name" includes long
    27 identifiers. Former "xname" / "nameref" / "name reference" has been
    28 discontinued.
    29 
    30 * Embedded content (e.g. the inner syntax of types, terms, props) may be
    31 delimited uniformly via cartouches. This works better than old-fashioned
    32 quotes when sub-languages are nested.
    33 
    34 * Mixfix annotations support general block properties, with syntax
    35 "(\<open>x=a y=b z \<dots>\<close>". Notable property names are "indent", "consistent",
    36 "unbreakable", "markup". The existing notation "(DIGITS" is equivalent
    37 to "(\<open>indent=DIGITS\<close>". The former notation "(00" for unbreakable blocks
    38 is superseded by "(\<open>unbreabable\<close>" --- rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
    39 
    40 * Proof method "blast" is more robust wrt. corner cases of Pure
    41 statements without object-logic judgment.
    42 
    43 * Commands 'prf' and 'full_prf' are somewhat more informative (again):
    44 proof terms are reconstructed and cleaned from administrative thm nodes.
    45 
    46 * Code generator: config option "code_timing" triggers measurements of
    47 different phases of code generation. See src/HOL/ex/Code_Timing.thy for
    48 examples.
    49 
    50 * Code generator: implicits in Scala (stemming from type class
    51 instances) are generated into companion object of corresponding type
    52 class, to resolve some situations where ambiguities may occur.
    53 
    54 * Splitter in simp, auto and friends:
    55   - The syntax "split add" has been discontinued, use plain "split",
    56     INCOMPATIBILITY.
    57   - For situations with many conditional or case expressions, there is
    58     an alternative splitting strategy that can be much faster. It is
    59     selected by writing "split!" instead of "split". It applies safe
    60     introduction and elimination rules after each split rule. As a
    61     result the subgoal may be split into several subgoals.
    62 
    63 * Solve direct: option 'solve_direct_strict_warnings' gives explicit
    64   warnings for lemma statements with trivial proofs.
    65 
    66 
    67 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    68 
    69 * Highlighting of entity def/ref positions wrt. cursor.
    70 
    71 * Action "isabelle.select-entity" (shortcut CS+ENTER) selects all
    72 occurences of the formal entity at the caret position. This facilitates
    73 systematic renaming.
    74 
    75 * PIDE document markup works across multiple Isar commands, e.g. the
    76 results established at the end of a proof are properly identified in the
    77 theorem statement.
    78 
    79 * Cartouche abbreviations work both for " and ` to accomodate typical
    80 situations where old ASCII notation may be updated.
    81 
    82 * Dockable window "Symbols" also provides access to 'abbrevs' from the
    83 outer syntax of the current theory buffer. This provides clickable
    84 syntax templates, including entries with empty abbrevs name (which are
    85 inaccessible via keyboard completion).
    86 
    87 * IDE support for the Isabelle/Pure bootstrap process, with the
    88 following independent stages:
    89 
    90   src/Pure/ROOT0.ML
    91   src/Pure/ROOT.ML
    92   src/Pure/Pure.thy
    93   src/Pure/ML_Bootstrap.thy
    94 
    95 The ML ROOT files act like quasi-theories in the context of theory
    96 ML_Bootstrap: this allows continuous checking of all loaded ML files.
    97 The theory files are presented with a modified header to import Pure
    98 from the running Isabelle instance. Results from changed versions of
    99 each stage are *not* propagated to the next stage, and isolated from the
   100 actual Isabelle/Pure that runs the IDE itself. The sequential
   101 dependencies of the above files are only observed for batch build.
   102 
   103 * Isabelle/ML and Standard ML files are presented in Sidekick with the
   104 tree structure of section headings: this special comment format is
   105 described in "implementation" chapter 0, e.g. (*** section ***).
   106 
   107 * Sidekick parser "isabelle-context" shows nesting of context blocks
   108 according to 'begin' and 'end' structure.
   109 
   110 * Syntactic indentation according to Isabelle outer syntax. Action
   111 "indent-lines" (shortcut C+i) indents the current line according to
   112 command keywords and some command substructure. Action
   113 "isabelle.newline" (shortcut ENTER) indents the old and the new line
   114 according to command keywords only; see also option
   115 "jedit_indent_newline".
   116 
   117 * Semantic indentation for unstructured proof scripts ('apply' etc.) via
   118 number of subgoals. This requires information of ongoing document
   119 processing and may thus lag behind, when the user is editing too
   120 quickly; see also option "jedit_script_indent" and
   121 "jedit_script_indent_limit".
   122 
   123 * Refined folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax: 'next' and 'qed'
   124 are treated as delimiters for fold structure; 'begin' and 'end'
   125 structure of theory specifications is treated as well.
   126 
   127 * Action "isabelle.keymap-merge" asks the user to resolve pending
   128 Isabelle keymap changes that are in conflict with the current jEdit
   129 keymap; non-conflicting changes are always applied implicitly. This
   130 action is automatically invoked on Isabelle/jEdit startup and thus
   131 increases chances that users see new keyboard shortcuts when re-using
   132 old keymaps.
   133 
   134 * Command 'proof' provides information about proof outline with cases,
   135 e.g. for proof methods "cases", "induct", "goal_cases".
   136 
   137 * Completion templates for commands involving "begin ... end" blocks,
   138 e.g. 'context', 'notepad'.
   139 
   140 * Additional abbreviations for syntactic completion may be specified
   141 within the theory header as 'abbrevs'. The theory syntax for 'keywords'
   142 has been simplified accordingly: optional abbrevs need to go into the
   143 new 'abbrevs' section.
   144 
   145 * Global abbreviations via $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/abbrevs and
   146 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs are no longer supported. Minor
   147 INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'abbrevs' within theory header instead.
   148 
   149 * ML and document antiquotations for file-systems paths are more uniform
   150 and diverse:
   151 
   152   @{path NAME}   -- no file-system check
   153   @{file NAME}   -- check for plain file
   154   @{dir NAME}    -- check for directory
   155 
   156 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, former uses of @{file} and @{file_unchecked} may
   157 have to be changed.
   158 
   159 
   160 *** Document preparation ***
   161 
   162 * New symbol \<circle>, e.g. for temporal operator.
   163 
   164 * New document and ML antiquotation @{locale} for locales, similar to
   165 existing antiquotation @{class}.
   166 
   167 * Mixfix annotations support delimiters like \<^control>\<open>cartouche\<close> --
   168 this allows special forms of document output.
   169 
   170 * Raw LaTeX output now works via \<^latex>\<open>...\<close> instead of raw control
   171 symbol \<^raw:...>. INCOMPATIBILITY, notably for LaTeXsugar.thy and its
   172 derivatives.
   173 
   174 * \<^raw:...> symbols are no longer supported.
   175 
   176 * Old 'header' command is no longer supported (legacy since
   177 Isabelle2015).
   178 
   179 
   180 *** Isar ***
   181 
   182 * Many specification elements support structured statements with 'if' /
   183 'for' eigen-context, e.g. 'axiomatization', 'abbreviation',
   184 'definition', 'inductive', 'function'.
   185 
   186 * Toplevel theorem statements support eigen-context notation with 'if' /
   187 'for' (in postfix), which corresponds to 'assumes' / 'fixes' in the
   188 traditional long statement form (in prefix). Local premises are called
   189 "that" or "assms", respectively. Empty premises are *not* bound in the
   190 context: INCOMPATIBILITY.
   191 
   192 * Command 'define' introduces a local (non-polymorphic) definition, with
   193 optional abstraction over local parameters. The syntax resembles
   194 'definition' and 'obtain'. It fits better into the Isar language than
   195 old 'def', which is now a legacy feature.
   196 
   197 * Command 'obtain' supports structured statements with 'if' / 'for'
   198 context.
   199 
   200 * Command '\<proof>' is an alias for 'sorry', with different
   201 typesetting. E.g. to produce proof holes in examples and documentation.
   202 
   203 * The defining position of a literal fact \<open>prop\<close> is maintained more
   204 carefully, and made accessible as hyperlink in the Prover IDE.
   205 
   206 * Commands 'finally' and 'ultimately' used to expose the result as
   207 literal fact: this accidental behaviour has been discontinued. Rare
   208 INCOMPATIBILITY, use more explicit means to refer to facts in Isar.
   209 
   210 * Command 'axiomatization' has become more restrictive to correspond
   211 better to internal axioms as singleton facts with mandatory name. Minor
   212 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   213 
   214 * Proof methods may refer to the main facts via the dynamic fact
   215 "method_facts". This is particularly useful for Eisbach method
   216 definitions.
   217 
   218 * Proof method "use" allows to modify the main facts of a given method
   219 expression, e.g.
   220 
   221   (use facts in simp)
   222   (use facts in \<open>simp add: ...\<close>)
   223 
   224 * The old proof method "default" has been removed (legacy since
   225 Isabelle2016). INCOMPATIBILITY, use "standard" instead.
   226 
   227 
   228 *** Pure ***
   229 
   230 * Pure provides basic versions of proof methods "simp" and "simp_all"
   231 that only know about meta-equality (==). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in
   232 theory imports that merge Pure with e.g. Main of Isabelle/HOL: the order
   233 is relevant to avoid confusion of Pure.simp vs. HOL.simp.
   234 
   235 * The command 'unfolding' and proof method "unfold" include a second
   236 stage where given equations are passed through the attribute "abs_def"
   237 before rewriting. This ensures that definitions are fully expanded,
   238 regardless of the actual parameters that are provided. Rare
   239 INCOMPATIBILITY in some corner cases: use proof method (simp only:)
   240 instead, or declare [[unfold_abs_def = false]] in the proof context.
   241 
   242 * Type-inference improves sorts of newly introduced type variables for
   243 the object-logic, using its base sort (i.e. HOL.type for Isabelle/HOL).
   244 Thus terms like "f x" or "\<And>x. P x" without any further syntactic context
   245 produce x::'a::type in HOL instead of x::'a::{} in Pure. Rare
   246 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide explicit type constraints for Pure
   247 types where this is really intended.
   248 
   249 
   250 *** HOL ***
   251 
   252 * Sligthly more standardized theorem names:
   253     sgn_times ~> sgn_mult
   254     sgn_mult' ~> Real_Vector_Spaces.sgn_mult
   255     divide_zero_left ~> div_0
   256     zero_mod_left ~> mod_0
   257     divide_zero ~> div_by_0
   258     divide_1 ~> div_by_1
   259     nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_left ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_left
   260     div_mult_self1_is_id ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_left
   261     nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_right ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_right
   262     div_mult_self2_is_id ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_right
   263     is_unit_divide_mult_cancel_left ~> is_unit_div_mult_cancel_left
   264     is_unit_divide_mult_cancel_right ~> is_unit_div_mult_cancel_right
   265     mod_div_equality ~> div_mult_mod_eq
   266     mod_div_equality2 ~> mult_div_mod_eq
   267     mod_div_equality3 ~> mod_div_mult_eq
   268     mod_div_equality4 ~> mod_mult_div_eq
   269     minus_div_eq_mod ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod
   270     minus_div_eq_mod2 ~> minus_mult_div_eq_mod
   271     minus_mod_eq_div ~> minus_mod_eq_div_mult
   272     minus_mod_eq_div2 ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div
   273     div_mod_equality' ~> minus_mod_eq_div_mult [symmetric]
   274     mod_div_equality' ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod [symmetric]
   275     zmod_zdiv_equality ~> mult_div_mod_eq [symmetric]
   276     zmod_zdiv_equality' ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod [symmetric]
   277     Divides.mult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
   278     mult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
   279     zmult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
   280     div_1 ~> div_by_Suc_0
   281     mod_1 ~> mod_by_Suc_0
   282 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   283 
   284 * Dedicated syntax LENGTH('a) for length of types.
   285 
   286 * New proof method "argo" using the built-in Argo solver based on SMT
   287 technology. The method can be used to prove goals of quantifier-free
   288 propositional logic, goals based on a combination of quantifier-free
   289 propositional logic with equality, and goals based on a combination of
   290 quantifier-free propositional logic with linear real arithmetic
   291 including min/max/abs. See HOL/ex/Argo_Examples.thy for examples.
   292 
   293 * Metis: The problem encoding has changed very slightly. This might
   294 break existing proofs. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   295 
   296 * Sledgehammer:
   297   - The MaSh relevance filter is now faster than before.
   298   - Produce syntactically correct Vampire 4.0 problem files.
   299 
   300 * (Co)datatype package:
   301   - New commands for defining corecursive functions and reasoning about
   302     them in "~~/src/HOL/Library/BNF_Corec.thy": 'corec', 'corecursive',
   303     'friend_of_corec', and 'corecursion_upto'; and 'corec_unique' proof
   304     method. See 'isabelle doc corec'.
   305   - The predicator :: ('a \<Rightarrow> bool) \<Rightarrow> 'a F \<Rightarrow> bool is now a first-class
   306     citizen in bounded natural functors.
   307   - 'primrec' now allows nested calls through the predicator in addition
   308     to the map function.
   309   - 'bnf' automatically discharges reflexive proof obligations.
   310   - 'bnf' outputs a slightly modified proof obligation expressing rel in
   311        terms of map and set
   312        (not giving a specification for rel makes this one reflexive).
   313   - 'bnf' outputs a new proof obligation expressing pred in terms of set
   314        (not giving a specification for pred makes this one reflexive).
   315     INCOMPATIBILITY: manual 'bnf' declarations may need adjustment.
   316   - Renamed lemmas:
   317       rel_prod_apply ~> rel_prod_inject
   318       pred_prod_apply ~> pred_prod_inject
   319     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   320   - The "size" plugin has been made compatible again with locales.
   321   - The theorems about "rel" and "set" may have a slightly different (but
   322     equivalent) form.
   323     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   324 
   325 * The 'coinductive' command produces a proper coinduction rule for
   326 mutual coinductive predicates. This new rule replaces the old rule,
   327 which exposed details of the internal fixpoint construction and was
   328 hard to use. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   329 
   330 * New abbreviations for negated existence (but not bounded existence):
   331 
   332   \<nexists>x. P x \<equiv> \<not> (\<exists>x. P x)
   333   \<nexists>!x. P x \<equiv> \<not> (\<exists>!x. P x)
   334 
   335 * The print mode "HOL" for ASCII syntax of binders "!", "?", "?!", "@"
   336 has been removed for output. It is retained for input only, until it is
   337 eliminated altogether.
   338 
   339 * The unique existence quantifier no longer provides 'binder' syntax,
   340 but uses syntax translations (as for bounded unique existence). Thus
   341 iterated quantification \<exists>!x y. P x y with its slightly confusing
   342 sequential meaning \<exists>!x. \<exists>!y. P x y is no longer possible. Instead,
   343 pattern abstraction admits simultaneous unique existence \<exists>!(x, y). P x y
   344 (analogous to existing notation \<exists>!(x, y)\<in>A. P x y). Potential
   345 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.
   346 
   347 * Conventional syntax "%(). t" for unit abstractions. Slight syntactic
   348 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   349 
   350 * Characters (type char) are modelled as finite algebraic type
   351 corresponding to {0..255}.
   352 
   353   - Logical representation:
   354     * 0 is instantiated to the ASCII zero character.
   355     * All other characters are represented as "Char n"
   356       with n being a raw numeral expression less than 256.
   357     * Expressions of the form "Char n" with n greater than 255
   358       are non-canonical.
   359   - Printing and parsing:
   360     * Printable characters are printed and parsed as "CHR ''\<dots>''"
   361       (as before).
   362     * The ASCII zero character is printed and parsed as "0".
   363     * All other canonical characters are printed as "CHR 0xXX"
   364       with XX being the hexadecimal character code.  "CHR n"
   365       is parsable for every numeral expression n.
   366     * Non-canonical characters have no special syntax and are
   367       printed as their logical representation.
   368   - Explicit conversions from and to the natural numbers are
   369     provided as char_of_nat, nat_of_char (as before).
   370   - The auxiliary nibble type has been discontinued.
   371 
   372 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   373 
   374 * Type class "div" with operation "mod" renamed to type class "modulo"
   375 with operation "modulo", analogously to type class "divide". This
   376 eliminates the need to qualify any of those names in the presence of
   377 infix "mod" syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   378 
   379 * Statements and proofs of Knaster-Tarski fixpoint combinators lfp/gfp
   380 have been clarified. The fixpoint properties are lfp_fixpoint, its
   381 symmetric lfp_unfold (as before), and the duals for gfp. Auxiliary items
   382 for the proof (lfp_lemma2 etc.) are no longer exported, but can be
   383 easily recovered by composition with eq_refl. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   384 
   385 * Constant "surj" is a mere input abbreviation, to avoid hiding an
   386 equation in term output. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   387 
   388 * Command 'code_reflect' accepts empty constructor lists for datatypes,
   389 which renders those abstract effectively.
   390 
   391 * Command 'export_code' checks given constants for abstraction
   392 violations: a small guarantee that given constants specify a safe
   393 interface for the generated code.
   394 
   395 * Code generation for Scala: ambiguous implicts in class diagrams are
   396 spelt out explicitly.
   397 
   398 * Static evaluators (Code_Evaluation.static_* in Isabelle/ML) rely on
   399 explicitly provided auxiliary definitions for required type class
   400 dictionaries rather than half-working magic.  INCOMPATIBILITY, see
   401 the tutorial on code generation for details.
   402 
   403 * Theory Set_Interval.thy: substantial new theorems on indexed sums
   404 and products.
   405 
   406 * Theory List.thy: ranaming of listsum ~> sum_list, listprod ~>
   407 prod_list, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   408 
   409 * Locale bijection establishes convenient default simp rules such as
   410 "inv f (f a) = a" for total bijections.
   411 
   412 * Abstract locales semigroup, abel_semigroup, semilattice,
   413 semilattice_neutr, ordering, ordering_top, semilattice_order,
   414 semilattice_neutr_order, comm_monoid_set, semilattice_set,
   415 semilattice_neutr_set, semilattice_order_set,
   416 semilattice_order_neutr_set monoid_list, comm_monoid_list,
   417 comm_monoid_list_set, comm_monoid_mset, comm_monoid_fun use boldified
   418 syntax uniformly that does not clash with corresponding global syntax.
   419 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   420 
   421 * Former locale lifting_syntax is now a bundle, which is easier to
   422 include in a local context or theorem statement, e.g. "context includes
   423 lifting_syntax begin ... end". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   424 
   425 * Some old / obsolete theorems have been renamed / removed, potential
   426 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   427 
   428   nat_less_cases  --  removed, use linorder_cases instead
   429   inv_image_comp  --  removed, use image_inv_f_f instead
   430   image_surj_f_inv_f  ~>  image_f_inv_f
   431 
   432 * Some theorems about groups and orders have been generalised from
   433   groups to semi-groups that are also monoids:
   434     le_add_same_cancel1
   435     le_add_same_cancel2
   436     less_add_same_cancel1
   437     less_add_same_cancel2
   438     add_le_same_cancel1
   439     add_le_same_cancel2
   440     add_less_same_cancel1
   441     add_less_same_cancel2
   442 
   443 * Some simplifications theorems about rings have been removed, since
   444   superseeded by a more general version:
   445     less_add_cancel_left_greater_zero ~> less_add_same_cancel1
   446     less_add_cancel_right_greater_zero ~> less_add_same_cancel2
   447     less_eq_add_cancel_left_greater_eq_zero ~> le_add_same_cancel1
   448     less_eq_add_cancel_right_greater_eq_zero ~> le_add_same_cancel2
   449     less_eq_add_cancel_left_less_eq_zero ~> add_le_same_cancel1
   450     less_eq_add_cancel_right_less_eq_zero ~> add_le_same_cancel2
   451     less_add_cancel_left_less_zero ~> add_less_same_cancel1
   452     less_add_cancel_right_less_zero ~> add_less_same_cancel2
   453 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   454 
   455 * Renamed split_if -> if_split and split_if_asm -> if_split_asm to
   456 resemble the f.split naming convention, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   457 
   458 * Added class topological_monoid.
   459 
   460 * HOL-Library: theory FinFun bundles "finfun_syntax" and
   461 "no_finfun_syntax" allow to control optional syntax in local contexts;
   462 this supersedes former theory FinFun_Syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY, e.g. use
   463 "unbundle finfun_syntax" to imitate import of
   464 "~~/src/HOL/Library/FinFun_Syntax".
   465 
   466 * HOL-Library: theory Multiset_Permutations (executably) defines the set of
   467 permutations of a given set or multiset, i.e. the set of all lists that
   468 contain every element of the carrier (multi-)set exactly once.
   469 
   470 * HOL-Library: multiset membership is now expressed using set_mset
   471 rather than count.
   472 
   473   - Expressions "count M a > 0" and similar simplify to membership
   474     by default.
   475 
   476   - Converting between "count M a = 0" and non-membership happens using
   477     equations count_eq_zero_iff and not_in_iff.
   478 
   479   - Rules count_inI and in_countE obtain facts of the form
   480     "count M a = n" from membership.
   481 
   482   - Rules count_in_diffI and in_diff_countE obtain facts of the form
   483     "count M a = n + count N a" from membership on difference sets.
   484 
   485 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   486 
   487 * HOL-Library: theory LaTeXsugar uses new-style "dummy_pats" for
   488 displaying equations in functional programming style --- variables
   489 present on the left-hand but not on the righ-hand side are replaced by
   490 underscores.
   491 
   492 * HOL-Library: theory Combinator_PER provides combinator to build
   493 partial equivalence relations from a predicate and an equivalence
   494 relation.
   495 
   496 * HOL-Library: theory Perm provides basic facts about almost everywhere
   497 fix bijections.
   498 
   499 * HOL-Library: theory Normalized_Fraction allows viewing an element of a
   500 field of fractions as a normalized fraction (i.e. a pair of numerator
   501 and denominator such that the two are coprime and the denominator is
   502 normalized wrt. unit factors).
   503 
   504 * Session HOL-NSA has been renamed to HOL-Nonstandard_Analysis.
   505 
   506 * Session HOL-Multivariate_Analysis has been renamed to HOL-Analysis.
   507 
   508 * HOL-Analysis: measure theory has been moved here from HOL-Probability.
   509 When importing HOL-Analysis some theorems need additional name spaces
   510 prefixes due to name clashes. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   511 
   512 * HOL-Analysis: more complex analysis including Cauchy's inequality,
   513 Liouville theorem, open mapping theorem, maximum modulus principle,
   514 Residue theorem, Schwarz Lemma.
   515 
   516 * HOL-Analysis: Theory of polyhedra: faces, extreme points, polytopes,
   517 and the Krein–Milman Minkowski theorem.
   518 
   519 * HOL-Analysis: Numerous results ported from the HOL Light libraries:
   520 homeomorphisms, continuous function extensions, invariance of domain.
   521 
   522 * HOL-Probability: the type of emeasure and nn_integral was changed from
   523 ereal to ennreal, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   524 
   525   emeasure :: 'a measure \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> ennreal
   526   nn_integral :: 'a measure \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> ennreal) \<Rightarrow> ennreal
   527 
   528 * HOL-Probability: Code generation and QuickCheck for Probability Mass
   529 Functions.
   530 
   531 * HOL-Probability: theory Random_Permutations contains some theory about
   532 choosing a permutation of a set uniformly at random and folding over a
   533 list in random order.
   534 
   535 * HOL-Probability: theory SPMF formalises discrete subprobability
   536 distributions.
   537 
   538 * HOL-Number_Theory: algebraic foundation for primes: Generalisation of
   539 predicate "prime" and introduction of predicates "prime_elem",
   540 "irreducible", a "prime_factorization" function, and the
   541 "factorial_ring" typeclass with instance proofs for nat, int, poly. Some
   542 theorems now have different names, most notably "prime_def" is now
   543 "prime_nat_iff". INCOMPATIBILITY.
   544 
   545 * HOL-Library: the names of multiset theorems have been normalised to
   546 distinguish which ordering the theorems are about
   547 
   548     mset_less_eqI ~> mset_subset_eqI
   549     mset_less_insertD ~> mset_subset_insertD
   550     mset_less_eq_count ~> mset_subset_eq_count
   551     mset_less_diff_self ~> mset_subset_diff_self
   552     mset_le_exists_conv ~> mset_subset_eq_exists_conv
   553     mset_le_mono_add_right_cancel ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add_right_cancel
   554     mset_le_mono_add_left_cancel ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add_left_cancel
   555     mset_le_mono_add ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add
   556     mset_le_add_left ~> mset_subset_eq_add_left
   557     mset_le_add_right ~> mset_subset_eq_add_right
   558     mset_le_single ~> mset_subset_eq_single
   559     mset_le_multiset_union_diff_commute ~> mset_subset_eq_multiset_union_diff_commute
   560     diff_le_self ~> diff_subset_eq_self
   561     mset_leD ~> mset_subset_eqD
   562     mset_lessD ~> mset_subsetD
   563     mset_le_insertD ~> mset_subset_eq_insertD
   564     mset_less_of_empty ~> mset_subset_of_empty
   565     mset_less_size ~> mset_subset_size
   566     wf_less_mset_rel ~> wf_subset_mset_rel
   567     count_le_replicate_mset_le ~> count_le_replicate_mset_subset_eq
   568     mset_remdups_le ~> mset_remdups_subset_eq
   569     ms_lesseq_impl ~> subset_eq_mset_impl
   570 
   571 Some functions have been renamed:
   572     ms_lesseq_impl -> subset_eq_mset_impl
   573 
   574 * HOL-Library: multisets are now ordered with the multiset ordering
   575     #\<subseteq># ~> \<le>
   576     #\<subset># ~> <
   577     le_multiset ~> less_eq_multiset
   578     less_multiset ~> le_multiset
   579 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   580 
   581 * HOL-Library: the prefix multiset_order has been discontinued: the
   582 theorems can be directly accessed. As a consequence, the lemmas
   583 "order_multiset" and "linorder_multiset" have been discontinued, and the
   584 interpretations "multiset_linorder" and "multiset_wellorder" have been
   585 replaced by instantiations. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   586 
   587 * HOL-Library: some theorems about the multiset ordering have been
   588 renamed:
   589 
   590     le_multiset_def ~> less_eq_multiset_def
   591     less_multiset_def ~> le_multiset_def
   592     less_eq_imp_le_multiset ~> subset_eq_imp_le_multiset
   593     mult_less_not_refl ~> mset_le_not_refl
   594     mult_less_trans ~> mset_le_trans
   595     mult_less_not_sym ~> mset_le_not_sym
   596     mult_less_asym ~> mset_le_asym
   597     mult_less_irrefl ~> mset_le_irrefl
   598     union_less_mono2{,1,2} ~> union_le_mono2{,1,2}
   599 
   600     le_multiset\<^sub>H\<^sub>O ~> less_eq_multiset\<^sub>H\<^sub>O
   601     le_multiset_total ~> less_eq_multiset_total
   602     less_multiset_right_total ~> subset_eq_imp_le_multiset
   603     le_multiset_empty_left ~> less_eq_multiset_empty_left
   604     le_multiset_empty_right ~> less_eq_multiset_empty_right
   605     less_multiset_empty_right ~> le_multiset_empty_left
   606     less_multiset_empty_left ~> le_multiset_empty_right
   607     union_less_diff_plus ~> union_le_diff_plus
   608     ex_gt_count_imp_less_multiset ~> ex_gt_count_imp_le_multiset
   609     less_multiset_plus_left_nonempty ~> le_multiset_plus_left_nonempty
   610     le_multiset_plus_right_nonempty ~> le_multiset_plus_right_nonempty
   611 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   612 
   613 * HOL-Library: the lemma mset_map has now the attribute [simp].
   614 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   615 
   616 * HOL-Library: some theorems about multisets have been removed.
   617 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the following replacements:
   618 
   619     le_multiset_plus_plus_left_iff ~> add_less_cancel_right
   620     less_multiset_plus_plus_left_iff ~> add_less_cancel_right
   621     le_multiset_plus_plus_right_iff ~> add_less_cancel_left
   622     less_multiset_plus_plus_right_iff ~> add_less_cancel_left
   623     add_eq_self_empty_iff ~> add_cancel_left_right
   624     mset_subset_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
   625     mset_less_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
   626     mset_le_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
   627     empty_inter ~> subset_mset.inf_bot_left
   628     inter_empty ~> subset_mset.inf_bot_right
   629     empty_sup ~> subset_mset.sup_bot_left
   630     sup_empty ~> subset_mset.sup_bot_right
   631     bdd_below_multiset ~> subset_mset.bdd_above_bot
   632     subset_eq_empty ~> subset_mset.le_zero_eq
   633     le_empty ~> subset_mset.le_zero_eq
   634     mset_subset_empty_nonempty ~> subset_mset.zero_less_iff_neq_zero
   635     mset_less_empty_nonempty ~> subset_mset.zero_less_iff_neq_zero
   636 
   637 * HOL-Library: some typeclass constraints about multisets have been
   638 reduced from ordered or linordered to preorder. Multisets have the
   639 additional typeclasses order_bot, no_top,
   640 ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le, ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_add,
   641 linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add, and
   642 ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   643 
   644 * HOL-Library: there are some new simplification rules about multisets,
   645 the multiset ordering, and the subset ordering on multisets.
   646 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   647 
   648 * HOL-Library: the subset ordering on multisets has now the
   649 interpretations ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le and
   650 bounded_lattice_bot. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   651 
   652 * HOL-Library/Multiset: single has been removed in favor of add_mset
   653 that roughly corresponds to Set.insert. Some theorems have removed or
   654 changed:
   655 
   656   single_not_empty ~> add_mset_not_empty or empty_not_add_mset
   657   fold_mset_insert ~> fold_mset_add_mset
   658   image_mset_insert ~> image_mset_add_mset
   659   union_single_eq_diff
   660   multi_self_add_other_not_self
   661   diff_single_eq_union
   662 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   663 
   664 * HOL-Library/Multiset: some theorems have been changed to use add_mset
   665 instead of single:
   666 
   667   mset_add
   668   multi_self_add_other_not_self
   669   diff_single_eq_union
   670   union_single_eq_diff
   671   union_single_eq_member
   672   add_eq_conv_diff
   673   insert_noteq_member
   674   add_eq_conv_ex
   675   multi_member_split
   676   multiset_add_sub_el_shuffle
   677   mset_subset_eq_insertD
   678   mset_subset_insertD
   679   insert_subset_eq_iff
   680   insert_union_subset_iff
   681   multi_psub_of_add_self
   682   inter_add_left1
   683   inter_add_left2
   684   inter_add_right1
   685   inter_add_right2
   686   sup_union_left1
   687   sup_union_left2
   688   sup_union_right1
   689   sup_union_right2
   690   size_eq_Suc_imp_eq_union
   691   multi_nonempty_split
   692   mset_insort
   693   mset_update
   694   mult1I
   695   less_add
   696   mset_zip_take_Cons_drop_twice
   697   rel_mset_Zero
   698   msed_map_invL
   699   msed_map_invR
   700   msed_rel_invL
   701   msed_rel_invR
   702   le_multiset_right_total
   703   multiset_induct
   704   multiset_induct2_size
   705   multiset_induct2
   706 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   707 
   708 * HOL-Library/Multiset. The definitions of some constants have changed
   709 to use add_mset instead of adding a single element:
   710   image_mset
   711   mset
   712   replicate_mset
   713   mult1
   714   pred_mset
   715   rel_mset'
   716   mset_insort
   717 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   718 
   719 * HOL-Library/Multiset. Due to the above changes, the attributes of some
   720 multiset theorems have been changed:
   721   insert_DiffM  [] ~> [simp]
   722   insert_DiffM2 [simp] ~> []
   723   diff_add_mset_swap [simp]
   724   fold_mset_add_mset [simp]
   725   diff_diff_add [simp] (for multisets only)
   726   diff_cancel [simp] ~> []
   727   count_single [simp] ~> []
   728   set_mset_single [simp] ~> []
   729   size_multiset_single [simp] ~> []
   730   size_single [simp] ~> []
   731   image_mset_single [simp] ~> []
   732   mset_subset_eq_mono_add_right_cancel [simp] ~> []
   733   mset_subset_eq_mono_add_left_cancel [simp] ~> []
   734   fold_mset_single [simp] ~> []
   735   subset_eq_empty [simp] ~> []
   736   empty_sup [simp] ~> []
   737   sup_empty [simp] ~> []
   738   inter_empty [simp] ~> []
   739   empty_inter [simp] ~> []
   740 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   741 
   742 * HOL-Library/Multiset. The order of the variables in the second cases
   743 of multiset_induct, multiset_induct2_size, multiset_induct2 has been
   744 changed (e.g. Add A a ~> Add a A). INCOMPATIBILITY.
   745 
   746 * HOL-Library/Multiset. There is now a simplification procedure on
   747 multisets. It mimics the behavior of the procedure on natural numbers.
   748 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   749 
   750 * HOL-Library/Multiset. Renamed sums and products of multisets:
   751   msetsum ~> sum_mset
   752   msetprod ~> prod_mset
   753 
   754 * HOL-Library/Multiset. The notation for intersection and union of
   755 multisets have been changed:
   756   #\<inter> ~> \<inter>#
   757   #\<union> ~> \<union>#
   758 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   759 
   760 * HOL-Library/Multiset. The lemma one_step_implies_mult_aux on multisets
   761 has been removed, use one_step_implies_mult instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   762 
   763 * The following theorems have been renamed:
   764   setsum_left_distrib ~> setsum_distrib_right
   765   setsum_right_distrib ~> setsum_distrib_left
   766 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   767 
   768 * Compound constants INFIMUM and SUPREMUM are mere abbreviations now.
   769 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   770 
   771 * "Gcd (f ` A)" and "Lcm (f ` A)" are printed with optional
   772 comprehension-like syntax analogously to "Inf (f ` A)" and "Sup (f ` A)".
   773 
   774 * Class semiring_Lcd merged into semiring_Gcd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   775 
   776 * The type class ordered_comm_monoid_add is now called
   777 ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_add. A new type class ordered_comm_monoid_add
   778 is introduced as the combination of ordered_ab_semigroup_add +
   779 comm_monoid_add. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   780 
   781 * Introduced the type classes canonically_ordered_comm_monoid_add and
   782 dioid.
   783 
   784 * Introduced the type class ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le. When
   785 instantiating linordered_semiring_strict and ordered_ab_group_add, an
   786 explicit instantiation of ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le might
   787 be required. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   788 
   789 * HOL-Library: theory Complete_Partial_Order2 provides reasoning support
   790 for monotonicity and continuity in chain-complete partial orders and
   791 about admissibility conditions for fixpoint inductions.
   792 
   793 * HOL-Library: theory Polynomial contains also derivation of polynomials
   794 but not gcd/lcm on polynomials over fields. This has been moved to a
   795 separate theory Library/Polynomial_GCD_euclidean.thy, to pave way for a
   796 possible future different type class instantiation for polynomials over
   797 factorial rings. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   798 
   799 * HOL-Library: theory Sublist.thy provides function "prefixes" with the
   800 following renaming
   801 
   802   prefixeq -> prefix
   803   prefix -> strict_prefix
   804   suffixeq -> suffix
   805   suffix -> strict_suffix
   806 
   807 Added theory of longest common prefixes.
   808 
   809 * Dropped various legacy fact bindings, whose replacements are often
   810 of a more general type also:
   811   lcm_left_commute_nat ~> lcm.left_commute
   812   lcm_left_commute_int ~> lcm.left_commute
   813   gcd_left_commute_nat ~> gcd.left_commute
   814   gcd_left_commute_int ~> gcd.left_commute
   815   gcd_greatest_iff_nat ~> gcd_greatest_iff
   816   gcd_greatest_iff_int ~> gcd_greatest_iff
   817   coprime_dvd_mult_nat ~> coprime_dvd_mult
   818   coprime_dvd_mult_int ~> coprime_dvd_mult
   819   zpower_numeral_even ~> power_numeral_even
   820   gcd_mult_cancel_nat ~> gcd_mult_cancel
   821   gcd_mult_cancel_int ~> gcd_mult_cancel
   822   div_gcd_coprime_nat ~> div_gcd_coprime
   823   div_gcd_coprime_int ~> div_gcd_coprime
   824   zpower_numeral_odd ~> power_numeral_odd
   825   zero_less_int_conv ~> of_nat_0_less_iff
   826   gcd_greatest_nat ~> gcd_greatest
   827   gcd_greatest_int ~> gcd_greatest
   828   coprime_mult_nat ~> coprime_mult
   829   coprime_mult_int ~> coprime_mult
   830   lcm_commute_nat ~> lcm.commute
   831   lcm_commute_int ~> lcm.commute
   832   int_less_0_conv ~> of_nat_less_0_iff
   833   gcd_commute_nat ~> gcd.commute
   834   gcd_commute_int ~> gcd.commute
   835   Gcd_insert_nat ~> Gcd_insert
   836   Gcd_insert_int ~> Gcd_insert
   837   of_int_int_eq ~> of_int_of_nat_eq
   838   lcm_least_nat ~> lcm_least
   839   lcm_least_int ~> lcm_least
   840   lcm_assoc_nat ~> lcm.assoc
   841   lcm_assoc_int ~> lcm.assoc
   842   int_le_0_conv ~> of_nat_le_0_iff
   843   int_eq_0_conv ~> of_nat_eq_0_iff
   844   Gcd_empty_nat ~> Gcd_empty
   845   Gcd_empty_int ~> Gcd_empty
   846   gcd_assoc_nat ~> gcd.assoc
   847   gcd_assoc_int ~> gcd.assoc
   848   zero_zle_int ~> of_nat_0_le_iff
   849   lcm_dvd2_nat ~> dvd_lcm2
   850   lcm_dvd2_int ~> dvd_lcm2
   851   lcm_dvd1_nat ~> dvd_lcm1
   852   lcm_dvd1_int ~> dvd_lcm1
   853   gcd_zero_nat ~> gcd_eq_0_iff
   854   gcd_zero_int ~> gcd_eq_0_iff
   855   gcd_dvd2_nat ~> gcd_dvd2
   856   gcd_dvd2_int ~> gcd_dvd2
   857   gcd_dvd1_nat ~> gcd_dvd1
   858   gcd_dvd1_int ~> gcd_dvd1
   859   int_numeral ~> of_nat_numeral
   860   lcm_ac_nat ~> ac_simps
   861   lcm_ac_int ~> ac_simps
   862   gcd_ac_nat ~> ac_simps
   863   gcd_ac_int ~> ac_simps
   864   abs_int_eq ~> abs_of_nat
   865   zless_int ~> of_nat_less_iff
   866   zdiff_int ~> of_nat_diff
   867   zadd_int ~> of_nat_add
   868   int_mult ~> of_nat_mult
   869   int_Suc ~> of_nat_Suc
   870   inj_int ~> inj_of_nat
   871   int_1 ~> of_nat_1
   872   int_0 ~> of_nat_0
   873   Lcm_empty_nat ~> Lcm_empty
   874   Lcm_empty_int ~> Lcm_empty
   875   Lcm_insert_nat ~> Lcm_insert
   876   Lcm_insert_int ~> Lcm_insert
   877   comp_fun_idem_gcd_nat ~> comp_fun_idem_gcd
   878   comp_fun_idem_gcd_int ~> comp_fun_idem_gcd
   879   comp_fun_idem_lcm_nat ~> comp_fun_idem_lcm
   880   comp_fun_idem_lcm_int ~> comp_fun_idem_lcm
   881   Lcm_eq_0 ~> Lcm_eq_0_I
   882   Lcm0_iff ~> Lcm_0_iff
   883   Lcm_dvd_int ~> Lcm_least
   884   divides_mult_nat ~> divides_mult
   885   divides_mult_int ~> divides_mult
   886   lcm_0_nat ~> lcm_0_right
   887   lcm_0_int ~> lcm_0_right
   888   lcm_0_left_nat ~> lcm_0_left
   889   lcm_0_left_int ~> lcm_0_left
   890   dvd_gcd_D1_nat ~> dvd_gcdD1
   891   dvd_gcd_D1_int ~> dvd_gcdD1
   892   dvd_gcd_D2_nat ~> dvd_gcdD2
   893   dvd_gcd_D2_int ~> dvd_gcdD2
   894   coprime_dvd_mult_iff_nat ~> coprime_dvd_mult_iff
   895   coprime_dvd_mult_iff_int ~> coprime_dvd_mult_iff
   896   realpow_minus_mult ~> power_minus_mult
   897   realpow_Suc_le_self ~> power_Suc_le_self
   898   dvd_Gcd, dvd_Gcd_nat, dvd_Gcd_int removed in favour of Gcd_greatest
   899 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   900 
   901 * Renamed HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy to
   902 HOL/Quotient_Examples/Quotient_FSet.thy INCOMPATIBILITY.
   903 
   904 
   905 *** ML ***
   906 
   907 * ML antiquotation @{path} is superseded by @{file}, which ensures that
   908 the argument is a plain file. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   909 
   910 * Integer.gcd and Integer.lcm use efficient operations from the Poly/ML
   911 library (notably for big integers). Subtle change of semantics:
   912 Integer.gcd and Integer.lcm both normalize the sign, results are never
   913 negative. This coincides with the definitions in HOL/GCD.thy.
   914 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   915 
   916 * Structure Rat for rational numbers is now an integral part of
   917 Isabelle/ML, with special notation @int/nat or @int for numerals (an
   918 abbreviation for antiquotation @{Pure.rat argument}) and ML pretty
   919 printing. Standard operations on type Rat.rat are provided via ad-hoc
   920 overloading of + - * / < <= > >= ~ abs. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   921 use + instead of +/ etc. Moreover, exception Rat.DIVZERO has been
   922 superseded by General.Div.
   923 
   924 * The ML function "ML" provides easy access to run-time compilation.
   925 This is particularly useful for conditional compilation, without
   926 requiring separate files.
   927 
   928 * Low-level ML system structures (like PolyML and RunCall) are no longer
   929 exposed to Isabelle/ML user-space. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   930 
   931 * Antiquotation @{make_string} is available during Pure bootstrap --
   932 with approximative output quality.
   933 
   934 * Option ML_exception_debugger controls detailed exception trace via the
   935 Poly/ML debugger. Relevant ML modules need to be compiled beforehand
   936 with ML_file_debug, or with ML_file and option ML_debugger enabled. Note
   937 debugger information requires consirable time and space: main
   938 Isabelle/HOL with full debugger support may need ML_system_64.
   939 
   940 * Local_Theory.restore has been renamed to Local_Theory.reset to
   941 emphasize its disruptive impact on the cumulative context, notably the
   942 scope of 'private' or 'qualified' names. Note that Local_Theory.reset is
   943 only appropriate when targets are managed, e.g. starting from a global
   944 theory and returning to it. Regular definitional packages should use
   945 balanced blocks of Local_Theory.open_target versus
   946 Local_Theory.close_target instead. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   947 
   948 * Structure TimeLimit (originally from the SML/NJ library) has been
   949 replaced by structure Timeout, with slightly different signature.
   950 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   951 
   952 * Discontinued cd and pwd operations, which are not well-defined in a
   953 multi-threaded environment. Note that files are usually located
   954 relatively to the master directory of a theory (see also
   955 File.full_path). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   956 
   957 * Binding.empty_atts supersedes Thm.empty_binding and
   958 Attrib.empty_binding. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   959 
   960 
   961 *** System ***
   962 
   963 * Many Isabelle tools that require a Java runtime system refer to the
   964 settings ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS32 / ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS64,
   965 depending on the underlying platform. The settings for "isabelle build"
   966 ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS32 / ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS64 have been
   967 discontinued. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   968 
   969 * The Isabelle system environment always ensures that the main
   970 executables are found within the shell search $PATH: "isabelle" and
   971 "isabelle_scala_script".
   972 
   973 * Isabelle tools may consist of .scala files: the Scala compiler is
   974 invoked on the spot. The source needs to define some object that extends
   975 Isabelle_Tool.Body.
   976 
   977 * The Isabelle ML process is now managed directly by Isabelle/Scala, and
   978 shell scripts merely provide optional command-line access. In
   979 particular:
   980 
   981   . Scala module ML_Process to connect to the raw ML process,
   982     with interaction via stdin/stdout/stderr or in batch mode;
   983   . command-line tool "isabelle console" as interactive wrapper;
   984   . command-line tool "isabelle process" as batch mode wrapper.
   985 
   986 * The executable "isabelle_process" has been discontinued. Tools and
   987 prover front-ends should use ML_Process or Isabelle_Process in
   988 Isabelle/Scala. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   989 
   990 * New command-line tool "isabelle process" supports ML evaluation of
   991 literal expressions (option -e) or files (option -f) in the context of a
   992 given heap image. Errors lead to premature exit of the ML process with
   993 return code 1.
   994 
   995 * Command-line tool "isabelle console" provides option -r to help to
   996 bootstrapping Isabelle/Pure interactively.
   997 
   998 * Command-line tool "isabelle yxml" has been discontinued.
   999 INCOMPATIBILITY, use operations from the modules "XML" and "YXML" in
  1000 Isabelle/ML or Isabelle/Scala.
  1001 
  1002 * File.bash_string, File.bash_path etc. represent Isabelle/ML and
  1003 Isabelle/Scala strings authentically within GNU bash. This is useful to
  1004 produce robust shell scripts under program control, without worrying
  1005 about spaces or special characters. Note that user output works via
  1006 Path.print (ML) or Path.toString (Scala). INCOMPATIBILITY, the old (and
  1007 less versatile) operations File.shell_quote, File.shell_path etc. have
  1008 been discontinued.
  1009 
  1010 * SML/NJ and old versions of Poly/ML are no longer supported.
  1011 
  1012 * Poly/ML heaps now follow the hierarchy of sessions, and thus require
  1013 much less disk space.
  1014 
  1015 * System option "checkpoint" helps to fine-tune the global heap space
  1016 management of isabelle build. This is relevant for big sessions that may
  1017 exhaust the small 32-bit address space of the ML process (which is used
  1018 by default).
  1019 
  1020 * System option "ML_process_policy" specifies an optional command prefix
  1021 for the underlying ML process, e.g. to control CPU affinity on
  1022 multiprocessor systems. The "isabelle jedit" tool allows to override the
  1023 implicit default via option -p.
  1024 
  1025 * The isabelle_java executable allows to run a Java process within the
  1026 name space of Java and Scala components that are bundled with Isabelle,
  1027 but without the Isabelle settings environment.
  1028 
  1029 * The command-line tool "isabelle build" supports option -N for cyclic
  1030 shuffling of NUMA CPU nodes. This may help performance tuning on Linux
  1031 servers with separate CPU/memory modules.
  1032 
  1033 
  1034 
  1035 New in Isabelle2016 (February 2016)
  1036 -----------------------------------
  1037 
  1038 *** General ***
  1039 
  1040 * Eisbach is now based on Pure instead of HOL. Objects-logics may import
  1041 either the theory ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/Eisbach (for HOL etc.) or
  1042 ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/Eisbach_Old_Appl_Syntax (for FOL, ZF etc.). Note that
  1043 the HOL-Eisbach session located in ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/ contains further
  1044 examples that do require HOL.
  1045 
  1046 * Better resource usage on all platforms (Linux, Windows, Mac OS X) for
  1047 both Isabelle/ML and Isabelle/Scala.  Slightly reduced heap space usage.
  1048 
  1049 * Former "xsymbols" syntax with Isabelle symbols is used by default,
  1050 without any special print mode. Important ASCII replacement syntax
  1051 remains available under print mode "ASCII", but less important syntax
  1052 has been removed (see below).
  1053 
  1054 * Support for more arrow symbols, with rendering in LaTeX and Isabelle
  1055 fonts: \<Lleftarrow> \<Rrightarrow> \<longlongleftarrow> \<longlongrightarrow> \<longlonglongleftarrow> \<longlonglongrightarrow>.
  1056 
  1057 * Special notation \<struct> for the first implicit 'structure' in the
  1058 context has been discontinued. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit
  1059 structure name instead, notably in indexed notation with block-subscript
  1060 (e.g. \<odot>\<^bsub>A\<^esub>).
  1061 
  1062 * The glyph for \<diamond> in the IsabelleText font now corresponds better to its
  1063 counterpart \<box> as quantifier-like symbol. A small diamond is available as
  1064 \<diamondop>; the old symbol \<struct> loses this rendering and any special
  1065 meaning.
  1066 
  1067 * Syntax for formal comments "-- text" now also supports the symbolic
  1068 form "\<comment> text". Command-line tool "isabelle update_cartouches -c" helps
  1069 to update old sources.
  1070 
  1071 * Toplevel theorem statements have been simplified as follows:
  1072 
  1073   theorems             ~>  lemmas
  1074   schematic_lemma      ~>  schematic_goal
  1075   schematic_theorem    ~>  schematic_goal
  1076   schematic_corollary  ~>  schematic_goal
  1077 
  1078 Command-line tool "isabelle update_theorems" updates theory sources
  1079 accordingly.
  1080 
  1081 * Toplevel theorem statement 'proposition' is another alias for
  1082 'theorem'.
  1083 
  1084 * The old 'defs' command has been removed (legacy since Isabelle2014).
  1085 INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular 'definition' instead. Overloaded and/or
  1086 deferred definitions require a surrounding 'overloading' block.
  1087 
  1088 
  1089 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1090 
  1091 * IDE support for the source-level debugger of Poly/ML, to work with
  1092 Isabelle/ML and official Standard ML. Option "ML_debugger" and commands
  1093 'ML_file_debug', 'ML_file_no_debug', 'SML_file_debug',
  1094 'SML_file_no_debug' control compilation of sources with or without
  1095 debugging information. The Debugger panel allows to set breakpoints (via
  1096 context menu), step through stopped threads, evaluate local ML
  1097 expressions etc. At least one Debugger view needs to be active to have
  1098 any effect on the running ML program.
  1099 
  1100 * The State panel manages explicit proof state output, with dynamic
  1101 auto-update according to cursor movement. Alternatively, the jEdit
  1102 action "isabelle.update-state" (shortcut S+ENTER) triggers manual
  1103 update.
  1104 
  1105 * The Output panel no longer shows proof state output by default, to
  1106 avoid GUI overcrowding. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the State panel instead or
  1107 enable option "editor_output_state".
  1108 
  1109 * The text overview column (status of errors, warnings etc.) is updated
  1110 asynchronously, leading to much better editor reactivity. Moreover, the
  1111 full document node content is taken into account. The width of the
  1112 column is scaled according to the main text area font, for improved
  1113 visibility.
  1114 
  1115 * The main text area no longer changes its color hue in outdated
  1116 situations. The text overview column takes over the role to indicate
  1117 unfinished edits in the PIDE pipeline. This avoids flashing text display
  1118 due to ad-hoc updates by auxiliary GUI components, such as the State
  1119 panel.
  1120 
  1121 * Slightly improved scheduling for urgent print tasks (e.g. command
  1122 state output, interactive queries) wrt. long-running background tasks.
  1123 
  1124 * Completion of symbols via prefix of \<name> or \<^name> or \name is
  1125 always possible, independently of the language context. It is never
  1126 implicit: a popup will show up unconditionally.
  1127 
  1128 * Additional abbreviations for syntactic completion may be specified in
  1129 $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/abbrevs and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs, with
  1130 support for simple templates using ASCII 007 (bell) as placeholder.
  1131 
  1132 * Symbols \<oplus>, \<Oplus>, \<otimes>, \<Otimes>, \<odot>, \<Odot>, \<ominus>, \<oslash> no longer provide abbreviations for
  1133 completion like "+o", "*o", ".o" etc. -- due to conflicts with other
  1134 ASCII syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain backslash-completion or define
  1135 suitable abbreviations in $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs.
  1136 
  1137 * Action "isabelle-emph" (with keyboard shortcut C+e LEFT) controls
  1138 emphasized text style; the effect is visible in document output, not in
  1139 the editor.
  1140 
  1141 * Action "isabelle-reset" now uses keyboard shortcut C+e BACK_SPACE,
  1142 instead of former C+e LEFT.
  1143 
  1144 * The command-line tool "isabelle jedit" and the isabelle.Main
  1145 application wrapper treat the default $USER_HOME/Scratch.thy more
  1146 uniformly, and allow the dummy file argument ":" to open an empty buffer
  1147 instead.
  1148 
  1149 * New command-line tool "isabelle jedit_client" allows to connect to an
  1150 already running Isabelle/jEdit process. This achieves the effect of
  1151 single-instance applications seen on common GUI desktops.
  1152 
  1153 * The default look-and-feel for Linux is the traditional "Metal", which
  1154 works better with GUI scaling for very high-resolution displays (e.g.
  1155 4K). Moreover, it is generally more robust than "Nimbus".
  1156 
  1157 * Update to jedit-5.3.0, with improved GUI scaling and support of
  1158 high-resolution displays (e.g. 4K).
  1159 
  1160 * The main Isabelle executable is managed as single-instance Desktop
  1161 application uniformly on all platforms: Linux, Windows, Mac OS X.
  1162 
  1163 
  1164 *** Document preparation ***
  1165 
  1166 * Commands 'paragraph' and 'subparagraph' provide additional section
  1167 headings. Thus there are 6 levels of standard headings, as in HTML.
  1168 
  1169 * Command 'text_raw' has been clarified: input text is processed as in
  1170 'text' (with antiquotations and control symbols). The key difference is
  1171 the lack of the surrounding isabelle markup environment in output.
  1172 
  1173 * Text is structured in paragraphs and nested lists, using notation that
  1174 is similar to Markdown. The control symbols for list items are as
  1175 follows:
  1176 
  1177   \<^item>  itemize
  1178   \<^enum>  enumerate
  1179   \<^descr>  description
  1180 
  1181 * There is a new short form for antiquotations with a single argument
  1182 that is a cartouche: \<^name>\<open>...\<close> is equivalent to @{name \<open>...\<close>} and
  1183 \<open>...\<close> without control symbol is equivalent to @{cartouche \<open>...\<close>}.
  1184 \<^name> without following cartouche is equivalent to @{name}. The
  1185 standard Isabelle fonts provide glyphs to render important control
  1186 symbols, e.g. "\<^verbatim>", "\<^emph>", "\<^bold>".
  1187 
  1188 * Antiquotations @{noindent}, @{smallskip}, @{medskip}, @{bigskip} with
  1189 corresponding control symbols \<^noindent>, \<^smallskip>, \<^medskip>, \<^bigskip> specify spacing formally, using
  1190 standard LaTeX macros of the same names.
  1191 
  1192 * Antiquotation @{cartouche} in Isabelle/Pure is the same as @{text}.
  1193 Consequently, \<open>...\<close> without any decoration prints literal quasi-formal
  1194 text. Command-line tool "isabelle update_cartouches -t" helps to update
  1195 old sources, by approximative patching of the content of string and
  1196 cartouche tokens seen in theory sources.
  1197 
  1198 * The @{text} antiquotation now ignores the antiquotation option
  1199 "source". The given text content is output unconditionally, without any
  1200 surrounding quotes etc. Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, put quotes into the
  1201 argument where they are really intended, e.g. @{text \<open>"foo"\<close>}. Initial
  1202 or terminal spaces are ignored.
  1203 
  1204 * Antiquotations @{emph} and @{bold} output LaTeX source recursively,
  1205 adding appropriate text style markup. These may be used in the short
  1206 form \<^emph>\<open>...\<close> and \<^bold>\<open>...\<close>.
  1207 
  1208 * Document antiquotation @{footnote} outputs LaTeX source recursively,
  1209 marked as \footnote{}. This may be used in the short form \<^footnote>\<open>...\<close>.
  1210 
  1211 * Antiquotation @{verbatim [display]} supports option "indent".
  1212 
  1213 * Antiquotation @{theory_text} prints uninterpreted theory source text
  1214 (Isar outer syntax with command keywords etc.). This may be used in the
  1215 short form \<^theory_text>\<open>...\<close>. @{theory_text [display]} supports option "indent".
  1216 
  1217 * Antiquotation @{doc ENTRY} provides a reference to the given
  1218 documentation, with a hyperlink in the Prover IDE.
  1219 
  1220 * Antiquotations @{command}, @{method}, @{attribute} print checked
  1221 entities of the Isar language.
  1222 
  1223 * HTML presentation uses the standard IsabelleText font and Unicode
  1224 rendering of Isabelle symbols like Isabelle/Scala/jEdit.  The former
  1225 print mode "HTML" loses its special meaning.
  1226 
  1227 
  1228 *** Isar ***
  1229 
  1230 * Local goals ('have', 'show', 'hence', 'thus') allow structured rule
  1231 statements like fixes/assumes/shows in theorem specifications, but the
  1232 notation is postfix with keywords 'if' (or 'when') and 'for'. For
  1233 example:
  1234 
  1235   have result: "C x y"
  1236     if "A x" and "B y"
  1237     for x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  1238     <proof>
  1239 
  1240 The local assumptions are bound to the name "that". The result is
  1241 exported from context of the statement as usual. The above roughly
  1242 corresponds to a raw proof block like this:
  1243 
  1244   {
  1245     fix x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  1246     assume that: "A x" "B y"
  1247     have "C x y" <proof>
  1248   }
  1249   note result = this
  1250 
  1251 The keyword 'when' may be used instead of 'if', to indicate 'presume'
  1252 instead of 'assume' above.
  1253 
  1254 * Assumptions ('assume', 'presume') allow structured rule statements
  1255 using 'if' and 'for', similar to 'have' etc. above. For example:
  1256 
  1257   assume result: "C x y"
  1258     if "A x" and "B y"
  1259     for x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  1260 
  1261 This assumes "\<And>x y::'a. A x \<Longrightarrow> B y \<Longrightarrow> C x y" and produces a general
  1262 result as usual: "A ?x \<Longrightarrow> B ?y \<Longrightarrow> C ?x ?y".
  1263 
  1264 Vacuous quantification in assumptions is omitted, i.e. a for-context
  1265 only effects propositions according to actual use of variables. For
  1266 example:
  1267 
  1268   assume "A x" and "B y" for x and y
  1269 
  1270 is equivalent to:
  1271 
  1272   assume "\<And>x. A x" and "\<And>y. B y"
  1273 
  1274 * The meaning of 'show' with Pure rule statements has changed: premises
  1275 are treated in the sense of 'assume', instead of 'presume'. This means,
  1276 a goal like "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x" can be solved completely as
  1277 follows:
  1278 
  1279   show "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  1280 
  1281 or:
  1282 
  1283   show "C x" if "A x" "B x" for x
  1284 
  1285 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, the old behaviour may be recovered as follows:
  1286 
  1287   show "C x" when "A x" "B x" for x
  1288 
  1289 * New command 'consider' states rules for generalized elimination and
  1290 case splitting. This is like a toplevel statement "theorem obtains" used
  1291 within a proof body; or like a multi-branch 'obtain' without activation
  1292 of the local context elements yet.
  1293 
  1294 * Proof method "cases" allows to specify the rule as first entry of
  1295 chained facts.  This is particularly useful with 'consider':
  1296 
  1297   consider (a) A | (b) B | (c) C <proof>
  1298   then have something
  1299   proof cases
  1300     case a
  1301     then show ?thesis <proof>
  1302   next
  1303     case b
  1304     then show ?thesis <proof>
  1305   next
  1306     case c
  1307     then show ?thesis <proof>
  1308   qed
  1309 
  1310 * Command 'case' allows fact name and attribute specification like this:
  1311 
  1312   case a: (c xs)
  1313   case a [attributes]: (c xs)
  1314 
  1315 Facts that are introduced by invoking the case context are uniformly
  1316 qualified by "a"; the same name is used for the cumulative fact. The old
  1317 form "case (c xs) [attributes]" is no longer supported. Rare
  1318 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt uses of case facts in exotic situations,
  1319 and always put attributes in front.
  1320 
  1321 * The standard proof method of commands 'proof' and '..' is now called
  1322 "standard" to make semantically clear what it is; the old name "default"
  1323 is still available as legacy for some time. Documentation now explains
  1324 '..' more accurately as "by standard" instead of "by rule".
  1325 
  1326 * Nesting of Isar goal structure has been clarified: the context after
  1327 the initial backwards refinement is retained for the whole proof, within
  1328 all its context sections (as indicated via 'next'). This is e.g.
  1329 relevant for 'using', 'including', 'supply':
  1330 
  1331   have "A \<and> A" if a: A for A
  1332     supply [simp] = a
  1333   proof
  1334     show A by simp
  1335   next
  1336     show A by simp
  1337   qed
  1338 
  1339 * Command 'obtain' binds term abbreviations (via 'is' patterns) in the
  1340 proof body as well, abstracted over relevant parameters.
  1341 
  1342 * Improved type-inference for theorem statement 'obtains': separate
  1343 parameter scope for of each clause.
  1344 
  1345 * Term abbreviations via 'is' patterns also work for schematic
  1346 statements: result is abstracted over unknowns.
  1347 
  1348 * Command 'subgoal' allows to impose some structure on backward
  1349 refinements, to avoid proof scripts degenerating into long of 'apply'
  1350 sequences. Further explanations and examples are given in the isar-ref
  1351 manual.
  1352 
  1353 * Command 'supply' supports fact definitions during goal refinement
  1354 ('apply' scripts).
  1355 
  1356 * Proof method "goal_cases" turns the current subgoals into cases within
  1357 the context; the conclusion is bound to variable ?case in each case. For
  1358 example:
  1359 
  1360 lemma "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  1361   and "\<And>y z. U y \<Longrightarrow> V z \<Longrightarrow> W y z"
  1362 proof goal_cases
  1363   case (1 x)
  1364   then show ?case using \<open>A x\<close> \<open>B x\<close> sorry
  1365 next
  1366   case (2 y z)
  1367   then show ?case using \<open>U y\<close> \<open>V z\<close> sorry
  1368 qed
  1369 
  1370 lemma "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  1371   and "\<And>y z. U y \<Longrightarrow> V z \<Longrightarrow> W y z"
  1372 proof goal_cases
  1373   case prems: 1
  1374   then show ?case using prems sorry
  1375 next
  1376   case prems: 2
  1377   then show ?case using prems sorry
  1378 qed
  1379 
  1380 * The undocumented feature of implicit cases goal1, goal2, goal3, etc.
  1381 is marked as legacy, and will be removed eventually. The proof method
  1382 "goals" achieves a similar effect within regular Isar; often it can be
  1383 done more adequately by other means (e.g. 'consider').
  1384 
  1385 * The vacuous fact "TERM x" may be established "by fact" or as `TERM x`
  1386 as well, not just "by this" or "." as before.
  1387 
  1388 * Method "sleep" succeeds after a real-time delay (in seconds). This is
  1389 occasionally useful for demonstration and testing purposes.
  1390 
  1391 
  1392 *** Pure ***
  1393 
  1394 * Qualifiers in locale expressions default to mandatory ('!') regardless
  1395 of the command. Previously, for 'locale' and 'sublocale' the default was
  1396 optional ('?'). The old synatx '!' has been discontinued.
  1397 INCOMPATIBILITY, remove '!' and add '?' as required.
  1398 
  1399 * Keyword 'rewrites' identifies rewrite morphisms in interpretation
  1400 commands. Previously, the keyword was 'where'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1401 
  1402 * More gentle suppression of syntax along locale morphisms while
  1403 printing terms. Previously 'abbreviation' and 'notation' declarations
  1404 would be suppressed for morphisms except term identity. Now
  1405 'abbreviation' is also kept for morphims that only change the involved
  1406 parameters, and only 'notation' is suppressed. This can be of great help
  1407 when working with complex locale hierarchies, because proof states are
  1408 displayed much more succinctly. It also means that only notation needs
  1409 to be redeclared if desired, as illustrated by this example:
  1410 
  1411   locale struct = fixes composition :: "'a => 'a => 'a" (infixl "\<cdot>" 65)
  1412   begin
  1413     definition derived (infixl "\<odot>" 65) where ...
  1414   end
  1415 
  1416   locale morphism =
  1417     left: struct composition + right: struct composition'
  1418     for composition (infix "\<cdot>" 65) and composition' (infix "\<cdot>''" 65)
  1419   begin
  1420     notation right.derived ("\<odot>''")
  1421   end
  1422 
  1423 * Command 'global_interpretation' issues interpretations into global
  1424 theories, with optional rewrite definitions following keyword 'defines'.
  1425 
  1426 * Command 'sublocale' accepts optional rewrite definitions after keyword
  1427 'defines'.
  1428 
  1429 * Command 'permanent_interpretation' has been discontinued. Use
  1430 'global_interpretation' or 'sublocale' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1431 
  1432 * Command 'print_definitions' prints dependencies of definitional
  1433 specifications. This functionality used to be part of 'print_theory'.
  1434 
  1435 * Configuration option rule_insts_schematic has been discontinued
  1436 (intermediate legacy feature in Isabelle2015). INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1437 
  1438 * Abbreviations in type classes now carry proper sort constraint. Rare
  1439 INCOMPATIBILITY in situations where the previous misbehaviour has been
  1440 exploited.
  1441 
  1442 * Refinement of user-space type system in type classes: pseudo-local
  1443 operations behave more similar to abbreviations. Potential
  1444 INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
  1445 
  1446 
  1447 *** HOL ***
  1448 
  1449 * The 'typedef' command has been upgraded from a partially checked
  1450 "axiomatization", to a full definitional specification that takes the
  1451 global collection of overloaded constant / type definitions into
  1452 account. Type definitions with open dependencies on overloaded
  1453 definitions need to be specified as "typedef (overloaded)". This
  1454 provides extra robustness in theory construction. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1455 
  1456 * Qualification of various formal entities in the libraries is done more
  1457 uniformly via "context begin qualified definition ... end" instead of
  1458 old-style "hide_const (open) ...". Consequently, both the defined
  1459 constant and its defining fact become qualified, e.g. Option.is_none and
  1460 Option.is_none_def. Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY in applications.
  1461 
  1462 * Some old and rarely used ASCII replacement syntax has been removed.
  1463 INCOMPATIBILITY, standard syntax with symbols should be used instead.
  1464 The subsequent commands help to reproduce the old forms, e.g. to
  1465 simplify porting old theories:
  1466 
  1467   notation iff  (infixr "<->" 25)
  1468 
  1469   notation Times  (infixr "<*>" 80)
  1470 
  1471   type_notation Map.map  (infixr "~=>" 0)
  1472   notation Map.map_comp  (infixl "o'_m" 55)
  1473 
  1474   type_notation FinFun.finfun ("(_ =>f /_)" [22, 21] 21)
  1475 
  1476   notation FuncSet.funcset  (infixr "->" 60)
  1477   notation FuncSet.extensional_funcset  (infixr "->\<^sub>E" 60)
  1478 
  1479   notation Omega_Words_Fun.conc (infixr "conc" 65)
  1480 
  1481   notation Preorder.equiv ("op ~~")
  1482     and Preorder.equiv ("(_/ ~~ _)" [51, 51] 50)
  1483 
  1484   notation (in topological_space) tendsto (infixr "--->" 55)
  1485   notation (in topological_space) LIMSEQ ("((_)/ ----> (_))" [60, 60] 60)
  1486   notation LIM ("((_)/ -- (_)/ --> (_))" [60, 0, 60] 60)
  1487 
  1488   notation NSA.approx (infixl "@=" 50)
  1489   notation NSLIMSEQ ("((_)/ ----NS> (_))" [60, 60] 60)
  1490   notation NSLIM ("((_)/ -- (_)/ --NS> (_))" [60, 0, 60] 60)
  1491 
  1492 * The alternative notation "\<Colon>" for type and sort constraints has been
  1493 removed: in LaTeX document output it looks the same as "::".
  1494 INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain "::" instead.
  1495 
  1496 * Commands 'inductive' and 'inductive_set' work better when names for
  1497 intro rules are omitted: the "cases" and "induct" rules no longer
  1498 declare empty case_names, but no case_names at all. This allows to use
  1499 numbered cases in proofs, without requiring method "goal_cases".
  1500 
  1501 * Inductive definitions ('inductive', 'coinductive', etc.) expose
  1502 low-level facts of the internal construction only if the option
  1503 "inductive_internals" is enabled. This refers to the internal predicate
  1504 definition and its monotonicity result. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1505 
  1506 * Recursive function definitions ('fun', 'function', 'partial_function')
  1507 expose low-level facts of the internal construction only if the option
  1508 "function_internals" is enabled. Its internal inductive definition is
  1509 also subject to "inductive_internals". Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1510 
  1511 * BNF datatypes ('datatype', 'codatatype', etc.) expose low-level facts
  1512 of the internal construction only if the option "bnf_internals" is
  1513 enabled. This supersedes the former option "bnf_note_all". Rare
  1514 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1515 
  1516 * Combinator to represent case distinction on products is named
  1517 "case_prod", uniformly, discontinuing any input aliasses. Very popular
  1518 theorem aliasses have been retained.
  1519 
  1520 Consolidated facts:
  1521   PairE ~> prod.exhaust
  1522   Pair_eq ~> prod.inject
  1523   pair_collapse ~> prod.collapse
  1524   Pair_fst_snd_eq ~> prod_eq_iff
  1525   split_twice ~> prod.case_distrib
  1526   split_weak_cong ~> prod.case_cong_weak
  1527   split_split ~> prod.split
  1528   split_split_asm ~> prod.split_asm
  1529   splitI ~> case_prodI
  1530   splitD ~> case_prodD
  1531   splitI2 ~> case_prodI2
  1532   splitI2' ~> case_prodI2'
  1533   splitE ~> case_prodE
  1534   splitE' ~> case_prodE'
  1535   split_pair ~> case_prod_Pair
  1536   split_eta ~> case_prod_eta
  1537   split_comp ~> case_prod_comp
  1538   mem_splitI ~> mem_case_prodI
  1539   mem_splitI2 ~> mem_case_prodI2
  1540   mem_splitE ~> mem_case_prodE
  1541   The_split ~> The_case_prod
  1542   cond_split_eta ~> cond_case_prod_eta
  1543   Collect_split_in_rel_leE ~> Collect_case_prod_in_rel_leE
  1544   Collect_split_in_rel_leI ~> Collect_case_prod_in_rel_leI
  1545   in_rel_Collect_split_eq ~> in_rel_Collect_case_prod_eq
  1546   Collect_split_Grp_eqD ~> Collect_case_prod_Grp_eqD
  1547   Collect_split_Grp_inD ~> Collect_case_prod_Grp_in
  1548   Domain_Collect_split ~> Domain_Collect_case_prod
  1549   Image_Collect_split ~> Image_Collect_case_prod
  1550   Range_Collect_split ~> Range_Collect_case_prod
  1551   Eps_split ~> Eps_case_prod
  1552   Eps_split_eq ~> Eps_case_prod_eq
  1553   split_rsp ~> case_prod_rsp
  1554   curry_split ~> curry_case_prod
  1555   split_curry ~> case_prod_curry
  1556 
  1557 Changes in structure HOLogic:
  1558   split_const ~> case_prod_const
  1559   mk_split ~> mk_case_prod
  1560   mk_psplits ~> mk_ptupleabs
  1561   strip_psplits ~> strip_ptupleabs
  1562 
  1563 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1564 
  1565 * The coercions to type 'real' have been reorganised. The function
  1566 'real' is no longer overloaded, but has type 'nat => real' and
  1567 abbreviates of_nat for that type. Also 'real_of_int :: int => real'
  1568 abbreviates of_int for that type. Other overloaded instances of 'real'
  1569 have been replaced by 'real_of_ereal' and 'real_of_float'.
  1570 
  1571 Consolidated facts (among others):
  1572   real_of_nat_le_iff -> of_nat_le_iff
  1573   real_of_nat_numeral of_nat_numeral
  1574   real_of_int_zero of_int_0
  1575   real_of_nat_zero of_nat_0
  1576   real_of_one of_int_1
  1577   real_of_int_add of_int_add
  1578   real_of_nat_add of_nat_add
  1579   real_of_int_diff of_int_diff
  1580   real_of_nat_diff of_nat_diff
  1581   floor_subtract floor_diff_of_int
  1582   real_of_int_inject of_int_eq_iff
  1583   real_of_int_gt_zero_cancel_iff of_int_0_less_iff
  1584   real_of_int_ge_zero_cancel_iff of_int_0_le_iff
  1585   real_of_nat_ge_zero of_nat_0_le_iff
  1586   real_of_int_ceiling_ge le_of_int_ceiling
  1587   ceiling_less_eq ceiling_less_iff
  1588   ceiling_le_eq ceiling_le_iff
  1589   less_floor_eq less_floor_iff
  1590   floor_less_eq floor_less_iff
  1591   floor_divide_eq_div floor_divide_of_int_eq
  1592   real_of_int_zero_cancel of_nat_eq_0_iff
  1593   ceiling_real_of_int ceiling_of_int
  1594 
  1595 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1596 
  1597 * Theory Map: lemma map_of_is_SomeD was a clone of map_of_SomeD and has
  1598 been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1599 
  1600 * Quickcheck setup for finite sets.
  1601 
  1602 * Discontinued simp_legacy_precond. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1603 
  1604 * Sledgehammer:
  1605   - The MaSh relevance filter has been sped up.
  1606   - Proof reconstruction has been improved, to minimize the incidence of
  1607     cases where Sledgehammer gives a proof that does not work.
  1608   - Auto Sledgehammer now minimizes and preplays the results.
  1609   - Handle Vampire 4.0 proof output without raising exception.
  1610   - Eliminated "MASH" environment variable. Use the "MaSh" option in
  1611     Isabelle/jEdit instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1612   - Eliminated obsolete "blocking" option and related subcommands.
  1613 
  1614 * Nitpick:
  1615   - Fixed soundness bug in translation of "finite" predicate.
  1616   - Fixed soundness bug in "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  1617   - Fixed soundness bug in translation of "rat" type.
  1618   - Removed "check_potential" and "check_genuine" options.
  1619   - Eliminated obsolete "blocking" option.
  1620 
  1621 * (Co)datatype package:
  1622   - New commands "lift_bnf" and "copy_bnf" for lifting (copying) a BNF
  1623     structure on the raw type to an abstract type defined using typedef.
  1624   - Always generate "case_transfer" theorem.
  1625   - For mutual types, generate slightly stronger "rel_induct",
  1626     "rel_coinduct", and "coinduct" theorems. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1627   - Allow discriminators and selectors with the same name as the type
  1628     being defined.
  1629   - Avoid various internal name clashes (e.g., 'datatype f = f').
  1630 
  1631 * Transfer: new methods for interactive debugging of 'transfer' and
  1632 'transfer_prover': 'transfer_start', 'transfer_step', 'transfer_end',
  1633 'transfer_prover_start' and 'transfer_prover_end'.
  1634 
  1635 * New diagnostic command print_record for displaying record definitions.
  1636 
  1637 * Division on integers is bootstrapped directly from division on
  1638 naturals and uses generic numeral algorithm for computations. Slight
  1639 INCOMPATIBILITY, simproc numeral_divmod replaces and generalizes former
  1640 simprocs binary_int_div and binary_int_mod
  1641 
  1642 * Tightened specification of class semiring_no_zero_divisors. Minor
  1643 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1644 
  1645 * Class algebraic_semidom introduces common algebraic notions of
  1646 integral (semi)domains, particularly units. Although logically subsumed
  1647 by fields, is is not a super class of these in order not to burden
  1648 fields with notions that are trivial there.
  1649 
  1650 * Class normalization_semidom specifies canonical representants for
  1651 equivalence classes of associated elements in an integral (semi)domain.
  1652 This formalizes associated elements as well.
  1653 
  1654 * Abstract specification of gcd/lcm operations in classes semiring_gcd,
  1655 semiring_Gcd, semiring_Lcd. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: facts gcd_nat.commute
  1656 and gcd_int.commute are subsumed by gcd.commute, as well as
  1657 gcd_nat.assoc and gcd_int.assoc by gcd.assoc.
  1658 
  1659 * Former constants Fields.divide (_ / _) and Divides.div (_ div _) are
  1660 logically unified to Rings.divide in syntactic type class Rings.divide,
  1661 with infix syntax (_ div _). Infix syntax (_ / _) for field division is
  1662 added later as abbreviation in class Fields.inverse. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1663 instantiations must refer to Rings.divide rather than the former
  1664 separate constants, hence infix syntax (_ / _) is usually not available
  1665 during instantiation.
  1666 
  1667 * New cancellation simprocs for boolean algebras to cancel complementary
  1668 terms for sup and inf. For example, "sup x (sup y (- x))" simplifies to
  1669 "top". INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1670 
  1671 * Class uniform_space introduces uniform spaces btw topological spaces
  1672 and metric spaces. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: open_<type>_def needs to be
  1673 introduced in the form of an uniformity. Some constants are more general
  1674 now, it may be necessary to add type class constraints.
  1675 
  1676   open_real_def \<leadsto> open_dist
  1677   open_complex_def \<leadsto> open_dist
  1678 
  1679 * Library/Monad_Syntax: notation uses symbols \<bind> and \<then>. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1680 
  1681 * Library/Multiset:
  1682   - Renamed multiset inclusion operators:
  1683       < ~> <#
  1684       > ~> >#
  1685       <= ~> <=#
  1686       >= ~> >=#
  1687       \<le> ~> \<le>#
  1688       \<ge> ~> \<ge>#
  1689     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1690   - Added multiset inclusion operator syntax:
  1691       \<subset>#
  1692       \<subseteq>#
  1693       \<supset>#
  1694       \<supseteq>#
  1695   - "'a multiset" is no longer an instance of the "order",
  1696     "ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le", "ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_diff",
  1697     "semilattice_inf", and "semilattice_sup" type classes. The theorems
  1698     previously provided by these type classes (directly or indirectly)
  1699     are now available through the "subset_mset" interpretation
  1700     (e.g. add_mono ~> subset_mset.add_mono).
  1701     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1702   - Renamed conversions:
  1703       multiset_of ~> mset
  1704       multiset_of_set ~> mset_set
  1705       set_of ~> set_mset
  1706     INCOMPATIBILITY
  1707   - Renamed lemmas:
  1708       mset_le_def ~> subseteq_mset_def
  1709       mset_less_def ~> subset_mset_def
  1710       less_eq_multiset.rep_eq ~> subseteq_mset_def
  1711     INCOMPATIBILITY
  1712   - Removed lemmas generated by lift_definition:
  1713     less_eq_multiset.abs_eq, less_eq_multiset.rsp,
  1714     less_eq_multiset.transfer, less_eq_multiset_def
  1715     INCOMPATIBILITY
  1716 
  1717 * Library/Omega_Words_Fun: Infinite words modeled as functions nat \<Rightarrow> 'a.
  1718 
  1719 * Library/Bourbaki_Witt_Fixpoint: Added formalisation of the
  1720 Bourbaki-Witt fixpoint theorem for increasing functions in
  1721 chain-complete partial orders.
  1722 
  1723 * Library/Old_Recdef: discontinued obsolete 'defer_recdef' command.
  1724 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'function' instead.
  1725 
  1726 * Library/Periodic_Fun: a locale that provides convenient lemmas for
  1727 periodic functions.
  1728 
  1729 * Library/Formal_Power_Series: proper definition of division (with
  1730 remainder) for formal power series; instances for Euclidean Ring and
  1731 GCD.
  1732 
  1733 * HOL-Imperative_HOL: obsolete theory Legacy_Mrec has been removed.
  1734 
  1735 * HOL-Statespace: command 'statespace' uses mandatory qualifier for
  1736 import of parent, as for general 'locale' expressions. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1737 remove '!' and add '?' as required.
  1738 
  1739 * HOL-Decision_Procs: The "approximation" method works with "powr"
  1740 (exponentiation on real numbers) again.
  1741 
  1742 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: theory Cauchy_Integral_Thm with Contour
  1743 integrals (= complex path integrals), Cauchy's integral theorem, winding
  1744 numbers and Cauchy's integral formula, Liouville theorem, Fundamental
  1745 Theorem of Algebra. Ported from HOL Light.
  1746 
  1747 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: topological concepts such as connected
  1748 components, homotopic paths and the inside or outside of a set.
  1749 
  1750 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: radius of convergence of power series and
  1751 various summability tests; Harmonic numbers and the Euler–Mascheroni
  1752 constant; the Generalised Binomial Theorem; the complex and real
  1753 Gamma/log-Gamma/Digamma/ Polygamma functions and their most important
  1754 properties.
  1755 
  1756 * HOL-Probability: The central limit theorem based on Levy's uniqueness
  1757 and continuity theorems, weak convergence, and characterisitc functions.
  1758 
  1759 * HOL-Data_Structures: new and growing session of standard data
  1760 structures.
  1761 
  1762 
  1763 *** ML ***
  1764 
  1765 * The following combinators for low-level profiling of the ML runtime
  1766 system are available:
  1767 
  1768   profile_time          (*CPU time*)
  1769   profile_time_thread   (*CPU time on this thread*)
  1770   profile_allocations   (*overall heap allocations*)
  1771 
  1772 * Antiquotation @{undefined} or \<^undefined> inlines (raise Match).
  1773 
  1774 * Antiquotation @{method NAME} inlines the (checked) name of the given
  1775 Isar proof method.
  1776 
  1777 * Pretty printing of Poly/ML compiler output in Isabelle has been
  1778 improved: proper treatment of break offsets and blocks with consistent
  1779 breaks.
  1780 
  1781 * The auxiliary module Pure/display.ML has been eliminated. Its
  1782 elementary thm print operations are now in Pure/more_thm.ML and thus
  1783 called Thm.pretty_thm, Thm.string_of_thm etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1784 
  1785 * Simproc programming interfaces have been simplified:
  1786 Simplifier.make_simproc and Simplifier.define_simproc supersede various
  1787 forms of Simplifier.mk_simproc, Simplifier.simproc_global etc. Note that
  1788 term patterns for the left-hand sides are specified with implicitly
  1789 fixed variables, like top-level theorem statements. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1790 
  1791 * Instantiation rules have been re-organized as follows:
  1792 
  1793   Thm.instantiate  (*low-level instantiation with named arguments*)
  1794   Thm.instantiate' (*version with positional arguments*)
  1795 
  1796   Drule.infer_instantiate  (*instantiation with type inference*)
  1797   Drule.infer_instantiate'  (*version with positional arguments*)
  1798 
  1799 The LHS only requires variable specifications, instead of full terms.
  1800 Old cterm_instantiate is superseded by infer_instantiate.
  1801 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to re-adjust some ML names and types accordingly.
  1802 
  1803 * Old tactic shorthands atac, rtac, etac, dtac, ftac have been
  1804 discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular assume_tac, resolve_tac etc.
  1805 instead (with proper context).
  1806 
  1807 * Thm.instantiate (and derivatives) no longer require the LHS of the
  1808 instantiation to be certified: plain variables are given directly.
  1809 
  1810 * Subgoal.SUBPROOF and Subgoal.FOCUS combinators use anonymous
  1811 quasi-bound variables (like the Simplifier), instead of accidentally
  1812 named local fixes. This has the potential to improve stability of proof
  1813 tools, but can also cause INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that don't observe
  1814 the proof context discipline.
  1815 
  1816 * Isar proof methods are based on a slightly more general type
  1817 context_tactic, which allows to change the proof context dynamically
  1818 (e.g. to update cases) and indicate explicit Seq.Error results. Former
  1819 METHOD_CASES is superseded by CONTEXT_METHOD; further combinators are
  1820 provided in src/Pure/Isar/method.ML for convenience. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1821 
  1822 
  1823 *** System ***
  1824 
  1825 * Command-line tool "isabelle console" enables print mode "ASCII".
  1826 
  1827 * Command-line tool "isabelle update_then" expands old Isar command
  1828 conflations:
  1829 
  1830     hence  ~>  then have
  1831     thus   ~>  then show
  1832 
  1833 This syntax is more orthogonal and improves readability and
  1834 maintainability of proofs.
  1835 
  1836 * Global session timeout is multiplied by timeout_scale factor. This
  1837 allows to adjust large-scale tests (e.g. AFP) to overall hardware
  1838 performance.
  1839 
  1840 * Property values in etc/symbols may contain spaces, if written with the
  1841 replacement character "␣" (Unicode point 0x2324). For example:
  1842 
  1843     \<star>  code: 0x0022c6  group: operator  font: Deja␣Vu␣Sans␣Mono
  1844 
  1845 * Java runtime environment for x86_64-windows allows to use larger heap
  1846 space.
  1847 
  1848 * Java runtime options are determined separately for 32bit vs. 64bit
  1849 platforms as follows.
  1850 
  1851   - Isabelle desktop application: platform-specific files that are
  1852     associated with the main app bundle
  1853 
  1854   - isabelle jedit: settings
  1855     JEDIT_JAVA_SYSTEM_OPTIONS
  1856     JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS32 vs. JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS64
  1857 
  1858   - isabelle build: settings
  1859     ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS32 vs. ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS64
  1860 
  1861 * Bash shell function "jvmpath" has been renamed to "platform_path": it
  1862 is relevant both for Poly/ML and JVM processes.
  1863 
  1864 * Poly/ML default platform architecture may be changed from 32bit to
  1865 64bit via system option ML_system_64. A system restart (and rebuild) is
  1866 required after change.
  1867 
  1868 * Poly/ML 5.6 runs natively on x86-windows and x86_64-windows, which
  1869 both allow larger heap space than former x86-cygwin.
  1870 
  1871 * Heap images are 10-15% smaller due to less wasteful persistent theory
  1872 content (using ML type theory_id instead of theory);
  1873 
  1874 
  1875 
  1876 New in Isabelle2015 (May 2015)
  1877 ------------------------------
  1878 
  1879 *** General ***
  1880 
  1881 * Local theory specification commands may have a 'private' or
  1882 'qualified' modifier to restrict name space accesses to the local scope,
  1883 as provided by some "context begin ... end" block. For example:
  1884 
  1885   context
  1886   begin
  1887 
  1888   private definition ...
  1889   private lemma ...
  1890 
  1891   qualified definition ...
  1892   qualified lemma ...
  1893 
  1894   lemma ...
  1895   theorem ...
  1896 
  1897   end
  1898 
  1899 * Command 'experiment' opens an anonymous locale context with private
  1900 naming policy.
  1901 
  1902 * Command 'notepad' requires proper nesting of begin/end and its proof
  1903 structure in the body: 'oops' is no longer supported here. Minor
  1904 INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'sorry' instead.
  1905 
  1906 * Command 'named_theorems' declares a dynamic fact within the context,
  1907 together with an attribute to maintain the content incrementally. This
  1908 supersedes functor Named_Thms in Isabelle/ML, but with a subtle change
  1909 of semantics due to external visual order vs. internal reverse order.
  1910 
  1911 * 'find_theorems': search patterns which are abstractions are
  1912 schematically expanded before search. Search results match the naive
  1913 expectation more closely, particularly wrt. abbreviations.
  1914 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1915 
  1916 * Commands 'method_setup' and 'attribute_setup' now work within a local
  1917 theory context.
  1918 
  1919 * Outer syntax commands are managed authentically within the theory
  1920 context, without implicit global state. Potential for accidental
  1921 INCOMPATIBILITY, make sure that required theories are really imported.
  1922 
  1923 * Historical command-line terminator ";" is no longer accepted (and
  1924 already used differently in Isar). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle
  1925 update_semicolons" to remove obsolete semicolons from old theory
  1926 sources.
  1927 
  1928 * Structural composition of proof methods (meth1; meth2) in Isar
  1929 corresponds to (tac1 THEN_ALL_NEW tac2) in ML.
  1930 
  1931 * The Eisbach proof method language allows to define new proof methods
  1932 by combining existing ones with their usual syntax. The "match" proof
  1933 method provides basic fact/term matching in addition to
  1934 premise/conclusion matching through Subgoal.focus, and binds fact names
  1935 from matches as well as term patterns within matches. The Isabelle
  1936 documentation provides an entry "eisbach" for the Eisbach User Manual.
  1937 Sources and various examples are in ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/.
  1938 
  1939 
  1940 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1941 
  1942 * Improved folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax. Alternatively,
  1943 the "sidekick" mode may be used for document structure.
  1944 
  1945 * Extended bracket matching based on Isar language structure. System
  1946 option jedit_structure_limit determines maximum number of lines to scan
  1947 in the buffer.
  1948 
  1949 * Support for BibTeX files: context menu, context-sensitive token
  1950 marker, SideKick parser.
  1951 
  1952 * Document antiquotation @{cite} provides formal markup, which is
  1953 interpreted semi-formally based on .bib files that happen to be open in
  1954 the editor (hyperlinks, completion etc.).
  1955 
  1956 * Less waste of vertical space via negative line spacing (see Global
  1957 Options / Text Area).
  1958 
  1959 * Improved graphview panel with optional output of PNG or PDF, for
  1960 display of 'thy_deps', 'class_deps' etc.
  1961 
  1962 * The commands 'thy_deps' and 'class_deps' allow optional bounds to
  1963 restrict the visualized hierarchy.
  1964 
  1965 * Improved scheduling for asynchronous print commands (e.g. provers
  1966 managed by the Sledgehammer panel) wrt. ongoing document processing.
  1967 
  1968 
  1969 *** Document preparation ***
  1970 
  1971 * Document markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection',
  1972 'subsubsection', 'text', 'txt', 'text_raw' work uniformly in any
  1973 context, even before the initial 'theory' command. Obsolete proof
  1974 commands 'sect', 'subsect', 'subsubsect', 'txt_raw' have been
  1975 discontinued, use 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection', 'text_raw'
  1976 instead. The old 'header' command is still retained for some time, but
  1977 should be replaced by 'chapter', 'section' etc. (using "isabelle
  1978 update_header"). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1979 
  1980 * Official support for "tt" style variants, via \isatt{...} or
  1981 \begin{isabellett}...\end{isabellett}. The somewhat fragile \verb or
  1982 verbatim environment of LaTeX is no longer used. This allows @{ML} etc.
  1983 as argument to other macros (such as footnotes).
  1984 
  1985 * Document antiquotation @{verbatim} prints ASCII text literally in "tt"
  1986 style.
  1987 
  1988 * Discontinued obsolete option "document_graph": session_graph.pdf is
  1989 produced unconditionally for HTML browser_info and PDF-LaTeX document.
  1990 
  1991 * Diagnostic commands and document markup commands within a proof do not
  1992 affect the command tag for output. Thus commands like 'thm' are subject
  1993 to proof document structure, and no longer "stick out" accidentally.
  1994 Commands 'text' and 'txt' merely differ in the LaTeX style, not their
  1995 tags. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
  1996 
  1997 * System option "pretty_margin" is superseded by "thy_output_margin",
  1998 which is also accessible via document antiquotation option "margin".
  1999 Only the margin for document output may be changed, but not the global
  2000 pretty printing: that is 76 for plain console output, and adapted
  2001 dynamically in GUI front-ends. Implementations of document
  2002 antiquotations need to observe the margin explicitly according to
  2003 Thy_Output.string_of_margin. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2004 
  2005 * Specification of 'document_files' in the session ROOT file is
  2006 mandatory for document preparation. The legacy mode with implicit
  2007 copying of the document/ directory is no longer supported. Minor
  2008 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2009 
  2010 
  2011 *** Pure ***
  2012 
  2013 * Proof methods with explicit instantiation ("rule_tac", "subgoal_tac"
  2014 etc.) allow an optional context of local variables ('for' declaration):
  2015 these variables become schematic in the instantiated theorem; this
  2016 behaviour is analogous to 'for' in attributes "where" and "of".
  2017 Configuration option rule_insts_schematic (default false) controls use
  2018 of schematic variables outside the context. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2019 declare rule_insts_schematic = true temporarily and update to use local
  2020 variable declarations or dummy patterns instead.
  2021 
  2022 * Explicit instantiation via attributes "where", "of", and proof methods
  2023 "rule_tac" with derivatives like "subgoal_tac" etc. admit dummy patterns
  2024 ("_") that stand for anonymous local variables.
  2025 
  2026 * Generated schematic variables in standard format of exported facts are
  2027 incremented to avoid material in the proof context. Rare
  2028 INCOMPATIBILITY, explicit instantiation sometimes needs to refer to
  2029 different index.
  2030 
  2031 * Lexical separation of signed and unsigned numerals: categories "num"
  2032 and "float" are unsigned. INCOMPATIBILITY: subtle change in precedence
  2033 of numeral signs, particularly in expressions involving infix syntax
  2034 like "(- 1) ^ n".
  2035 
  2036 * Old inner token category "xnum" has been discontinued.  Potential
  2037 INCOMPATIBILITY for exotic syntax: may use mixfix grammar with "num"
  2038 token category instead.
  2039 
  2040 
  2041 *** HOL ***
  2042 
  2043 * New (co)datatype package:
  2044   - The 'datatype_new' command has been renamed 'datatype'. The old
  2045     command of that name is now called 'old_datatype' and is provided
  2046     by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
  2047     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
  2048     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2049   - Renamed theorems:
  2050       disc_corec ~> corec_disc
  2051       disc_corec_iff ~> corec_disc_iff
  2052       disc_exclude ~> distinct_disc
  2053       disc_exhaust ~> exhaust_disc
  2054       disc_map_iff ~> map_disc_iff
  2055       sel_corec ~> corec_sel
  2056       sel_exhaust ~> exhaust_sel
  2057       sel_map ~> map_sel
  2058       sel_set ~> set_sel
  2059       sel_split ~> split_sel
  2060       sel_split_asm ~> split_sel_asm
  2061       strong_coinduct ~> coinduct_strong
  2062       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
  2063     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2064   - The "no_code" option to "free_constructors", "datatype_new", and
  2065     "codatatype" has been renamed "plugins del: code".
  2066     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2067   - The rules "set_empty" have been removed. They are easy
  2068     consequences of other set rules "by auto".
  2069     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2070   - The rule "set_cases" is now registered with the "[cases set]"
  2071     attribute. This can influence the behavior of the "cases" proof
  2072     method when more than one case rule is applicable (e.g., an
  2073     assumption is of the form "w : set ws" and the method "cases w"
  2074     is invoked). The solution is to specify the case rule explicitly
  2075     (e.g. "cases w rule: widget.exhaust").
  2076     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2077   - Renamed theories:
  2078       BNF_Comp ~> BNF_Composition
  2079       BNF_FP_Base ~> BNF_Fixpoint_Base
  2080       BNF_GFP ~> BNF_Greatest_Fixpoint
  2081       BNF_LFP ~> BNF_Least_Fixpoint
  2082       BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> BNF_Wellorder_Constructions
  2083       Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> Cardinals/Wellorder_Constructions
  2084     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2085   - Lifting and Transfer setup for basic HOL types sum and prod (also
  2086     option) is now performed by the BNF package. Theories Lifting_Sum,
  2087     Lifting_Product and Lifting_Option from Main became obsolete and
  2088     were removed. Changed definitions of the relators rel_prod and
  2089     rel_sum (using inductive).
  2090     INCOMPATIBILITY: use rel_prod.simps and rel_sum.simps instead
  2091     of rel_prod_def and rel_sum_def.
  2092     Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: (rarely used by name) transfer theorem names
  2093     changed (e.g. map_prod_transfer ~> prod.map_transfer).
  2094   - Parametricity theorems for map functions, relators, set functions,
  2095     constructors, case combinators, discriminators, selectors and
  2096     (co)recursors are automatically proved and registered as transfer
  2097     rules.
  2098 
  2099 * Old datatype package:
  2100   - The old 'datatype' command has been renamed 'old_datatype', and
  2101     'rep_datatype' has been renamed 'old_rep_datatype'. They are
  2102     provided by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
  2103     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
  2104     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2105   - Renamed theorems:
  2106       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
  2107     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2108   - Renamed theory:
  2109       ~~/src/HOL/Datatype.thy ~> ~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy
  2110     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2111 
  2112 * Nitpick:
  2113   - Fixed soundness bug related to the strict and non-strict subset
  2114     operations.
  2115 
  2116 * Sledgehammer:
  2117   - CVC4 is now included with Isabelle instead of CVC3 and run by
  2118     default.
  2119   - Z3 is now always enabled by default, now that it is fully open
  2120     source. The "z3_non_commercial" option is discontinued.
  2121   - Minimization is now always enabled by default.
  2122     Removed sub-command:
  2123       min
  2124   - Proof reconstruction, both one-liners and Isar, has been
  2125     dramatically improved.
  2126   - Improved support for CVC4 and veriT.
  2127 
  2128 * Old and new SMT modules:
  2129   - The old 'smt' method has been renamed 'old_smt' and moved to
  2130     'src/HOL/Library/Old_SMT.thy'. It is provided for compatibility,
  2131     until applications have been ported to use the new 'smt' method. For
  2132     the method to work, an older version of Z3 (e.g. Z3 3.2 or 4.0) must
  2133     be installed, and the environment variable "OLD_Z3_SOLVER" must
  2134     point to it.
  2135     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2136   - The 'smt2' method has been renamed 'smt'.
  2137     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2138   - New option 'smt_reconstruction_step_timeout' to limit the
  2139     reconstruction time of Z3 proof steps in the new 'smt' method.
  2140   - New option 'smt_statistics' to display statistics of the new 'smt'
  2141     method, especially runtime statistics of Z3 proof reconstruction.
  2142 
  2143 * Lifting: command 'lift_definition' allows to execute lifted constants
  2144 that have as a return type a datatype containing a subtype. This
  2145 overcomes long-time limitations in the area of code generation and
  2146 lifting, and avoids tedious workarounds.
  2147 
  2148 * Command and antiquotation "value" provide different evaluation slots
  2149 (again), where the previous strategy (NBE after ML) serves as default.
  2150 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2151 
  2152 * Add NO_MATCH-simproc, allows to check for syntactic non-equality.
  2153 
  2154 * field_simps: Use NO_MATCH-simproc for distribution rules, to avoid
  2155 non-termination in case of distributing a division. With this change
  2156 field_simps is in some cases slightly less powerful, if it fails try to
  2157 add algebra_simps, or use divide_simps. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2158 
  2159 * Separate class no_zero_divisors has been given up in favour of fully
  2160 algebraic semiring_no_zero_divisors. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2161 
  2162 * Class linordered_semidom really requires no zero divisors.
  2163 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2164 
  2165 * Classes division_ring, field and linordered_field always demand
  2166 "inverse 0 = 0". Given up separate classes division_ring_inverse_zero,
  2167 field_inverse_zero and linordered_field_inverse_zero. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2168 
  2169 * Classes cancel_ab_semigroup_add / cancel_monoid_add specify explicit
  2170 additive inverse operation. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2171 
  2172 * Complex powers and square roots. The functions "ln" and "powr" are now
  2173 overloaded for types real and complex, and 0 powr y = 0 by definition.
  2174 INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be necessary.
  2175 
  2176 * The functions "sin" and "cos" are now defined for any type of sort
  2177 "{real_normed_algebra_1,banach}" type, so in particular on "real" and
  2178 "complex" uniformly. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be
  2179 needed.
  2180 
  2181 * New library of properties of the complex transcendental functions sin,
  2182 cos, tan, exp, Ln, Arctan, Arcsin, Arccos. Ported from HOL Light.
  2183 
  2184 * The factorial function, "fact", now has type "nat => 'a" (of a sort
  2185 that admits numeric types including nat, int, real and complex.
  2186 INCOMPATIBILITY: an expression such as "fact 3 = 6" may require a type
  2187 constraint, and the combination "real (fact k)" is likely to be
  2188 unsatisfactory. If a type conversion is still necessary, then use
  2189 "of_nat (fact k)" or "real_of_nat (fact k)".
  2190 
  2191 * Removed functions "natfloor" and "natceiling", use "nat o floor" and
  2192 "nat o ceiling" instead. A few of the lemmas have been retained and
  2193 adapted: in their names "natfloor"/"natceiling" has been replaced by
  2194 "nat_floor"/"nat_ceiling".
  2195 
  2196 * Qualified some duplicated fact names required for boostrapping the
  2197 type class hierarchy:
  2198   ab_add_uminus_conv_diff ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  2199   field_inverse_zero ~> inverse_zero
  2200   field_divide_inverse ~> divide_inverse
  2201   field_inverse ~> left_inverse
  2202 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2203 
  2204 * Eliminated fact duplicates:
  2205   mult_less_imp_less_right ~> mult_right_less_imp_less
  2206   mult_less_imp_less_left ~> mult_left_less_imp_less
  2207 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2208 
  2209 * Fact consolidation: even_less_0_iff is subsumed by
  2210 double_add_less_zero_iff_single_add_less_zero (simp by default anyway).
  2211 
  2212 * Generalized and consolidated some theorems concerning divsibility:
  2213   dvd_reduce ~> dvd_add_triv_right_iff
  2214   dvd_plus_eq_right ~> dvd_add_right_iff
  2215   dvd_plus_eq_left ~> dvd_add_left_iff
  2216 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2217 
  2218 * "even" and "odd" are mere abbreviations for "2 dvd _" and "~ 2 dvd _"
  2219 and part of theory Main.
  2220   even_def ~> even_iff_mod_2_eq_zero
  2221 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2222 
  2223 * Lemma name consolidation: divide_Numeral1 ~> divide_numeral_1. Minor
  2224 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2225 
  2226 * Bootstrap of listsum as special case of abstract product over lists.
  2227 Fact rename:
  2228     listsum_def ~> listsum.eq_foldr
  2229 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2230 
  2231 * Product over lists via constant "listprod".
  2232 
  2233 * Theory List: renamed drop_Suc_conv_tl and nth_drop' to
  2234 Cons_nth_drop_Suc.
  2235 
  2236 * New infrastructure for compiling, running, evaluating and testing
  2237 generated code in target languages in HOL/Library/Code_Test. See
  2238 HOL/Codegenerator_Test/Code_Test* for examples.
  2239 
  2240 * Library/Multiset:
  2241   - Introduced "replicate_mset" operation.
  2242   - Introduced alternative characterizations of the multiset ordering in
  2243     "Library/Multiset_Order".
  2244   - Renamed multiset ordering:
  2245       <# ~> #<#
  2246       <=# ~> #<=#
  2247       \<subset># ~> #\<subset>#
  2248       \<subseteq># ~> #\<subseteq>#
  2249     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2250   - Introduced abbreviations for ill-named multiset operations:
  2251       <#, \<subset># abbreviate < (strict subset)
  2252       <=#, \<le>#, \<subseteq># abbreviate <= (subset or equal)
  2253     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2254   - Renamed
  2255       in_multiset_of ~> in_multiset_in_set
  2256       Multiset.fold ~> fold_mset
  2257       Multiset.filter ~> filter_mset
  2258     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2259   - Removed mcard, is equal to size.
  2260   - Added attributes:
  2261       image_mset.id [simp]
  2262       image_mset_id [simp]
  2263       elem_multiset_of_set [simp, intro]
  2264       comp_fun_commute_plus_mset [simp]
  2265       comp_fun_commute.fold_mset_insert [OF comp_fun_commute_plus_mset, simp]
  2266       in_mset_fold_plus_iff [iff]
  2267       set_of_Union_mset [simp]
  2268       in_Union_mset_iff [iff]
  2269     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2270 
  2271 * Library/Sum_of_Squares: simplified and improved "sos" method. Always
  2272 use local CSDP executable, which is much faster than the NEOS server.
  2273 The "sos_cert" functionality is invoked as "sos" with additional
  2274 argument. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2275 
  2276 * HOL-Decision_Procs: New counterexample generator quickcheck
  2277 [approximation] for inequalities of transcendental functions. Uses
  2278 hardware floating point arithmetic to randomly discover potential
  2279 counterexamples. Counterexamples are certified with the "approximation"
  2280 method. See HOL/Decision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Quickcheck_Ex.thy for
  2281 examples.
  2282 
  2283 * HOL-Probability: Reworked measurability prover
  2284   - applies destructor rules repeatedly
  2285   - removed application splitting (replaced by destructor rule)
  2286   - added congruence rules to rewrite measure spaces under the sets
  2287     projection
  2288 
  2289 * New proof method "rewrite" (in theory ~~/src/HOL/Library/Rewrite) for
  2290 single-step rewriting with subterm selection based on patterns.
  2291 
  2292 
  2293 *** ML ***
  2294 
  2295 * Subtle change of name space policy: undeclared entries are now
  2296 considered inaccessible, instead of accessible via the fully-qualified
  2297 internal name. This mainly affects Name_Space.intern (and derivatives),
  2298 which may produce an unexpected Long_Name.hidden prefix. Note that
  2299 contemporary applications use the strict Name_Space.check (and
  2300 derivatives) instead, which is not affected by the change. Potential
  2301 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare applications of Name_Space.intern.
  2302 
  2303 * Subtle change of error semantics of Toplevel.proof_of: regular user
  2304 ERROR instead of internal Toplevel.UNDEF.
  2305 
  2306 * Basic combinators map, fold, fold_map, split_list, apply are available
  2307 as parameterized antiquotations, e.g. @{map 4} for lists of quadruples.
  2308 
  2309 * Renamed "pairself" to "apply2", in accordance to @{apply 2}.
  2310 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2311 
  2312 * Former combinators NAMED_CRITICAL and CRITICAL for central critical
  2313 sections have been discontinued, in favour of the more elementary
  2314 Multithreading.synchronized and its high-level derivative
  2315 Synchronized.var (which is usually sufficient in applications). Subtle
  2316 INCOMPATIBILITY: synchronized access needs to be atomic and cannot be
  2317 nested.
  2318 
  2319 * Synchronized.value (ML) is actually synchronized (as in Scala): subtle
  2320 change of semantics with minimal potential for INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2321 
  2322 * The main operations to certify logical entities are Thm.ctyp_of and
  2323 Thm.cterm_of with a local context; old-style global theory variants are
  2324 available as Thm.global_ctyp_of and Thm.global_cterm_of.
  2325 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2326 
  2327 * Elementary operations in module Thm are no longer pervasive.
  2328 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use qualified Thm.prop_of, Thm.cterm_of,
  2329 Thm.term_of etc.
  2330 
  2331 * Proper context for various elementary tactics: assume_tac,
  2332 resolve_tac, eresolve_tac, dresolve_tac, forward_tac, match_tac,
  2333 compose_tac, Splitter.split_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2334 
  2335 * Tactical PARALLEL_ALLGOALS is the most common way to refer to
  2336 PARALLEL_GOALS.
  2337 
  2338 * Goal.prove_multi is superseded by the fully general Goal.prove_common,
  2339 which also allows to specify a fork priority.
  2340 
  2341 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "COMMAND"} is superseded by
  2342 @{command_keyword COMMAND} (usually without quotes and with PIDE
  2343 markup). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2344 
  2345 * Cartouches within ML sources are turned into values of type
  2346 Input.source (with formal position information).
  2347 
  2348 
  2349 *** System ***
  2350 
  2351 * The Isabelle tool "update_cartouches" changes theory files to use
  2352 cartouches instead of old-style {* verbatim *} or `alt_string` tokens.
  2353 
  2354 * The Isabelle tool "build" provides new options -X, -k, -x.
  2355 
  2356 * Discontinued old-fashioned "codegen" tool. Code generation can always
  2357 be externally triggered using an appropriate ROOT file plus a
  2358 corresponding theory. Parametrization is possible using environment
  2359 variables, or ML snippets in the most extreme cases. Minor
  2360 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2361 
  2362 * JVM system property "isabelle.threads" determines size of Scala thread
  2363 pool, like Isabelle system option "threads" for ML.
  2364 
  2365 * JVM system property "isabelle.laf" determines the default Swing
  2366 look-and-feel, via internal class name or symbolic name as in the jEdit
  2367 menu Global Options / Appearance.
  2368 
  2369 * Support for Proof General and Isar TTY loop has been discontinued.
  2370 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use standard PIDE infrastructure instead.
  2371 
  2372 
  2373 
  2374 New in Isabelle2014 (August 2014)
  2375 ---------------------------------
  2376 
  2377 *** General ***
  2378 
  2379 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
  2380 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
  2381 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
  2382 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
  2383 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
  2384 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
  2385 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
  2386 some examples.
  2387 
  2388 * Standard tactics and proof methods such as "clarsimp", "auto" and
  2389 "safe" now preserve equality hypotheses "x = expr" where x is a free
  2390 variable.  Locale assumptions and chained facts containing "x"
  2391 continue to be useful.  The new method "hypsubst_thin" and the
  2392 configuration option "hypsubst_thin" (within the attribute name space)
  2393 restore the previous behavior.  INCOMPATIBILITY, especially where
  2394 induction is done after these methods or when the names of free and
  2395 bound variables clash.  As first approximation, old proofs may be
  2396 repaired by "using [[hypsubst_thin = true]]" in the critical spot.
  2397 
  2398 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
  2399 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
  2400 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
  2401 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
  2402 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
  2403 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
  2404 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
  2405 proof tools.
  2406 
  2407 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
  2408 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
  2409 supports input via ` (backquote).
  2410 
  2411 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
  2412 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
  2413 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
  2414 
  2415 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
  2416 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
  2417 string token.  General renovation of its syntax using text cartouches.
  2418 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2419 
  2420 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary workaround for
  2421 Isabelle/ML in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
  2422 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.  Potential
  2423 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2424 
  2425 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
  2426 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
  2427 
  2428 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
  2429 not check existence within the file-system.
  2430 
  2431 * Updated and extended manuals: codegen, datatypes, implementation,
  2432 isar-ref, jedit, system.
  2433 
  2434 
  2435 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  2436 
  2437 * Improved Document panel: simplified interaction where every single
  2438 mouse click (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit
  2439 buffer.
  2440 
  2441 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons), with connection
  2442 to PIDE hyperlinks.
  2443 
  2444 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
  2445 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
  2446 
  2447 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
  2448 auxiliary ML files.
  2449 
  2450 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism, with simple
  2451 templates, completion language context, name-space completion,
  2452 file-name completion, spell-checker completion.
  2453 
  2454 * Refined GUI popup for completion: more robust key/mouse event
  2455 handling and propagation to enclosing text area -- avoid loosing
  2456 keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
  2457 
  2458 * Completion popup supports both ENTER and TAB (default) to select an
  2459 item, depending on Isabelle options.
  2460 
  2461 * Refined insertion of completion items wrt. jEdit text: multiple
  2462 selections, rectangular selections, rectangular selection as "tall
  2463 caret".
  2464 
  2465 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
  2466 completion popup and context-menu.
  2467 
  2468 * More general "Query" panel supersedes "Find" panel, with GUI access
  2469 to commands 'find_theorems' and 'find_consts', as well as print
  2470 operations for the context.  Minor incompatibility in keyboard
  2471 shortcuts etc.: replace action isabelle-find by isabelle-query.
  2472 
  2473 * Search field for all output panels ("Output", "Query", "Info" etc.)
  2474 to highlight text via regular expression.
  2475 
  2476 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
  2477 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
  2478 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
  2479 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
  2480 
  2481 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
  2482 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
  2483 
  2484 * Empty editors buffers that are no longer required (e.g.\ via theory
  2485 imports) are automatically removed from the document model.
  2486 
  2487 * Improved monitor panel.
  2488 
  2489 * Improved Console/Scala plugin: more uniform scala.Console output,
  2490 more robust treatment of threads and interrupts.
  2491 
  2492 * Improved management of dockable windows: clarified keyboard focus
  2493 and window placement wrt. main editor view; optional menu item to
  2494 "Detach" a copy where this makes sense.
  2495 
  2496 * New Simplifier Trace panel provides an interactive view of the
  2497 simplification process, enabled by the "simp_trace_new" attribute
  2498 within the context.
  2499 
  2500 
  2501 *** Pure ***
  2502 
  2503 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
  2504 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
  2505 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
  2506 'instance' command with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem
  2507 might be postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof
  2508 finished trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous
  2509 (without any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
  2510 Axclass.class_axiomatization, Axclass.classrel_axiomatization,
  2511 Axclass.arity_axiomatization.
  2512 
  2513 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
  2514 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
  2515 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
  2516 renaming needs to be applied:
  2517 
  2518   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
  2519   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
  2520   all            ~>  Pure.all
  2521   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
  2522   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
  2523 
  2524 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
  2525 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
  2526 old constants:
  2527 
  2528 setup {*
  2529   fn thy => thy
  2530     |> Sign.root_path
  2531     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
  2532     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
  2533     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
  2534     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
  2535 *}
  2536 
  2537 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
  2538 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
  2539 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
  2540 
  2541 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
  2542 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
  2543 instantiated theorem.
  2544 
  2545 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
  2546 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
  2547 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
  2548 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
  2549 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
  2550 
  2551   attribute_setup standard =
  2552     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
  2553 
  2554 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
  2555 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
  2556 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
  2557 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
  2558 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
  2559 
  2560 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
  2561 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
  2562 differently, e.g. via cartouches).
  2563 
  2564 * Command 'print_term_bindings' supersedes 'print_binds' for clarity,
  2565 but the latter is retained some time as Proof General legacy.
  2566 
  2567 * Code generator preprocessor: explicit control of simp tracing on a
  2568 per-constant basis.  See attribute "code_preproc".
  2569 
  2570 
  2571 *** HOL ***
  2572 
  2573 * Code generator: enforce case of identifiers only for strict target
  2574 language requirements.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2575 
  2576 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
  2577 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2578 
  2579 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.  Minor
  2580 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2581 
  2582 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures"
  2583 option.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2584 
  2585 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
  2586 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2587 
  2588 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
  2589 with the given constants.
  2590 
  2591 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
  2592 operations on records.
  2593 
  2594 * Command and antiquotation "value" are now hardcoded against nbe and
  2595 ML.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2596 
  2597 * Renamed command 'enriched_type' to 'functor'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2598 
  2599 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
  2600 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
  2601 
  2602 * Qualified String.implode and String.explode.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2603 
  2604 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules can
  2605 now deal with conjunctions.  For help with converting proofs, the old
  2606 behaviour of the simplifier can be restored like this: declare/using
  2607 [[simp_legacy_precond]].  This configuration option will disappear
  2608 again in the future.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2609 
  2610 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
  2611 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2612 
  2613 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from session
  2614   "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".  The commands 'bnf', 'wrap_free_constructors',
  2615   'datatype_new', 'codatatype', 'primcorec', 'primcorecursive' are now
  2616   part of theory "Main".
  2617 
  2618   Theory renamings:
  2619     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
  2620     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
  2621     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
  2622     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
  2623     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
  2624     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
  2625     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
  2626     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
  2627     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
  2628     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
  2629     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
  2630     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
  2631     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
  2632     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
  2633     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
  2634     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
  2635     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
  2636     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
  2637     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
  2638     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
  2639     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
  2640     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
  2641 
  2642   New theories:
  2643     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
  2644     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
  2645     Library/BNF_Axomatization.thy
  2646     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
  2647     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
  2648 
  2649   Discontinued theories:
  2650     BNF/BNF.thy
  2651     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
  2652 
  2653 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2654 
  2655 * New (co)datatype package:
  2656   - Command 'primcorec' is fully implemented.
  2657   - Command 'datatype_new' generates size functions ("size_xxx" and
  2658     "size") as required by 'fun'.
  2659   - BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style
  2660     (co)datatypes with Transfer.
  2661   - Renamed commands:
  2662       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
  2663       primrec_new ~> primrec
  2664       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
  2665     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2666   - The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
  2667     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
  2668     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2669   - The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer
  2670     generated.  Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually
  2671     using "prim(co)rec".
  2672     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2673   - No discriminators are generated for nullary constructors by
  2674     default, eliminating the need for the odd "=:" syntax.
  2675     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2676   - No discriminators or selectors are generated by default by
  2677     "datatype_new", unless custom names are specified or the new
  2678     "discs_sels" option is passed.
  2679     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2680 
  2681 * Old datatype package:
  2682   - The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been
  2683     renamed "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" ->
  2684     "sum.case").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2685   - The generated constants "xxx_case", "xxx_rec", and "xxx_size" have
  2686     been renamed "case_xxx", "rec_xxx", and "size_xxx" (e.g.,
  2687     "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2688 
  2689 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions,
  2690   their relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new
  2691   BNF-based datatype package.
  2692 
  2693   Renamed constants:
  2694     Option.set ~> set_option
  2695     Option.map ~> map_option
  2696     option_rel ~> rel_option
  2697 
  2698   Renamed theorems:
  2699     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
  2700     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
  2701     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
  2702     option.recs ~> option.rec
  2703     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
  2704     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
  2705     map.simps ~> list.map
  2706     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
  2707     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
  2708     the.simps ~> option.sel
  2709 
  2710 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2711 
  2712 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
  2713     sum_map ~> map_sum
  2714     map_pair ~> map_prod
  2715     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
  2716     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
  2717     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
  2718     set_rel ~> rel_set
  2719     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
  2720     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "src/HOL/Library/FSet.thy")
  2721     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "src/HOL/Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
  2722     vset ~> rel_vset (in "src/HOL/Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
  2723 
  2724 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2725 
  2726 * Lifting and Transfer:
  2727   - a type variable as a raw type is supported
  2728   - stronger reflexivity prover
  2729   - rep_eq is always generated by lift_definition
  2730   - setup for Lifting/Transfer is now automated for BNFs
  2731     + holds for BNFs that do not contain a dead variable
  2732     + relator_eq, relator_mono, relator_distr, relator_domain,
  2733       relator_eq_onp, quot_map, transfer rules for bi_unique, bi_total,
  2734       right_unique, right_total, left_unique, left_total are proved
  2735       automatically
  2736     + definition of a predicator is generated automatically
  2737     + simplification rules for a predicator definition are proved
  2738       automatically for datatypes
  2739   - consolidation of the setup of Lifting/Transfer
  2740     + property that a relator preservers reflexivity is not needed any
  2741       more
  2742       Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2743     + left_total and left_unique rules are now transfer rules
  2744       (reflexivity_rule attribute not needed anymore)
  2745       INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2746     + Domainp does not have to be a separate assumption in
  2747       relator_domain theorems (=> more natural statement)
  2748       INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2749   - registration of code equations is more robust
  2750     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2751   - respectfulness proof obligation is preprocessed to a more readable
  2752     form
  2753     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2754   - eq_onp is always unfolded in respectfulness proof obligation
  2755     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2756   - unregister lifting setup for Code_Numeral.integer and
  2757     Code_Numeral.natural
  2758     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2759   - Lifting.invariant -> eq_onp
  2760     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2761 
  2762 * New internal SAT solver "cdclite" that produces models and proof
  2763 traces.  This solver replaces the internal SAT solvers "enumerate" and
  2764 "dpll".  Applications that explicitly used one of these two SAT
  2765 solvers should use "cdclite" instead. In addition, "cdclite" is now
  2766 the default SAT solver for the "sat" and "satx" proof methods and
  2767 corresponding tactics; the old default can be restored using "declare
  2768 [[sat_solver = zchaff_with_proofs]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2769 
  2770 * SMT module: A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called
  2771 "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2 and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g.,
  2772 4.3). The new proof method is called "smt2". CVC3 and CVC4 are also
  2773 supported as oracles. Yices is no longer supported, because no version
  2774 of the solver can handle both SMT-LIB 2 and quantifiers.
  2775 
  2776 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
  2777 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
  2778 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
  2779 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
  2780 
  2781 * Sledgehammer:
  2782   - Z3 can now produce Isar proofs.
  2783   - MaSh overhaul:
  2784     . New SML-based learning algorithms eliminate the dependency on
  2785       Python and increase performance and reliability.
  2786     . MaSh and MeSh are now used by default together with the
  2787       traditional MePo (Meng-Paulson) relevance filter. To disable
  2788       MaSh, set the "MaSh" system option in Isabelle/jEdit Plugin
  2789       Options / Isabelle / General to "none".
  2790   - New option:
  2791       smt_proofs
  2792   - Renamed options:
  2793       isar_compress ~> compress
  2794       isar_try0 ~> try0
  2795 
  2796 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2797 
  2798 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
  2799 
  2800 * Nitpick:
  2801   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could
  2802     take infinite values.
  2803   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as
  2804     "Abs_Integ" and "Rep_Integ".
  2805   - Removed "std" option.
  2806   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
  2807     "hide_types".
  2808 
  2809 * Metis: Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis
  2810 (full_types)' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2811 
  2812 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
  2813 
  2814 * Adjustion of INF and SUP operations:
  2815   - Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
  2816   - Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF and
  2817     SUP instead uniformly.
  2818   - More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
  2819     or SUP and Sup.
  2820   - INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
  2821   - Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.
  2822   - Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong, with
  2823     simplifier implication in premises.  Generalize and replace former
  2824     INT_cong, SUP_cong
  2825 
  2826 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2827 
  2828 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice.
  2829 
  2830 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
  2831 
  2832   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
  2833   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
  2834   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
  2835   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
  2836 
  2837 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2838 
  2839 * Theory reorganization: split of Big_Operators.thy into
  2840 Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy.
  2841 
  2842 * Consolidated some facts about big group operators:
  2843 
  2844     setsum_0' ~> setsum.neutral
  2845     setsum_0 ~> setsum.neutral_const
  2846     setsum_addf ~> setsum.distrib
  2847     setsum_cartesian_product ~> setsum.cartesian_product
  2848     setsum_cases ~> setsum.If_cases
  2849     setsum_commute ~> setsum.commute
  2850     setsum_cong ~> setsum.cong
  2851     setsum_delta ~> setsum.delta
  2852     setsum_delta' ~> setsum.delta'
  2853     setsum_diff1' ~> setsum.remove
  2854     setsum_empty ~> setsum.empty
  2855     setsum_infinite ~> setsum.infinite
  2856     setsum_insert ~> setsum.insert
  2857     setsum_inter_restrict'' ~> setsum.inter_filter
  2858     setsum_mono_zero_cong_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_left
  2859     setsum_mono_zero_cong_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_right
  2860     setsum_mono_zero_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_left
  2861     setsum_mono_zero_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_right
  2862     setsum_reindex ~> setsum.reindex
  2863     setsum_reindex_cong ~> setsum.reindex_cong
  2864     setsum_reindex_nonzero ~> setsum.reindex_nontrivial
  2865     setsum_restrict_set ~> setsum.inter_restrict
  2866     setsum_Plus ~> setsum.Plus
  2867     setsum_setsum_restrict ~> setsum.commute_restrict
  2868     setsum_Sigma ~> setsum.Sigma
  2869     setsum_subset_diff ~> setsum.subset_diff
  2870     setsum_Un_disjoint ~> setsum.union_disjoint
  2871     setsum_UN_disjoint ~> setsum.UNION_disjoint
  2872     setsum_Un_Int ~> setsum.union_inter
  2873     setsum_Union_disjoint ~> setsum.Union_disjoint
  2874     setsum_UNION_zero ~> setsum.Union_comp
  2875     setsum_Un_zero ~> setsum.union_inter_neutral
  2876     strong_setprod_cong ~> setprod.strong_cong
  2877     strong_setsum_cong ~> setsum.strong_cong
  2878     setprod_1' ~> setprod.neutral
  2879     setprod_1 ~> setprod.neutral_const
  2880     setprod_cartesian_product ~> setprod.cartesian_product
  2881     setprod_cong ~> setprod.cong
  2882     setprod_delta ~> setprod.delta
  2883     setprod_delta' ~> setprod.delta'
  2884     setprod_empty ~> setprod.empty
  2885     setprod_infinite ~> setprod.infinite
  2886     setprod_insert ~> setprod.insert
  2887     setprod_mono_one_cong_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_left
  2888     setprod_mono_one_cong_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_right
  2889     setprod_mono_one_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_left
  2890     setprod_mono_one_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_right
  2891     setprod_reindex ~> setprod.reindex
  2892     setprod_reindex_cong ~> setprod.reindex_cong
  2893     setprod_reindex_nonzero ~> setprod.reindex_nontrivial
  2894     setprod_Sigma ~> setprod.Sigma
  2895     setprod_subset_diff ~> setprod.subset_diff
  2896     setprod_timesf ~> setprod.distrib
  2897     setprod_Un2 ~> setprod.union_diff2
  2898     setprod_Un_disjoint ~> setprod.union_disjoint
  2899     setprod_UN_disjoint ~> setprod.UNION_disjoint
  2900     setprod_Un_Int ~> setprod.union_inter
  2901     setprod_Union_disjoint ~> setprod.Union_disjoint
  2902     setprod_Un_one ~> setprod.union_inter_neutral
  2903 
  2904   Dropped setsum_cong2 (simple variant of setsum.cong).
  2905   Dropped setsum_inter_restrict' (simple variant of setsum.inter_restrict)
  2906   Dropped setsum_reindex_id, setprod_reindex_id
  2907     (simple variants of setsum.reindex [symmetric], setprod.reindex [symmetric]).
  2908 
  2909 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2910 
  2911 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
  2912 
  2913   Fact consolidations:
  2914     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
  2915     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
  2916     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
  2917     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
  2918     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
  2919     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
  2920     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
  2921     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
  2922     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
  2923     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
  2924     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
  2925     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
  2926     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
  2927     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
  2928     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
  2929     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
  2930     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
  2931     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
  2932     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
  2933     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
  2934     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
  2935     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
  2936     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
  2937     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
  2938     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
  2939     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
  2940     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
  2941     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
  2942     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
  2943     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
  2944     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
  2945     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
  2946     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
  2947     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
  2948     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
  2949     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
  2950     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
  2951     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
  2952     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
  2953     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
  2954 
  2955 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
  2956 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
  2957 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
  2958 
  2959 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1,
  2960 min.cobounded2, max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
  2961 
  2962 For min_ac or max_ac, prefer more general collection ac_simps.
  2963 
  2964 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2965 
  2966 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~>
  2967 Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2968 
  2969 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
  2970 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2971 
  2972 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
  2973     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
  2974 
  2975 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2976 
  2977 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and
  2978   consolidation:
  2979     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
  2980     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
  2981 
  2982 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2983 
  2984 * Abolished neg_numeral.
  2985   - Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
  2986   - Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
  2987   - When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
  2988     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
  2989   - HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
  2990     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
  2991   - Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
  2992 
  2993 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2994 
  2995 * Reduced name variants for rules on associativity and commutativity:
  2996 
  2997     add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  2998     add_commute ~> add.commute
  2999     add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  3000     mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  3001     mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  3002     mult_left_commute ~> mult.left_commute
  3003     nat_add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  3004     nat_add_commute ~> add.commute
  3005     nat_add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  3006     nat_mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  3007     nat_mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  3008     eq_assoc ~> iff_assoc
  3009     eq_left_commute ~> iff_left_commute
  3010 
  3011 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3012 
  3013 * Fact collections add_ac and mult_ac are considered old-fashioned.
  3014 Prefer ac_simps instead, or specify rules
  3015 (add|mult).(assoc|commute|left_commute) individually.
  3016 
  3017 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
  3018     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
  3019     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
  3020     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
  3021     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
  3022 
  3023 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3024 
  3025 * Fact name consolidation:
  3026     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  3027     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
  3028     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
  3029     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
  3030     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
  3031 
  3032 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3033 
  3034 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
  3035 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
  3036 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
  3037 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
  3038 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
  3039 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly have
  3040 been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and field_simps.
  3041 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3042 
  3043 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
  3044 
  3045 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
  3046 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
  3047 
  3048 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
  3049 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
  3050 
  3051 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
  3052 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
  3053 or the brute way with
  3054 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
  3055 
  3056 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in theory
  3057 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them instead of explicitly
  3058 stating boundedness of sets.
  3059 
  3060 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow more
  3061 syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain shows up as
  3062 additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3063 
  3064 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
  3065   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
  3066   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
  3067   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
  3068   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
  3069   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
  3070   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
  3071   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
  3072   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
  3073   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
  3074   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
  3075   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
  3076 
  3077   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
  3078 
  3079   removed auxiliary lemmas:
  3080 
  3081     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
  3082     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr,
  3083     real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded, summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2,
  3084     sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom, sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero,
  3085     summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
  3086 
  3087 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3088 
  3089 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
  3090   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
  3091 
  3092   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
  3093 
  3094   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
  3095 
  3096   - removed constant isDiff
  3097 
  3098   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as
  3099     input syntax.
  3100 
  3101   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed.
  3102 
  3103   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
  3104 
  3105   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
  3106 
  3107   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
  3108 
  3109   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which
  3110     includes now rules for DERIV, has_derivative and
  3111     has_vector_derivative.
  3112 
  3113   - Other renamings:
  3114     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
  3115     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
  3116     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
  3117     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
  3118     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
  3119     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
  3120     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
  3121 
  3122 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3123 
  3124 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the
  3125 continuous_on_intros, isCont_intros collections, these facts are now
  3126 in continuous_intros.
  3127 
  3128 * Theorems about complex numbers are now stated only using Re and Im,
  3129 the Complex constructor is not used anymore. It is possible to use
  3130 primcorec to defined the behaviour of a complex-valued function.
  3131 
  3132 Removed theorems about the Complex constructor from the simpset, they
  3133 are available as the lemma collection legacy_Complex_simps. This
  3134 especially removes
  3135 
  3136     i_complex_of_real: "ii * complex_of_real r = Complex 0 r".
  3137 
  3138 Instead the reverse direction is supported with
  3139     Complex_eq: "Complex a b = a + \<i> * b"
  3140 
  3141 Moved csqrt from Fundamental_Algebra_Theorem to Complex.
  3142 
  3143   Renamings:
  3144     Re/Im                  ~>  complex.sel
  3145     complex_Re/Im_zero     ~>  zero_complex.sel
  3146     complex_Re/Im_add      ~>  plus_complex.sel
  3147     complex_Re/Im_minus    ~>  uminus_complex.sel
  3148     complex_Re/Im_diff     ~>  minus_complex.sel
  3149     complex_Re/Im_one      ~>  one_complex.sel
  3150     complex_Re/Im_mult     ~>  times_complex.sel
  3151     complex_Re/Im_inverse  ~>  inverse_complex.sel
  3152     complex_Re/Im_scaleR   ~>  scaleR_complex.sel
  3153     complex_Re/Im_i        ~>  ii.sel
  3154     complex_Re/Im_cnj      ~>  cnj.sel
  3155     Re/Im_cis              ~>  cis.sel
  3156 
  3157     complex_divide_def   ~>  divide_complex_def
  3158     complex_norm_def     ~>  norm_complex_def
  3159     cmod_def             ~>  norm_complex_de
  3160 
  3161   Removed theorems:
  3162     complex_zero_def
  3163     complex_add_def
  3164     complex_minus_def
  3165     complex_diff_def
  3166     complex_one_def
  3167     complex_mult_def
  3168     complex_inverse_def
  3169     complex_scaleR_def
  3170 
  3171 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3172 
  3173 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
  3174 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3175 
  3176 * HOL-Library: new theory src/HOL/Library/Tree.thy.
  3177 
  3178 * HOL-Library: removed theory src/HOL/Library/Kleene_Algebra.thy; it
  3179 is subsumed by session Kleene_Algebra in AFP.
  3180 
  3181 * HOL-Library / theory RBT: various constants and facts are hidden;
  3182 lifting setup is unregistered.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3183 
  3184 * HOL-Cardinals: new theory src/HOL/Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy.
  3185 
  3186 * HOL-Word: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
  3187 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3188 
  3189 * HOL-Word:
  3190   - Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a duplicate
  3191     of "word_arith_wis".
  3192   - Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
  3193     "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
  3194     "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
  3195 
  3196 * HOL-Number_Theory:
  3197   - consolidated the proofs of the binomial theorem
  3198   - the function fib is again of type nat => nat and not overloaded
  3199   - no more references to Old_Number_Theory in the HOL libraries
  3200     (except the AFP)
  3201 
  3202 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3203 
  3204 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
  3205   - Type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces.
  3206   - New theory Complex_Basic_Analysis defining complex derivatives,
  3207     holomorphic functions, etc., ported from HOL Light's canal.ml.
  3208   - Changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
  3209     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
  3210     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
  3211     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
  3212     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-)open
  3213     intervals.
  3214   - removed dependencies on type class ordered_euclidean_space with
  3215     introduction of "cbox" on euclidean_space
  3216     - renamed theorems:
  3217         interval ~> box
  3218         mem_interval ~> mem_box
  3219         interval_eq_empty ~> box_eq_empty
  3220         interval_ne_empty ~> box_ne_empty
  3221         interval_sing(1) ~> cbox_sing
  3222         interval_sing(2) ~> box_sing
  3223         subset_interval_imp ~> subset_box_imp
  3224         subset_interval ~> subset_box
  3225         open_interval ~> open_box
  3226         closed_interval ~> closed_cbox
  3227         interior_closed_interval ~> interior_cbox
  3228         bounded_closed_interval ~> bounded_cbox
  3229         compact_interval ~> compact_cbox
  3230         bounded_subset_closed_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_cbox_symmetric
  3231         bounded_subset_closed_interval ~> bounded_subset_cbox
  3232         mem_interval_componentwiseI ~> mem_box_componentwiseI
  3233         convex_box ~> convex_prod
  3234         rel_interior_real_interval ~> rel_interior_real_box
  3235         convex_interval ~> convex_box
  3236         convex_hull_eq_real_interval ~> convex_hull_eq_real_cbox
  3237         frechet_derivative_within_closed_interval ~> frechet_derivative_within_cbox
  3238         content_closed_interval' ~> content_cbox'
  3239         elementary_subset_interval ~> elementary_subset_box
  3240         diameter_closed_interval ~> diameter_cbox
  3241         frontier_closed_interval ~> frontier_cbox
  3242         frontier_open_interval ~> frontier_box
  3243         bounded_subset_open_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_box_symmetric
  3244         closure_open_interval ~> closure_box
  3245         open_closed_interval_convex ~> open_cbox_convex
  3246         open_interval_midpoint ~> box_midpoint
  3247         content_image_affinity_interval ~> content_image_affinity_cbox
  3248         is_interval_interval ~> is_interval_cbox + is_interval_box + is_interval_closed_interval
  3249         bounded_interval ~> bounded_closed_interval + bounded_boxes
  3250 
  3251     - respective theorems for intervals over the reals:
  3252         content_closed_interval + content_cbox
  3253         has_integral + has_integral_real
  3254         fine_division_exists + fine_division_exists_real
  3255         has_integral_null + has_integral_null_real
  3256         tagged_division_union_interval + tagged_division_union_interval_real
  3257         has_integral_const + has_integral_const_real
  3258         integral_const + integral_const_real
  3259         has_integral_bound + has_integral_bound_real
  3260         integrable_continuous + integrable_continuous_real
  3261         integrable_subinterval + integrable_subinterval_real
  3262         has_integral_reflect_lemma + has_integral_reflect_lemma_real
  3263         integrable_reflect + integrable_reflect_real
  3264         integral_reflect + integral_reflect_real
  3265         image_affinity_interval + image_affinity_cbox
  3266         image_smult_interval + image_smult_cbox
  3267         integrable_const + integrable_const_ivl
  3268         integrable_on_subinterval + integrable_on_subcbox
  3269 
  3270   - renamed theorems:
  3271     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
  3272     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
  3273     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
  3274 
  3275 * HOL-Probability:
  3276   - Renamed positive_integral to nn_integral:
  3277 
  3278     . Renamed all lemmas "*positive_integral*" to *nn_integral*"
  3279       positive_integral_positive ~> nn_integral_nonneg
  3280 
  3281     . Renamed abbreviation integral\<^sup>P to integral\<^sup>N.
  3282 
  3283   - replaced the Lebesgue integral on real numbers by the more general
  3284     Bochner integral for functions into a real-normed vector space.
  3285 
  3286     integral_zero               ~>  integral_zero / integrable_zero
  3287     integral_minus              ~>  integral_minus / integrable_minus
  3288     integral_add                ~>  integral_add / integrable_add
  3289     integral_diff               ~>  integral_diff / integrable_diff
  3290     integral_setsum             ~>  integral_setsum / integrable_setsum
  3291     integral_multc              ~>  integral_mult_left / integrable_mult_left
  3292     integral_cmult              ~>  integral_mult_right / integrable_mult_right
  3293     integral_triangle_inequality~>  integral_norm_bound
  3294     integrable_nonneg           ~>  integrableI_nonneg
  3295     integral_positive           ~>  integral_nonneg_AE
  3296     integrable_abs_iff          ~>  integrable_abs_cancel
  3297     positive_integral_lim_INF   ~>  nn_integral_liminf
  3298     lebesgue_real_affine        ~>  lborel_real_affine
  3299     borel_integral_has_integral ~>  has_integral_lebesgue_integral
  3300     integral_indicator          ~>
  3301          integral_real_indicator / integrable_real_indicator
  3302     positive_integral_fst       ~>  nn_integral_fst'
  3303     positive_integral_fst_measurable ~> nn_integral_fst
  3304     positive_integral_snd_measurable ~> nn_integral_snd
  3305 
  3306     integrable_fst_measurable   ~>
  3307          integral_fst / integrable_fst / AE_integrable_fst
  3308 
  3309     integrable_snd_measurable   ~>
  3310          integral_snd / integrable_snd / AE_integrable_snd
  3311 
  3312     integral_monotone_convergence  ~>
  3313          integral_monotone_convergence / integrable_monotone_convergence
  3314 
  3315     integral_monotone_convergence_at_top  ~>
  3316          integral_monotone_convergence_at_top /
  3317          integrable_monotone_convergence_at_top
  3318 
  3319     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lebesgue  ~>
  3320          has_integral_iff_has_bochner_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  3321 
  3322     lebesgue_integral_has_integral  ~>
  3323          has_integral_integrable_lebesgue_nonneg
  3324 
  3325     positive_integral_lebesgue_has_integral  ~>
  3326          integral_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg /
  3327          integrable_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  3328 
  3329     lebesgue_integral_real_affine  ~>
  3330          nn_integral_real_affine
  3331 
  3332     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lborel  ~>
  3333          integral_has_integral_nonneg / integrable_has_integral_nonneg
  3334 
  3335     The following theorems where removed:
  3336 
  3337     lebesgue_integral_nonneg
  3338     lebesgue_integral_uminus
  3339     lebesgue_integral_cmult
  3340     lebesgue_integral_multc
  3341     lebesgue_integral_cmult_nonneg
  3342     integral_cmul_indicator
  3343     integral_real
  3344 
  3345   - Formalized properties about exponentially, Erlang, and normal
  3346     distributed random variables.
  3347 
  3348 * HOL-Decision_Procs: Separate command 'approximate' for approximative
  3349 computation in src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation.  Minor
  3350 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3351 
  3352 
  3353 *** Scala ***
  3354 
  3355 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
  3356 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
  3357 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
  3358 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
  3359 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3360 
  3361 * Substantial reworking of internal PIDE protocol communication
  3362 channels.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3363 
  3364 
  3365 *** ML ***
  3366 
  3367 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
  3368 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
  3369 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
  3370 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
  3371 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
  3372 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
  3373 
  3374 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
  3375 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
  3376 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
  3377 actually belongs to it).
  3378 
  3379 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
  3380 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
  3381 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
  3382 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
  3383 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
  3384 of schematic variables.
  3385 
  3386 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
  3387 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3388 
  3389 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
  3390 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context
  3391 via "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3392 
  3393 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
  3394 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3395 
  3396 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
  3397 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
  3398 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
  3399 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3400 
  3401 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
  3402 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3403 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
  3404 formal context.
  3405 
  3406 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
  3407 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3408 
  3409 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
  3410 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
  3411 
  3412 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
  3413 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
  3414 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
  3415 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
  3416 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
  3417 
  3418 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
  3419 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
  3420 purposes.
  3421 
  3422 
  3423 *** System ***
  3424 
  3425 * Proof General with its traditional helper scripts is now an optional
  3426 Isabelle component, e.g. see ProofGeneral-4.2-2 from the Isabelle
  3427 component repository http://isabelle.in.tum.de/components/.  Note that
  3428 the "system" manual provides general explanations about add-on
  3429 components, especially those that are not bundled with the release.
  3430 
  3431 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
  3432 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
  3433 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
  3434 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
  3435 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the ISABELLE_PROCESS
  3436 settings variable.
  3437 
  3438 * Former "isabelle tty" has been superseded by "isabelle console",
  3439 with implicit build like "isabelle jedit", and without the mostly
  3440 obsolete Isar TTY loop.
  3441 
  3442 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
  3443 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
  3444 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
  3445 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
  3446 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
  3447 
  3448 * Removed obsolete "isabelle unsymbolize".  Note that the usual format
  3449 for email communication is the Unicode rendering of Isabelle symbols,
  3450 as produced by Isabelle/jEdit, for example.
  3451 
  3452 * Removed obsolete tool "wwwfind". Similar functionality may be
  3453 integrated into Isabelle/jEdit eventually.
  3454 
  3455 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
  3456 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
  3457 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
  3458 
  3459 * Session ROOT specifications require explicit 'document_files' for
  3460 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
  3461 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
  3462 processing is started.
  3463 
  3464 * Windows: support for regular TeX installation (e.g. MiKTeX) instead
  3465 of TeX Live from Cygwin.
  3466 
  3467 
  3468 
  3469 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
  3470 -------------------------------------
  3471 
  3472 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  3473 
  3474 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
  3475 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
  3476 
  3477 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
  3478 after edits surrounding the command location.
  3479 
  3480 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
  3481 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
  3482 e.g. out-of-memory).
  3483 
  3484 
  3485 *** System ***
  3486 
  3487 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
  3488 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
  3489 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
  3490 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
  3491 
  3492 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
  3493 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
  3494 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
  3495 
  3496 
  3497 
  3498 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
  3499 -------------------------------------
  3500 
  3501 *** General ***
  3502 
  3503 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
  3504 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
  3505 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3506 
  3507 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
  3508 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3509 
  3510 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
  3511 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
  3512 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
  3513 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
  3514 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
  3515 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
  3516 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
  3517 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
  3518 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
  3519 syntax.
  3520 
  3521 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
  3522 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3523 
  3524 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
  3525 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
  3526 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
  3527 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
  3528 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
  3529 
  3530 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
  3531 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3532 
  3533 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
  3534 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
  3535 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
  3536 
  3537 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
  3538 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
  3539 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
  3540 
  3541 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
  3542 eliminated old "ref" manual.
  3543 
  3544 
  3545 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  3546 
  3547 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
  3548 Documentation panel.
  3549 
  3550 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
  3551 documentation.
  3552 
  3553 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
  3554 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
  3555 
  3556 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
  3557 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
  3558 normal editing and checking process.
  3559 
  3560 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
  3561 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
  3562 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
  3563 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
  3564 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
  3565 
  3566 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
  3567 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
  3568 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
  3569 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
  3570 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
  3571 
  3572 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
  3573 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
  3574 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
  3575 
  3576 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
  3577 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
  3578 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
  3579 to resolve conflict.
  3580 
  3581 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
  3582 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
  3583 
  3584 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
  3585 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
  3586 such command executions while editing.
  3587 
  3588 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
  3589 document content.
  3590 
  3591 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
  3592 toplevel theorem statements.
  3593 
  3594 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
  3595 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
  3596 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
  3597 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
  3598 
  3599 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
  3600 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
  3601 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
  3602 
  3603 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
  3604 / Global Options / Appearance".
  3605 
  3606 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
  3607 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
  3608 
  3609 
  3610 *** Pure ***
  3611 
  3612 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
  3613 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
  3614 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
  3615 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
  3616 details.
  3617 
  3618 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
  3619 
  3620 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
  3621 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
  3622 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
  3623 
  3624 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
  3625 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3626 
  3627 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
  3628 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
  3629 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
  3630 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3631 
  3632 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
  3633 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
  3634 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3635 
  3636 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
  3637 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
  3638 
  3639 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
  3640 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
  3641 situations.
  3642 
  3643 
  3644 *** HOL ***
  3645 
  3646 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
  3647 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
  3648 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3649 
  3650 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
  3651 
  3652 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
  3653 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
  3654 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
  3655 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
  3656 
  3657   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
  3658 
  3659 * Code generator:
  3660   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
  3661     'code_instance'.
  3662   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
  3663     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
  3664 
  3665 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
  3666 examples.
  3667 
  3668 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
  3669 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
  3670 to distinguish both when desired.
  3671 
  3672 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
  3673 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
  3674 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
  3675 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3676 
  3677 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
  3678 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
  3679 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
  3680 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
  3681 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
  3682 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3683 
  3684 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
  3685 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
  3686 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3687 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
  3688 
  3689 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
  3690 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
  3691 
  3692 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
  3693 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
  3694 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
  3695 
  3696 * Lifting:
  3697   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
  3698     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
  3699       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
  3700       transfer rules
  3701     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
  3702       correspondence relation can be generated
  3703     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
  3704       parametricity
  3705     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
  3706   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
  3707   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
  3708     copies
  3709   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
  3710     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
  3711     anonymous context)
  3712   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
  3713     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  3714   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
  3715     lifting_forget, lifting_update
  3716   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
  3717     INCOMPATIBILITY
  3718 
  3719 * Transfer:
  3720   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
  3721     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
  3722   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
  3723   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
  3724     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
  3725   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
  3726 
  3727 * Reification and reflection:
  3728   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
  3729     "Reification".
  3730   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
  3731   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
  3732 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3733 
  3734 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
  3735   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
  3736     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  3737     This is now identity on infinite sets.
  3738   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
  3739     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
  3740   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
  3741     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
  3742     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
  3743     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
  3744     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
  3745     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
  3746     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
  3747     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
  3748   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
  3749     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
  3750   - Fact renames:
  3751       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
  3752       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
  3753 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3754 
  3755 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
  3756 
  3757 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
  3758 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
  3759 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
  3760 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3761 
  3762 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
  3763 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
  3764 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
  3765 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
  3766 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
  3767 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
  3768 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
  3769 lemmas.
  3770 
  3771 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
  3772 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
  3773 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3774 
  3775 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
  3776 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3777 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  3778 
  3779 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  3780 top and bottom elements.
  3781 
  3782 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  3783 
  3784 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  3785 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  3786 
  3787  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  3788    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  3789    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  3790 
  3791  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  3792    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  3793    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  3794 
  3795    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  3796    arbitrary filter.
  3797 
  3798  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  3799    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  3800    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  3801    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  3802    on a compact set.
  3803 
  3804  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  3805    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  3806    linear_continuum_topology).
  3807 
  3808  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  3809    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  3810    on all sequences converging to x.
  3811 
  3812  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  3813    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  3814    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  3815    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  3816    left or right.
  3817 
  3818  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  3819 
  3820      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  3821 
  3822  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  3823    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  3824 
  3825  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  3826    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  3827    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  3828    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  3829    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  3830    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  3831 
  3832  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  3833 
  3834    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  3835 
  3836    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  3837      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  3838 
  3839    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  3840 
  3841    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  3842      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  3843 
  3844    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  3845 
  3846    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  3847 
  3848  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  3849 
  3850 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3851 
  3852 * Nitpick:
  3853   - Added option "spy".
  3854   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  3855 
  3856 * Sledgehammer:
  3857   - Renamed option:
  3858       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  3859     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3860   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  3861   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  3862   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  3863 
  3864 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  3865 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  3866 
  3867 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  3868   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  3869   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  3870     generated code.
  3871   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  3872   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  3873   - Fact renames:
  3874     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  3875     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  3876     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  3877 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  3878 
  3879 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  3880 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  3881 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  3882 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  3883 
  3884 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  3885 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  3886 
  3887 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3888 
  3889 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  3890 
  3891     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  3892     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  3893 
  3894 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3895 
  3896 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  3897 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  3898 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  3899 
  3900 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  3901 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  3902 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  3903 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3904 
  3905 * HOL-BNF:
  3906   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  3907     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  3908     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  3909     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  3910   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  3911     coinduct).
  3912   - Renamed keywords:
  3913     data ~> datatype_new
  3914     codata ~> codatatype
  3915     bnf_def ~> bnf
  3916   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  3917     discs ~> disc
  3918     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  3919     map_id' ~> map_id
  3920     sels ~> sel
  3921     set_map' ~> set_map
  3922     sets ~> set
  3923 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  3924 
  3925 
  3926 *** ML ***
  3927 
  3928 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  3929 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  3930 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  3931 Examples.thy in particular.
  3932 
  3933 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  3934 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  3935 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  3936 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  3937 
  3938 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  3939 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  3940 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  3941 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  3942 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3943 
  3944 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  3945 
  3946     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  3947     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  3948 
  3949 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3950 
  3951 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  3952 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  3953 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  3954 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  3955 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  3956 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  3957 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  3958 
  3959 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  3960 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  3961 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  3962 clasets separately from the context.
  3963 
  3964 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  3965 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  3966 
  3967 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  3968 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  3969 
  3970 
  3971 *** System ***
  3972 
  3973 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  3974 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3975 
  3976 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  3977 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3978 
  3979 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  3980 settings variable.
  3981 
  3982 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  3983 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  3984 always pdf.
  3985 
  3986 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  3987 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  3988 
  3989 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  3990 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  3991 
  3992 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  3993 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  3994 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  3995 
  3996 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  3997 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  3998 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  3999 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  4000 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  4001 for HTML presentation of theories.
  4002 
  4003 
  4004 
  4005 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  4006 -----------------------------------
  4007 
  4008 *** General ***
  4009 
  4010 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  4011 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  4012 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  4013 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  4014 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  4015 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  4016 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  4017 
  4018 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  4019 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  4020 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  4021 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  4022 
  4023 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  4024 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  4025 
  4026 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  4027 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  4028 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  4029 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  4030 dependencies properly.
  4031 
  4032 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  4033 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  4034 
  4035 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  4036 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  4037 
  4038 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  4039 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  4040 and "class ... context ...".
  4041 
  4042 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  4043 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  4044 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  4045 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  4046 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  4047 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  4048 
  4049 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  4050 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  4051 
  4052 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  4053 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  4054 
  4055 
  4056 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  4057 
  4058 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  4059 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  4060 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  4061 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  4062 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  4063 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  4064 
  4065 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  4066 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  4067 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  4068 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  4069 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  4070 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  4071 
  4072 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  4073 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  4074 browser on demand.
  4075 
  4076 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  4077 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  4078 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  4079 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  4080 
  4081 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  4082 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  4083 
  4084 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  4085 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  4086 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  4087 potentially infinite message streams.
  4088 
  4089 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  4090 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  4091 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  4092 schemes.
  4093 
  4094 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  4095 symbols.
  4096 
  4097 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  4098 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  4099 
  4100 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  4101 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  4102 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  4103 
  4104 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  4105 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  4106 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  4107 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  4108 
  4109 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  4110 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  4111 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  4112 
  4113 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  4114 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  4115 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  4116 Isabelle distribution.
  4117 
  4118 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  4119 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  4120 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  4121 
  4122 
  4123 *** Pure ***
  4124 
  4125 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  4126 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  4127 
  4128 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  4129 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  4130 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4131 
  4132 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4133 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  4134 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  4135 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  4136 with some care where this is really required.
  4137 
  4138 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  4139 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  4140 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  4141 
  4142   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  4143 
  4144 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  4145 a Hasse diagram.
  4146 
  4147 
  4148 *** HOL ***
  4149 
  4150 * Sledgehammer:
  4151 
  4152   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  4153     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  4154   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  4155   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  4156   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  4157   - Renamed options:
  4158       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  4159       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  4160       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  4161       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  4162 
  4163 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  4164 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  4165 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  4166 
  4167 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  4168 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4169 
  4170 * Lifting:
  4171   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  4172   - quot_del attribute
  4173   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  4174 
  4175 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  4176 expressions.
  4177 
  4178 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  4179 pointfree expressions.
  4180 
  4181 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  4182 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  4183 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  4184 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  4185 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4186 
  4187 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  4188 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  4189 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  4190 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  4191 accordingly.
  4192 
  4193 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  4194 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4195 
  4196 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  4197 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4198 
  4199 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4200 
  4201 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  4202 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  4203 
  4204 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  4205 
  4206 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  4207 
  4208   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  4209   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  4210 
  4211 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4212 
  4213 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  4214 
  4215   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  4216   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  4217 
  4218 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4219 
  4220 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  4221 
  4222   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  4223     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  4224     output f x converges to G.
  4225 
  4226   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  4227     infinity (at_bot).
  4228 
  4229   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  4230     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  4231 
  4232   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  4233     at_top".
  4234 
  4235 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4236 
  4237 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  4238 lattice type classes.
  4239 
  4240 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  4241 
  4242     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  4243     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  4244 
  4245 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4246 
  4247 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  4248 changes as follows.
  4249 
  4250   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  4251 
  4252       prefix ~> prefixeq
  4253       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  4254 
  4255   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  4256     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  4257     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  4258     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  4259 
  4260   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  4261     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  4262     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  4263 
  4264   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  4265     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  4266     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  4267     Library/Prefix_Order.
  4268 
  4269   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  4270     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  4271 
  4272       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  4273       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  4274       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  4275       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  4276       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  4277       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  4278       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  4279       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  4280       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  4281       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  4282       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  4283       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  4284       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  4285       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  4286       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  4287       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  4288 
  4289 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4290 
  4291 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  4292 
  4293 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  4294 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  4295 
  4296 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  4297 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  4298 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  4299 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  4300 
  4301   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  4302   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  4303   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  4304   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  4305   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  4306   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  4307   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  4308   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  4309   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  4310   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  4311 
  4312 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4313 
  4314 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  4315 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  4316 Data").
  4317 
  4318 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  4319 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  4320 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  4321 code.
  4322 
  4323 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  4324 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  4325 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  4326 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4327 
  4328 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  4329 
  4330 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  4331 
  4332 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  4333 
  4334   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  4335   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  4336 
  4337 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  4338 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  4339 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  4340 
  4341   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  4342 
  4343     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  4344     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  4345     cart_base i  removed
  4346     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  4347 
  4348   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  4349 
  4350   Renamed lemmas:
  4351 
  4352     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  4353     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  4354     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  4355     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  4356     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  4357     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  4358     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  4359     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  4360     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  4361     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  4362 
  4363 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4364 
  4365 * HOL/Probability:
  4366 
  4367   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  4368 
  4369   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  4370     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  4371     (borel_measurable_induct).
  4372 
  4373   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  4374     projective family).
  4375 
  4376 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  4377 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  4378 
  4379 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  4380 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  4381 datatypes.
  4382 
  4383 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  4384 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  4385 
  4386 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  4387 trees for the code generator.
  4388 
  4389 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  4390 Lifting/Transfer.
  4391 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4392 
  4393 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  4394 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4395 
  4396 
  4397 *** Document preparation ***
  4398 
  4399 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  4400 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  4401 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  4402 
  4403 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  4404 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  4405 
  4406 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  4407 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  4408 document/root.tex.
  4409 
  4410 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  4411 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4412 
  4413 
  4414 *** ML ***
  4415 
  4416 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  4417 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  4418 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  4419 
  4420 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  4421 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  4422 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  4423 
  4424 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  4425 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  4426 necessarily printing visible text.
  4427 
  4428 
  4429 *** System ***
  4430 
  4431 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  4432 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  4433 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  4434 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  4435 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  4436 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  4437 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  4438 
  4439 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  4440 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  4441 
  4442   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  4443 
  4444 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  4445 
  4446 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  4447 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  4448 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  4449 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  4450 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  4451 
  4452 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  4453 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  4454 
  4455 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  4456 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  4457 
  4458 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  4459 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4460 
  4461 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  4462 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  4463 version of Isabelle.
  4464 
  4465 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  4466 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  4467 
  4468 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  4469 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  4470 for home-made settings.
  4471 
  4472 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  4473 
  4474 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  4475 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  4476 configuration.
  4477 
  4478 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  4479 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  4480 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  4481 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  4482 bundled as Isabelle component.
  4483 
  4484 
  4485 
  4486 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  4487 ------------------------------
  4488 
  4489 *** General ***
  4490 
  4491 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  4492 
  4493   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  4494     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  4495   - markup for bound variables
  4496   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  4497   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  4498   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  4499     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  4500 
  4501 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  4502 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  4503 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  4504 
  4505 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  4506 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  4507 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  4508 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  4509 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  4510 
  4511   context
  4512     fixes x y z :: 'a
  4513     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  4514   begin
  4515 
  4516   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  4517 
  4518   end
  4519 
  4520   thm my_trans
  4521 
  4522 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  4523 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  4524 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  4525 
  4526 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  4527 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  4528 
  4529 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  4530 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  4531 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  4532 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  4533 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  4534 
  4535 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  4536 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  4537 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  4538 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  4539 indices of schematic variables.
  4540 
  4541 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  4542 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  4543 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  4544 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  4545 etc. was exploited.
  4546 
  4547 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  4548 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  4549 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  4550 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  4551 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  4552 of the material of that old tutorial.
  4553 
  4554 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  4555 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  4556 manual.
  4557 
  4558 
  4559 *** Pure ***
  4560 
  4561 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  4562 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  4563 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  4564 
  4565 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  4566 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  4567 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  4568 undocumented feature.)
  4569 
  4570 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  4571 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  4572 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  4573 
  4574   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  4575 
  4576   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  4577     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  4578 
  4579 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  4580 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  4581 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  4582 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  4583 
  4584 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  4585 
  4586     num ~> num_token
  4587     xnum ~> xnum_token
  4588     xstr ~> str_token
  4589 
  4590 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  4591 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  4592 position information via constraints).
  4593 
  4594 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  4595 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  4596 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4597 
  4598 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  4599 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  4600 
  4601 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  4602 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  4603 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4604 
  4605 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  4606 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4607 
  4608 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  4609 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  4610 
  4611   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  4612 
  4613 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4614 
  4615 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  4616 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4617 
  4618 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  4619 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  4620 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  4621 
  4622 
  4623 *** HOL ***
  4624 
  4625 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  4626 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  4627 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  4628 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  4629 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  4630 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  4631 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  4632 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  4633 possible.
  4634 
  4635 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  4636 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  4637 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  4638 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  4639 
  4640 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  4641 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4642 
  4643 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  4644 
  4645 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  4646 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  4647 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  4648 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  4649 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  4650 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  4651 
  4652   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  4653     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  4654 
  4655   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  4656     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  4657     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  4658 
  4659   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  4660     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  4661 
  4662   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  4663     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  4664     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  4665 
  4666   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  4667     Redefine using other integer operations.
  4668 
  4669 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  4670 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  4671 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  4672 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  4673 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  4674 
  4675   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  4676     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  4677     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  4678     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  4679     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  4680 
  4681     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  4682     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  4683 
  4684   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  4685     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  4686     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  4687     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  4688     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  4689     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  4690     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  4691     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  4692 
  4693   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  4694     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  4695     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  4696     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  4697 
  4698   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  4699     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  4700     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  4701     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  4702 
  4703   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  4704     from type nat to type int.
  4705 
  4706 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  4707 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  4708 
  4709   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  4710     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  4711     type.  Example syntax:
  4712 
  4713     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  4714       is List.insert
  4715 
  4716     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  4717     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  4718     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  4719     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  4720     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  4721     by the package.
  4722 
  4723   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  4724     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  4725     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  4726     code generation for each constant.
  4727 
  4728   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  4729     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  4730     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  4731     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  4732     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  4733 
  4734   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  4735     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  4736     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  4737 
  4738 * Quotient package:
  4739 
  4740   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  4741     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  4742 
  4743   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  4744     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  4745 
  4746   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  4747     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  4748     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4749 
  4750   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  4751     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4752 
  4753 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  4754 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  4755 
  4756 * Quickcheck:
  4757 
  4758   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  4759     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  4760     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  4761     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  4762     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  4763 
  4764     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  4765     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  4766     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  4767 
  4768     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  4769     continues searching for genuine ones.
  4770 
  4771     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  4772     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  4773     show genuine counterexamples.
  4774 
  4775   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  4776     value generators for a given type and operations.
  4777 
  4778     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  4779     constructors of that type.
  4780 
  4781   - Support for multisets.
  4782 
  4783   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  4784 
  4785   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  4786     conjectures in a locale context.
  4787 
  4788 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  4789 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  4790 
  4791 * Sledgehammer:
  4792   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  4793     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  4794   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  4795   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  4796     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  4797   - Sped up the minimizer.
  4798   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  4799   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  4800   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  4801 
  4802 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  4803 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  4804 
  4805 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  4806 
  4807 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4808 
  4809 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  4810 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  4811 
  4812   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  4813 
  4814 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  4815 a list and a nat.
  4816 
  4817 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  4818 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  4819 
  4820 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  4821 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  4822 default.
  4823 
  4824 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  4825 
  4826   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  4827 
  4828 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  4829 
  4830 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  4831 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  4832 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  4833 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  4834 one_case.
  4835 
  4836 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  4837 the result of the fact expression.
  4838 
  4839 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  4840 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  4841 of some relation theorems:
  4842 
  4843   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  4844   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  4845   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  4846   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  4847   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  4848   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  4849 
  4850 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  4851 
  4852 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  4853 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  4854 
  4855 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4856 
  4857 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  4858 to match the constant's name:
  4859 
  4860   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  4861   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  4862   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  4863   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  4864   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  4865   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  4866   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  4867   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  4868   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  4869   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  4870   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  4871   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  4872   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  4873   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  4874   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  4875   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  4876   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  4877   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  4878   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  4879   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  4880   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  4881   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  4882   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  4883   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  4884 
  4885 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4886 
  4887 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  4888 and corresponding theorem names:
  4889 
  4890   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  4891 
  4892   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  4893 
  4894   - Renamed theorems:
  4895 
  4896     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  4897     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  4898     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  4899     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  4900     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  4901     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  4902     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  4903     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  4904     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  4905     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  4906     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  4907     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  4908     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  4909     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  4910     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  4911     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  4912     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  4913     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  4914     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  4915     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  4916     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  4917     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  4918     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  4919 
  4920     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  4921 
  4922     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  4923 
  4924 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4925 
  4926 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  4927 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  4928 
  4929   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  4930   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  4931   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  4932   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  4933   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  4934   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  4935   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  4936   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  4937   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  4938   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  4939   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  4940   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  4941   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  4942   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  4943   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  4944   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  4945   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  4946   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  4947   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  4948   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  4949   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  4950 
  4951 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  4952 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4953 
  4954 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4955 
  4956 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  4957 
  4958   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  4959   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  4960   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  4961   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  4962   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  4963   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  4964   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  4965   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  4966   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  4967   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  4968   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  4969   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  4970   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  4971   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  4972   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  4973   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  4974   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  4975   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  4976 
  4977 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4978 
  4979 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  4980 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  4981 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  4982 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  4983 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  4984 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  4985 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  4986 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  4987 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  4988 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  4989 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  4990 
  4991 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  4992 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  4993 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  4994 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  4995 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  4996 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  4997 
  4998 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  4999 through option types.
  5000 
  5001 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  5002 relations.
  5003 
  5004 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5005 
  5006 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  5007 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  5008 
  5009   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  5010   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  5011   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  5012   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  5013   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  5014   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  5015   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  5016   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  5017   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  5018   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  5019   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  5020   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  5021   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  5022   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  5023   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  5024   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  5025   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  5026   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  5027   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  5028   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  5029   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  5030   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  5031   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  5032   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  5033   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  5034   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  5035   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  5036   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  5037   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  5038   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  5039   zless_le ~> less_le
  5040   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  5041   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  5042   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  5043 
  5044 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  5045 
  5046   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  5047 
  5048 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  5049 
  5050 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  5051 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  5052 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  5053 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  5054 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5055 
  5056 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5057 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  5058 
  5059 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  5060 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  5061 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  5062 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  5063 follows:
  5064 
  5065   Operations:
  5066   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  5067   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  5068   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  5069   del -> rbt_del
  5070   delete -> rbt_delete
  5071   ins -> rbt_ins
  5072   insert -> rbt_insert
  5073   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  5074   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  5075   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  5076   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  5077   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  5078   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  5079   tree_less -> rbt_less
  5080   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  5081   union -> rbt_union
  5082   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  5083   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  5084 
  5085   Lemmas:
  5086   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  5087   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  5088   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  5089   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  5090   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  5091   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  5092   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  5093   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  5094   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  5095   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  5096   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  5097   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  5098   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  5099   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  5100   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  5101   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  5102   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  5103   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  5104   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  5105   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  5106   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  5107   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  5108   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  5109   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  5110   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  5111   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  5112   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  5113   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  5114   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  5115   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  5116   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  5117   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  5118   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  5119   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  5120   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  5121   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  5122   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  5123   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  5124   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  5125   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  5126   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  5127   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  5128   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  5129   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  5130   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  5131   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  5132   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  5133   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  5134   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  5135   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  5136   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  5137   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  5138   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  5139   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  5140   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  5141   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  5142   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  5143   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  5144   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  5145   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  5146   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  5147   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  5148   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  5149   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  5150   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  5151   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  5152   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  5153   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  5154   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  5155   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  5156   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  5157   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  5158   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  5159   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  5160   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  5161   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  5162   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  5163   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  5164   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  5165   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  5166   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  5167   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  5168   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  5169 
  5170 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  5171 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  5172 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5173 
  5174   Changed Operations:
  5175   float_abs -> abs
  5176   float_nprt -> nprt
  5177   float_pprt -> pprt
  5178   pow2 -> use powr
  5179   round_down -> float_round_down
  5180   round_up -> float_round_up
  5181   scale -> exponent
  5182 
  5183   Removed Operations:
  5184   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  5185 
  5186   Renamed Lemmas:
  5187   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  5188   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  5189   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  5190   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  5191   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  5192   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  5193   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  5194   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  5195   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  5196   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  5197   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  5198   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  5199   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  5200   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  5201   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  5202   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  5203   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  5204   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  5205   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  5206   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  5207   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  5208   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  5209   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  5210   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  5211   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  5212   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  5213   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  5214   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  5215   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  5216   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  5217   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  5218   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  5219   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  5220   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  5221   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  5222   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  5223 
  5224   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  5225   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  5226   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  5227   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  5228   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  5229   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  5230   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  5231   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  5232   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  5233   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  5234 
  5235 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  5236 association lists with distinct keys.
  5237 
  5238 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  5239 annotated commands.
  5240 
  5241 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  5242 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  5243 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  5244 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5245 
  5246 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  5247 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  5248 instead.
  5249 
  5250   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  5251   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  5252   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  5253   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  5254   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  5255   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  5256   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  5257   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  5258   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  5259   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  5260   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  5261   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  5262   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  5263   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  5264   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  5265   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  5266   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  5267   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  5268   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  5269   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  5270   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  5271   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  5272   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  5273   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  5274   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  5275   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  5276   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  5277   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  5278   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  5279   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  5280   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  5281   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  5282   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  5283   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  5284   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  5285   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  5286   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  5287   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  5288   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  5289   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  5290   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  5291 
  5292 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  5293 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  5294 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  5295 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  5296 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  5297 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  5298 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  5299 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  5300 
  5301 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  5302 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  5303 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  5304 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  5305 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  5306 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  5307 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  5308 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  5309 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  5310 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  5311 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  5312 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5313 
  5314   Renamed constants:
  5315   measure -> emeasure
  5316   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  5317   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  5318   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  5319   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  5320 
  5321   Removed locales:
  5322   completeable_measure_space
  5323   finite_measure_space
  5324   finite_prob_space
  5325   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  5326   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  5327   finite_sigma_algebra
  5328   measure_space
  5329   pair_finite_prob_space
  5330   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  5331   pair_finite_space
  5332   pair_sigma_algebra
  5333   product_sigma_algebra
  5334 
  5335   Removed constants:
  5336   conditional_space
  5337   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  5338   image_space
  5339   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  5340   pair_measure_generator
  5341   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  5342   subvimage
  5343 
  5344   Replacement theorems:
  5345   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  5346   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  5347   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  5348   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  5349   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  5350   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  5351   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  5352   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  5353   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  5354   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  5355   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  5356   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  5357   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  5358   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  5359   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  5360   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  5361   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  5362   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  5363   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  5364   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  5365   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  5366   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  5367   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  5368   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  5369   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  5370   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  5371   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  5372   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  5373   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  5374   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  5375   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  5376   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  5377   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  5378   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  5379   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  5380   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  5381   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  5382   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  5383   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  5384   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  5385   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  5386   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  5387   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  5388   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  5389   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  5390   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  5391   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  5392   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  5393   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  5394   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  5395   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  5396   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  5397   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  5398   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  5399   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  5400   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  5401   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  5402   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  5403   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  5404   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  5405   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  5406   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  5407   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  5408   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  5409   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  5410   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  5411   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  5412   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  5413   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  5414   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  5415   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  5416   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  5417   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  5418   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  5419   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  5420   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  5421   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  5422   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  5423   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  5424   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  5425   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  5426   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  5427   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  5428   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  5429   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  5430   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  5431   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  5432   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  5433   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  5434   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  5435   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  5436   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  5437   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  5438   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  5439   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  5440   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  5441   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  5442   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  5443   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  5444   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  5445   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  5446   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  5447   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  5448   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  5449   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  5450   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  5451   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  5452   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  5453   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  5454   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  5455   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  5456   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  5457   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  5458   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  5459   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  5460   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  5461   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  5462   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  5463   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  5464   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  5465   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  5466   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  5467   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  5468   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  5469   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  5470   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  5471   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  5472   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  5473 
  5474 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  5475 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  5476 
  5477 
  5478 *** FOL ***
  5479 
  5480 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  5481 
  5482 
  5483 *** ZF ***
  5484 
  5485 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  5486 analysis.
  5487 
  5488 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  5489 
  5490 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5491 
  5492 
  5493 *** ML ***
  5494 
  5495 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  5496 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  5497 
  5498 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  5499 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  5500 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  5501 
  5502 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  5503 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  5504 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  5505 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  5506 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  5507 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  5508 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  5509 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  5510 
  5511 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  5512 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  5513 
  5514 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  5515 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  5516 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  5517 
  5518 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  5519 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5520 
  5521 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  5522 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  5523 context as well.
  5524 
  5525 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  5526 
  5527   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  5528   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  5529   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  5530   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  5531   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  5532   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  5533   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  5534   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  5535   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  5536   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  5537   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  5538   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  5539 
  5540 
  5541 *** System ***
  5542 
  5543 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  5544 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  5545 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  5546 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  5547 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  5548 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  5549 the generic user home was intended.
  5550 
  5551 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  5552 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  5553 
  5554 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  5555 (not just JRE).
  5556 
  5557 
  5558 
  5559 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  5560 ------------------------------------
  5561 
  5562 *** General ***
  5563 
  5564 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  5565 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  5566 
  5567   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  5568     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  5569     files for checking).
  5570 
  5571   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  5572     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  5573     positions.
  5574 
  5575   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  5576     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  5577     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  5578 
  5579   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  5580     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  5581     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  5582 
  5583   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  5584     cores.
  5585 
  5586   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  5587     versions (garbage collection).
  5588 
  5589 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  5590 including some remaining limitations.
  5591 
  5592 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  5593 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  5594 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  5595 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  5596 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  5597 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5598 
  5599 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  5600 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  5601 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  5602 
  5603 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  5604 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  5605 usedir option -Q.
  5606 
  5607 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  5608 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  5609 
  5610   long_names   ~> names_long
  5611   short_names  ~> names_short
  5612   unique_names ~> names_unique
  5613 
  5614 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  5615 
  5616   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  5617 
  5618 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  5619 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  5620 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  5621 
  5622 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  5623 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  5624 
  5625 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  5626   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  5627   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  5628   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  5629     "Classical Reasoner".
  5630 
  5631 
  5632 *** HOL ***
  5633 
  5634 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  5635 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5636 
  5637 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  5638 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  5639 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  5640 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  5641 class complete_linorder.
  5642 
  5643 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  5644 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  5645 
  5646 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  5647 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  5648 
  5649   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  5650   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  5651   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  5652   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  5653   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  5654   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  5655   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  5656   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  5657   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  5658   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  5659   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  5660 
  5661 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  5662 
  5663   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  5664   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  5665   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  5666   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  5667   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  5668   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  5669   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  5670   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  5671   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  5672   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  5673   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  5674   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  5675   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  5676   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  5677   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  5678   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  5679 
  5680 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5681 
  5682 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  5683 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5684 
  5685 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  5686 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  5687 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  5688 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5689 
  5690 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  5691 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  5692 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  5693 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5694 
  5695 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  5696 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  5697 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  5698 
  5699 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  5700 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  5701 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5702 
  5703 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  5704 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  5705 
  5706 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  5707 
  5708     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  5709     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  5710 
  5711 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  5712 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5713 
  5714 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  5715 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5716 
  5717 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  5718 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  5719 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  5720 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5721 
  5722   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  5723   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  5724   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  5725   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  5726   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  5727   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  5728   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  5729 
  5730 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  5731 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5732 
  5733   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  5734   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  5735   real_less_def ~> less_le
  5736   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  5737   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  5738   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  5739   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  5740   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  5741   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  5742   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  5743   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  5744   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  5745   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  5746   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  5747   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  5748   real_le_linear ~> linear
  5749   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  5750   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  5751   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  5752   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  5753   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  5754   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  5755   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  5756   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  5757   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  5758   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  5759   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  5760   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  5761   expi_add ~> exp_add
  5762   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  5763   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  5764   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  5765   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  5766   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  5767   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  5768   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  5769   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  5770   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  5771   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  5772   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  5773   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  5774   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  5775   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  5776   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  5777   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  5778   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  5779   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  5780   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  5781   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  5782   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  5783   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  5784   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  5785   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  5786   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  5787   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  5788   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  5789   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  5790   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  5791   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  5792   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  5793   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  5794   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  5795   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  5796   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  5797   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  5798   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  5799   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  5800   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  5801   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  5802   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  5803   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  5804   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  5805   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  5806   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  5807   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  5808   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  5809   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  5810   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  5811   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  5812   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  5813   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  5814   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  5815 
  5816 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  5817 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  5818 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  5819 
  5820 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  5821 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  5822 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  5823 
  5824 * Code generation:
  5825 
  5826   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  5827     characters in the target language.
  5828 
  5829   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  5830     instead.
  5831 
  5832   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  5833 
  5834   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  5835     reactivated by the following theory command:
  5836 
  5837       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  5838 
  5839 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5840 
  5841 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  5842 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  5843 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  5844 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  5845 syntax.
  5846 
  5847 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  5848 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  5849 
  5850 * Nitpick:
  5851   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  5852   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  5853   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  5854     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5855 
  5856 * Sledgehammer:
  5857   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  5858   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  5859     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  5860   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  5861     this can be done within reasonable time.
  5862   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  5863     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5864   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  5865     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  5866   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  5867     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5868 
  5869 * Metis:
  5870   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5871   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  5872     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5873 
  5874 * Command 'try':
  5875   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  5876     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5877   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  5878     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  5879 
  5880 * Quickcheck:
  5881   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  5882     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  5883   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  5884     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  5885   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  5886     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  5887     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  5888     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  5889   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  5890     (formly in HOL/Library).
  5891 
  5892 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5893 use 'partial_function' instead.
  5894 
  5895 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  5896 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  5897 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  5898 
  5899 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  5900 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  5901 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5902 
  5903 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  5904 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5905 
  5906 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  5907 arithmetic.
  5908 
  5909 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  5910 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  5911 and lattice type classes.
  5912 
  5913 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  5914 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  5915 
  5916 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  5917 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  5918 
  5919 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  5920 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  5921 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5922 
  5923   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  5924   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  5925   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  5926   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  5927 
  5928 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  5929 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  5930 constants:
  5931 
  5932   type inat   ~> type enat
  5933   Fin         ~> enat
  5934   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  5935   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  5936   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  5937 
  5938 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  5939 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5940 
  5941 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  5942 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  5943 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  5944 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  5945 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  5946 
  5947 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  5948 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  5949 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  5950 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  5951 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  5952 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  5953 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5954 
  5955   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  5956   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  5957   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  5958   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  5959 
  5960 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  5961 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  5962 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5963 
  5964   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  5965   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  5966   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  5967   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  5968   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  5969   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  5970   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  5971   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  5972   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  5973   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  5974   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  5975   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  5976   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  5977   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  5978   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  5979   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  5980   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  5981   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  5982   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  5983   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  5984   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  5985   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  5986   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  5987   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  5988   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  5989   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  5990   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  5991   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  5992   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  5993   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  5994   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  5995   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  5996   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  5997   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  5998   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  5999   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  6000   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  6001   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  6002   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  6003   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  6004   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  6005   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  6006   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  6007   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  6008   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  6009   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  6010   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  6011   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  6012   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  6013   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  6014   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  6015 
  6016 * Session HOL-Probability:
  6017   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  6018   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  6019   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  6020   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  6021     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6022 
  6023 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6024 
  6025   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  6026   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  6027   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  6028   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  6029   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  6030   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  6031   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  6032   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  6033   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  6034   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  6035   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  6036   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  6037   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  6038   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  6039   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  6040   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  6041   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  6042   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  6043   UU_I ~> bottomI
  6044   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  6045   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  6046   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  6047   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  6048   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  6049   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  6050 
  6051 
  6052 *** Document preparation ***
  6053 
  6054 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  6055 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  6056 same.
  6057 
  6058 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  6059 result.
  6060 
  6061 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  6062 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  6063 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  6064 
  6065 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  6066 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  6067 
  6068 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  6069 like this:
  6070 
  6071   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  6072   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  6073 
  6074 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  6075 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  6076 layouts.
  6077 
  6078 
  6079 *** ML ***
  6080 
  6081 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  6082 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  6083 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  6084 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  6085 under external program control.
  6086 
  6087 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  6088 data, which requires explicit setup.
  6089 
  6090 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  6091 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  6092 (better known as Proof General).
  6093 
  6094 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  6095 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  6096 
  6097 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  6098 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  6099 
  6100 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  6101 (including quotes etc.).
  6102 
  6103 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  6104 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  6105 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  6106 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  6107 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  6108 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  6109 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  6110 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  6111 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  6112 
  6113 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  6114 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  6115 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  6116 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  6117 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  6118 
  6119 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  6120 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  6121 
  6122 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  6123 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  6124 
  6125 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  6126 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  6127 
  6128 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  6129 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  6130 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  6131 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  6132 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  6133 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  6134 proper Proof.context.
  6135 
  6136 
  6137 *** System ***
  6138 
  6139 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  6140 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  6141 
  6142 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  6143 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  6144 
  6145 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  6146 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  6147 
  6148   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  6149   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  6150   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  6151   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  6152   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  6153 
  6154 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  6155 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6156 
  6157 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  6158 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  6159 example:
  6160 
  6161   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  6162 
  6163 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  6164 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  6165 
  6166 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  6167 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  6168 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  6169 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  6170 
  6171 
  6172 
  6173 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  6174 ----------------------------------
  6175 
  6176 *** General ***
  6177 
  6178 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  6179 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  6180 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  6181 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  6182 like this:
  6183 
  6184   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  6185 
  6186 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  6187 
  6188 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  6189 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  6190 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  6191 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  6192 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  6193 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  6194 
  6195 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  6196 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  6197 the following package declarations:
  6198 
  6199   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  6200   \usepackage{textcomp}
  6201 
  6202 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  6203 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  6204 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  6205 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  6206 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  6207 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  6208 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  6209 
  6210 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  6211 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  6212 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  6213 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  6214 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  6215 
  6216 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  6217 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  6218 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  6219 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6220 
  6221 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  6222 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  6223 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  6224 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  6225 
  6226   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  6227 
  6228   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  6229   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  6230   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  6231   show_types                    show_types
  6232   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  6233   show_consts                   show_consts
  6234   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  6235 
  6236   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  6237   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  6238   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  6239 
  6240   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  6241   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  6242 
  6243   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  6244 
  6245   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  6246   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  6247   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  6248   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  6249   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  6250 
  6251 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  6252 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  6253 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  6254 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  6255 
  6256 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  6257 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6258 
  6259   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  6260   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  6261 
  6262 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  6263 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for