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NEWS

author | nipkow |

Sun Jun 21 23:04:37 2009 +0200 (2009-06-21) | |

changeset 31734 | a4a79836d07b |

parent 31726 | ffd2dc631d88 |

child 31784 | bd3486c57ba3 |

permissions | -rw-r--r-- |

new lemmas

1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes

2 ==============================================

4 New in this Isabelle version

5 ----------------------------

7 *** General ***

9 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>. Only

10 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.

13 *** Pure ***

15 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters

16 are formally declared. INCOMPATIBILITY.

19 *** HOL ***

21 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of

22 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,

23 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been

24 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems

25 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and

26 zdiv_zmult_zmult2. div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.

27 INCOMPATIBILITY.

29 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicate

30 constant compow with infix syntax "^^". Power operations on

31 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic

32 in class power. INCOMPATIBILITY.

34 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype

35 generated by the code generator; see Predicate.thy for an example.

37 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision

38 procedure only.

40 * Implementation of quickcheck using generic code generator; default generators

41 are provided for all suitable HOL types, records and datatypes.

43 * Constants Set.Pow and Set.image now with authentic syntax; object-logic definitions

44 Set.Pow_def and Set.image_def. INCOMPATIBILITY.

46 * Discontinued ancient tradition to suffix certain ML module names with "_package", e.g.:

48 DatatypePackage ~> Datatype

49 InductivePackage ~> Inductive

51 etc.

53 INCOMPATIBILITY.

56 * NewNumberTheory: Jeremy Avigad's new version of part of NumberTheory.

57 If possible, use NewNumberTheory, not NumberTheory.

59 *** ML ***

61 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related

62 cominators for "args". INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified

63 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.

66 *** System ***

68 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.

70 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;

71 this is always enabled.

75 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)

76 --------------------------------

78 *** General ***

80 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on

81 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).

83 - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of

84 "isatool."

86 - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been

87 removed (should rarely occur to regular users).

89 - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been

90 removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).

92 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables

93 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,

94 respectively. (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)

96 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if

97 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise. Individual

98 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the

99 Isabelle system manual. In particular, Proof General is now available

100 via "isabelle emacs".

102 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts. Users may need to

103 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle

104 install -p ...", or use symlinks.

106 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the

107 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause

108 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).

110 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,

111 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place. Special

112 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle. Note that

113 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any

114 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.

116 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on

117 multi-core systems. A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on

118 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably

119 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H). (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)

121 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and

122 "system") have been updated and extended. Formally checked references

123 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.

126 *** Pure ***

128 * Complete re-implementation of locales. INCOMPATIBILITY in several

129 respects. The most important changes are listed below. See the

130 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.

132 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming. Parameters

133 must be declared in a for clause. To aid compatibility with previous

134 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not

135 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added

136 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.

138 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in

139 locale expressions and context elements. The latter is particularly

140 useful in locale declarations.

142 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale

143 expressions. Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale

144 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or

145 optional (syntax "name?:"). The default depends for plain "name:"

146 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in

147 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in

148 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory. The old

149 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are

150 no longer generated.

152 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e". The

153 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square

154 brackets) is no longer available. Use locale expressions.

156 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in

157 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even

158 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior. In the

159 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones. Qualifiers

160 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.

162 - Dropped locale element "includes". This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.

163 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the

164 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those

165 that are already present in the theorem specification. Multiple

166 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one

167 involving the locale predicate. In the proof body, declarations (most

168 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective

169 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").

171 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the

172 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,

173 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on

174 the parameters (context element "constrains").

176 - Discontinued "locale (open)". INCOMPATIBILITY.

178 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.

179 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs. Use

180 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.

182 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation

183 attributes. INCOMPATIBILITY.

185 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import

186 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification. Particularly

187 in HOL, write

189 class foo = ...

191 instead of

193 class foo = type + ...

195 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a

196 parameter prefix any longer. INCOMPATIBILITY.

198 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.

199 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.

201 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in

202 Isabelle2007. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really

203 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.

205 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in

206 isar-ref manual. Removed locales meta_term_syntax and

207 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,

208 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations. Note that &&& should not be used

209 directly in regular applications.

211 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal

212 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).

214 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command. INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML

215 interface with 'setup' command instead.

217 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local

218 theory context.

220 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory

221 context. INCOMPATIBILITY.

223 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort

224 hypotheses. Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be

225 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the

226 type instance information of the background theory. Non-trivial sort

227 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via

228 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c). For example:

230 lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...

232 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --

233 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule

234 normalization.

236 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state

237 addressing etc.

239 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:

241 unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)

242 unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)

244 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):

246 a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular

247 constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other

248 parts of the code generator framework).

250 b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code

251 attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming

252 from definition, primrec, fun etc.

254 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

256 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators. Thus [code

257 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains. INCOMPATIBILITY.

259 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name

260 patterns, e.g.

262 find_consts "_ => bool"

264 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to

265 the whole type. Searching by name is possible. Multiple queries are

266 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a

267 hyphen:

269 find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"

271 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that

272 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).

274 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal

275 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could

276 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.

277 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,

278 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of

279 higher-order unification.

282 *** Document preparation ***

284 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,

285 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression

286 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.

289 *** HOL ***

291 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL. Entry

292 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.

294 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important

295 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...). This facilitates

296 experimentation and tool development. Note that user applications

297 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory

298 Main, as before.

300 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates

301 experimentation due to shorter build times.

303 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which

304 were previously part of former HOL-Complex. Entry point Hyperreal

305 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use

306 new entry point Hypercomplex.

308 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of

309 Posix processes. Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML

310 process. New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix

311 platforms (Cygwin). Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined

312 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions. Basic Sledgehammer

313 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.

315 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use

316 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other

317 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also

318 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.

320 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings

321 menu.

323 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial

324 (contains the empty clause).

326 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising

327 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.

329 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also

330 src/Tools/coherent.ML).

332 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary". Usually

333 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though

334 logically there is no difference. INCOMPATIBILITY.

336 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms. The

337 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed. In

338 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be

339 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]). See further

340 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.

342 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.

343 Declare with attribute [code nbe].

345 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules

346 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the

347 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes. Mutual induction rules

348 are now presented as a list of individual projections

349 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with

350 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported. INCOMPATIBILITY, in

351 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple

352 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t

353 rule: prod.exhaust) here.

355 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.

357 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".

359 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option. Renamed

360 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.

362 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial

363 orders. With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about

364 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",

365 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".

367 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with

368 authentic syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY:

370 op Int ~> Set.Int

371 op Un ~> Set.Un

372 INTER ~> Set.INTER

373 UNION ~> Set.UNION

374 Inter ~> Set.Inter

375 Union ~> Set.Union

376 {} ~> Set.empty

377 UNIV ~> Set.UNIV

379 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in

380 theory Set.

382 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any

383 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.

385 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.

387 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,

388 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.

390 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof

391 method "approximation". It proves formulas on real values by using

392 interval arithmetic. In the formulas are also the transcendental

393 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are

394 allowed. For examples see

395 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.

397 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.

399 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".

400 INCOMPATIBILITY.

402 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution

403 structure:

405 src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy

406 src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/

407 src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/

408 src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/

409 src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/

410 src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/

411 src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/

412 src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/

413 src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/

414 src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/

415 src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/

416 src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/

417 src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/

418 src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/

419 src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/

420 src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/

421 src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/

422 src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/

423 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/

424 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/

425 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/

426 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/

427 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/

428 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/

429 src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/

430 src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/

431 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/

432 src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/

433 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/

434 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/

435 src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/

436 src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach

437 src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/

439 src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

440 src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

441 src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

442 src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML

443 src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

444 src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

445 src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

446 src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

447 src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

448 src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

450 src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

451 src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

452 src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

453 src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

454 src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

455 src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

457 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof

458 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if

459 possible), avoiding strange error messages.

461 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a

462 modification of) the size-change principle. Requires SAT solver. See

463 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.

465 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound

466 variable occurs at most once in let expression body. INCOMPATIBILITY.

468 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when

469 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.

471 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used

472 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in

473 proofs, e.g.

475 assumes [arith]: "x > 0"

477 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.

479 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and

480 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"

481 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot". INCOMPATIBILITY.

483 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an

484 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.

485 INCOMPATIBILITY.

487 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit

488 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption. For instantiation of

489 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.

490 INCOMPATIBILITY.

492 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".

493 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder

494 etc. slightly changed. Some theorems named order_class.* now named

495 preorder_class.*.

497 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,

498 "diag" to "Id_on".

500 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type

502 ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b

504 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator

505 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to

506 fold_image.

508 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"

509 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be

510 extended with further lemmas!). At the moment both still exist but

511 the former will disappear at some point.

513 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in

514 class recpower. Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types

515 have been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:

517 rat_power_0 -> power_0

518 rat_power_Suc -> power_Suc

519 realpow_0 -> power_0

520 realpow_Suc -> power_Suc

521 complexpow_0 -> power_0

522 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc

523 power_poly_0 -> power_0

524 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc

526 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been

527 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on

528 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1. Likewise a bunch

529 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class

530 semiring_div. INCOMPATIBILITY. This involves the following theorem

531 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:

533 dvd_def_mod ~> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0

534 zero_dvd_iff ~> dvd_0_left_iff

535 dvd_0 ~> dvd_0_right

536 DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0

537 DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0

538 mult_div ~> div_mult_self2_is_id

539 mult_mod ~> mod_mult_self2_is_0

541 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based

542 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field). INCOMPATIBILITY,

543 rename old lemmas as follows:

545 dvd_diff -> nat_dvd_diff

546 dvd_zminus_iff -> dvd_minus_iff

547 mod_add1_eq -> mod_add_eq

548 mod_mult1_eq -> mod_mult_right_eq

549 mod_mult1_eq' -> mod_mult_left_eq

550 mod_mult_distrib_mod -> mod_mult_eq

551 nat_mod_add_left_eq -> mod_add_left_eq

552 nat_mod_add_right_eq -> mod_add_right_eq

553 nat_mod_div_trivial -> mod_div_trivial

554 nat_mod_mod_trivial -> mod_mod_trivial

555 zdiv_zadd_self1 -> div_add_self1

556 zdiv_zadd_self2 -> div_add_self2

557 zdiv_zmult_self1 -> div_mult_self2_is_id

558 zdiv_zmult_self2 -> div_mult_self1_is_id

559 zdvd_triv_left -> dvd_triv_left

560 zdvd_triv_right -> dvd_triv_right

561 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left

562 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]

563 zmod_zadd_left_eq -> mod_add_left_eq

564 zmod_zadd_right_eq -> mod_add_right_eq

565 zmod_zadd_self1 -> mod_add_self1

566 zmod_zadd_self2 -> mod_add_self2

567 zmod_zadd1_eq -> mod_add_eq

568 zmod_zdiff1_eq -> mod_diff_eq

569 zmod_zdvd_zmod -> mod_mod_cancel

570 zmod_zmod_cancel -> mod_mod_cancel

571 zmod_zmult_self1 -> mod_mult_self2_is_0

572 zmod_zmult_self2 -> mod_mult_self1_is_0

573 zmod_1 -> mod_by_1

574 zdiv_1 -> div_by_1

575 zdvd_abs1 -> abs_dvd_iff

576 zdvd_abs2 -> dvd_abs_iff

577 zdvd_refl -> dvd_refl

578 zdvd_trans -> dvd_trans

579 zdvd_zadd -> dvd_add

580 zdvd_zdiff -> dvd_diff

581 zdvd_zminus_iff -> dvd_minus_iff

582 zdvd_zminus2_iff -> minus_dvd_iff

583 zdvd_zmultD -> dvd_mult_right

584 zdvd_zmultD2 -> dvd_mult_left

585 zdvd_zmult_mono -> mult_dvd_mono

586 zdvd_0_right -> dvd_0_right

587 zdvd_0_left -> dvd_0_left_iff

588 zdvd_1_left -> one_dvd

589 zminus_dvd_iff -> minus_dvd_iff

591 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

593 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated

594 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.

596 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of

597 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a. In addition to

598 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod. Code

599 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.

601 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real

602 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a

603 => real. Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from

604 theory RealVector.

606 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product

607 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.

608 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,

609 and inner products are included.

611 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2. In

612 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also

613 supported.

615 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's

616 first diagonalization argument.

618 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,

619 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in

620 the HOL Distribution. Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and

621 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY,

622 may recover tupled syntax as follows:

624 hide (open) const gcd

625 abbreviation gcd where

626 "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"

627 notation (output)

628 GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")

630 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.

632 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more

633 instantiations for algebraic structures. Removed some duplicate

634 theorems. Changes in simp rules. INCOMPATIBILITY.

636 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates

637 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding

638 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.

639 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated

640 simultaneously. Provides a generic and safe interface for

641 instrumentalizing code generation. See

642 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.

643 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML

644 code on the ML toplevel. Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}

645 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are

646 set. Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that

647 cases.

649 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now

650 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be

651 represented as datatype. The characteristic theorems have to be

652 proven. INCOMPATIBILITY. Also observe that the following theorems

653 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:

655 unit_induct ~> unit.induct

656 prod_induct ~> prod.induct

657 sum_induct ~> sum.induct

658 Suc_Suc_eq ~> nat.inject

659 Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc ~> nat.distinct

662 *** HOL-Algebra ***

664 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation

665 is not restricted to equality. INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice

666 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.

668 * New theory of factorial domains.

670 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.

671 INCOMPATIBILITY. Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv

672 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.

674 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:

676 UpperD ~> Upper_memD

677 LowerD ~> Lower_memD

678 least_carrier ~> least_closed

679 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed

680 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below

681 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero

682 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero (collision with assumption)

685 *** HOL-Nominal ***

687 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.

689 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local

690 theory targets.

692 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its

693 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in

694 'inductive' etc.

696 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes

697 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.

699 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the

700 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.

702 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction

703 principles for inductive definitions. In contrast to

704 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of

705 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of

706 atoms to be avoided. The only inductive definition we have at the

707 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in

708 the algorithm W:

710 Gamma |- t1 : T1 (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2 x#Gamma

711 -----------------------------------------------------------------

712 Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2

714 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by

715 "close Gamma T1". We are looking for other examples where this

716 feature might be useful. Please let us know.

719 *** HOLCF ***

721 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity

722 subgoals. The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional

723 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].

725 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for

726 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions. In

727 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the

728 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.

729 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

731 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general

732 format as seen in 'inductive' etc. See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for

733 examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.

736 *** ZF ***

738 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.

741 *** ML ***

743 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for

744 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later. Important note: the TimeLimit facility

745 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML

746 5.2.1!

748 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see

749 src/Pure/Cuncurrent. The data-oriented model of "future values" is

750 particularly convenient to organize independent functional

751 computations. The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a

752 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the

753 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables. (Requires

754 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)

756 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar

757 context (theory or proof). Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'

758 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning

759 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).

760 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the

761 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a

762 theory. (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)

764 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof

765 context. Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in

766 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.

767 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the

768 proof. (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)

770 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup

771 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and

772 'method_setup'. INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify

773 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old

774 Method.add_method.

776 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm

777 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle

778 name. The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type

779 is specified. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code

780 accordingly. Note that extra performance may be gained by producing

781 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.

783 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via

784 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally

785 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user

786 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common

787 examples.

789 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and

790 name space operations. Basic operations on qualified names have been

791 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,

792 Long_Name.append. Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by

793 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise

794 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper

795 tracking of source positions. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old

796 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract

797 bindings everywhere. See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,

798 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML

800 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,

801 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the

802 bstring as before. INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!

804 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,

805 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,

806 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.). INCOMPATIBILITY, should

807 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,

808 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last

809 resort for legacy applications.

811 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to

812 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,

813 Simp_tac, SIMPSET). INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in

814 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as

815 explicit runtime argument.

817 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,

818 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof

819 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking. Moreover,

820 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings

821 thereof. INCOMPATIBILITY.

823 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of

824 transactions. E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML

825 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new

826 theory state.

828 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by

829 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:

831 @{binding name} - basic name binding

832 @{let ?pat = term} - term abbreviation (HO matching)

833 @{note name = fact} - fact abbreviation

834 @{thm fact} - singleton fact (with attributes)

835 @{thms fact} - general fact (with attributes)

836 @{lemma prop by method} - singleton goal

837 @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2} - singleton goal

838 @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method} - general goal

839 @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal

840 @{lemma (open) ...} - open derivation

843 *** System ***

845 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke

846 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not

847 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on

848 isabelle-process). The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the

849 installation location of the Proof General distribution.

851 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate

852 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application. See

853 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example. (The obsolete Java

854 process wrapper has been discontinued.)

856 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.

858 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are

859 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled. This allows

860 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal

861 prover operations.

865 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)

866 -------------------------------

868 *** General ***

870 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized

871 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.

873 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the

874 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in

875 conflict with concurrency. INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which

876 provides a proper context already.

878 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy

879 file are no longer supported. INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and

880 'use' within a theory file will do the job.

882 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space

883 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first

884 space take precedence. INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to

885 swap theory imports.

887 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter. Potential

888 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.

890 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,

891 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

892 white space without escapes.

894 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes

895 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML). E.g. "foo\095bar" for

896 "foo_bar".

899 *** Pure ***

901 * Context-dependent token translations. Default setup reverts locally

902 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.

904 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.

905 There are three ways of invoking it:

907 (1) unused_thms

908 Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.

910 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -

911 Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,

912 excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.

914 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m

915 Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of

916 their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of

917 their ancestors.

919 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by

920 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance

921 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered

922 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in

923 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer

924 reported as unused. Moreover, if all theorems in the group are

925 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.

927 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for

928 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is

929 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).

931 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous

932 theorems within the same name space. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove

933 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications. Note

934 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using

935 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.

937 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.

939 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and

940 clasimpset. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear

941 update of theories within ML code.

943 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.

944 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require

945 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics

946 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.

948 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on

949 theory/local_theory. Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'

950 instead. Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.

951 INCOMPATIBILITY.

953 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.

955 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class

956 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.

957 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.

958 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and

959 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.

961 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only

962 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the

963 background context (locale etc.). Affects `prop` notation and method

964 "fact". INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare

965 situations.

967 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented

968 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the

969 proof text.

971 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".

972 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.

974 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';

975 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale

976 predicates.

979 *** Document preparation ***

981 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for

982 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed

983 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the

984 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default

985 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets

986 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).

988 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given

989 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method

990 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.

993 *** HOL ***

995 * New primrec package. Specification syntax conforms in style to

996 definition/function/.... No separate induction rule is provided. The

997 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications

998 by syntax. The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.

999 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style

1000 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.

1002 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works

1003 with multithreading.

1005 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a

1006 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses. Theorems that

1007 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.

1009 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To

1010 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]]. Attributes

1011 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed

1012 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1014 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules

1015 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors

1016 out some operations that are done internally by the function package

1017 and makes them available separately. See

1018 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.

1020 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination

1021 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the

1022 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.

1023 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and

1024 just guides the heuristic. To find suitable measure functions, the

1025 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate

1026 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using

1027 the declared rules.

1029 This setup also deals with rules like

1031 "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"

1033 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.

1034 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.

1036 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"

1038 INCOMPATIBILITIES:

1040 - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by

1041 definitions on => and bool.

1043 - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved

1044 using the definitions of the operators on => and bool. Therefore,

1045 the following theorems have been renamed:

1047 subset_def -> subset_eq

1048 psubset_def -> psubset_eq

1049 set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq

1050 Compl_def -> Compl_eq

1051 Sup_set_def -> Sup_set_eq

1052 Inf_set_def -> Inf_set_eq

1053 sup_set_def -> sup_set_eq

1054 inf_set_def -> inf_set_eq

1056 - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some

1057 rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of

1058 the unknowns in the rule is a set.

1060 - Higher order unification and forward proofs:

1061 The proof pattern

1063 have "P (S::'a set)" <...>

1064 then have "EX S. P S" ..

1066 no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification

1067 algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern

1069 have "EX S. P S"

1070 proof

1071 show "P S" <...>

1072 qed

1074 - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):

1075 The proof pattern

1077 have "P (S::'a set)" <...>

1078 also have "S = T" <...>

1079 finally have "P T" .

1081 no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and

1082 must be replaced by something like

1084 have "P (S::'a set)" <...>

1085 moreover have "S = T" <...>

1086 ultimately have "P T" by simp

1088 - Tactics or packages written in ML code:

1089 Code performing pattern matching on types via

1091 Type ("set", [T]) => ...

1093 must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or

1094 binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a

1095 type of the form

1097 T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool

1099 rather than

1101 T1 => ... => Tn => U set

1103 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and

1104 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.

1106 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1108 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter. Use class

1109 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.

1110 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1112 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"

1113 and "Cons". INCOMPATIBILITY.

1115 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.

1116 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

1118 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and

1119 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.

1120 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1122 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of

1123 the same name in theory Orderings:

1125 less_trans

1126 less_linear

1127 le_imp_less_or_eq

1128 le_less_trans

1129 less_le_trans

1130 less_not_sym

1131 less_asym

1133 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to

1134 less_irrefl_nat. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types

1135 and different variable names.

1137 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.

1139 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of

1140 finite maps.

1142 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.

1144 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed. The infix

1145 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have

1146 disappeared. INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in

1147 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively. Theorems

1148 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"

1149 accordingly.

1151 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer

1152 depend on well-founded relations. INCOMPATIBILITY. Definitions

1153 le_def and less_def have disappeared. Consider lemmas not_less

1154 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.

1156 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin

1157 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been

1158 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes

1159 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,

1160 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.

1161 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1163 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper

1164 case_names ("base" and "step"). INCOMPATIBILITY.

1166 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete

1167 lattices. The form set-specific version is available as

1168 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.

1170 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".

1171 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1173 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings

1174 with division and modulo operations. Subsumes former class dvd_mod.

1176 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory

1177 Int. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1179 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural

1180 numbers rather than integers. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1182 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class

1183 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).

1184 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1186 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic

1187 syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1189 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,

1190 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,

1191 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,

1192 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,

1193 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object

1194 equality. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1196 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term

1197 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.

1198 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.

1200 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.

1202 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.

1204 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of

1205 pairs. Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and

1206 well-orders on sets and on types.

1209 *** ZF ***

1211 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the

1212 same session:

1214 Datatype -> Datatype_ZF

1215 Inductive -> Inductive_ZF

1216 Int -> Int_ZF

1217 IntDiv -> IntDiv_ZF

1218 Nat -> Nat_ZF

1219 List -> List_ZF

1220 Main -> Main_ZF

1222 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below

1223 Main might need to be adapted. Regular theory Main is still

1224 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.

1227 *** ML ***

1229 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const

1230 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.

1232 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact

1233 (of the same name). Removed obsolete print command.

1235 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.

1237 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global

1238 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes

1239 non-critical. The global print_mode reference is for session

1240 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,

1241 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1243 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external

1244 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML

1245 5.2.1). Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!

1248 *** System ***

1250 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---

1251 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.

1253 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;

1254 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR

1255 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".

1257 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general

1258 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.

1260 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to

1261 standard XML transfer syntax. See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and

1262 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.

1264 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)

1265 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust

1266 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.

1268 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),

1269 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).

1271 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature. NB: the documented

1272 way of changing the user's settings is via

1273 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash

1274 script.

1276 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU

1277 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for

1278 optimal performance tuning. The corresponding usedir option -M allows

1279 "max" as an alias for "0". WARNING: does not work on certain versions

1280 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).

1282 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the

1283 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably

1284 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).

1288 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)

1289 -----------------------------------

1291 *** General ***

1293 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a

1294 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the

1295 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:

1296 legacy features will disappear eventually.

1298 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been

1299 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''. Use isatool

1300 fixheaders to convert existing theory files. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1302 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been

1303 discontinued altogether. Note that ML proof scripts may still be used

1304 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML

1305 function use_legacy_bindings. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1307 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',

1308 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords. INCOMPATIBILITY, use double

1309 quotes.

1311 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory

1312 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the

1313 accidental file locations of previously successful loads. The strict

1314 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by

1315 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several

1316 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header

1317 specification, but without merging the results. Potential

1318 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands

1319 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.

1321 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file

1322 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical

1323 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting

1324 (cf. the system manual). The new scheme allows to work with

1325 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source

1326 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.

1328 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy

1329 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy

1330 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader

1331 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.

1333 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is

1334 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous

1335 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the

1336 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and

1337 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit

1338 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.

1340 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',

1341 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in

1342 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations

1343 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space

1344 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse

1345 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax

1346 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and

1347 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.

1349 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required

1350 to keep existing proof scripts running. Most other user-level

1351 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open

1352 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).

1353 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because

1354 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being

1355 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().

1357 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"

1358 criterion; "with_dups" option. Certain ProofGeneral versions might

1359 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).

1361 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1

1362 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are

1363 suppressed from proof state output. Note that the ProofGeneral

1364 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but

1365 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems

1366 limit is imposed.

1368 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of

1369 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''. The body may

1370 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism

1371 that has been implemented on top of these primitives. This concept

1372 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility

1373 and scalability.

1375 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;

1376 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).

1379 *** Document preparation ***

1381 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,

1382 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the

1383 current context.

1385 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which

1386 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.

1388 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation

1389 "c args == rhs" given in the current context. (Any number of

1390 arguments may be given on the LHS.)

1393 *** Pure ***

1395 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to

1396 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle. Definitions and

1397 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with

1398 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic

1399 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class

1400 context). Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate

1401 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting

1402 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.

1403 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).

1404 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.

1406 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable

1407 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes). A short usage

1408 sketch:

1410 internal compilation:

1411 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML

1412 writing SML code to a file:

1413 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>

1414 writing OCaml code to a file:

1415 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>

1416 writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:

1417 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>

1419 evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:

1420 method ``eval''

1422 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.

1424 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:

1426 [code fun]: select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant

1427 [code fun del]: deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant

1428 [code inline]: select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place

1429 [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place

1431 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):

1433 code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>

1434 {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+

1436 code_type <and-list of type constructors>

1437 {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+

1439 code_instance <and-list of instances>

1440 {(target)}+

1441 where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>

1443 code_class <and_list of classes>

1444 {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+

1445 where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?

1447 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.

1449 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and

1450 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy. A separate tutorial on code

1451 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc

1452 codegen".

1454 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now

1455 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type

1456 annotations).

1458 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory

1459 syntax.

1461 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic

1462 dependencies. The overloading scheme is slightly more general than

1463 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact

1464 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.

1465 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more

1466 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!

1468 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the

1469 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general

1470 declaration given in the signature. For example, with the declaration

1471 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented

1472 as c(nat). Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural

1473 recursion over such type arguments. Incomplete specification patterns

1474 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the

1475 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.

1476 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive

1477 equations, see section "definitions".

1479 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof

1480 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple

1481 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data. Tools may

1482 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to

1483 these values using Config.get etc. Users may change options via an

1484 associated attribute of the same name. This form of context

1485 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or

1486 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''. Thus it has become

1487 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar

1488 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.

1490 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into

1491 configuration options:

1493 Unify.search_bound unify_search_bound

1494 Unify.trace_bound unify_trace_bound

1495 Unify.trace_simp unify_trace_simp

1496 Unify.trace_types unify_trace_types

1497 Simplifier.simp_depth_limit simp_depth_limit

1498 Blast.depth_limit blast_depth_limit

1499 DatatypeProp.dtK datatype_distinctness_limit

1500 fast_arith_neq_limit fast_arith_neq_limit

1501 fast_arith_split_limit fast_arith_split_limit

1503 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context

1504 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also

1505 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML). The user may add or delete facts via

1506 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command. This facility is

1507 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way

1508 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical

1509 order.

1511 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic

1512 declaration functions written in ML. This enables arbitrary content

1513 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the

1514 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application

1515 context encountered later on.

1517 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures. Command

1518 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body

1519 text in ML). Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current

1520 context. ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.

1522 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations

1523 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,

1524 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on

1525 the background context will persist. This form of in-place

1526 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and

1527 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.

1529 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now

1530 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying

1531 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic

1532 assumption steps. This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'

1533 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",

1534 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the

1535 Isar proof context. POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is

1536 more permissive.

1538 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is

1539 considered a legacy feature. Common applications like ``have A .''

1540 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''. In general,

1541 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and

1542 maintainability of proof texts.

1544 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives

1545 the obtained context from the course of reasoning! For example:

1547 assume "EX x y. A x & B y" -- "any previous fact"

1548 then guess x and y by clarify

1550 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and

1551 proof tools being involved here.

1553 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal

1554 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax. This works wherever

1555 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof

1556 methods, attributes etc. Literal facts are retrieved from the context

1557 according to unification of type and term parameters. For example,

1558 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known

1559 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:

1560 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.

1562 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition

1563 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with

1564 certain special cases of literal facts:

1566 have "A" by fact == note `A`

1567 have "A ==> B" by fact == note `A ==> B`

1568 have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact == note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`

1569 have "P a ==> Q a" by fact == note `P a ==> Q a`

1571 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in

1572 outer syntax. Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without

1573 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.

1575 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,

1576 both named and unnamed ones.

1578 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:

1580 def x == "t" and y == "u"

1582 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to

1583 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given

1584 rewrite rules. Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or

1585 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.

1587 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',

1588 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities

1589 (potentially conditional). The underlying notion of rewrite rule is

1590 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the

1591 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).

1593 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the

1594 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.

1596 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a

1597 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N

1598 sub-goals, which need to exist. For example, ``simp_all [3]''

1599 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]

1600 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the

1601 originally first one.

1603 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order

1604 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as

1605 expected.

1607 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either

1608 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'

1609 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and

1610 assumptions). The latter allows to express general elimination rules

1611 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:

1613 lemma exE: -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

1614 assumes "EX x. P x"

1615 obtains x where "P x"

1617 lemma conjE: -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

1618 assumes "A & B"

1619 obtains A and B

1621 lemma disjE: -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

1622 assumes "A | B"

1623 obtains

1624 A

1625 | B

1627 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"

1628 explicitly:

1630 lemma classical: -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

1631 obtains "~ thesis"

1633 lemma Peirce's_Law: -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

1634 obtains "thesis ==> something"

1636 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the

1637 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.

1638 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be

1639 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the

1640 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute

1641 case_names).

1643 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as

1644 "assms" fact in the proof context. This is more appropriate than the

1645 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current

1646 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.

1648 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or

1649 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a

1650 top-level lemma.

1652 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context

1653 introduction rule (default "that").

1655 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

1656 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens

1657 to occur.

1659 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant

1660 according to the current context. This is particularly useful for

1661 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant

1662 representations independently of name spaces.

1664 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"

1665 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist

1666 in the same context. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1668 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'

1669 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and

1670 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation

1671 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the

1672 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the

1673 current context.

1675 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',

1676 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit

1677 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence). See also the

1678 isar-ref manual. Examples:

1680 axiomatization

1681 eq (infix "===" 50) where

1682 eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"

1684 definition "f x y = x + y + 1"

1685 definition g where "g x = f x x"

1687 abbreviation

1688 neq (infix "=!=" 50) where

1689 "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"

1691 These specifications may be also used in a locale context. Then the

1692 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the

1693 constant name is qualified by the locale base name. An internal

1694 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the

1695 parameters implicit and using the original short name. See also

1696 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic

1697 entities from a monomorphic theory.

1699 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but

1700 not inherited by general import expressions. Also note that

1701 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +

1702 'translations' in common applications. The "no_abbrevs" print mode

1703 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.

1705 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,

1706 independently of name spaces. The parse tree representation is

1707 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and

1708 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.

1710 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms

1711 (e.g. 'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits

1712 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_"). For example:

1714 definition "K x _ = x"

1716 inductive conj for A B

1717 where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"

1719 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of

1720 the current context. Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of

1721 abbreviations on output.

1723 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and

1724 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer

1725 required to be injective. For example, this allows to define

1726 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.

1728 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.

1729 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is

1730 now an interpretation. INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of

1731 locale expressions. In particular, in interpretations of locales with

1732 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not

1733 removed automatically. Use methods `intro_locales' and

1734 `unfold_locales'; see below.

1736 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'

1737 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates. The methods are

1738 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.

1739 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not

1740 unfold predicates to assumptions.

1742 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated

1743 has changed. This enables to override declarations from fragments due

1744 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.

1746 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been

1747 extended. One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are

1748 unfolded in interpreted theorems. This is useful for replacing

1749 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by

1750 concepts already existing in the target context. Example:

1752 interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]

1753 where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"

1755 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a

1756 definition specification element in the context of locale

1757 partial_order.

1759 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support

1760 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level

1761 connectives !! and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals

1762 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long

1763 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in

1764 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also

1765 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic

1766 examples.

1768 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of

1769 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into

1770 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested

1771 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,

1772 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.

1774 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list

1775 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide

1776 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive

1777 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify

1778 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:

1780 (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)

1781 (induct set: foo bar)

1782 (induct pred: foo bar)

1783 (induct type: foo bar)

1785 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the

1786 new format.

1788 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see

1789 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.

1791 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is

1792 considered a legacy feature.

1794 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic

1795 variables (index 0). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

1797 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level

1798 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by

1799 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The

1800 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.

1802 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format

1803 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when

1804 manipulating the claset.

1806 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,

1807 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at

1808 least one premise.

1810 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional

1811 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions). Weights are

1812 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single

1813 rule steps.

1815 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",

1816 where the body does not mention the bound variable. Note that dummy

1817 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes

1818 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected. Potential

1819 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic

1820 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.

1822 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated

1823 parse translation. INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,

1824 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".

1826 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using

1827 the graph browser tool.

1829 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by

1830 default; use '!' option for full details.

1833 *** HOL ***

1835 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose

1836 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).

1837 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples. WARNING: the

1838 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with

1839 multi-threading.

1841 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as

1842 background processes. It generates calls to the "metis" method if

1843 successful. These can be pasted into the proof. Users do not have to

1844 wait for the automatic provers to return. WARNING: does not really

1845 work with multi-threading.

1847 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for

1848 potential counter-examples. Controlled by ML references

1849 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default

1850 5000 milliseconds). Fails silently if statements is outside of

1851 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.

1853 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".

1855 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic

1856 equality.

1858 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in

1859 the new 'class' package:

1861 HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs

1862 HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide

1863 0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero

1864 1 ~> HOL.one_class.one

1865 op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus

1866 op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus

1867 uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus

1868 op * ~> HOL.times_class.times

1869 op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less

1870 op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq

1871 Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power

1872 Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size

1873 Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of

1874 FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf

1875 FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup

1876 Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min

1877 Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max

1878 Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div

1879 Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod

1880 Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd

1882 INCOMPATIBILITY. Adaptions may be required in the following cases:

1884 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",

1885 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for

1886 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong. INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific

1887 names.

1889 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"

1890 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.

1892 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")

1893 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative

1894 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows

1895 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle

1896 distribution). INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs

1898 d) ML code directly refering to constant names

1899 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and

1900 so on. INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.

1901 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.

1903 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".

1905 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex

1906 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn". Two possible defs of

1907 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and

1908 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.

1909 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1911 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory

1912 Orderings), added parameter "less". INCOMPATIBILITY.

1914 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and

1915 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid

1916 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans". INCOMPATIBILITY.

1918 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to

1919 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.

1921 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up

1922 for classes "order" and "linorder". Instances of the reasoner are available

1923 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.

1924 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner

1925 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver. Diagnostic

1926 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner

1927 in the current context.

1929 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated

1930 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.

1931 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1933 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration

1934 with new class dense_linear_order.

1936 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.

1938 constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"

1939 constant "Meet" now named "Inf"

1941 classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named

1942 "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"

1943 class "lorder" now named "lattice"

1944 class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"

1946 Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions

1947 for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).

1949 INCOMPATIBILITY. Theorem renames:

1951 meet_left_le ~> inf_le1

1952 meet_right_le ~> inf_le2

1953 join_left_le ~> sup_ge1

1954 join_right_le ~> sup_ge2

1955 meet_join_le ~> inf_sup_ord

1956 le_meetI ~> le_infI

1957 join_leI ~> le_supI

1958 le_meet ~> le_inf_iff

1959 le_join ~> ge_sup_conv

1960 meet_idempotent ~> inf_idem

1961 join_idempotent ~> sup_idem

1962 meet_comm ~> inf_commute

1963 join_comm ~> sup_commute

1964 meet_leI1 ~> le_infI1

1965 meet_leI2 ~> le_infI2

1966 le_joinI1 ~> le_supI1

1967 le_joinI2 ~> le_supI2

1968 meet_assoc ~> inf_assoc

1969 join_assoc ~> sup_assoc

1970 meet_left_comm ~> inf_left_commute

1971 meet_left_idempotent ~> inf_left_idem

1972 join_left_comm ~> sup_left_commute

1973 join_left_idempotent ~> sup_left_idem

1974 meet_aci ~> inf_aci

1975 join_aci ~> sup_aci

1976 le_def_meet ~> le_iff_inf

1977 le_def_join ~> le_iff_sup

1978 join_absorp2 ~> sup_absorb2

1979 join_absorp1 ~> sup_absorb1

1980 meet_absorp1 ~> inf_absorb1

1981 meet_absorp2 ~> inf_absorb2

1982 meet_join_absorp ~> inf_sup_absorb

1983 join_meet_absorp ~> sup_inf_absorb

1984 distrib_join_le ~> distrib_sup_le

1985 distrib_meet_le ~> distrib_inf_le

1987 add_meet_distrib_left ~> add_inf_distrib_left

1988 add_join_distrib_left ~> add_sup_distrib_left

1989 is_join_neg_meet ~> is_join_neg_inf

1990 is_meet_neg_join ~> is_meet_neg_sup

1991 add_meet_distrib_right ~> add_inf_distrib_right

1992 add_join_distrib_right ~> add_sup_distrib_right

1993 add_meet_join_distribs ~> add_sup_inf_distribs

1994 join_eq_neg_meet ~> sup_eq_neg_inf

1995 meet_eq_neg_join ~> inf_eq_neg_sup

1996 add_eq_meet_join ~> add_eq_inf_sup

1997 meet_0_imp_0 ~> inf_0_imp_0

1998 join_0_imp_0 ~> sup_0_imp_0

1999 meet_0_eq_0 ~> inf_0_eq_0

2000 join_0_eq_0 ~> sup_0_eq_0

2001 neg_meet_eq_join ~> neg_inf_eq_sup

2002 neg_join_eq_meet ~> neg_sup_eq_inf

2003 join_eq_if ~> sup_eq_if

2005 mono_meet ~> mono_inf

2006 mono_join ~> mono_sup

2007 meet_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_eq

2008 join_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_eq

2009 meet_fun_eq ~> inf_fun_eq

2010 join_fun_eq ~> sup_fun_eq

2011 meet_set_eq ~> inf_set_eq

2012 join_set_eq ~> sup_set_eq

2013 meet1_iff ~> inf1_iff

2014 meet2_iff ~> inf2_iff

2015 meet1I ~> inf1I

2016 meet2I ~> inf2I

2017 meet1D1 ~> inf1D1

2018 meet2D1 ~> inf2D1

2019 meet1D2 ~> inf1D2

2020 meet2D2 ~> inf2D2

2021 meet1E ~> inf1E

2022 meet2E ~> inf2E

2023 join1_iff ~> sup1_iff

2024 join2_iff ~> sup2_iff

2025 join1I1 ~> sup1I1

2026 join2I1 ~> sup2I1

2027 join1I1 ~> sup1I1

2028 join2I2 ~> sup1I2

2029 join1CI ~> sup1CI

2030 join2CI ~> sup2CI

2031 join1E ~> sup1E

2032 join2E ~> sup2E

2034 is_meet_Meet ~> is_meet_Inf

2035 Meet_bool_def ~> Inf_bool_def

2036 Meet_fun_def ~> Inf_fun_def

2037 Meet_greatest ~> Inf_greatest

2038 Meet_lower ~> Inf_lower

2039 Meet_set_def ~> Inf_set_def

2041 Sup_def ~> Sup_Inf

2042 Sup_bool_eq ~> Sup_bool_def

2043 Sup_fun_eq ~> Sup_fun_def

2044 Sup_set_eq ~> Sup_set_def

2046 listsp_meetI ~> listsp_infI

2047 listsp_meet_eq ~> listsp_inf_eq

2049 meet_min ~> inf_min

2050 join_max ~> sup_max

2052 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has

2053 type "'a::size ==> bool"

2055 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems

2056 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still

2057 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named

2058 "*.size".

2060 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".

2061 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2063 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,

2064 Linorder etc. have disappeared; operations defined in terms of

2065 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2067 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2069 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size

2070 machine words, with arithemtic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating

2071 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for

2072 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including

2073 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity. Instantiated to all appropriate

2074 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of

2075 numerals on all operations.

2077 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.

2079 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).

2081 * Code generator library theories:

2082 - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target

2083 languages.

2084 - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target

2085 languages.

2086 - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character

2087 codes; includes Code_Integer.

2088 - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.

2089 - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,

2090 denominator).

2091 - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those

2092 representable by rational numbers.

2093 - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will

2094 result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;

2095 includes Code_Integer.

2096 - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to

2097 target-language built-in integers.

2098 - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to

2099 strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.

2101 * New package for inductive predicates

2103 An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via

2105 inductive

2106 p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

2107 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

2108 where

2109 rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"

2110 | ...

2112 with full support for type-inference, rather than

2114 consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

2116 abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

2117 where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

2119 inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"

2120 intros

2121 rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

2122 ...

2124 For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive

2125 sets to be defined with the new package via

2127 inductive_set

2128 s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

2129 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

2130 where

2131 rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

2132 | ...

2134 or

2136 inductive_set

2137 s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

2138 and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

2139 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

2140 where

2141 "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

2142 | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"

2143 | ...

2145 if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.

2147 Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,

2148 src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.

2150 INCOMPATIBILITIES:

2152 - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates

2153 is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly

2154 introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the

2155 introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather

2156 than before the actual inductive definition.

2158 - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now

2159 quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction

2160 rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break

2161 some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by

2162 reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'

2163 statements of the form

2165 case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})

2167 or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding

2168 meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.

2170 | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"

2172 - The format of the elimination rules is now

2174 p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>

2175 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)

2176 ==> ... ==> P

2178 for predicates and

2180 (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>

2181 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)

2182 ==> ... ==> P

2184 for sets rather than

2186 x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>

2187 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)

2188 ==> ... ==> P

2190 This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples

2191 (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all

2192 rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.

2194 - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive

2195 sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The

2196 list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.

2198 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,

2199 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,

2200 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy

2201 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function

2202 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but

2203 users are encouraged to use the new package.

2205 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination

2206 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures.

2208 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including

2209 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional

2210 programming. Internally, this is translated into nested

2211 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined

2212 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show

2213 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow

2214 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an

2215 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new

2216 variable.

2218 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"

2219 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification

2220 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did

2221 previously. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:

2222 - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"

2223 - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules

2225 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using

2226 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the

2227 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for

2228 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding

2229 declarations for computation on the coefficients. The method is

2230 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class

2231 of idoms with numerals. See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at

2232 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this

2233 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.

2235 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over

2236 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to

2237 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class

2238 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,

2239 rat, etc.

2241 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append". Use ML

2242 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to

2243 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.

2245 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".

2247 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.

2248 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)

2250 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.

2251 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.

2253 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :

2254 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list

2255 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2257 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders. It used to be

2258 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]

2259 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2261 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD" to "set_takeWhileD".

2263 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.

2265 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for

2266 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all

2267 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or

2268 positive/negative (in inequations).

2270 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib

2271 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and

2272 ring_distribs. Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field

2273 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2275 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function

2276 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried. Infix syntax for

2277 algebraic operations.

2279 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.

2280 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2282 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.

2283 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2285 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the

2286 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update

2287 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.

2288 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be

2289 adapted.

2291 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0

2292 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring. Richer structures do not

2293 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem

2294 there, not an axiom. INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,

2295 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.

2297 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just

2298 commutative semirings. INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate

2299 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.

2301 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.

2302 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,

2303 better use 'abbreviation'.

2305 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member". INCOMPATIBILITY.

2307 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has

2308 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'. INCOMPATIBILITY --

2309 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:

2310 - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead

2311 of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.

2312 - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.

2313 - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.

2314 - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.

2316 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.

2318 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may

2319 contain free variables. For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''

2320 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof). This command is suitable for

2321 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML

2322 first. Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided. See

2323 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.

2325 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority

2326 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is

2327 "A = B" (with priority 50).

2329 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.

2330 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,

2331 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z". Potential

2332 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2334 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).

2336 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds

2337 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2339 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been

2340 removed. Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.

2342 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites

2343 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq"). INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using

2344 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.

2346 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to

2347 True/False.

2349 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".

2351 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.

2353 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the

2354 ``rule'' method.

2356 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:

2357 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences

2358 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form

2359 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.

2361 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.

2362 zChaff is still supported as well.

2364 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,

2365 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;

2367 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to

2368 Library.

2370 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.

2372 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists

2373 as greatest fixed-point.

2375 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as

2376 association lists.

2378 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)

2379 efficiently by compiling it to ML. The goal is "proved" (via an

2380 oracle) if it evaluates to True.

2382 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)

2383 also when invoked by the simplifier. This results in the Simplifier

2384 being more powerful on arithmetic goals. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2385 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old

2386 behavior.

2388 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.

2390 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an

2391 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional

2392 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the

2393 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The

2394 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs

2395 s. If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.

2397 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)

2398 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,

2399 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code

2400 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then

2401 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =

2402 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the

2403 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.

2405 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is

2406 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy

2408 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a

2409 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an

2410 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of

2411 HOL types. This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,

2412 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.

2415 *** HOL-Complex ***

2417 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real

2418 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.

2419 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so

2420 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential

2421 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2423 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and

2424 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a

2425 and norm :: 'a => real.

2427 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from

2428 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now

2429 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

2431 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.

2432 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.

2434 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the

2435 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector

2436 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential

2437 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2439 Infinitesimal :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

2440 HFinite :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

2441 HInfinite :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

2442 approx :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool

2443 monad :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set

2444 galaxy :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set

2445 (NS)LIMSEQ :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool

2446 (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

2447 (NS)Bseq :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

2448 (NS)Cauchy :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

2449 (NS)LIM :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool

2450 is(NS)Cont :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool

2451 deriv :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool

2452 sgn :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a

2453 exp :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a

2455 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for

2456 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =

2457 hnorm. Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the

2458 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):

2460 approx <-- capprox

2461 HFinite <-- CFinite

2462 HInfinite <-- CInfinite

2463 Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal

2464 monad <-- cmonad

2465 galaxy <-- cgalaxy

2466 (NS)LIM <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM

2467 is(NS)Cont <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR

2468 (ns)deriv <-- (ns)cderiv

2471 *** HOL-Algebra ***

2473 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.

2475 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.

2476 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2478 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->

2479 greatest_closed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2481 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute. For examples see

2482 Ring.thy. INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations

2483 of algebraic structures.

2485 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.

2488 *** HOL-Nominal ***

2490 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding

2491 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic. See src/HOL/Nominal and

2492 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples. Prospective users should consult

2493 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/

2496 *** ML ***

2498 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int

2499 (even on SML/NJ).

2501 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked

2502 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at

2503 compile-time. For example:

2505 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}

2506 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}

2507 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}

2508 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}

2509 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}

2510 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}

2511 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}

2512 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}

2513 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}

2514 ML {* @{type_name c} *}

2515 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}

2516 ML {* @{const_name c} *}

2517 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}

2518 ML {* @{context} *}

2519 ML {* @{theory} *}

2520 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}

2521 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}

2522 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}

2523 ML {* @{simpset} *}

2524 ML {* @{claset} *}

2525 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}

2527 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.

2529 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with

2530 ML_Context.trace enabled.

2532 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions

2533 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and

2534 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.

2536 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now

2537 use Context.generic instead of just theory.

2539 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and

2540 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of

2541 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.

2543 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always

2544 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.

2545 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while

2546 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and

2547 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure

2548 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably

2549 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type

2550 declarations and definitions.

2552 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed

2553 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,

2554 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need

2555 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)

2557 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in

2558 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the

2559 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,

2560 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

2562 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with

2563 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed

2564 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --

2565 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and

2566 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede

2567 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.

2569 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --

2570 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been

2571 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted

2572 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for

2573 attributes, methods, etc.

2575 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."

2576 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to

2577 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and

2578 fold_map combinators.

2580 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional

2581 comments (tags) are now strictly separate. Name hints -- which are

2582 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the

2583 derivation.

2585 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an

2586 actual goal state (thm). Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to

2587 achieve the old behaviour.

2589 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a

2590 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule

2591 statements.

2593 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now

2594 enforced instead of silently assumed. INCOMPATIBILITY, may use

2595 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.

2597 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating

2598 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc. This replaces

2599 some popular functions from term.ML:

2601 Term.variant -> Name.variant

2602 Term.variantlist -> Name.variant_list

2603 Term.invent_names -> Name.invent_list

2605 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations

2606 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).

2608 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper

2609 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context. For example,

2610 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and

2611 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces

2612 various freeze_thaw operations.

2614 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for

2615 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former

2616 Tactic.prove). Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results

2617 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for

2618 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard. Note that

2619 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is

2620 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or

2621 in a locale context).

2623 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)

2624 and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations

2625 (Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.

2626 which are considered legacy and await removal.

2628 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking

2629 (Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),

2630 with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term

2631 etc.). Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still

2632 available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using

2633 a mere theory instead of a full context.

2635 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception

2636 ERROR of string uniformly. Function error now merely raises ERROR,

2637 without any side effect on output channels. The Isar toplevel takes

2638 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions. ML code may use plain

2639 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:

2641 ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."

2643 Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be

2644 embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like

2645 this:

2647 Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)

2649 INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed

2650 obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,

2651 Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)

2652 -- use plain ERROR instead.

2654 * Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a

2655 list. INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.

2657 * Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to

2658 ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.

2660 * Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the

2661 theory before entering a proof state. Transactions now always see a

2662 quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and

2663 batch mode.

2665 * Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax. Renamed

2666 OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords. Removed

2667 OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in

2668 OuterSyntax.command etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2670 * Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now

2671 contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the

2672 very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by

2673 simpset_of/local_simpset_of). Consequently, all plug-in components

2674 (solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.

2676 * Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the

2677 local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc

2678 etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this! Removed

2679 former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --

2680 INCOMPATIBILITY. Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to

2681 specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.

2683 * Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces

2684 change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a

2685 theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --

2686 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2688 * Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired

2689 "Trueprop" etc.

2692 *** System ***

2694 * settings: the default heap location within ISABELLE_HOME_USER now

2695 includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER. This simplifies use of multiple

2696 Isabelle installations.

2698 * isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical

2699 operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source

2700 code.

2702 * Basic Isabelle mode for jEdit, see Isabelle/lib/jedit/.

2704 * Support for parallel execution, using native multicore support of

2705 Poly/ML 5.1. The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing

2706 independent theories, according to the given theory header

2707 specifications. The maximum number of worker threads is specified via

2708 usedir option -M or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. A

2709 speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected on a 4-core machine, and up

2710 to 6 on a 8-core machine. User-code needs to observe certain

2711 guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A in the Isar

2712 Implementation manual.

2716 New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)

2717 ----------------------------------

2719 *** General ***

2721 * Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is

2723 theory <name>

2724 imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>

2725 uses <file1> ... <fileM>

2726 begin

2728 where the 'uses' part is optional. The previous syntax

2730 theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:

2732 will disappear in the next release. Use isatool fixheaders to convert

2733 existing theory files. Note that there is no change in ancient

2734 non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.

2736 * Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via

2737 relative and absolute paths.

2739 * Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a

2740 list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,

2741 simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select

2742 theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that

2743 match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified

2744 name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose

2745 lhs match term. Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects

2746 all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under

2747 'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f. Example:

2749 C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."

2751 prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",

2752 matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."

2753 in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).

2755 * Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of

2756 'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.

2758 * Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that

2759 Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both

2760 formal and informal parts). Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof

2761 General interface. Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):

2763 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html

2764 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html

2766 * Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the

2767 Classical Reasoner. Typical big applications run around 2 times

2768 faster.

2771 *** Document preparation ***

2773 * Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output

2774 of raw sources. Only those symbols that do not require additional

2775 LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are

2776 displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim. isatool display

2777 and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the

2778 DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).

2780 * Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,

2781 notably folding and hiding. Predefined tags include "theory" (for

2782 theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for

2783 commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and

2784 "invisible" are unused by default. Users may give explicit tag

2785 specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''. The

2786 interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document

2787 preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of

2788 isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,

2789 \isadroptag.

2791 Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool

2792 usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them). Typical

2793 specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present

2794 theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold

2795 proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit

2796 these parts without any formal replacement text. The Isabelle site

2797 default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as

2798 specified above.

2800 * Several new antiquotations:

2802 @{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;

2804 @{typeof term} prints the type of a term;

2806 @{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the

2807 argument is a known logical constant;

2809 @{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or

2810 theorem applying a "style" to it

2812 @{ML text}

2814 Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of

2815 definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the

2816 conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem19'

2817 to print the specified premise. TermStyle.add_style provides an ML

2818 interface for introducing further styles. See also the "LaTeX Sugar"

2819 document practical applications. The ML antiquotation prints

2820 type-checked ML expressions verbatim.

2822 * Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',

2823 and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which

2824 specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations. For

2825 example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.

2827 * Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative

2828 context interpreting the subsequent argument. For example: @{thm

2829 [locale=lattice] inf_assoc}.

2831 * Proper output of proof terms (@{prf ...} and @{full_prf ...}) within

2832 a proof context.

2834 * Proper output of antiquotations for theory commands involving a

2835 proof context (such as 'locale' or 'theorem (in loc) ...').

2837 * Delimiters of outer tokens (string etc.) now produce separate LaTeX

2838 macros (\isachardoublequoteopen, isachardoublequoteclose etc.).

2840 * isatool usedir: new option -C (default true) controls whether option

2841 -D should include a copy of the original document directory; -C false

2842 prevents unwanted effects such as copying of administrative CVS data.

2845 *** Pure ***

2847 * Considerably improved version of 'constdefs' command. Now performs

2848 automatic type-inference of declared constants; additional support for

2849 local structure declarations (cf. locales and HOL records), see also

2850 isar-ref manual. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to observe strictly

2851 sequential dependencies of definitions within a single 'constdefs'

2852 section; moreover, the declared name needs to be an identifier. If

2853 all fails, consider to fall back on 'consts' and 'defs' separately.

2855 * Improved indexed syntax and implicit structures. First of all,

2856 indexed syntax provides a notational device for subscripted

2857 application, using the new syntax \<^bsub>term\<^esub> for arbitrary

2858 expressions. Secondly, in a local context with structure

2859 declarations, number indexes \<^sub>n or the empty index (default

2860 number 1) refer to a certain fixed variable implicitly; option

2861 show_structs controls printing of implicit structures. Typical

2862 applications of these concepts involve record types and locales.

2864 * New command 'no_syntax' removes grammar declarations (and

2865 translations) resulting from the given syntax specification, which is

2866 interpreted in the same manner as for the 'syntax' command.

2868 * 'Advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) may depend

2869 on the signature of the theory context being presently used for

2870 parsing/printing, see also isar-ref manual.

2872 * Improved 'oracle' command provides a type-safe interface to turn an

2873 ML expression of type theory -> T -> term into a primitive rule of

2874 type theory -> T -> thm (i.e. the functionality of Thm.invoke_oracle

2875 is already included here); see also FOL/ex/IffExample.thy;

2876 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2878 * axclass: name space prefix for class "c" is now "c_class" (was "c"

2879 before); "cI" is no longer bound, use "c.intro" instead.

2880 INCOMPATIBILITY. This change avoids clashes of fact bindings for

2881 axclasses vs. locales.

2883 * Improved internal renaming of symbolic identifiers -- attach primes

2884 instead of base 26 numbers.

2886 * New flag show_question_marks controls printing of leading question

2887 marks in schematic variable names.

2889 * In schematic variable names, *any* symbol following \<^isub> or

2890 \<^isup> is now treated as part of the base name. For example, the

2891 following works without printing of awkward ".0" indexes:

2893 lemma "x\<^isub>1 = x\<^isub>2 ==> x\<^isub>2 = x\<^isub>1"

2894 by simp

2896 * Inner syntax includes (*(*nested*) comments*).

2898 * Pretty printer now supports unbreakable blocks, specified in mixfix

2899 annotations as "(00...)".

2901 * Clear separation of logical types and nonterminals, where the latter

2902 may only occur in 'syntax' specifications or type abbreviations.

2903 Before that distinction was only partially implemented via type class

2904 "logic" vs. "{}". Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare cases of improper

2905 use of 'types'/'consts' instead of 'nonterminals'/'syntax'. Some very

2906 exotic syntax specifications may require further adaption

2907 (e.g. Cube/Cube.thy).

2909 * Removed obsolete type class "logic", use the top sort {} instead.

2910 Note that non-logical types should be declared as 'nonterminals'

2911 rather than 'types'. INCOMPATIBILITY for new object-logic

2912 specifications.

2914 * Attributes 'induct' and 'cases': type or set names may now be

2915 locally fixed variables as well.

2917 * Simplifier: can now control the depth to which conditional rewriting

2918 is traced via the PG menu Isabelle -> Settings -> Trace Simp Depth

2919 Limit.

2921 * Simplifier: simplification procedures may now take the current

2922 simpset into account (cf. Simplifier.simproc(_i) / mk_simproc

2923 interface), which is very useful for calling the Simplifier

2924 recursively. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: the 'prems' argument of simprocs

2925 is gone -- use prems_of_ss on the simpset instead. Moreover, the

2926 low-level mk_simproc no longer applies Logic.varify internally, to

2927 allow for use in a context of fixed variables.

2929 * thin_tac now works even if the assumption being deleted contains !!

2930 or ==>. More generally, erule now works even if the major premise of

2931 the elimination rule contains !! or ==>.

2933 * Method 'rules' has been renamed to 'iprover'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2935 * Reorganized bootstrapping of the Pure theories; CPure is now derived

2936 from Pure, which contains all common declarations already. Both

2937 theories are defined via plain Isabelle/Isar .thy files.

2938 INCOMPATIBILITY: elements of CPure (such as the CPure.intro /

2939 CPure.elim / CPure.dest attributes) now appear in the Pure name space;

2940 use isatool fixcpure to adapt your theory and ML sources.

2942 * New syntax 'name(i-j, i-, i, ...)' for referring to specific

2943 selections of theorems in named facts via index ranges.

2945 * 'print_theorems': in theory mode, really print the difference

2946 wrt. the last state (works for interactive theory development only),

2947 in proof mode print all local facts (cf. 'print_facts');

2949 * 'hide': option '(open)' hides only base names.

2951 * More efficient treatment of intermediate checkpoints in interactive

2952 theory development.

2954 * Code generator is now invoked via code_module (incremental code

2955 generation) and code_library (modular code generation, ML structures

2956 for each theory). INCOMPATIBILITY: new keywords 'file' and 'contains'

2957 must be quoted when used as identifiers.

2959 * New 'value' command for reading, evaluating and printing terms using

2960 the code generator. INCOMPATIBILITY: command keyword 'value' must be

2961 quoted when used as identifier.

2964 *** Locales ***

2966 * New commands for the interpretation of locale expressions in

2967 theories (1), locales (2) and proof contexts (3). These generate

2968 proof obligations from the expression specification. After the

2969 obligations have been discharged, theorems of the expression are added

2970 to the theory, target locale or proof context. The synopsis of the

2971 commands is a follows:

2973 (1) interpretation expr inst

2974 (2) interpretation target < expr

2975 (3) interpret expr inst

2977 Interpretation in theories and proof contexts require a parameter

2978 instantiation of terms from the current context. This is applied to

2979 specifications and theorems of the interpreted expression.

2980 Interpretation in locales only permits parameter renaming through the

2981 locale expression. Interpretation is smart in that interpretations

2982 that are active already do not occur in proof obligations, neither are

2983 instantiated theorems stored in duplicate. Use 'print_interps' to

2984 inspect active interpretations of a particular locale. For details,

2985 see the Isar Reference manual. Examples can be found in

2986 HOL/Finite_Set.thy and HOL/Algebra/UnivPoly.thy.

2988 INCOMPATIBILITY: former 'instantiate' has been withdrawn, use

2989 'interpret' instead.

2991 * New context element 'constrains' for adding type constraints to

2992 parameters.

2994 * Context expressions: renaming of parameters with syntax

2995 redeclaration.

2997 * Locale declaration: 'includes' disallowed.

2999 * Proper static binding of attribute syntax -- i.e. types / terms /

3000 facts mentioned as arguments are always those of the locale definition

3001 context, independently of the context of later invocations. Moreover,

3002 locale operations (renaming and type / term instantiation) are applied

3003 to attribute arguments as expected.

3005 INCOMPATIBILITY of the ML interface: always pass Attrib.src instead of

3006 actual attributes; rare situations may require Attrib.attribute to

3007 embed those attributes into Attrib.src that lack concrete syntax.

3008 Attribute implementations need to cooperate properly with the static

3009 binding mechanism. Basic parsers Args.XXX_typ/term/prop and

3010 Attrib.XXX_thm etc. already do the right thing without further

3011 intervention. Only unusual applications -- such as "where" or "of"

3012 (cf. src/Pure/Isar/attrib.ML), which process arguments depending both

3013 on the context and the facts involved -- may have to assign parsed

3014 values to argument tokens explicitly.

3016 * Changed parameter management in theorem generation for long goal

3017 statements with 'includes'. INCOMPATIBILITY: produces a different

3018 theorem statement in rare situations.

3020 * Locale inspection command 'print_locale' omits notes elements. Use

3021 'print_locale!' to have them included in the output.

3024 *** Provers ***

3026 * Provers/hypsubst.ML: improved version of the subst method, for

3027 single-step rewriting: it now works in bound variable contexts. New is

3028 'subst (asm)', for rewriting an assumption. INCOMPATIBILITY: may

3029 rewrite a different subterm than the original subst method, which is

3030 still available as 'simplesubst'.

3032 * Provers/quasi.ML: new transitivity reasoners for transitivity only

3033 and quasi orders.

3035 * Provers/trancl.ML: new transitivity reasoner for transitive and

3036 reflexive-transitive closure of relations.

3038 * Provers/blast.ML: new reference depth_limit to make blast's depth

3039 limit (previously hard-coded with a value of 20) user-definable.

3041 * Provers/simplifier.ML has been moved to Pure, where Simplifier.setup

3042 is peformed already. Object-logics merely need to finish their

3043 initial simpset configuration as before. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3046 *** HOL ***

3048 * Symbolic syntax of Hilbert Choice Operator is now as follows:

3050 syntax (epsilon)

3051 "_Eps" :: "[pttrn, bool] => 'a" ("(3\<some>_./ _)" [0, 10] 10)

3053 The symbol \<some> is displayed as the alternative epsilon of LaTeX

3054 and x-symbol; use option '-m epsilon' to get it actually printed.

3055 Moreover, the mathematically important symbolic identifier \<epsilon>

3056 becomes available as variable, constant etc. INCOMPATIBILITY,

3058 * "x > y" abbreviates "y < x" and "x >= y" abbreviates "y <= x".

3059 Similarly for all quantifiers: "ALL x > y" etc. The x-symbol for >=

3060 is \<ge>. New transitivity rules have been added to HOL/Orderings.thy to

3061 support corresponding Isar calculations.

3063 * "{x:A. P}" abbreviates "{x. x:A & P}", and similarly for "\<in>"

3064 instead of ":".

3066 * theory SetInterval: changed the syntax for open intervals:

3068 Old New

3069 {..n(} {..<n}

3070 {)n..} {n<..}

3071 {m..n(} {m..<n}

3072 {)m..n} {m<..n}

3073 {)m..n(} {m<..<n}

3075 The old syntax is still supported but will disappear in the next

3076 release. For conversion use the following Emacs search and replace

3077 patterns (these are not perfect but work quite well):

3079 {)\([^\.]*\)\.\. -> {\1<\.\.}

3080 \.\.\([^(}]*\)(} -> \.\.<\1}

3082 * Theory Commutative_Ring (in Library): method comm_ring for proving

3083 equalities in commutative rings; method 'algebra' provides a generic

3084 interface.

3086 * Theory Finite_Set: changed the syntax for 'setsum', summation over

3087 finite sets: "setsum (%x. e) A", which used to be "\<Sum>x:A. e", is

3088 now either "SUM x:A. e" or "\<Sum>x \<in> A. e". The bound variable can

3089 be a tuple pattern.

3091 Some new syntax forms are available:

3093 "\<Sum>x | P. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {x. P}"

3094 "\<Sum>x = a..b. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {a..b}"

3095 "\<Sum>x = a..<b. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {a..<b}"

3096 "\<Sum>x < k. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {..<k}"

3098 The latter form "\<Sum>x < k. e" used to be based on a separate

3099 function "Summation", which has been discontinued.

3101 * theory Finite_Set: in structured induction proofs, the insert case

3102 is now 'case (insert x F)' instead of the old counterintuitive 'case

3103 (insert F x)'.

3105 * The 'refute' command has been extended to support a much larger

3106 fragment of HOL, including axiomatic type classes, constdefs and

3107 typedefs, inductive datatypes and recursion.

3109 * New tactics 'sat' and 'satx' to prove propositional tautologies.

3110 Requires zChaff with proof generation to be installed. See

3111 HOL/ex/SAT_Examples.thy for examples.

3113 * Datatype induction via method 'induct' now preserves the name of the

3114 induction variable. For example, when proving P(xs::'a list) by

3115 induction on xs, the induction step is now P(xs) ==> P(a#xs) rather

3116 than P(list) ==> P(a#list) as previously. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY

3117 in unstructured proof scripts.

3119 * Reworked implementation of records. Improved scalability for

3120 records with many fields, avoiding performance problems for type

3121 inference. Records are no longer composed of nested field types, but

3122 of nested extension types. Therefore the record type only grows linear

3123 in the number of extensions and not in the number of fields. The

3124 top-level (users) view on records is preserved. Potential

3125 INCOMPATIBILITY only in strange cases, where the theory depends on the

3126 old record representation. The type generated for a record is called

3127 <record_name>_ext_type.

3129 Flag record_quick_and_dirty_sensitive can be enabled to skip the

3130 proofs triggered by a record definition or a simproc (if

3131 quick_and_dirty is enabled). Definitions of large records can take

3132 quite long.

3134 New simproc record_upd_simproc for simplification of multiple record

3135 updates enabled by default. Moreover, trivial updates are also

3136 removed: r(|x := x r|) = r. INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break

3137 occasionally, since simplification is more powerful by default.

3139 * typedef: proper support for polymorphic sets, which contain extra

3140 type-variables in the term.

3142 * Simplifier: automatically reasons about transitivity chains

3143 involving "trancl" (r^+) and "rtrancl" (r^*) by setting up tactics

3144 provided by Provers/trancl.ML as additional solvers. INCOMPATIBILITY:

3145 old proofs break occasionally as simplification may now solve more

3146 goals than previously.

3148 * Simplifier: converts x <= y into x = y if assumption y <= x is

3149 present. Works for all partial orders (class "order"), in particular

3150 numbers and sets. For linear orders (e.g. numbers) it treats ~ x < y

3151 just like y <= x.

3153 * Simplifier: new simproc for "let x = a in f x". If a is a free or

3154 bound variable or a constant then the let is unfolded. Otherwise

3155 first a is simplified to b, and then f b is simplified to g. If

3156 possible we abstract b from g arriving at "let x = b in h x",

3157 otherwise we unfold the let and arrive at g. The simproc can be

3158 enabled/disabled by the reference use_let_simproc. Potential

3159 INCOMPATIBILITY since simplification is more powerful by default.

3161 * Classical reasoning: the meson method now accepts theorems as arguments.

3163 * Prover support: pre-release of the Isabelle-ATP linkup, which runs background

3164 jobs to provide advice on the provability of subgoals.

3166 * Theory OrderedGroup and Ring_and_Field: various additions and

3167 improvements to faciliate calculations involving equalities and

3168 inequalities.

3170 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

3171 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

3173 abs_eq now named abs_of_nonneg

3174 abs_of_ge_0 now named abs_of_nonneg

3175 abs_minus_eq now named abs_of_nonpos

3176 imp_abs_id now named abs_of_nonneg

3177 imp_abs_neg_id now named abs_of_nonpos

3178 mult_pos now named mult_pos_pos

3179 mult_pos_le now named mult_nonneg_nonneg

3180 mult_pos_neg_le now named mult_nonneg_nonpos

3181 mult_pos_neg2_le now named mult_nonneg_nonpos2

3182 mult_neg now named mult_neg_neg

3183 mult_neg_le now named mult_nonpos_nonpos

3185 * The following lemmas in Ring_and_Field have been added to the simplifier:

3187 zero_le_square

3188 not_square_less_zero

3190 The following lemmas have been deleted from Real/RealPow:

3192 realpow_zero_zero

3193 realpow_two

3194 realpow_less

3195 zero_le_power

3196 realpow_two_le

3197 abs_realpow_two

3198 realpow_two_abs

3200 * Theory Parity: added rules for simplifying exponents.

3202 * Theory List:

3204 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

3205 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

3207 list_all_Nil now named list_all.simps(1)

3208 list_all_Cons now named list_all.simps(2)

3209 list_all_conv now named list_all_iff

3210 set_mem_eq now named mem_iff

3212 * Theories SetsAndFunctions and BigO (see HOL/Library) support

3213 asymptotic "big O" calculations. See the notes in BigO.thy.

3216 *** HOL-Complex ***

3218 * Theory RealDef: better support for embedding natural numbers and

3219 integers in the reals.

3221 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

3222 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

3224 exp_ge_add_one_self now requires no hypotheses

3225 real_of_int_add reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

3226 real_of_int_minus reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

3227 real_of_int_diff reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

3228 real_of_int_mult reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

3230 * Theory RComplete: expanded support for floor and ceiling functions.

3232 * Theory Ln is new, with properties of the natural logarithm

3234 * Hyperreal: There is a new type constructor "star" for making

3235 nonstandard types. The old type names are now type synonyms:

3237 hypreal = real star

3238 hypnat = nat star

3239 hcomplex = complex star

3241 * Hyperreal: Many groups of similarly-defined constants have been

3242 replaced by polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):

3244 star_of <-- hypreal_of_real, hypnat_of_nat, hcomplex_of_complex

3246 starset <-- starsetNat, starsetC

3247 *s* <-- *sNat*, *sc*

3248 starset_n <-- starsetNat_n, starsetC_n

3249 *sn* <-- *sNatn*, *scn*

3250 InternalSets <-- InternalNatSets, InternalCSets

3252 starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

3253 *f* <-- *fNat*, *fNat2*, *fc*, *fRc*, *fcR*

3254 starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n

3255 *fn* <-- *fNatn*, *fNat2n*, *fcn*, *fRcn*, *fcRn*

3256 InternalFuns <-- InternalNatFuns, InternalNatFuns2, Internal{C,RC,CR}Funs

3258 * Hyperreal: Many type-specific theorems have been removed in favor of

3259 theorems specific to various axiomatic type classes (INCOMPATIBILITY):

3261 add_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_commute

3262 add_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_assocs

3263 OrderedGroup.add_0 <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_zero_left

3264 OrderedGroup.add_0_right <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_zero_right

3265 right_minus <-- hypreal_add_minus

3266 left_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_minus_left

3267 mult_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_commute

3268 mult_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_assoc

3269 mult_1_left <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_1, hcomplex_mult_one_left

3270 mult_1_right <-- hcomplex_mult_one_right

3271 mult_zero_left <-- hcomplex_mult_zero_left

3272 left_distrib <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_mult_distrib

3273 right_distrib <-- hypnat_add_mult_distrib2

3274 zero_neq_one <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_not_eq_one

3275 right_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse

3276 left_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse_left, hcomplex_mult_inv_left

3277 order_refl <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_refl

3278 order_trans <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_trans

3279 order_antisym <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_anti_sym

3280 order_less_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less_le

3281 linorder_linear <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_linear

3282 add_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_add_left_mono

3283 mult_strict_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_less_mono2

3284 add_nonneg_nonneg <-- hypreal_le_add_order

3286 * Hyperreal: Separate theorems having to do with type-specific

3287 versions of constants have been merged into theorems that apply to the

3288 new polymorphic constants (INCOMPATIBILITY):

3290 STAR_UNIV_set <-- {STAR_real,NatStar_real,STARC_complex}_set

3291 STAR_empty_set <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_empty_set

3292 STAR_Un <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Un

3293 STAR_Int <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Int

3294 STAR_Compl <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Compl

3295 STAR_subset <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_subset

3296 STAR_mem <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_mem

3297 STAR_mem_Compl <-- {STAR,STARC}_mem_Compl

3298 STAR_diff <-- {STAR,STARC}_diff

3299 STAR_star_of_image_subset <-- {STAR_hypreal_of_real, NatStar_hypreal_of_real,

3300 STARC_hcomplex_of_complex}_image_subset

3301 starset_n_Un <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Un

3302 starset_n_Int <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Int

3303 starset_n_Compl <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Compl

3304 starset_n_diff <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_diff

3305 InternalSets_Un <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Un

3306 InternalSets_Int <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Int

3307 InternalSets_Compl <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Compl

3308 InternalSets_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_diff

3309 InternalSets_UNIV_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_UNIV_diff

3310 InternalSets_starset_n <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_starset{Nat,C}_n

3311 starset_starset_n_eq <-- starset{Nat,C}_starset{Nat,C}_n_eq

3312 starset_n_starset <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_starset{Nat,C}

3313 starfun_n_starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n_starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

3314 starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

3315 starfun_mult <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_mult

3316 starfun_add <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_add

3317 starfun_minus <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_minus

3318 starfun_diff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_diff

3319 starfun_o <-- starfun{NatNat2,Nat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o

3320 starfun_o2 <-- starfun{NatNat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o2

3321 starfun_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_const_fun

3322 starfun_inverse <-- starfun{Nat,C,RC,CR}_inverse

3323 starfun_eq <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_eq

3324 starfun_eq_iff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_eq_iff

3325 starfun_Id <-- starfunC_Id

3326 starfun_approx <-- starfun{Nat,CR}_approx

3327 starfun_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_capprox

3328 starfun_abs <-- starfunNat_rabs

3329 starfun_lambda_cancel <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel

3330 starfun_lambda_cancel2 <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel2

3331 starfun_mult_HFinite_approx <-- starfunCR_mult_HFinite_capprox

3332 starfun_mult_CFinite_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_mult_CFinite_capprox

3333 starfun_add_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_add_capprox

3334 starfun_add_approx <-- starfunCR_add_approx

3335 starfun_inverse_inverse <-- starfunC_inverse_inverse

3336 starfun_divide <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_divide

3337 starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n

3338 starfun_n_mult <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_mult

3339 starfun_n_add <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_add

3340 starfun_n_add_minus <-- starfunNat_n_add_minus

3341 starfun_n_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_const_fun

3342 starfun_n_minus <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_minus

3343 starfun_n_eq <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_eq

3345 star_n_add <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add

3346 star_n_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_minus

3347 star_n_diff <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_diff

3348 star_n_mult <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_mult

3349 star_n_inverse <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_inverse

3350 star_n_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le

3351 star_n_less <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less

3352 star_n_zero_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_num

3353 star_n_one_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_one_num

3354 star_n_abs <-- hypreal_hrabs

3355 star_n_divide <-- hcomplex_divide

3357 star_of_add <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_add

3358 star_of_minus <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_minus

3359 star_of_diff <-- hypreal_of_real_diff

3360 star_of_mult <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_mult

3361 star_of_one <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_one

3362 star_of_zero <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_zero

3363 star_of_le <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_le_iff

3364 star_of_less <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_less_iff

3365 star_of_eq <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_eq_iff

3366 star_of_inverse <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_inverse

3367 star_of_divide <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_divide

3368 star_of_of_nat <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_nat

3369 star_of_of_int <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_int

3370 star_of_number_of <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_number_of

3371 star_of_number_less <-- number_of_less_hypreal_of_real_iff

3372 star_of_number_le <-- number_of_le_hypreal_of_real_iff

3373 star_of_eq_number <-- hypreal_of_real_eq_number_of_iff

3374 star_of_less_number <-- hypreal_of_real_less_number_of_iff

3375 star_of_le_number <-- hypreal_of_real_le_number_of_iff

3376 star_of_power <-- hypreal_of_real_power

3377 star_of_eq_0 <-- hcomplex_of_complex_zero_iff

3379 * Hyperreal: new method "transfer" that implements the transfer

3380 principle of nonstandard analysis. With a subgoal that mentions

3381 nonstandard types like "'a star", the command "apply transfer"

3382 replaces it with an equivalent one that mentions only standard types.

3383 To be successful, all free variables must have standard types; non-

3384 standard variables must have explicit universal quantifiers.

3386 * Hyperreal: A theory of Taylor series.

3389 *** HOLCF ***

3391 * Discontinued special version of 'constdefs' (which used to support

3392 continuous functions) in favor of the general Pure one with full

3393 type-inference.

3395 * New simplification procedure for solving continuity conditions; it

3396 is much faster on terms with many nested lambda abstractions (cubic

3397 instead of exponential time).

3399 * New syntax for domain package: selector names are now optional.

3400 Parentheses should be omitted unless argument is lazy, for example:

3402 domain 'a stream = cons "'a" (lazy "'a stream")

3404 * New command 'fixrec' for defining recursive functions with pattern

3405 matching; defining multiple functions with mutual recursion is also

3406 supported. Patterns may include the constants cpair, spair, up, sinl,

3407 sinr, or any data constructor defined by the domain package. The given

3408 equations are proven as rewrite rules. See HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for

3409 syntax and examples.

3411 * New commands 'cpodef' and 'pcpodef' for defining predicate subtypes

3412 of cpo and pcpo types. Syntax is exactly like the 'typedef' command,

3413 but the proof obligation additionally includes an admissibility

3414 requirement. The packages generate instances of class cpo or pcpo,

3415 with continuity and strictness theorems for Rep and Abs.

3417 * HOLCF: Many theorems have been renamed according to a more standard naming

3418 scheme (INCOMPATIBILITY):

3420 foo_inject: "foo$x = foo$y ==> x = y"

3421 foo_eq: "(foo$x = foo$y) = (x = y)"

3422 foo_less: "(foo$x << foo$y) = (x << y)"

3423 foo_strict: "foo$UU = UU"

3424 foo_defined: "... ==> foo$x ~= UU"

3425 foo_defined_iff: "(foo$x = UU) = (x = UU)"

3428 *** ZF ***

3430 * ZF/ex: theories Group and Ring provide examples in abstract algebra,

3431 including the First Isomorphism Theorem (on quotienting by the kernel

3432 of a homomorphism).

3434 * ZF/Simplifier: install second copy of type solver that actually

3435 makes use of TC rules declared to Isar proof contexts (or locales);

3436 the old version is still required for ML proof scripts.

3439 *** Cube ***

3441 * Converted to Isar theory format; use locales instead of axiomatic

3442 theories.

3445 *** ML ***

3447 * Pure/library.ML: added ##>, ##>>, #>> -- higher-order counterparts

3448 for ||>, ||>>, |>>,

3450 * Pure/library.ML no longer defines its own option datatype, but uses

3451 that of the SML basis, which has constructors NONE and SOME instead of

3452 None and Some, as well as exception Option.Option instead of OPTION.

3453 The functions the, if_none, is_some, is_none have been adapted

3454 accordingly, while Option.map replaces apsome.

3456 * Pure/library.ML: the exception LIST has been given up in favour of

3457 the standard exceptions Empty and Subscript, as well as

3458 Library.UnequalLengths. Function like Library.hd and Library.tl are

3459 superceded by the standard hd and tl functions etc.

3461 A number of basic list functions are no longer exported to the ML

3462 toplevel, as they are variants of predefined functions. The following

3463 suggests how one can translate existing code:

3465 rev_append xs ys = List.revAppend (xs, ys)

3466 nth_elem (i, xs) = List.nth (xs, i)

3467 last_elem xs = List.last xs

3468 flat xss = List.concat xss

3469 seq fs = List.app fs

3470 partition P xs = List.partition P xs

3471 mapfilter f xs = List.mapPartial f xs

3473 * Pure/library.ML: several combinators for linear functional

3474 transformations, notably reverse application and composition:

3476 x |> f f #> g

3477 (x, y) |-> f f #-> g

3479 * Pure/library.ML: introduced/changed precedence of infix operators:

3481 infix 1 |> |-> ||> ||>> |>> |>>> #> #->;

3482 infix 2 ?;

3483 infix 3 o oo ooo oooo;

3484 infix 4 ~~ upto downto;

3486 Maybe INCOMPATIBILITY when any of those is used in conjunction with other

3487 infix operators.

3489 * Pure/library.ML: natural list combinators fold, fold_rev, and

3490 fold_map support linear functional transformations and nesting. For

3491 example:

3493 fold f [x1, ..., xN] y =

3494 y |> f x1 |> ... |> f xN

3496 (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] y =

3497 y |> fold f xs1 |> ... |> fold f xsN

3499 fold f [x1, ..., xN] =

3500 f x1 #> ... #> f xN

3502 (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] =

3503 fold f xs1 #> ... #> fold f xsN

3505 * Pure/library.ML: the following selectors on type 'a option are

3506 available:

3508 the: 'a option -> 'a (*partial*)

3509 these: 'a option -> 'a where 'a = 'b list

3510 the_default: 'a -> 'a option -> 'a

3511 the_list: 'a option -> 'a list

3513 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides

3514 basic operations for association lists, following natural argument

3515 order; moreover the explicit equality predicate passed here avoids

3516 potentially expensive polymorphic runtime equality checks.

3517 The old functions may be expressed as follows:

3519 assoc = uncurry (AList.lookup (op =))

3520 assocs = these oo AList.lookup (op =)

3521 overwrite = uncurry (AList.update (op =)) o swap

3523 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides

3525 val make: ('a -> 'b) -> 'a list -> ('a * 'b) list

3526 val find: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> ('c * 'b) list -> 'a -> 'c list

3528 replacing make_keylist and keyfilter (occassionally used)

3529 Naive rewrites:

3531 make_keylist = AList.make

3532 keyfilter = AList.find (op =)

3534 * eq_fst and eq_snd now take explicit equality parameter, thus

3535 avoiding eqtypes. Naive rewrites:

3537 eq_fst = eq_fst (op =)

3538 eq_snd = eq_snd (op =)

3540 * Removed deprecated apl and apr (rarely used).

3541 Naive rewrites:

3543 apl (n, op) =>>= curry op n

3544 apr (op, m) =>>= fn n => op (n, m)

3546 * Pure/General: structure OrdList (cf. Pure/General/ord_list.ML)

3547 provides a reasonably efficient light-weight implementation of sets as

3548 lists.

3550 * Pure/General: generic tables (cf. Pure/General/table.ML) provide a

3551 few new operations; existing lookup and update are now curried to

3552 follow natural argument order (for use with fold etc.);

3553 INCOMPATIBILITY, use (uncurry Symtab.lookup) etc. as last resort.

3555 * Pure/General: output via the Isabelle channels of

3556 writeln/warning/error etc. is now passed through Output.output, with a

3557 hook for arbitrary transformations depending on the print_mode

3558 (cf. Output.add_mode -- the first active mode that provides a output

3559 function wins). Already formatted output may be embedded into further

3560 text via Output.raw; the result of Pretty.string_of/str_of and derived

3561 functions (string_of_term/cterm/thm etc.) is already marked raw to

3562 accommodate easy composition of diagnostic messages etc. Programmers

3563 rarely need to care about Output.output or Output.raw at all, with

3564 some notable exceptions: Output.output is required when bypassing the

3565 standard channels (writeln etc.), or in token translations to produce

3566 properly formatted results; Output.raw is required when capturing

3567 already output material that will eventually be presented to the user

3568 a second time. For the default print mode, both Output.output and

3569 Output.raw have no effect.

3571 * Pure/General: Output.time_accumulator NAME creates an operator ('a

3572 -> 'b) -> 'a -> 'b to measure runtime and count invocations; the

3573 cumulative results are displayed at the end of a batch session.

3575 * Pure/General: File.sysify_path and File.quote_sysify path have been

3576 replaced by File.platform_path and File.shell_path (with appropriate

3577 hooks). This provides a clean interface for unusual systems where the

3578 internal and external process view of file names are different.

3580 * Pure: more efficient orders for basic syntactic entities: added

3581 fast_string_ord, fast_indexname_ord, fast_term_ord; changed sort_ord

3582 and typ_ord to use fast_string_ord and fast_indexname_ord (term_ord is

3583 NOT affected); structures Symtab, Vartab, Typtab, Termtab use the fast

3584 orders now -- potential INCOMPATIBILITY for code that depends on a

3585 particular order for Symtab.keys, Symtab.dest, etc. (consider using

3586 Library.sort_strings on result).

3588 * Pure/term.ML: combinators fold_atyps, fold_aterms, fold_term_types,

3589 fold_types traverse types/terms from left to right, observing natural

3590 argument order. Supercedes previous foldl_XXX versions, add_frees,

3591 add_vars etc. have been adapted as well: INCOMPATIBILITY.

3593 * Pure: name spaces have been refined, with significant changes of the

3594 internal interfaces -- INCOMPATIBILITY. Renamed cond_extern(_table)

3595 to extern(_table). The plain name entry path is superceded by a

3596 general 'naming' context, which also includes the 'policy' to produce

3597 a fully qualified name and external accesses of a fully qualified

3598 name; NameSpace.extend is superceded by context dependent

3599 Sign.declare_name. Several theory and proof context operations modify

3600 the naming context. Especially note Theory.restore_naming and

3601 ProofContext.restore_naming to get back to a sane state; note that

3602 Theory.add_path is no longer sufficient to recover from

3603 Theory.absolute_path in particular.

3605 * Pure: new flags short_names (default false) and unique_names

3606 (default true) for controlling output of qualified names. If

3607 short_names is set, names are printed unqualified. If unique_names is

3608 reset, the name prefix is reduced to the minimum required to achieve

3609 the original result when interning again, even if there is an overlap

3610 with earlier declarations.

3612 * Pure/TheoryDataFun: change of the argument structure; 'prep_ext' is

3613 now 'extend', and 'merge' gets an additional Pretty.pp argument

3614 (useful for printing error messages). INCOMPATIBILITY.

3616 * Pure: major reorganization of the theory context. Type Sign.sg and

3617 Theory.theory are now identified, referring to the universal

3618 Context.theory (see Pure/context.ML). Actual signature and theory

3619 content is managed as theory data. The old code and interfaces were

3620 spread over many files and structures; the new arrangement introduces

3621 considerable INCOMPATIBILITY to gain more clarity:

3623 Context -- theory management operations (name, identity, inclusion,

3624 parents, ancestors, merge, etc.), plus generic theory data;

3626 Sign -- logical signature and syntax operations (declaring consts,

3627 types, etc.), plus certify/read for common entities;

3629 Theory -- logical theory operations (stating axioms, definitions,

3630 oracles), plus a copy of logical signature operations (consts,

3631 types, etc.); also a few basic management operations (Theory.copy,

3632 Theory.merge, etc.)

3634 The most basic sign_of operations (Theory.sign_of, Thm.sign_of_thm

3635 etc.) as well as the sign field in Thm.rep_thm etc. have been retained

3636 for convenience -- they merely return the theory.

3638 * Pure: type Type.tsig is superceded by theory in most interfaces.

3640 * Pure: the Isar proof context type is already defined early in Pure

3641 as Context.proof (note that ProofContext.context and Proof.context are

3642 aliases, where the latter is the preferred name). This enables other

3643 Isabelle components to refer to that type even before Isar is present.

3645 * Pure/sign/theory: discontinued named name spaces (i.e. classK,

3646 typeK, constK, axiomK, oracleK), but provide explicit operations for

3647 any of these kinds. For example, Sign.intern typeK is now

3648 Sign.intern_type, Theory.hide_space Sign.typeK is now

3649 Theory.hide_types. Also note that former

3650 Theory.hide_classes/types/consts are now

3651 Theory.hide_classes_i/types_i/consts_i, while the non '_i' versions

3652 internalize their arguments! INCOMPATIBILITY.

3654 * Pure: get_thm interface (of PureThy and ProofContext) expects

3655 datatype thmref (with constructors Name and NameSelection) instead of

3656 plain string -- INCOMPATIBILITY;

3658 * Pure: cases produced by proof methods specify options, where NONE

3659 means to remove case bindings -- INCOMPATIBILITY in

3660 (RAW_)METHOD_CASES.

3662 * Pure: the following operations retrieve axioms or theorems from a

3663 theory node or theory hierarchy, respectively:

3665 Theory.axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list

3666 Theory.all_axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list

3667 PureThy.thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list

3668 PureThy.all_thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list

3670 * Pure: print_tac now outputs the goal through the trace channel.

3672 * Isar toplevel: improved diagnostics, mostly for Poly/ML only.

3673 Reference Toplevel.debug (default false) controls detailed printing

3674 and tracing of low-level exceptions; Toplevel.profiling (default 0)

3675 controls execution profiling -- set to 1 for time and 2 for space

3676 (both increase the runtime).

3678 * Isar session: The initial use of ROOT.ML is now always timed,

3679 i.e. the log will show the actual process times, in contrast to the

3680 elapsed wall-clock time that the outer shell wrapper produces.

3682 * Simplifier: improved handling of bound variables (nameless

3683 representation, avoid allocating new strings). Simprocs that invoke

3684 the Simplifier recursively should use Simplifier.inherit_bounds to

3685 avoid local name clashes. Failure to do so produces warnings

3686 "Simplifier: renamed bound variable ..."; set Simplifier.debug_bounds

3687 for further details.

3689 * ML functions legacy_bindings and use_legacy_bindings produce ML fact

3690 bindings for all theorems stored within a given theory; this may help

3691 in porting non-Isar theories to Isar ones, while keeping ML proof

3692 scripts for the time being.

3694 * ML operator HTML.with_charset specifies the charset begin used for

3695 generated HTML files. For example:

3697 HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Hebrew";

3698 HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Chinese";

3701 *** System ***

3703 * Allow symlinks to all proper Isabelle executables (Isabelle,

3704 isabelle, isatool etc.).

3706 * ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT setting specifies preferred document format (for

3707 isatool doc, isatool mkdir, display_drafts etc.).

3709 * isatool usedir: option -f allows specification of the ML file to be

3710 used by Isabelle; default is ROOT.ML.

3712 * New isatool version outputs the version identifier of the Isabelle

3713 distribution being used.

3715 * HOL: new isatool dimacs2hol converts files in DIMACS CNF format

3716 (containing Boolean satisfiability problems) into Isabelle/HOL

3717 theories.

3721 New in Isabelle2004 (April 2004)

3722 --------------------------------

3724 *** General ***

3726 * Provers/order.ML: new efficient reasoner for partial and linear orders.

3727 Replaces linorder.ML.

3729 * Pure: Greek letters (except small lambda, \<lambda>), as well as Gothic

3730 (\<aa>...\<zz>\<AA>...\<ZZ>), calligraphic (\<A>...\<Z>), and Euler

3731 (\<a>...\<z>), are now considered normal letters, and can therefore

3732 be used anywhere where an ASCII letter (a...zA...Z) has until

3733 now. COMPATIBILITY: This obviously changes the parsing of some

3734 terms, especially where a symbol has been used as a binder, say

3735 '\<Pi>x. ...', which is now a type error since \<Pi>x will be parsed

3736 as an identifier. Fix it by inserting a space around former

3737 symbols. Call 'isatool fixgreek' to try to fix parsing errors in

3738 existing theory and ML files.

3740 * Pure: Macintosh and Windows line-breaks are now allowed in theory files.

3742 * Pure: single letter sub/superscripts (\<^isub> and \<^isup>) are now

3743 allowed in identifiers. Similar to Greek letters \<^isub> is now considered

3744 a normal (but invisible) letter. For multiple letter subscripts repeat

3745 \<^isub> like this: x\<^isub>1\<^isub>2.

3747 * Pure: There are now sub-/superscripts that can span more than one

3748 character. Text between \<^bsub> and \<^esub> is set in subscript in

3749 ProofGeneral and LaTeX, text between \<^bsup> and \<^esup> in

3750 superscript. The new control characters are not identifier parts.

3752 * Pure: Control-symbols of the form \<^raw:...> will literally print the

3753 content of "..." to the latex file instead of \isacntrl... . The "..."

3754 may consist of any printable characters excluding the end bracket >.

3756 * Pure: Using new Isar command "finalconsts" (or the ML functions

3757 Theory.add_finals or Theory.add_finals_i) it is now possible to

3758 declare constants "final", which prevents their being given a definition

3759 later. It is useful for constants whose behaviour is fixed axiomatically

3760 rather than definitionally, such as the meta-logic connectives.

3762 * Pure: 'instance' now handles general arities with general sorts

3763 (i.e. intersections of classes),

3765 * Presentation: generated HTML now uses a CSS style sheet to make layout

3766 (somewhat) independent of content. It is copied from lib/html/isabelle.css.

3767 It can be changed to alter the colors/layout of generated pages.

3770 *** Isar ***

3772 * Tactic emulation methods rule_tac, erule_tac, drule_tac, frule_tac,

3773 cut_tac, subgoal_tac and thin_tac:

3774 - Now understand static (Isar) contexts. As a consequence, users of Isar

3775 locales are no longer forced to write Isar proof scripts.

3776 For details see Isar Reference Manual, paragraph 4.3.2: Further tactic

3777 emulations.

3778 - INCOMPATIBILITY: names of variables to be instantiated may no

3779 longer be enclosed in quotes. Instead, precede variable name with `?'.

3780 This is consistent with the instantiation attribute "where".

3782 * Attributes "where" and "of":

3783 - Now take type variables of instantiated theorem into account when reading

3784 the instantiation string. This fixes a bug that caused instantiated

3785 theorems to have too special types in some circumstances.

3786 - "where" permits explicit instantiations of type variables.

3788 * Calculation commands "moreover" and "also" no longer interfere with

3789 current facts ("this"), admitting arbitrary combinations with "then"

3790 and derived forms.

3792 * Locales:

3793 - Goal statements involving the context element "includes" no longer

3794 generate theorems with internal delta predicates (those ending on

3795 "_axioms") in the premise.

3796 Resolve particular premise with <locale>.intro to obtain old form.

3797 - Fixed bug in type inference ("unify_frozen") that prevented mix of target

3798 specification and "includes" elements in goal statement.

3799 - Rule sets <locale>.intro and <locale>.axioms no longer declared as

3800 [intro?] and [elim?] (respectively) by default.

3801 - Experimental command for instantiation of locales in proof contexts:

3802 instantiate <label>[<attrs>]: <loc>

3803 Instantiates locale <loc> and adds all its theorems to the current context

3804 taking into account their attributes. Label and attrs are optional

3805 modifiers, like in theorem declarations. If present, names of

3806 instantiated theorems are qualified with <label>, and the attributes

3807 <attrs> are applied after any attributes these theorems might have already.

3808 If the locale has assumptions, a chained fact of the form

3809 "<loc> t1 ... tn" is expected from which instantiations of the parameters

3810 are derived. The command does not support old-style locales declared

3811 with "locale (open)".

3812 A few (very simple) examples can be found in FOL/ex/LocaleInst.thy.

3814 * HOL: Tactic emulation methods induct_tac and case_tac understand static

3815 (Isar) contexts.

3818 *** HOL ***

3820 * Proof import: new image HOL4 contains the imported library from

3821 the HOL4 system with about 2500 theorems. It is imported by

3822 replaying proof terms produced by HOL4 in Isabelle. The HOL4 image

3823 can be used like any other Isabelle image. See

3824 HOL/Import/HOL/README for more information.

3826 * Simplifier:

3827 - Much improved handling of linear and partial orders.

3828 Reasoners for linear and partial orders are set up for type classes

3829 "linorder" and "order" respectively, and are added to the default simpset

3830 as solvers. This means that the simplifier can build transitivity chains

3831 to solve goals from the assumptions.

3832 - INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break occasionally. Typically, applications

3833 of blast or auto after simplification become unnecessary because the goal

3834 is solved by simplification already.

3836 * Numerics: new theory Ring_and_Field contains over 250 basic numerical laws,

3837 all proved in axiomatic type classes for semirings, rings and fields.

3839 * Numerics:

3840 - Numeric types (nat, int, and in HOL-Complex rat, real, complex, etc.) are

3841 now formalized using the Ring_and_Field theory mentioned above.

3842 - INCOMPATIBILITY: simplification and arithmetic behaves somewhat differently

3843 than before, because now they are set up once in a generic manner.

3844 - INCOMPATIBILITY: many type-specific arithmetic laws have gone.

3845 Look for the general versions in Ring_and_Field (and Power if they concern

3846 exponentiation).

3848 * Type "rat" of the rational numbers is now available in HOL-Complex.

3850 * Records:

3851 - Record types are now by default printed with their type abbreviation

3852 instead of the list of all field types. This can be configured via

3853 the reference "print_record_type_abbr".

3854 - Simproc "record_upd_simproc" for simplification of multiple updates added

3855 (not enabled by default).

3856 - Simproc "record_ex_sel_eq_simproc" to simplify EX x. sel r = x resp.

3857 EX x. x = sel r to True (not enabled by default).

3858 - Tactic "record_split_simp_tac" to split and simplify records added.

3860 * 'specification' command added, allowing for definition by

3861 specification. There is also an 'ax_specification' command that

3862 introduces the new constants axiomatically.

3864 * arith(_tac) is now able to generate counterexamples for reals as well.

3866 * HOL-Algebra: new locale "ring" for non-commutative rings.

3868 * HOL-ex: InductiveInvariant_examples illustrates advanced recursive function

3869 definitions, thanks to Sava Krsti\'{c} and John Matthews.

3871 * HOL-Matrix: a first theory for matrices in HOL with an application of

3872 matrix theory to linear programming.

3874 * Unions and Intersections:

3875 The latex output syntax of UN and INT has been changed

3876 from "\Union x \in A. B" to "\Union_{x \in A} B"

3877 i.e. the index formulae has become a subscript.

3878 Similarly for "\Union x. B", and for \Inter instead of \Union.

3880 * Unions and Intersections over Intervals:

3881 There is new short syntax "UN i<=n. A" for "UN i:{0..n}. A". There is

3882 also an x-symbol version with subscripts "\<Union>\<^bsub>i <= n\<^esub>. A"

3883 like in normal math, and corresponding versions for < and for intersection.

3885 * HOL/List: Ordering "lexico" is renamed "lenlex" and the standard

3886 lexicographic dictonary ordering has been added as "lexord".

3888 * ML: the legacy theory structures Int and List have been removed. They had

3889 conflicted with ML Basis Library structures having the same names.

3891 * 'refute' command added to search for (finite) countermodels. Only works

3892 for a fragment of HOL. The installation of an external SAT solver is

3893 highly recommended. See "HOL/Refute.thy" for details.

3895 * 'quickcheck' command: Allows to find counterexamples by evaluating

3896 formulae under an assignment of free variables to random values.

3897 In contrast to 'refute', it can deal with inductive datatypes,

3898 but cannot handle quantifiers. See "HOL/ex/Quickcheck_Examples.thy"

3899 for examples.

3902 *** HOLCF ***

3904 * Streams now come with concatenation and are part of the HOLCF image

3908 New in Isabelle2003 (May 2003)

3909 ------------------------------

3911 *** General ***

3913 * Provers/simplifier:

3915 - Completely reimplemented method simp (ML: Asm_full_simp_tac):

3916 Assumptions are now subject to complete mutual simplification,

3917 not just from left to right. The simplifier now preserves

3918 the order of assumptions.

3920 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:

3922 -- simp sometimes diverges where the old version did

3923 not, e.g. invoking simp on the goal

3925 [| P (f x); y = x; f x = f y |] ==> Q

3927 now gives rise to the infinite reduction sequence

3929 P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> P(f y) --(y = x)--> P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> ...

3931 Using "simp (asm_lr)" (ML: Asm_lr_simp_tac) instead often solves this

3932 kind of problem.

3934 -- Tactics combining classical reasoner and simplification (such as auto)

3935 are also affected by this change, because many of them rely on

3936 simp. They may sometimes diverge as well or yield a different numbers

3937 of subgoals. Try to use e.g. force, fastsimp, or safe instead of auto

3938 in case of problems. Sometimes subsequent calls to the classical

3939 reasoner will fail because a preceeding call to the simplifier too

3940 eagerly simplified the goal, e.g. deleted redundant premises.

3942 - The simplifier trace now shows the names of the applied rewrite rules

3944 - You can limit the number of recursive invocations of the simplifier

3945 during conditional rewriting (where the simplifie tries to solve the

3946 conditions before applying the rewrite rule):

3947 ML "simp_depth_limit := n"

3948 where n is an integer. Thus you can force termination where previously

3949 the simplifier would diverge.

3951 - Accepts free variables as head terms in congruence rules. Useful in Isar.

3953 - No longer aborts on failed congruence proof. Instead, the

3954 congruence is ignored.

3956 * Pure: New generic framework for extracting programs from constructive

3957 proofs. See HOL/Extraction.thy for an example instantiation, as well

3958 as HOL/Extraction for some case studies.

3960 * Pure: The main goal of the proof state is no longer shown by default, only

3961 the subgoals. This behaviour is controlled by a new flag.

3962 PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Settings -> Show Main Goal

3963 (ML: Proof.show_main_goal).

3965 * Pure: You can find all matching introduction rules for subgoal 1, i.e. all

3966 rules whose conclusion matches subgoal 1:

3967 PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Show me -> matching rules

3968 The rules are ordered by how closely they match the subgoal.

3969 In particular, rules that solve a subgoal outright are displayed first

3970 (or rather last, the way they are printed).

3971 (ML: ProofGeneral.print_intros())

3973 * Pure: New flag trace_unify_fail causes unification to print

3974 diagnostic information (PG: in trace buffer) when it fails. This is

3975 useful for figuring out why single step proofs like rule, erule or

3976 assumption failed.

3978 * Pure: Locale specifications now produce predicate definitions

3979 according to the body of text (covering assumptions modulo local

3980 definitions); predicate "loc_axioms" covers newly introduced text,

3981 while "loc" is cumulative wrt. all included locale expressions; the

3982 latter view is presented only on export into the global theory

3983 context; potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use "(open)" option to fall back

3984 on the old view without predicates;

3986 * Pure: predefined locales "var" and "struct" are useful for sharing

3987 parameters (as in CASL, for example); just specify something like

3988 ``var x + var y + struct M'' as import;

3990 * Pure: improved thms_containing: proper indexing of facts instead of

3991 raw theorems; check validity of results wrt. current name space;

3992 include local facts of proof configuration (also covers active

3993 locales), cover fixed variables in index; may use "_" in term

3994 specification; an optional limit for the number of printed facts may

3995 be given (the default is 40);

3997 * Pure: disallow duplicate fact bindings within new-style theory files

3998 (batch-mode only);

4000 * Provers: improved induct method: assumptions introduced by case

4001 "foo" are split into "foo.hyps" (from the rule) and "foo.prems" (from

4002 the goal statement); "foo" still refers to all facts collectively;

4004 * Provers: the function blast.overloaded has been removed: all constants

4005 are regarded as potentially overloaded, which improves robustness in exchange

4006 for slight decrease in efficiency;

4008 * Provers/linorder: New generic prover for transitivity reasoning over

4009 linear orders. Note: this prover is not efficient!

4011 * Isar: preview of problems to finish 'show' now produce an error

4012 rather than just a warning (in interactive mode);

4015 *** HOL ***

4017 * arith(_tac)

4019 - Produces a counter example if it cannot prove a goal.

4020 Note that the counter example may be spurious if the goal is not a formula

4021 of quantifier-free linear arithmetic.

4022 In ProofGeneral the counter example appears in the trace buffer.

4024 - Knows about div k and mod k where k is a numeral of type nat or int.

4026 - Calls full Presburger arithmetic (by Amine Chaieb) if quantifier-free

4027 linear arithmetic fails. This takes account of quantifiers and divisibility.

4028 Presburger arithmetic can also be called explicitly via presburger(_tac).

4030 * simp's arithmetic capabilities have been enhanced a bit: it now

4031 takes ~= in premises into account (by performing a case split);

4033 * simp reduces "m*(n div m) + n mod m" to n, even if the two summands

4034 are distributed over a sum of terms;

4036 * New tactic "trans_tac" and method "trans" instantiate

4037 Provers/linorder.ML for axclasses "order" and "linorder" (predicates

4038 "<=", "<" and "=").

4040 * function INCOMPATIBILITIES: Pi-sets have been redefined and moved from main

4041 HOL to Library/FuncSet; constant "Fun.op o" is now called "Fun.comp";

4043 * 'typedef' command has new option "open" to suppress the set

4044 definition;

4046 * functions Min and Max on finite sets have been introduced (theory

4047 Finite_Set);

4049 * attribute [symmetric] now works for relations as well; it turns

4050 (x,y) : R^-1 into (y,x) : R, and vice versa;

4052 * induct over a !!-quantified statement (say !!x1..xn):

4053 each "case" automatically performs "fix x1 .. xn" with exactly those names.

4055 * Map: `empty' is no longer a constant but a syntactic abbreviation for

4056 %x. None. Warning: empty_def now refers to the previously hidden definition

4057 of the empty set.

4059 * Algebra: formalization of classical algebra. Intended as base for

4060 any algebraic development in Isabelle. Currently covers group theory

4061 (up to Sylow's theorem) and ring theory (Universal Property of

4062 Univariate Polynomials). Contributions welcome;

4064 * GroupTheory: deleted, since its material has been moved to Algebra;

4066 * Complex: new directory of the complex numbers with numeric constants,

4067 nonstandard complex numbers, and some complex analysis, standard and

4068 nonstandard (Jacques Fleuriot);

4070 * HOL-Complex: new image for analysis, replacing HOL-Real and HOL-Hyperreal;

4072 * Hyperreal: introduced Gauge integration and hyperreal logarithms (Jacques

4073 Fleuriot);

4075 * Real/HahnBanach: updated and adapted to locales;

4077 * NumberTheory: added Gauss's law of quadratic reciprocity (by Avigad,

4078 Gray and Kramer);

4080 * UNITY: added the Meier-Sanders theory of progress sets;

4082 * MicroJava: bytecode verifier and lightweight bytecode verifier

4083 as abstract algorithms, instantiated to the JVM;

4085 * Bali: Java source language formalization. Type system, operational

4086 semantics, axiomatic semantics. Supported language features:

4087 classes, interfaces, objects,virtual methods, static methods,

4088 static/instance fields, arrays, access modifiers, definite

4089 assignment, exceptions.

4092 *** ZF ***

4094 * ZF/Constructible: consistency proof for AC (Gdel's constructible

4095 universe, etc.);

4097 * Main ZF: virtually all theories converted to new-style format;

4100 *** ML ***

4102 * Pure: Tactic.prove provides sane interface for internal proofs;

4103 omits the infamous "standard" operation, so this is more appropriate

4104 than prove_goalw_cterm in many situations (e.g. in simprocs);

4106 * Pure: improved error reporting of simprocs;

4108 * Provers: Simplifier.simproc(_i) provides sane interface for setting

4109 up simprocs;

4112 *** Document preparation ***

4114 * uses \par instead of \\ for line breaks in theory text. This may

4115 shift some page breaks in large documents. To get the old behaviour

4116 use \renewcommand{\isanewline}{\mbox{}\\\mbox{}} in root.tex.

4118 * minimized dependencies of isabelle.sty and isabellesym.sty on

4119 other packages

4121 * \<euro> now needs package babel/greek instead of marvosym (which

4122 broke \Rightarrow)

4124 * normal size for \<zero>...\<nine> (uses \mathbf instead of

4125 textcomp package)

4129 New in Isabelle2002 (March 2002)

4130 --------------------------------

4132 *** Document preparation ***

4134 * greatly simplified document preparation setup, including more

4135 graceful interpretation of isatool usedir -i/-d/-D options, and more

4136 instructive isatool mkdir; users should basically be able to get

4137 started with "isatool mkdir HOL Test && isatool make"; alternatively,

4138 users may run a separate document processing stage manually like this:

4139 "isatool usedir -D output HOL Test && isatool document Test/output";

4141 * theory dependency graph may now be incorporated into documents;

4142 isatool usedir -g true will produce session_graph.eps/.pdf for use

4143 with \includegraphics of LaTeX;

4145 * proper spacing of consecutive markup elements, especially text

4146 blocks after section headings;

4148 * support bold style (for single symbols only), input syntax is like

4149 this: "\<^bold>\<alpha>" or "\<^bold>A";

4151 * \<bullet> is now output as bold \cdot by default, which looks much

4152 better in printed text;

4154 * added default LaTeX bindings for \<tturnstile> and \<TTurnstile>;

4155 note that these symbols are currently unavailable in Proof General /

4156 X-Symbol; new symbols \<zero>, \<one>, ..., \<nine>, and \<euro>;

4158 * isatool latex no longer depends on changed TEXINPUTS, instead

4159 isatool document copies the Isabelle style files to the target

4160 location;

4163 *** Isar ***

4165 * Pure/Provers: improved proof by cases and induction;

4166 - 'case' command admits impromptu naming of parameters (such as

4167 "case (Suc n)");

4168 - 'induct' method divinates rule instantiation from the inductive

4169 claim; no longer requires excessive ?P bindings for proper

4170 instantiation of cases;

4171 - 'induct' method properly enumerates all possibilities of set/type

4172 rules; as a consequence facts may be also passed through *type*

4173 rules without further ado;

4174 - 'induct' method now derives symbolic cases from the *rulified*

4175 rule (before it used to rulify cases stemming from the internal

4176 atomized version); this means that the context of a non-atomic

4177 statement becomes is included in the hypothesis, avoiding the

4178 slightly cumbersome show "PROP ?case" form;

4179 - 'induct' may now use elim-style induction rules without chaining

4180 facts, using ``missing'' premises from the goal state; this allows

4181 rules stemming from inductive sets to be applied in unstructured

4182 scripts, while still benefitting from proper handling of non-atomic

4183 statements; NB: major inductive premises need to be put first, all

4184 the rest of the goal is passed through the induction;

4185 - 'induct' proper support for mutual induction involving non-atomic

4186 rule statements (uses the new concept of simultaneous goals, see

4187 below);

4188 - append all possible rule selections, but only use the first

4189 success (no backtracking);

4190 - removed obsolete "(simplified)" and "(stripped)" options of methods;

4191 - undeclared rule case names default to numbers 1, 2, 3, ...;

4192 - added 'print_induct_rules' (covered by help item in recent Proof

4193 General versions);

4194 - moved induct/cases attributes to Pure, methods to Provers;

4195 - generic method setup instantiated for FOL and HOL;

4197 * Pure: support multiple simultaneous goal statements, for example

4198 "have a: A and b: B" (same for 'theorem' etc.); being a pure

4199 meta-level mechanism, this acts as if several individual goals had

4200 been stated separately; in particular common proof methods need to be

4201 repeated in order to cover all claims; note that a single elimination

4202 step is *not* sufficient to establish the two conjunctions, so this

4203 fails:

4205 assume "A & B" then have A and B .. (*".." fails*)

4207 better use "obtain" in situations as above; alternative refer to

4208 multi-step methods like 'auto', 'simp_all', 'blast+' etc.;

4210 * Pure: proper integration with ``locales''; unlike the original

4211 version by Florian Kammller, Isar locales package high-level proof

4212 contexts rather than raw logical ones (e.g. we admit to include

4213 attributes everywhere); operations on locales include merge and

4214 rename; support for implicit arguments (``structures''); simultaneous

4215 type-inference over imports and text; see also HOL/ex/Locales.thy for

4216 some examples;

4218 * Pure: the following commands have been ``localized'', supporting a

4219 target locale specification "(in name)": 'lemma', 'theorem',

4220 'corollary', 'lemmas', 'theorems', 'declare'; the results will be

4221 stored both within the locale and at the theory level (exported and

4222 qualified by the locale name);

4224 * Pure: theory goals may now be specified in ``long'' form, with

4225 ad-hoc contexts consisting of arbitrary locale elements. for example

4226 ``lemma foo: fixes x assumes "A x" shows "B x"'' (local syntax and

4227 definitions may be given, too); the result is a meta-level rule with

4228 the context elements being discharged in the obvious way;

4230 * Pure: new proof command 'using' allows to augment currently used

4231 facts after a goal statement ('using' is syntactically analogous to

4232 'apply', but acts on the goal's facts only); this allows chained facts

4233 to be separated into parts given before and after a claim, as in

4234 ``from a and b have C using d and e <proof>'';

4236 * Pure: renamed "antecedent" case to "rule_context";

4238 * Pure: new 'judgment' command records explicit information about the

4239 object-logic embedding (used by several tools internally); no longer

4240 use hard-wired "Trueprop";

4242 * Pure: added 'corollary' command;

4244 * Pure: fixed 'token_translation' command;

4246 * Pure: removed obsolete 'exported' attribute;

4248 * Pure: dummy pattern "_" in is/let is now automatically lifted over

4249 bound variables: "ALL x. P x --> Q x" (is "ALL x. _ --> ?C x")

4250 supersedes more cumbersome ... (is "ALL x. _ x --> ?C x");

4252 * Pure: method 'atomize' presents local goal premises as object-level

4253 statements (atomic meta-level propositions); setup controlled via

4254 rewrite rules declarations of 'atomize' attribute; example

4255 application: 'induct' method with proper rule statements in improper

4256 proof *scripts*;

4258 * Pure: emulation of instantiation tactics (rule_tac, cut_tac, etc.)

4259 now consider the syntactic context of assumptions, giving a better

4260 chance to get type-inference of the arguments right (this is

4261 especially important for locales);

4263 * Pure: "sorry" no longer requires quick_and_dirty in interactive

4264 mode;

4266 * Pure/obtain: the formal conclusion "thesis", being marked as

4267 ``internal'', may no longer be reference directly in the text;

4268 potential INCOMPATIBILITY, may need to use "?thesis" in rare

4269 situations;

4271 * Pure: generic 'sym' attribute which declares a rule both as pure

4272 'elim?' and for the 'symmetric' operation;

4274 * Pure: marginal comments ``--'' may now occur just anywhere in the

4275 text; the fixed correlation with particular command syntax has been

4276 discontinued;

4278 * Pure: new method 'rules' is particularly well-suited for proof

4279 search in intuitionistic logic; a bit slower than 'blast' or 'fast',

4280 but often produces more compact proof terms with less detours;

4282 * Pure/Provers/classical: simplified integration with pure rule

4283 attributes and methods; the classical "intro?/elim?/dest?"

4284 declarations coincide with the pure ones; the "rule" method no longer

4285 includes classically swapped intros; "intro" and "elim" methods no

4286 longer pick rules from the context; also got rid of ML declarations

4287 AddXIs/AddXEs/AddXDs; all of this has some potential for

4288 INCOMPATIBILITY;

4290 * Provers/classical: attribute 'swapped' produces classical inversions

4291 of introduction rules;

4293 * Provers/simplifier: 'simplified' attribute may refer to explicit

4294 rules instead of full simplifier context; 'iff' attribute handles

4295 conditional rules;

4297 * HOL: 'typedef' now allows alternative names for Rep/Abs morphisms;

4299 * HOL: 'recdef' now fails on unfinished automated proofs, use

4300 "(permissive)" option to recover old behavior;

4302 * HOL: 'inductive' no longer features separate (collective) attributes

4303 for 'intros' (was found too confusing);

4305 * HOL: properly declared induction rules less_induct and

4306 wf_induct_rule;

4309 *** HOL ***

4311 * HOL: moved over to sane numeral syntax; the new policy is as

4312 follows:

4314 - 0 and 1 are polymorphic constants, which are defined on any

4315 numeric type (nat, int, real etc.);

4317 - 2, 3, 4, ... and -1, -2, -3, ... are polymorphic numerals, based

4318 binary representation internally;

4320 - type nat has special constructor Suc, and generally prefers Suc 0

4321 over 1::nat and Suc (Suc 0) over 2::nat;

4323 This change may cause significant problems of INCOMPATIBILITY; here

4324 are some hints on converting existing sources:

4326 - due to the new "num" token, "-0" and "-1" etc. are now atomic

4327 entities, so expressions involving "-" (unary or binary minus) need

4328 to be spaced properly;

4330 - existing occurrences of "1" may need to be constraint "1::nat" or

4331 even replaced by Suc 0; similar for old "2";

4333 - replace "#nnn" by "nnn", and "#-nnn" by "-nnn";

4335 - remove all special provisions on numerals in proofs;

4337 * HOL: simp rules nat_number expand numerals on nat to Suc/0

4338 representation (depends on bin_arith_simps in the default context);

4340 * HOL: symbolic syntax for x^2 (numeral 2);

4342 * HOL: the class of all HOL types is now called "type" rather than

4343 "term"; INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt references to this type class

4344 in axclass/classes, instance/arities, and (usually rare) occurrences

4345 in typings (of consts etc.); internally the class is called

4346 "HOL.type", ML programs should refer to HOLogic.typeS;

4348 * HOL/record package improvements:

4349 - new derived operations "fields" to build a partial record section,

4350 "extend" to promote a fixed record to a record scheme, and

4351 "truncate" for the reverse; cf. theorems "xxx.defs", which are *not*

4352 declared as simp by default;

4353 - shared operations ("more", "fields", etc.) now need to be always

4354 qualified) --- potential INCOMPATIBILITY;

4355 - removed "make_scheme" operations (use "make" with "extend") --

4356 INCOMPATIBILITY;

4357 - removed "more" class (simply use "term") -- INCOMPATIBILITY;

4358 - provides cases/induct rules for use with corresponding Isar

4359 methods (for concrete records, record schemes, concrete more

4360 parts, and schematic more parts -- in that order);

4361 - internal definitions directly based on a light-weight abstract

4362 theory of product types over typedef rather than datatype;

4364 * HOL: generic code generator for generating executable ML code from

4365 specifications; specific support for HOL constructs such as inductive

4366 datatypes and sets, as well as recursive functions; can be invoked

4367 via 'generate_code' theory section;

4369 * HOL: canonical cases/induct rules for n-tuples (n = 3..7);

4371 * HOL: consolidated and renamed several theories. In particular:

4372 Ord.thy has been absorbed into HOL.thy

4373 String.thy has been absorbed into List.thy

4375 * HOL: concrete setsum syntax "\<Sum>i:A. b" == "setsum (%i. b) A"

4376 (beware of argument permutation!);

4378 * HOL: linorder_less_split superseded by linorder_cases;

4380 * HOL/List: "nodups" renamed to "distinct";

4382 * HOL: added "The" definite description operator; move Hilbert's "Eps"

4383 to peripheral theory "Hilbert_Choice"; some INCOMPATIBILITIES:

4384 - Ex_def has changed, now need to use some_eq_ex

4386 * HOL: made split_all_tac safe; EXISTING PROOFS MAY FAIL OR LOOP, so

4387 in this (rare) case use:

4389 delSWrapper "split_all_tac"

4390 addSbefore ("unsafe_split_all_tac", unsafe_split_all_tac)

4392 * HOL: added safe wrapper "split_conv_tac" to claset; EXISTING PROOFS

4393 MAY FAIL;

4395 * HOL: introduced f^n = f o ... o f; warning: due to the limits of

4396 Isabelle's type classes, ^ on functions and relations has too general

4397 a domain, namely ('a * 'b) set and 'a => 'b; this means that it may be

4398 necessary to attach explicit type constraints;

4400 * HOL/Relation: the prefix name of the infix "O" has been changed from

4401 "comp" to "rel_comp"; INCOMPATIBILITY: a few theorems have been

4402 renamed accordingly (eg "compI" -> "rel_compI").

4404 * HOL: syntax translations now work properly with numerals and records

4405 expressions;

4407 * HOL: bounded abstraction now uses syntax "%" / "\<lambda>" instead

4408 of "lam" -- INCOMPATIBILITY;

4410 * HOL: got rid of some global declarations (potential INCOMPATIBILITY

4411 for ML tools): const "()" renamed "Product_Type.Unity", type "unit"

4412 renamed "Product_Type.unit";

4414 * HOL: renamed rtrancl_into_rtrancl2 to converse_rtrancl_into_rtrancl

4416 * HOL: removed obsolete theorem "optionE" (use "option.exhaust", or

4417 the "cases" method);

4419 * HOL/GroupTheory: group theory examples including Sylow's theorem (by

4420 Florian Kammller);

4422 * HOL/IMP: updated and converted to new-style theory format; several

4423 parts turned into readable document, with proper Isar proof texts and

4424 some explanations (by Gerwin Klein);

4426 * HOL-Real: added Complex_Numbers (by Gertrud Bauer);

4428 * HOL-Hyperreal is now a logic image;

4431 *** HOLCF ***

4433 * Isar: consts/constdefs supports mixfix syntax for continuous

4434 operations;

4436 * Isar: domain package adapted to new-style theory format, e.g. see

4437 HOLCF/ex/Dnat.thy;

4439 * theory Lift: proper use of rep_datatype lift instead of ML hacks --

4440 potential INCOMPATIBILITY; now use plain induct_tac instead of former

4441 lift.induct_tac, always use UU instead of Undef;

4443 * HOLCF/IMP: updated and converted to new-style theory;

4446 *** ZF ***

4448 * Isar: proper integration of logic-specific tools and packages,

4449 including theory commands '(co)inductive', '(co)datatype',

4450 'rep_datatype', 'inductive_cases', as well as methods 'ind_cases',

4451 'induct_tac', 'case_tac', and 'typecheck' (with attribute 'TC');

4453 * theory Main no longer includes AC; for the Axiom of Choice, base

4454 your theory on Main_ZFC;

4456 * the integer library now covers quotients and remainders, with many

4457 laws relating division to addition, multiplication, etc.;

4459 * ZF/UNITY: Chandy and Misra's UNITY is now available in ZF, giving a

4460 typeless version of the formalism;

4462 * ZF/AC, Coind, IMP, Resid: updated and converted to new-style theory

4463 format;

4465 * ZF/Induct: new directory for examples of inductive definitions,

4466 including theory Multiset for multiset orderings; converted to

4467 new-style theory format;

4469 * ZF: many new theorems about lists, ordinals, etc.;

4472 *** General ***

4474 * Pure/kernel: meta-level proof terms (by Stefan Berghofer); reference

4475 variable proof controls level of detail: 0 = no proofs (only oracle

4476 dependencies), 1 = lemma dependencies, 2 = compact proof terms; see

4477 also ref manual for further ML interfaces;

4479 * Pure/axclass: removed obsolete ML interface

4480 goal_subclass/goal_arity;

4482 * Pure/syntax: new token syntax "num" for plain numerals (without "#"

4483 of "xnum"); potential INCOMPATIBILITY, since -0, -1 etc. are now

4484 separate tokens, so expressions involving minus need to be spaced

4485 properly;

4487 * Pure/syntax: support non-oriented infixes, using keyword "infix"

4488 rather than "infixl" or "infixr";

4490 * Pure/syntax: concrete syntax for dummy type variables admits genuine

4491 sort constraint specifications in type inference; e.g. "x::_::foo"

4492 ensures that the type of "x" is of sort "foo" (but not necessarily a

4493 type variable);

4495 * Pure/syntax: print modes "type_brackets" and "no_type_brackets"

4496 control output of nested => (types); the default behavior is

4497 "type_brackets";

4499 * Pure/syntax: builtin parse translation for "_constify" turns valued

4500 tokens into AST constants;

4502 * Pure/syntax: prefer later declarations of translations and print

4503 translation functions; potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to reverse

4504 multiple declarations for same syntax element constant;

4506 * Pure/show_hyps reset by default (in accordance to existing Isar

4507 practice);

4509 * Provers/classical: renamed addaltern to addafter, addSaltern to

4510 addSafter;

4512 * Provers/clasimp: ``iff'' declarations now handle conditional rules

4513 as well;

4515 * system: tested support for MacOS X; should be able to get Isabelle +

4516 Proof General to work in a plain Terminal after installing Poly/ML

4517 (e.g. from the Isabelle distribution area) and GNU bash alone

4518 (e.g. from http://www.apple.com); full X11, XEmacs and X-Symbol

4519 support requires further installations, e.g. from

4520 http://fink.sourceforge.net/);

4522 * system: support Poly/ML 4.1.1 (able to manage larger heaps);

4524 * system: reduced base memory usage by Poly/ML (approx. 20 MB instead

4525 of 40 MB), cf. ML_OPTIONS;

4527 * system: Proof General keywords specification is now part of the

4528 Isabelle distribution (see etc/isar-keywords.el);

4530 * system: support for persistent Proof General sessions (refrain from

4531 outdating all loaded theories on startup); user may create writable

4532 logic images like this: ``isabelle -q HOL Test'';

4534 * system: smart selection of Isabelle process versus Isabelle

4535 interface, accommodates case-insensitive file systems (e.g. HFS+); may

4536 run both "isabelle" and "Isabelle" even if file names are badly

4537 damaged (executable inspects the case of the first letter of its own

4538 name); added separate "isabelle-process" and "isabelle-interface";

4540 * system: refrain from any attempt at filtering input streams; no

4541 longer support ``8bit'' encoding of old isabelle font, instead proper

4542 iso-latin characters may now be used; the related isatools

4543 "symbolinput" and "nonascii" have disappeared as well;

4545 * system: removed old "xterm" interface (the print modes "xterm" and

4546 "xterm_color" are still available for direct use in a suitable

4547 terminal);

4551 New in Isabelle99-2 (February 2001)

4552 -----------------------------------

4554 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES ***

4556 * HOL: please note that theories in the Library and elsewhere often use the

4557 new-style (Isar) format; to refer to their theorems in an ML script you must

4558 bind them to ML identifers by e.g. val thm_name = thm "thm_name";

4560 * HOL: inductive package no longer splits induction rule aggressively,

4561 but only as far as specified by the introductions given; the old

4562 format may be recovered via ML function complete_split_rule or attribute

4563 'split_rule (complete)';

4565 * HOL: induct renamed to lfp_induct, lfp_Tarski to lfp_unfold,

4566 gfp_Tarski to gfp_unfold;

4568 * HOL: contrapos, contrapos2 renamed to contrapos_nn, contrapos_pp;

4570 * HOL: infix "dvd" now has priority 50 rather than 70 (because it is a

4571 relation); infix "^^" has been renamed "``"; infix "``" has been

4572 renamed "`"; "univalent" has been renamed "single_valued";

4574 * HOL/Real: "rinv" and "hrinv" replaced by overloaded "inverse"

4575 operation;

4577 * HOLCF: infix "`" has been renamed "$"; the symbol syntax is \<cdot>;

4579 * Isar: 'obtain' no longer declares "that" fact as simp/intro;

4581 * Isar/HOL: method 'induct' now handles non-atomic goals; as a

4582 consequence, it is no longer monotonic wrt. the local goal context

4583 (which is now passed through the inductive cases);

4585 * Document preparation: renamed standard symbols \<ll> to \<lless> and

4586 \<gg> to \<ggreater>;

4589 *** Document preparation ***

4591 * \isabellestyle{NAME} selects version of Isabelle output (currently

4592 available: are "it" for near math-mode best-style output, "sl" for

4593 slanted text style, and "tt" for plain type-writer; if no

4594 \isabellestyle command is given, output is according to slanted

4595 type-writer);

4597 * support sub/super scripts (for single symbols only), input syntax is

4598 like this: "A\<^sup>*" or "A\<^sup>\<star>";

4600 * some more standard symbols; see Appendix A of the system manual for

4601 the complete list of symbols defined in isabellesym.sty;

4603 * improved isabelle style files; more abstract symbol implementation

4604 (should now use \isamath{...} and \isatext{...} in custom symbol

4605 definitions);

4607 * antiquotation @{goals} and @{subgoals} for output of *dynamic* goals

4608 state; Note that presentation of goal states does not conform to

4609 actual human-readable proof documents. Please do not include goal

4610 states into document output unless you really know what you are doing!

4612 * proper indentation of antiquoted output with proportional LaTeX

4613 fonts;

4615 * no_document ML operator temporarily disables LaTeX document

4616 generation;

4618 * isatool unsymbolize tunes sources for plain ASCII communication;

4621 *** Isar ***

4623 * Pure: Isar now suffers initial goal statements to contain unbound

4624 schematic variables (this does not conform to actual readable proof

4625 documents, due to unpredictable outcome and non-compositional proof

4626 checking); users who know what they are doing may use schematic goals

4627 for Prolog-style synthesis of proven results;

4629 * Pure: assumption method (an implicit finishing) now handles actual

4630 rules as well;

4632 * Pure: improved 'obtain' --- moved to Pure, insert "that" into

4633 initial goal, declare "that" only as Pure intro (only for single

4634 steps); the "that" rule assumption may now be involved in implicit

4635 finishing, thus ".." becomes a feasible for trivial obtains;

4637 * Pure: default proof step now includes 'intro_classes'; thus trivial

4638 instance proofs may be performed by "..";

4640 * Pure: ?thesis / ?this / "..." now work for pure meta-level

4641 statements as well;

4643 * Pure: more robust selection of calculational rules;

4645 * Pure: the builtin notion of 'finished' goal now includes the ==-refl

4646 rule (as well as the assumption rule);

4648 * Pure: 'thm_deps' command visualizes dependencies of theorems and

4649 lemmas, using the graph browser tool;

4651 * Pure: predict failure of "show" in interactive mode;

4653 * Pure: 'thms_containing' now takes actual terms as arguments;

4655 * HOL: improved method 'induct' --- now handles non-atomic goals

4656 (potential INCOMPATIBILITY); tuned error handling;

4658 * HOL: cases and induct rules now provide explicit hints about the

4659 number of facts to be consumed (0 for "type" and 1 for "set" rules);

4660 any remaining facts are inserted into the goal verbatim;

4662 * HOL: local contexts (aka cases) may now contain term bindings as

4663 well; the 'cases' and 'induct' methods new provide a ?case binding for

4664 the result to be shown in each case;

4666 * HOL: added 'recdef_tc' command;

4668 * isatool convert assists in eliminating legacy ML scripts;

4671 *** HOL ***

4673 * HOL/Library: a collection of generic theories to be used together

4674 with main HOL; the theory loader path already includes this directory

4675 by default; the following existing theories have been moved here:

4676 HOL/Induct/Multiset, HOL/Induct/Acc (as Accessible_Part), HOL/While

4677 (as While_Combinator), HOL/Lex/Prefix (as List_Prefix);

4679 * HOL/Unix: "Some aspects of Unix file-system security", a typical

4680 modelling and verification task performed in Isabelle/HOL +

4681 Isabelle/Isar + Isabelle document preparation (by Markus Wenzel).

4683 * HOL/Algebra: special summation operator SUM no longer exists, it has

4684 been replaced by setsum; infix 'assoc' now has priority 50 (like

4685 'dvd'); axiom 'one_not_zero' has been moved from axclass 'ring' to

4686 'domain', this makes the theory consistent with mathematical

4687 literature;

4689 * HOL basics: added overloaded operations "inverse" and "divide"

4690 (infix "/"), syntax for generic "abs" operation, generic summation

4691 operator \<Sum>;

4693 * HOL/typedef: simplified package, provide more useful rules (see also

4694 HOL/subset.thy);

4696 * HOL/datatype: induction rule for arbitrarily branching datatypes is

4697 now expressed as a proper nested rule (old-style tactic scripts may

4698 require atomize_strip_tac to cope with non-atomic premises);

4700 * HOL: renamed theory "Prod" to "Product_Type", renamed "split" rule

4701 to "split_conv" (old name still available for compatibility);

4703 * HOL: improved concrete syntax for strings (e.g. allows translation

4704 rules with string literals);

4706 * HOL-Real-Hyperreal: this extends HOL-Real with the hyperreals

4707 and Fleuriot's mechanization of analysis, including the transcendental

4708 functions for the reals;

4710 * HOL/Real, HOL/Hyperreal: improved arithmetic simplification;

4713 *** CTT ***

4715 * CTT: x-symbol support for Pi, Sigma, -->, : (membership); note that

4716 "lam" is displayed as TWO lambda-symbols

4718 * CTT: theory Main now available, containing everything (that is, Bool

4719 and Arith);

4722 *** General ***

4724 * Pure: the Simplifier has been implemented properly as a derived rule

4725 outside of the actual kernel (at last!); the overall performance

4726 penalty in practical applications is about 50%, while reliability of

4727 the Isabelle inference kernel has been greatly improved;

4729 * print modes "brackets" and "no_brackets" control output of nested =>

4730 (types) and ==> (props); the default behaviour is "brackets";

4732 * Provers: fast_tac (and friends) now handle actual object-logic rules

4733 as assumptions as well;

4735 * system: support Poly/ML 4.0;

4737 * system: isatool install handles KDE version 1 or 2;

4741 New in Isabelle99-1 (October 2000)

4742 ----------------------------------

4744 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES ***

4746 * HOL: simplification of natural numbers is much changed; to partly

4747 recover the old behaviour (e.g. to prevent n+n rewriting to #2*n)

4748 issue the following ML commands:

4750 Delsimprocs Nat_Numeral_Simprocs.cancel_numerals;

4751 Delsimprocs [Nat_Numeral_Simprocs.combine_numerals];

4753 * HOL: simplification no longer dives into case-expressions; this is

4754 controlled by "t.weak_case_cong" for each datatype t;

4756 * HOL: nat_less_induct renamed to less_induct;

4758 * HOL: systematic renaming of the SOME (Eps) rules, may use isatool

4759 fixsome to patch .thy and .ML sources automatically;

4761 select_equality -> some_equality

4762 select_eq_Ex -> some_eq_ex

4763 selectI2EX -> someI2_ex

4764 selectI2 -> someI2

4765 selectI -> someI

4766 select1_equality -> some1_equality

4767 Eps_sym_eq -> some_sym_eq_trivial

4768 Eps_eq -> some_eq_trivial

4770 * HOL: exhaust_tac on datatypes superceded by new generic case_tac;

4772 * HOL: removed obsolete theorem binding expand_if (refer to split_if

4773 instead);

4775 * HOL: the recursion equations generated by 'recdef' are now called

4776 f.simps instead of f.rules;

4778 * HOL: qed_spec_mp now also handles bounded ALL as well;

4780 * HOL: 0 is now overloaded, so the type constraint ":: nat" may

4781 sometimes be needed;

4783 * HOL: the constant for "f``x" is now "image" rather than "op ``";

4785 * HOL: the constant for "f-``x" is now "vimage" rather than "op -``";

4787 * HOL: the disjoint sum is now "<+>" instead of "Plus"; the cartesian

4788 product is now "<*>" instead of "Times"; the lexicographic product is

4789 now "<*lex*>" instead of "**";

4791 * HOL: theory Sexp is now in HOL/Induct examples (it used to be part

4792 of main HOL, but was unused); better use HOL's datatype package;

4794 * HOL: removed "symbols" syntax for constant "override" of theory Map;

4795 the old syntax may be recovered as follows:

4797 syntax (symbols)

4798 override :: "('a ~=> 'b) => ('a ~=> 'b) => ('a ~=> 'b)"

4799 (infixl "\\<oplus>" 100)

4801 * HOL/Real: "rabs" replaced by overloaded "abs" function;

4803 * HOL/ML: even fewer consts are declared as global (see theories Ord,

4804 Lfp, Gfp, WF); this only affects ML packages that refer to const names

4805 internally;

4807 * HOL and ZF: syntax for quotienting wrt an equivalence relation

4808 changed from A/r to A//r;

4810 * ZF: new treatment of arithmetic (nat & int) may break some old

4811 proofs;

4813 * Isar: renamed some attributes (RS -> THEN, simplify -> simplified,

4814 rulify -> rule_format, elimify -> elim_format, ...);

4816 * Isar/Provers: intro/elim/dest attributes changed; renamed

4817 intro/intro!/intro!! flags to intro!/intro/intro? (in most cases, one

4818 should have to change intro!! to intro? only); replaced "delrule" by

4819 "rule del";

4821 * Isar/HOL: renamed "intrs" to "intros" in inductive definitions;

4823 * Provers: strengthened force_tac by using new first_best_tac;

4825 * LaTeX document preparation: several changes of isabelle.sty (see

4826 lib/texinputs);

4829 *** Document preparation ***

4831 * formal comments (text blocks etc.) in new-style theories may now

4832 contain antiquotations of thm/prop/term/typ/text to be presented

4833 according to latex print mode; concrete syntax is like this:

4834 @{term[show_types] "f(x) = a + x"};

4836 * isatool mkdir provides easy setup of Isabelle session directories,

4837 including proper document sources;

4839 * generated LaTeX sources are now deleted after successful run

4840 (isatool document -c); may retain a copy somewhere else via -D option

4841 of isatool usedir;

4843 * isatool usedir -D now lets isatool latex -o sty update the Isabelle

4844 style files, achieving self-contained LaTeX sources and simplifying

4845 LaTeX debugging;

4847 * old-style theories now produce (crude) LaTeX output as well;

4849 * browser info session directories are now self-contained (may be put

4850 on WWW server seperately); improved graphs of nested sessions; removed

4851 graph for 'all sessions';

4853 * several improvements in isabelle style files; \isabellestyle{it}

4854 produces fake math mode output; \isamarkupheader is now \section by

4855 default; see lib/texinputs/isabelle.sty etc.;

4858 *** Isar ***

4860 * Isar/Pure: local results and corresponding term bindings are now

4861 subject to Hindley-Milner polymorphism (similar to ML); this

4862 accommodates incremental type-inference very nicely;

4864 * Isar/Pure: new derived language element 'obtain' supports

4865 generalized existence reasoning;

4867 * Isar/Pure: new calculational elements 'moreover' and 'ultimately'

4868 support accumulation of results, without applying any rules yet;

4869 useful to collect intermediate results without explicit name

4870 references, and for use with transitivity rules with more than 2

4871 premises;

4873 * Isar/Pure: scalable support for case-analysis type proofs: new

4874 'case' language element refers to local contexts symbolically, as

4875 produced by certain proof methods; internally, case names are attached

4876 to theorems as "tags";

4878 * Isar/Pure: theory command 'hide' removes declarations from

4879 class/type/const name spaces;

4881 * Isar/Pure: theory command 'defs' supports option "(overloaded)" to

4882 indicate potential overloading;

4884 * Isar/Pure: changed syntax of local blocks from {{ }} to { };

4886 * Isar/Pure: syntax of sorts made 'inner', i.e. have to write

4887 "{a,b,c}" instead of {a,b,c};

4889 * Isar/Pure now provides its own version of intro/elim/dest

4890 attributes; useful for building new logics, but beware of confusion

4891 with the version in Provers/classical;

4893 * Isar/Pure: the local context of (non-atomic) goals is provided via

4894 case name 'antecedent';

4896 * Isar/Pure: removed obsolete 'transfer' attribute (transfer of thms

4897 to the current context is now done automatically);

4899 * Isar/Pure: theory command 'method_setup' provides a simple interface

4900 for definining proof methods in ML;

4902 * Isar/Provers: intro/elim/dest attributes changed; renamed

4903 intro/intro!/intro!! flags to intro!/intro/intro? (INCOMPATIBILITY, in

4904 most cases, one should have to change intro!! to intro? only);

4905 replaced "delrule" by "rule del";

4907 * Isar/Provers: new 'hypsubst' method, plain 'subst' method and

4908 'symmetric' attribute (the latter supercedes [RS sym]);

4910 * Isar/Provers: splitter support (via 'split' attribute and 'simp'

4911 method modifier); 'simp' method: 'only:' modifier removes loopers as

4912 well (including splits);

4914 * Isar/Provers: Simplifier and Classical methods now support all kind

4915 of modifiers used in the past, including 'cong', 'iff', etc.

4917 * Isar/Provers: added 'fastsimp' and 'clarsimp' methods (combination

4918 of Simplifier and Classical reasoner);

4920 * Isar/HOL: new proof method 'cases' and improved version of 'induct'

4921 now support named cases; major packages (inductive, datatype, primrec,

4922 recdef) support case names and properly name parameters;

4924 * Isar/HOL: new transitivity rules for substitution in inequalities --

4925 monotonicity conditions are extracted to be proven at end of

4926 calculations;

4928 * Isar/HOL: removed 'case_split' thm binding, should use 'cases' proof

4929 method anyway;

4931 * Isar/HOL: removed old expand_if = split_if; theorems if_splits =

4932 split_if split_if_asm; datatype package provides theorems foo.splits =

4933 foo.split foo.split_asm for each datatype;

4935 * Isar/HOL: tuned inductive package, rename "intrs" to "intros"

4936 (potential INCOMPATIBILITY), emulation of mk_cases feature for proof

4937 scripts: new 'inductive_cases' command and 'ind_cases' method; (Note:

4938 use "(cases (simplified))" method in proper proof texts);

4940 * Isar/HOL: added global 'arith_split' attribute for 'arith' method;

4942 * Isar: names of theorems etc. may be natural numbers as well;

4944 * Isar: 'pr' command: optional arguments for goals_limit and

4945 ProofContext.prems_limit; no longer prints theory contexts, but only

4946 proof states;

4948 * Isar: diagnostic commands 'pr', 'thm', 'prop', 'term', 'typ' admit

4949 additional print modes to be specified; e.g. "pr(latex)" will print

4950 proof state according to the Isabelle LaTeX style;

4952 * Isar: improved support for emulating tactic scripts, including proof

4953 methods 'rule_tac' etc., 'cut_tac', 'thin_tac', 'subgoal_tac',

4954 'rename_tac', 'rotate_tac', 'tactic', and 'case_tac' / 'induct_tac'

4955 (for HOL datatypes);

4957 * Isar: simplified (more robust) goal selection of proof methods: 1st

4958 goal, all goals, or explicit goal specifier (tactic emulation); thus

4959 'proof method scripts' have to be in depth-first order;

4961 * Isar: tuned 'let' syntax: replaced 'as' keyword by 'and';

4963 * Isar: removed 'help' command, which hasn't been too helpful anyway;

4964 should instead use individual commands for printing items

4965 (print_commands, print_methods etc.);

4967 * Isar: added 'nothing' --- the empty list of theorems;

4970 *** HOL ***

4972 * HOL/MicroJava: formalization of a fragment of Java, together with a

4973 corresponding virtual machine and a specification of its bytecode

4974 verifier and a lightweight bytecode verifier, including proofs of

4975 type-safety; by Gerwin Klein, Tobias Nipkow, David von Oheimb, and

4976 Cornelia Pusch (see also the homepage of project Bali at

4977 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/Bali/);

4979 * HOL/Algebra: new theory of rings and univariate polynomials, by

4980 Clemens Ballarin;

4982 * HOL/NumberTheory: fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic, Chinese

4983 Remainder Theorem, Fermat/Euler Theorem, Wilson's Theorem, by Thomas M

4984 Rasmussen;

4986 * HOL/Lattice: fundamental concepts of lattice theory and order

4987 structures, including duals, properties of bounds versus algebraic

4988 laws, lattice operations versus set-theoretic ones, the Knaster-Tarski

4989 Theorem for complete lattices etc.; may also serve as a demonstration

4990 for abstract algebraic reasoning using axiomatic type classes, and

4991 mathematics-style proof in Isabelle/Isar; by Markus Wenzel;

4993 * HOL/Prolog: a (bare-bones) implementation of Lambda-Prolog, by David

4994 von Oheimb;

4996 * HOL/IMPP: extension of IMP with local variables and mutually

4997 recursive procedures, by David von Oheimb;

4999 * HOL/Lambda: converted into new-style theory and document;

5001 * HOL/ex/Multiquote: example of multiple nested quotations and

5002 anti-quotations -- basically a generalized version of de-Bruijn

5003 representation; very useful in avoiding lifting of operations;

5005 * HOL/record: added general record equality rule to simpset; fixed

5006 select-update simplification procedure to handle extended records as

5007 well; admit "r" as field name;

5009 * HOL: 0 is now overloaded over the new sort "zero", allowing its use with

5010 other numeric types and also as the identity of groups, rings, etc.;

5012 * HOL: new axclass plus_ac0 for addition with the AC-laws and 0 as identity.

5013 Types nat and int belong to this axclass;

5015 * HOL: greatly improved simplification involving numerals of type nat, int, real:

5016 (i + #8 + j) = Suc k simplifies to #7 + (i + j) = k

5017 i*j + k + j*#3*i simplifies to #4*(i*j) + k

5018 two terms #m*u and #n*u are replaced by #(m+n)*u

5019 (where #m, #n and u can implicitly be 1; this is simproc combine_numerals)

5020 and the term/formula #m*u+x ~~ #n*u+y simplifies simplifies to #(m-n)+x ~~ y

5021 or x ~~ #(n-m)+y, where ~~ is one of = < <= or - (simproc cancel_numerals);

5023 * HOL: meson_tac is available (previously in ex/meson.ML); it is a

5024 powerful prover for predicate logic but knows nothing of clasets; see

5025 ex/mesontest.ML and ex/mesontest2.ML for example applications;

5027 * HOL: new version of "case_tac" subsumes both boolean case split and

5028 "exhaust_tac" on datatypes; INCOMPATIBILITY: exhaust_tac no longer

5029 exists, may define val exhaust_tac = case_tac for ad-hoc portability;

5031 * HOL: simplification no longer dives into case-expressions: only the

5032 selector expression is simplified, but not the remaining arms; to

5033 enable full simplification of case-expressions for datatype t, you may

5034 remove t.weak_case_cong from the simpset, either globally (Delcongs

5035 [thm"t.weak_case_cong"];) or locally (delcongs [...]).

5037 * HOL/recdef: the recursion equations generated by 'recdef' for

5038 function 'f' are now called f.simps instead of f.rules; if all

5039 termination conditions are proved automatically, these simplification

5040 rules are added to the simpset, as in primrec; rules may be named

5041 individually as well, resulting in a separate list of theorems for

5042 each equation;

5044 * HOL/While is a new theory that provides a while-combinator. It

5045 permits the definition of tail-recursive functions without the

5046 provision of a termination measure. The latter is necessary once the

5047 invariant proof rule for while is applied.

5049 * HOL: new (overloaded) notation for the set of elements below/above

5050 some element: {..u}, {..u(}, {l..}, {)l..}. See theory SetInterval.

5052 * HOL: theorems impI, allI, ballI bound as "strip";

5054 * HOL: new tactic induct_thm_tac: thm -> string -> int -> tactic

5055 induct_tac th "x1 ... xn" expects th to have a conclusion of the form

5056 P v1 ... vn and abbreviates res_inst_tac [("v1","x1"),...,("vn","xn")] th;

5058 * HOL/Real: "rabs" replaced by overloaded "abs" function;

5060 * HOL: theory Sexp now in HOL/Induct examples (it used to be part of

5061 main HOL, but was unused);

5063 * HOL: fewer consts declared as global (e.g. have to refer to

5064 "Lfp.lfp" instead of "lfp" internally; affects ML packages only);

5066 * HOL: tuned AST representation of nested pairs, avoiding bogus output

5067 in case of overlap with user translations (e.g. judgements over

5068 tuples); (note that the underlying logical represenation is still

5069 bogus);

5072 *** ZF ***

5074 * ZF: simplification automatically cancels common terms in arithmetic

5075 expressions over nat and int;

5077 * ZF: new treatment of nat to minimize type-checking: all operators

5078 coerce their operands to a natural number using the function natify,

5079 making the algebraic laws unconditional;

5081 * ZF: as above, for int: operators coerce their operands to an integer

5082 using the function intify;

5084 * ZF: the integer library now contains many of the usual laws for the

5085 orderings, including $<=, and monotonicity laws for $+ and $*;

5087 * ZF: new example ZF/ex/NatSum to demonstrate integer arithmetic

5088 simplification;

5090 * FOL and ZF: AddIffs now available, giving theorems of the form P<->Q

5091 to the simplifier and classical reasoner simultaneously;

5094 *** General ***

5096 * Provers: blast_tac now handles actual object-logic rules as

5097 assumptions; note that auto_tac uses blast_tac internally as well;

5099 * Provers: new functions rulify/rulify_no_asm: thm -> thm for turning

5100 outer -->/All/Ball into ==>/!!; qed_spec_mp now uses rulify_no_asm;

5102 * Provers: delrules now handles destruct rules as well (no longer need

5103 explicit make_elim);

5105 * Provers: Blast_tac now warns of and ignores "weak elimination rules" e.g.

5106 [| inj ?f; ?f ?x = ?f ?y; ?x = ?y ==> ?W |] ==> ?W

5107 use instead the strong form,

5108 [| inj ?f; ~ ?W ==> ?f ?x = ?f ?y; ?x = ?y ==> ?W |] ==> ?W

5109 in HOL, FOL and ZF the function cla_make_elim will create such rules

5110 from destruct-rules;

5112 * Provers: Simplifier.easy_setup provides a fast path to basic

5113 Simplifier setup for new object-logics;

5115 * Pure: AST translation rules no longer require constant head on LHS;

5117 * Pure: improved name spaces: ambiguous output is qualified; support

5118 for hiding of names;

5120 * system: smart setup of canonical ML_HOME, ISABELLE_INTERFACE, and

5121 XSYMBOL_HOME; no longer need to do manual configuration in most

5122 situations;

5124 * system: compression of ML heaps images may now be controlled via -c

5125 option of isabelle and isatool usedir (currently only observed by

5126 Poly/ML);

5128 * system: isatool installfonts may handle X-Symbol fonts as well (very

5129 useful for remote X11);

5131 * system: provide TAGS file for Isabelle sources;

5133 * ML: infix 'OF' is a version of 'MRS' with more appropriate argument

5134 order;

5136 * ML: renamed flags Syntax.trace_norm_ast to Syntax.trace_ast; global

5137 timing flag supersedes proof_timing and Toplevel.trace;

5139 * ML: new combinators |>> and |>>> for incremental transformations

5140 with secondary results (e.g. certain theory extensions):

5142 * ML: PureThy.add_defs gets additional argument to indicate potential

5143 overloading (usually false);

5145 * ML: PureThy.add_thms/add_axioms/add_defs now return theorems as

5146 results;

5150 New in Isabelle99 (October 1999)

5151 --------------------------------

5153 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES (see below for more details) ***

5155 * HOL: The THEN and ELSE parts of conditional expressions (if P then x else y)

5156 are no longer simplified. (This allows the simplifier to unfold recursive

5157 functional programs.) To restore the old behaviour, declare

5159 Delcongs [if_weak_cong];

5161 * HOL: Removed the obsolete syntax "Compl A"; use -A for set

5162 complement;

5164 * HOL: the predicate "inj" is now defined by translation to "inj_on";

5166 * HOL/datatype: mutual_induct_tac no longer exists --

5167 use induct_tac "x_1 ... x_n" instead of mutual_induct_tac ["x_1", ..., "x_n"]

5169 * HOL/typedef: fixed type inference for representing set; type

5170 arguments now have to occur explicitly on the rhs as type constraints;

5172 * ZF: The con_defs part of an inductive definition may no longer refer

5173 to constants declared in the same theory;

5175 * HOL, ZF: the function mk_cases, generated by the inductive

5176 definition package, has lost an argument. To simplify its result, it

5177 uses the default simpset instead of a supplied list of theorems.

5179 * HOL/List: the constructors of type list are now Nil and Cons;

5181 * Simplifier: the type of the infix ML functions

5182 setSSolver addSSolver setSolver addSolver

5183 is now simpset * solver -> simpset where `solver' is a new abstract type

5184 for packaging solvers. A solver is created via

5185 mk_solver: string -> (thm list -> int -> tactic) -> solver

5186 where the string argument is only a comment.

5189 *** Proof tools ***

5191 * Provers/Arith/fast_lin_arith.ML contains a functor for creating a

5192 decision procedure for linear arithmetic. Currently it is used for

5193 types `nat', `int', and `real' in HOL (see below); it can, should and

5194 will be instantiated for other types and logics as well.

5196 * The simplifier now accepts rewrite rules with flexible heads, eg

5197 hom ?f ==> ?f(?x+?y) = ?f ?x + ?f ?y

5198 They are applied like any rule with a non-pattern lhs, i.e. by first-order

5199 matching.

5202 *** General ***

5204 * New Isabelle/Isar subsystem provides an alternative to traditional

5205 tactical theorem proving; together with the ProofGeneral/isar user

5206 interface it offers an interactive environment for developing human

5207 readable proof documents (Isar == Intelligible semi-automated

5208 reasoning); for further information see isatool doc isar-ref,

5209 src/HOL/Isar_examples and http://isabelle.in.tum.de/Isar/

5211 * improved and simplified presentation of theories: better HTML markup

5212 (including colors), graph views in several sizes; isatool usedir now

5213 provides a proper interface for user theories (via -P option); actual

5214 document preparation based on (PDF)LaTeX is available as well (for

5215 new-style theories only); see isatool doc system for more information;

5217 * native support for Proof General, both for classic Isabelle and

5218 Isabelle/Isar;

5220 * ML function thm_deps visualizes dependencies of theorems and lemmas,

5221 using the graph browser tool;

5223 * Isabelle manuals now also available as PDF;

5225 * theory loader rewritten from scratch (may not be fully

5226 bug-compatible); old loadpath variable has been replaced by show_path,

5227 add_path, del_path, reset_path functions; new operations such as

5228 update_thy, touch_thy, remove_thy, use/update_thy_only (see also

5229 isatool doc ref);

5231 * improved isatool install: option -k creates KDE application icon,

5232 option -p DIR installs standalone binaries;

5234 * added ML_PLATFORM setting (useful for cross-platform installations);

5235 more robust handling of platform specific ML images for SML/NJ;

5237 * the settings environment is now statically scoped, i.e. it is never

5238 created again in sub-processes invoked from isabelle, isatool, or

5239 Isabelle;

5241 * path element specification '~~' refers to '$ISABELLE_HOME';

5243 * in locales, the "assumes" and "defines" parts may be omitted if

5244 empty;

5246 * new print_mode "xsymbols" for extended symbol support (e.g. genuine

5247 long arrows);

5249 * new print_mode "HTML";

5251 * new flag show_tags controls display of tags of theorems (which are

5252 basically just comments that may be attached by some tools);

5254 * Isamode 2.6 requires patch to accomodate change of Isabelle font

5255 mode and goal output format:

5257 diff -r Isamode-2.6/elisp/isa-load.el Isamode/elisp/isa-load.el

5258 244c244

5259 < (list (isa-getenv "ISABELLE") "-msymbols" logic-name)

5260 ---

5261 > (list (isa-getenv "ISABELLE") "-misabelle_font" "-msymbols" logic-name)

5262 diff -r Isabelle-2.6/elisp/isa-proofstate.el Isamode/elisp/isa-proofstate.el

5263 181c181

5264 < (defconst proofstate-proofstart-regexp "^Level [0-9]+$"

5265 ---

5266 > (defconst proofstate-proofstart-regexp "^Level [0-9]+"

5268 * function bind_thms stores lists of theorems (cf. bind_thm);

5270 * new shorthand tactics ftac, eatac, datac, fatac;

5272 * qed (and friends) now accept "" as result name; in that case the

5273 theorem is not stored, but proper checks and presentation of the

5274 result still apply;

5276 * theorem database now also indexes constants "Trueprop", "all",

5277 "==>", "=="; thus thms_containing, findI etc. may retrieve more rules;

5280 *** HOL ***

5282 ** HOL arithmetic **

5284 * There are now decision procedures for linear arithmetic over nat and

5285 int:

5287 1. arith_tac copes with arbitrary formulae involving `=', `<', `<=',

5288 `+', `-', `Suc', `min', `max' and numerical constants; other subterms

5289 are treated as atomic; subformulae not involving type `nat' or `int'

5290 are ignored; quantified subformulae are ignored unless they are

5291 positive universal or negative existential. The tactic has to be

5292 invoked by hand and can be a little bit slow. In particular, the

5293 running time is exponential in the number of occurrences of `min' and

5294 `max', and `-' on `nat'.

5296 2. fast_arith_tac is a cut-down version of arith_tac: it only takes

5297 (negated) (in)equalities among the premises and the conclusion into

5298 account (i.e. no compound formulae) and does not know about `min' and

5299 `max', and `-' on `nat'. It is fast and is used automatically by the

5300 simplifier.

5302 NB: At the moment, these decision procedures do not cope with mixed

5303 nat/int formulae where the two parts interact, such as `m < n ==>

5304 int(m) < int(n)'.

5306 * HOL/Numeral provides a generic theory of numerals (encoded

5307 efficiently as bit strings); setup for types nat/int/real is in place;

5308 INCOMPATIBILITY: since numeral syntax is now polymorphic, rather than

5309 int, existing theories and proof scripts may require a few additional

5310 type constraints;

5312 * integer division and remainder can now be performed on constant

5313 arguments;

5315 * many properties of integer multiplication, division and remainder

5316 are now available;

5318 * An interface to the Stanford Validity Checker (SVC) is available through the

5319 tactic svc_tac. Propositional tautologies and theorems of linear arithmetic

5320 are proved automatically. SVC must be installed separately, and its results

5321 must be TAKEN ON TRUST (Isabelle does not check the proofs, but tags any

5322 invocation of the underlying oracle). For SVC see

5323 http://verify.stanford.edu/SVC

5325 * IsaMakefile: the HOL-Real target now builds an actual image;

5328 ** HOL misc **

5330 * HOL/Real/HahnBanach: the Hahn-Banach theorem for real vector spaces

5331 (in Isabelle/Isar) -- by Gertrud Bauer;

5333 * HOL/BCV: generic model of bytecode verification, i.e. data-flow

5334 analysis for assembly languages with subtypes;

5336 * HOL/TLA (Lamport's Temporal Logic of Actions): major reorganization

5337 -- avoids syntactic ambiguities and treats state, transition, and

5338 temporal levels more uniformly; introduces INCOMPATIBILITIES due to

5339 changed syntax and (many) tactics;

5341 * HOL/inductive: Now also handles more general introduction rules such

5342 as "ALL y. (y, x) : r --> y : acc r ==> x : acc r"; monotonicity

5343 theorems are now maintained within the theory (maintained via the

5344 "mono" attribute);

5346 * HOL/datatype: Now also handles arbitrarily branching datatypes

5347 (using function types) such as

5349 datatype 'a tree = Atom 'a | Branch "nat => 'a tree"

5351 * HOL/record: record_simproc (part of the default simpset) takes care

5352 of selectors applied to updated records; record_split_tac is no longer

5353 part of the default claset; update_defs may now be removed from the

5354 simpset in many cases; COMPATIBILITY: old behavior achieved by

5356 claset_ref () := claset() addSWrapper record_split_wrapper;

5357 Delsimprocs [record_simproc]

5359 * HOL/typedef: fixed type inference for representing set; type

5360 arguments now have to occur explicitly on the rhs as type constraints;

5362 * HOL/recdef (TFL): 'congs' syntax now expects comma separated list of theorem

5363 names rather than an ML expression;

5365 * HOL/defer_recdef (TFL): like recdef but the well-founded relation can be

5366 supplied later. Program schemes can be defined, such as

5367 "While B C s = (if B s then While B C (C s) else s)"

5368 where the well-founded relation can be chosen after B and C have been given.

5370 * HOL/List: the constructors of type list are now Nil and Cons;

5371 INCOMPATIBILITY: while [] and infix # syntax is still there, of

5372 course, ML tools referring to List.list.op # etc. have to be adapted;

5374 * HOL_quantifiers flag superseded by "HOL" print mode, which is

5375 disabled by default; run isabelle with option -m HOL to get back to

5376 the original Gordon/HOL-style output;

5378 * HOL/Ord.thy: new bounded quantifier syntax (input only): ALL x<y. P,

5379 ALL x<=y. P, EX x<y. P, EX x<=y. P;

5381 * HOL basic syntax simplified (more orthogonal): all variants of

5382 All/Ex now support plain / symbolic / HOL notation; plain syntax for

5383 Eps operator is provided as well: "SOME x. P[x]";

5385 * HOL/Sum.thy: sum_case has been moved to HOL/Datatype;

5387 * HOL/Univ.thy: infix syntax <*>, <+>, <**>, <+> eliminated and made

5388 thus available for user theories;

5390 * HOLCF/IOA/Sequents: renamed 'Cons' to 'Consq' to avoid clash with

5391 HOL/List; hardly an INCOMPATIBILITY since '>>' syntax is used all the

5392 time;

5394 * HOL: new tactic smp_tac: int -> int -> tactic, which applies spec

5395 several times and then mp;

5398 *** LK ***

5400 * the notation <<...>> is now available as a notation for sequences of

5401 formulas;

5403 * the simplifier is now installed

5405 * the axiom system has been generalized (thanks to Soren Heilmann)

5407 * the classical reasoner now has a default rule database

5410 *** ZF ***

5412 * new primrec section allows primitive recursive functions to be given

5413 directly (as in HOL) over datatypes and the natural numbers;

5415 * new tactics induct_tac and exhaust_tac for induction (or case

5416 analysis) over datatypes and the natural numbers;

5418 * the datatype declaration of type T now defines the recursor T_rec;

5420 * simplification automatically does freeness reasoning for datatype

5421 constructors;

5423 * automatic type-inference, with AddTCs command to insert new

5424 type-checking rules;

5426 * datatype introduction rules are now added as Safe Introduction rules

5427 to the claset;

5429 * the syntax "if P then x else y" is now available in addition to

5430 if(P,x,y);

5433 *** Internal programming interfaces ***

5435 * tuned simplifier trace output; new flag debug_simp;

5437 * structures Vartab / Termtab (instances of TableFun) offer efficient

5438 tables indexed by indexname_ord / term_ord (compatible with aconv);

5440 * AxClass.axclass_tac lost the theory argument;

5442 * tuned current_goals_markers semantics: begin / end goal avoids

5443 printing empty lines;

5445 * removed prs and prs_fn hook, which was broken because it did not

5446 include \n in its semantics, forcing writeln to add one

5447 uncoditionally; replaced prs_fn by writeln_fn; consider std_output:

5448 string -> unit if you really want to output text without newline;

5450 * Symbol.output subject to print mode; INCOMPATIBILITY: defaults to

5451 plain output, interface builders may have to enable 'isabelle_font'

5452 mode to get Isabelle font glyphs as before;

5454 * refined token_translation interface; INCOMPATIBILITY: output length

5455 now of type real instead of int;

5457 * theory loader actions may be traced via new ThyInfo.add_hook

5458 interface (see src/Pure/Thy/thy_info.ML); example application: keep

5459 your own database of information attached to *whole* theories -- as

5460 opposed to intra-theory data slots offered via TheoryDataFun;

5462 * proper handling of dangling sort hypotheses (at last!);

5463 Thm.strip_shyps and Drule.strip_shyps_warning take care of removing

5464 extra sort hypotheses that can be witnessed from the type signature;

5465 the force_strip_shyps flag is gone, any remaining shyps are simply

5466 left in the theorem (with a warning issued by strip_shyps_warning);

5470 New in Isabelle98-1 (October 1998)

5471 ----------------------------------

5473 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES (see below for more details) ***

5475 * several changes of automated proof tools;

5477 * HOL: major changes to the inductive and datatype packages, including

5478 some minor incompatibilities of theory syntax;

5480 * HOL: renamed r^-1 to 'converse' from 'inverse'; 'inj_onto' is now

5481 called `inj_on';

5483 * HOL: removed duplicate thms in Arith:

5484 less_imp_add_less should be replaced by trans_less_add1

5485 le_imp_add_le should be replaced by trans_le_add1

5487 * HOL: unary minus is now overloaded (new type constraints may be

5488 required);

5490 * HOL and ZF: unary minus for integers is now #- instead of #~. In

5491 ZF, expressions such as n#-1 must be changed to n#- 1, since #-1 is

5492 now taken as an integer constant.

5494 * Pure: ML function 'theory_of' renamed to 'theory';

5497 *** Proof tools ***

5499 * Simplifier:

5500 1. Asm_full_simp_tac is now more aggressive.

5501 1. It will sometimes reorient premises if that increases their power to

5502 simplify.

5503 2. It does no longer proceed strictly from left to right but may also

5504 rotate premises to achieve further simplification.

5505 For compatibility reasons there is now Asm_lr_simp_tac which is like the

5506 old Asm_full_simp_tac in that it does not rotate premises.

5507 2. The simplifier now knows a little bit about nat-arithmetic.

5509 * Classical reasoner: wrapper mechanism for the classical reasoner now

5510 allows for selected deletion of wrappers, by introduction of names for

5511 wrapper functionals. This implies that addbefore, addSbefore,

5512 addaltern, and addSaltern now take a pair (name, tactic) as argument,

5513 and that adding two tactics with the same name overwrites the first

5514 one (emitting a warning).

5515 type wrapper = (int -> tactic) -> (int -> tactic)

5516 setWrapper, setSWrapper, compWrapper and compSWrapper are replaced by

5517 addWrapper, addSWrapper: claset * (string * wrapper) -> claset

5518 delWrapper, delSWrapper: claset * string -> claset

5519 getWrapper is renamed to appWrappers, getSWrapper to appSWrappers;

5521 * Classical reasoner: addbefore/addSbefore now have APPEND/ORELSE

5522 semantics; addbefore now affects only the unsafe part of step_tac

5523 etc.; this affects addss/auto_tac/force_tac, so EXISTING PROOFS MAY

5524 FAIL, but proofs should be fixable easily, e.g. by replacing Auto_tac

5525 by Force_tac;

5527 * Classical reasoner: setwrapper to setWrapper and compwrapper to

5528 compWrapper; added safe wrapper (and access functions for it);

5530 * HOL/split_all_tac is now much faster and fails if there is nothing

5531 to split. Some EXISTING PROOFS MAY REQUIRE ADAPTION because the order

5532 and the names of the automatically generated variables have changed.

5533 split_all_tac has moved within claset() from unsafe wrappers to safe

5534 wrappers, which means that !!-bound variables are split much more

5535 aggressively, and safe_tac and clarify_tac now split such variables.

5536 If this splitting is not appropriate, use delSWrapper "split_all_tac".

5537 Note: the same holds for record_split_tac, which does the job of

5538 split_all_tac for record fields.

5540 * HOL/Simplifier: Rewrite rules for case distinctions can now be added

5541 permanently to the default simpset using Addsplits just like

5542 Addsimps. They can be removed via Delsplits just like

5543 Delsimps. Lower-case versions are also available.

5545 * HOL/Simplifier: The rule split_if is now part of the default

5546 simpset. This means that the simplifier will eliminate all occurrences

5547 of if-then-else in the conclusion of a goal. To prevent this, you can

5548 either remove split_if completely from the default simpset by

5549 `Delsplits [split_if]' or remove it in a specific call of the

5550 simplifier using `... delsplits [split_if]'. You can also add/delete

5551 other case splitting rules to/from the default simpset: every datatype

5552 generates suitable rules `split_t_case' and `split_t_case_asm' (where

5553 t is the name of the datatype).

5555 * Classical reasoner / Simplifier combination: new force_tac (and

5556 derivatives Force_tac, force) combines rewriting and classical

5557 reasoning (and whatever other tools) similarly to auto_tac, but is

5558 aimed to solve the given subgoal completely.

5561 *** General ***

5563 * new top-level commands `Goal' and `Goalw' that improve upon `goal'

5564 and `goalw': the theory is no longer needed as an explicit argument -

5565 the current theory context is used; assumptions are no longer returned

5566 at the ML-level unless one of them starts with ==> or !!; it is

5567 recommended to convert to these new commands using isatool fixgoal

5568 (backup your sources first!);

5570 * new top-level commands 'thm' and 'thms' for retrieving theorems from

5571 the current theory context, and 'theory' to lookup stored theories;

5573 * new theory section 'locale' for declaring constants, assumptions and

5574 definitions that have local scope;

5576 * new theory section 'nonterminals' for purely syntactic types;

5578 * new theory section 'setup' for generic ML setup functions

5579 (e.g. package initialization);

5581 * the distribution now includes Isabelle icons: see

5582 lib/logo/isabelle-{small,tiny}.xpm;

5584 * isatool install - install binaries with absolute references to

5585 ISABELLE_HOME/bin;

5587 * isatool logo -- create instances of the Isabelle logo (as EPS);

5589 * print mode 'emacs' reserved for Isamode;

5591 * support multiple print (ast) translations per constant name;

5593 * theorems involving oracles are now printed with a suffixed [!];

5596 *** HOL ***

5598 * there is now a tutorial on Isabelle/HOL (do 'isatool doc tutorial');

5600 * HOL/inductive package reorganized and improved: now supports mutual

5601 definitions such as

5603 inductive EVEN ODD

5604 intrs

5605 null "0 : EVEN"

5606 oddI "n : EVEN ==> Suc n : ODD"

5607 evenI "n : ODD ==> Suc n : EVEN"

5609 new theorem list "elims" contains an elimination rule for each of the

5610 recursive sets; inductive definitions now handle disjunctive premises

5611 correctly (also ZF);

5613 INCOMPATIBILITIES: requires Inductive as an ancestor; component

5614 "mutual_induct" no longer exists - the induction rule is always

5615 contained in "induct";

5618 * HOL/datatype package re-implemented and greatly improved: now

5619 supports mutually recursive datatypes such as

5621 datatype

5622 'a aexp = IF_THEN_ELSE ('a bexp) ('a aexp) ('a aexp)

5623 | SUM ('a aexp) ('a aexp)

5624 | DIFF ('a aexp) ('a aexp)

5625 | NUM 'a

5626 and

5627 'a bexp = LESS ('a aexp) ('a aexp)

5628 | AND ('a bexp) ('a bexp)

5629 | OR ('a bexp) ('a bexp)

5631 as well as indirectly recursive datatypes such as

5633 datatype

5634 ('a, 'b) term = Var 'a

5635 | App 'b ((('a, 'b) term) list)

5637 The new tactic mutual_induct_tac [<var_1>, ..., <var_n>] i performs

5638 induction on mutually / indirectly recursive datatypes.

5640 Primrec equations are now stored in theory and can be accessed via

5641 <function_name>.simps.

5643 INCOMPATIBILITIES:

5645 - Theories using datatypes must now have theory Datatype as an

5646 ancestor.

5647 - The specific <typename>.induct_tac no longer exists - use the

5648 generic induct_tac instead.

5649 - natE has been renamed to nat.exhaust - use exhaust_tac

5650 instead of res_inst_tac ... natE. Note that the variable

5651 names in nat.exhaust differ from the names in natE, this

5652 may cause some "fragile" proofs to fail.

5653 - The theorems split_<typename>_case and split_<typename>_case_asm

5654 have been renamed to <typename>.split and <typename>.split_asm.

5655 - Since default sorts of type variables are now handled correctly,

5656 some datatype definitions may have to be annotated with explicit

5657 sort constraints.

5658 - Primrec definitions no longer require function name and type

5659 of recursive argument.

5661 Consider using isatool fixdatatype to adapt your theories and proof

5662 scripts to the new package (backup your sources first!).

5665 * HOL/record package: considerably improved implementation; now

5666 includes concrete syntax for record types, terms, updates; theorems

5667 for surjective pairing and splitting !!-bound record variables; proof

5668 support is as follows:

5670 1) standard conversions (selectors or updates applied to record

5671 constructor terms) are part of the standard simpset;

5673 2) inject equations of the form ((x, y) = (x', y')) == x=x' & y=y' are

5674 made part of standard simpset and claset via addIffs;

5676 3) a tactic for record field splitting (record_split_tac) is part of

5677 the standard claset (addSWrapper);

5679 To get a better idea about these rules you may retrieve them via

5680 something like 'thms "foo.simps"' or 'thms "foo.iffs"', where "foo" is

5681 the name of your record type.

5683 The split tactic 3) conceptually simplifies by the following rule:

5685 "(!!x. PROP ?P x) == (!!a b. PROP ?P (a, b))"

5687 Thus any record variable that is bound by meta-all will automatically

5688 blow up into some record constructor term, consequently the

5689 simplifications of 1), 2) apply. Thus force_tac, auto_tac etc. shall

5690 solve record problems automatically.

5693 * reorganized the main HOL image: HOL/Integ and String loaded by

5694 default; theory Main includes everything;

5696 * automatic simplification of integer sums and comparisons, using cancellation;

5698 * added option_map_eq_Some and not_Some_eq to the default simpset and claset;

5700 * added disj_not1 = "(~P | Q) = (P --> Q)" to the default simpset;

5702 * many new identities for unions, intersections, set difference, etc.;

5704 * expand_if, expand_split, expand_sum_case and expand_nat_case are now

5705 called split_if, split_split, split_sum_case and split_nat_case (to go

5706 with add/delsplits);

5708 * HOL/Prod introduces simplification procedure unit_eq_proc rewriting

5709 (?x::unit) = (); this is made part of the default simpset, which COULD

5710 MAKE EXISTING PROOFS FAIL under rare circumstances (consider

5711 'Delsimprocs [unit_eq_proc];' as last resort); also note that

5712 unit_abs_eta_conv is added in order to counter the effect of

5713 unit_eq_proc on (%u::unit. f u), replacing it by f rather than by

5714 %u.f();

5716 * HOL/Fun INCOMPATIBILITY: `inj_onto' is now called `inj_on' (which

5717 makes more sense);

5719 * HOL/Set INCOMPATIBILITY: rule `equals0D' is now a well-formed destruct rule;

5720 It and 'sym RS equals0D' are now in the default claset, giving automatic

5721 disjointness reasoning but breaking a few old proofs.

5723 * HOL/Relation INCOMPATIBILITY: renamed the relational operator r^-1

5724 to 'converse' from 'inverse' (for compatibility with ZF and some

5725 literature);

5727 * HOL/recdef can now declare non-recursive functions, with {} supplied as

5728 the well-founded relation;

5730 * HOL/Set INCOMPATIBILITY: the complement of set A is now written -A instead of

5731 Compl A. The "Compl" syntax remains available as input syntax for this

5732 release ONLY.

5734 * HOL/Update: new theory of function updates:

5735 f(a:=b) == %x. if x=a then b else f x

5736 may also be iterated as in f(a:=b,c:=d,...);

5738 * HOL/Vimage: new theory for inverse image of a function, syntax f-``B;

5740 * HOL/List:

5741 - new function list_update written xs[i:=v] that updates the i-th

5742 list position. May also be iterated as in xs[i:=a,j:=b,...].

5743 - new function `upt' written [i..j(] which generates the list

5744 [i,i+1,...,j-1], i.e. the upper bound is excluded. To include the upper

5745 bound write [i..j], which is a shorthand for [i..j+1(].

5746 - new lexicographic orderings and corresponding wellfoundedness theorems.

5748 * HOL/Arith:

5749 - removed 'pred' (predecessor) function;

5750 - generalized some theorems about n-1;

5751 - many new laws about "div" and "mod";

5752 - new laws about greatest common divisors (see theory ex/Primes);

5754 * HOL/Relation: renamed the relational operator r^-1 "converse"

5755 instead of "inverse";

5757 * HOL/Induct/Multiset: a theory of multisets, including the wellfoundedness

5758 of the multiset ordering;

5760 * directory HOL/Real: a construction of the reals using Dedekind cuts

5761 (not included by default);

5763 * directory HOL/UNITY: Chandy and Misra's UNITY formalism;

5765 * directory HOL/Hoare: a new version of Hoare logic which permits many-sorted

5766 programs, i.e. different program variables may have different types.

5768 * calling (stac rew i) now fails if "rew" has no effect on the goal

5769 [previously, this check worked only if the rewrite rule was unconditional]

5770 Now rew can involve either definitions or equalities (either == or =).

5773 *** ZF ***

5775 * theory Main includes everything; INCOMPATIBILITY: theory ZF.thy contains

5776 only the theorems proved on ZF.ML;

5778 * ZF INCOMPATIBILITY: rule `equals0D' is now a well-formed destruct rule;

5779 It and 'sym RS equals0D' are now in the default claset, giving automatic

5780 disjointness reasoning but breaking a few old proofs.

5782 * ZF/Update: new theory of function updates

5783 with default rewrite rule f(x:=y) ` z = if(z=x, y, f`z)

5784 may also be iterated as in f(a:=b,c:=d,...);

5786 * in let x=t in u(x), neither t nor u(x) has to be an FOL term.

5788 * calling (stac rew i) now fails if "rew" has no effect on the goal

5789 [previously, this check worked only if the rewrite rule was unconditional]

5790 Now rew can involve either definitions or equalities (either == or =).

5792 * case_tac provided for compatibility with HOL

5793 (like the old excluded_middle_tac, but with subgoals swapped)

5796 *** Internal programming interfaces ***

5798 * Pure: several new basic modules made available for general use, see

5799 also src/Pure/README;

5801 * improved the theory data mechanism to support encapsulation (data

5802 kind name replaced by private Object.kind, acting as authorization

5803 key); new type-safe user interface via functor TheoryDataFun; generic

5804 print_data function becomes basically useless;

5806 * removed global_names compatibility flag -- all theory declarations

5807 are qualified by default;

5809 * module Pure/Syntax now offers quote / antiquote translation

5810 functions (useful for Hoare logic etc. with implicit dependencies);

5811 see HOL/ex/Antiquote for an example use;

5813 * Simplifier now offers conversions (asm_)(full_)rewrite: simpset ->

5814 cterm -> thm;

5816 * new tactical CHANGED_GOAL for checking that a tactic modifies a

5817 subgoal;

5819 * Display.print_goals function moved to Locale.print_goals;

5821 * standard print function for goals supports current_goals_markers

5822 variable for marking begin of proof, end of proof, start of goal; the

5823 default is ("", "", ""); setting current_goals_markers := ("<proof>",

5824 "</proof>", "<goal>") causes SGML like tagged proof state printing,

5825 for example;

5829 New in Isabelle98 (January 1998)

5830 --------------------------------

5832 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES (see below for more details) ***

5834 * changed lexical syntax of terms / types: dots made part of long

5835 identifiers, e.g. "%x.x" no longer possible, should be "%x. x";

5837 * simpset (and claset) reference variable replaced by functions

5838 simpset / simpset_ref;

5840 * no longer supports theory aliases (via merge) and non-trivial

5841 implicit merge of thms' signatures;

5843 * most internal names of constants changed due to qualified names;

5845 * changed Pure/Sequence interface (see Pure/seq.ML);

5848 *** General Changes ***

5850 * hierachically structured name spaces (for consts, types, axms, thms

5851 etc.); new lexical class 'longid' (e.g. Foo.bar.x) may render much of

5852 old input syntactically incorrect (e.g. "%x.x"); COMPATIBILITY:

5853 isatool fixdots ensures space after dots (e.g. "%x. x"); set

5854 long_names for fully qualified output names; NOTE: ML programs

5855 (special tactics, packages etc.) referring to internal names may have

5856 to be adapted to cope with fully qualified names; in case of severe

5857 backward campatibility problems try setting 'global_names' at compile

5858 time to have enrything declared within a flat name space; one may also

5859 fine tune name declarations in theories via the 'global' and 'local'

5860 section;

5862 * reimplemented the implicit simpset and claset using the new anytype

5863 data filed in signatures; references simpset:simpset ref etc. are

5864 replaced by functions simpset:unit->simpset and

5865 simpset_ref:unit->simpset ref; COMPATIBILITY: use isatool fixclasimp

5866 to patch your ML files accordingly;

5868 * HTML output now includes theory graph data for display with Java

5869 applet or isatool browser; data generated automatically via isatool

5870 usedir (see -i option, ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS);

5872 * defs may now be conditional; improved rewrite_goals_tac to handle

5873 conditional equations;

5875 * defs now admits additional type arguments, using TYPE('a) syntax;

5877 * theory aliases via merge (e.g. M=A+B+C) no longer supported, always

5878 creates a new theory node; implicit merge of thms' signatures is

5879 restricted to 'trivial' ones; COMPATIBILITY: one may have to use

5880 transfer:theory->thm->thm in (rare) cases;

5882 * improved handling of draft signatures / theories; draft thms (and

5883 ctyps, cterms) are automatically promoted to real ones;

5885 * slightly changed interfaces for oracles: admit many per theory, named

5886 (e.g. oracle foo = mlfun), additional name argument for invoke_oracle;

5888 * print_goals: optional output of const types (set show_consts and

5889 show_types);

5891 * improved output of warnings (###) and errors (***);

5893 * subgoal_tac displays a warning if the new subgoal has type variables;

5895 * removed old README and Makefiles;

5897 * replaced print_goals_ref hook by print_current_goals_fn and result_error_fn;

5899 * removed obsolete init_pps and init_database;

5901 * deleted the obsolete tactical STATE, which was declared by

5902 fun STATE tacfun st = tacfun st st;

5904 * cd and use now support path variables, e.g. $ISABELLE_HOME, or ~

5905 (which abbreviates $HOME);

5907 * changed Pure/Sequence interface (see Pure/seq.ML); COMPATIBILITY:

5908 use isatool fixseq to adapt your ML programs (this works for fully

5909 qualified references to the Sequence structure only!);

5911 * use_thy no longer requires writable current directory; it always

5912 reloads .ML *and* .thy file, if either one is out of date;

5915 *** Classical Reasoner ***

5917 * Clarify_tac, clarify_tac, clarify_step_tac, Clarify_step_tac: new

5918 tactics that use classical reasoning to simplify a subgoal without

5919 splitting it into several subgoals;

5921 * Safe_tac: like safe_tac but uses the default claset;

5924 *** Simplifier ***

5926 * added simplification meta rules:

5927 (asm_)(full_)simplify: simpset -> thm -> thm;

5929 * simplifier.ML no longer part of Pure -- has to be loaded by object

5930 logics (again);

5932 * added prems argument to simplification procedures;

5934 * HOL, FOL, ZF: added infix function `addsplits':

5935 instead of `<simpset> setloop (split_tac <thms>)'

5936 you can simply write `<simpset> addsplits <thms>'

5939 *** Syntax ***

5941 * TYPE('a) syntax for type reflection terms;

5943 * no longer handles consts with name "" -- declare as 'syntax' instead;

5945 * pretty printer: changed order of mixfix annotation preference (again!);

5947 * Pure: fixed idt/idts vs. pttrn/pttrns syntactic categories;

5950 *** HOL ***

5952 * HOL: there is a new splitter `split_asm_tac' that can be used e.g.

5953 with `addloop' of the simplifier to faciliate case splitting in premises.

5955 * HOL/TLA: Stephan Merz's formalization of Lamport's Temporal Logic of Actions;

5957 * HOL/Auth: new protocol proofs including some for the Internet

5958 protocol TLS;

5960 * HOL/Map: new theory of `maps' a la VDM;

5962 * HOL/simplifier: simplification procedures nat_cancel_sums for

5963 cancelling out common nat summands from =, <, <= (in)equalities, or

5964 differences; simplification procedures nat_cancel_factor for

5965 cancelling common factor from =, <, <= (in)equalities over natural

5966 sums; nat_cancel contains both kinds of procedures, it is installed by

5967 default in Arith.thy -- this COULD MAKE EXISTING PROOFS FAIL;

5969 * HOL/simplifier: terms of the form

5970 `? x. P1(x) & ... & Pn(x) & x=t & Q1(x) & ... Qn(x)' (or t=x)

5971 are rewritten to

5972 `P1(t) & ... & Pn(t) & Q1(t) & ... Qn(t)',

5973 and those of the form

5974 `! x. P1(x) & ... & Pn(x) & x=t & Q1(x) & ... Qn(x) --> R(x)' (or t=x)

5975 are rewritten to

5976 `P1(t) & ... & Pn(t) & Q1(t) & ... Qn(t) --> R(t)',

5978 * HOL/datatype

5979 Each datatype `t' now comes with a theorem `split_t_case' of the form

5981 P(t_case f1 ... fn x) =

5982 ( (!y1 ... ym1. x = C1 y1 ... ym1 --> P(f1 y1 ... ym1)) &

5983 ...

5984 (!y1 ... ymn. x = Cn y1 ... ymn --> P(f1 y1 ... ymn))

5985 )

5987 and a theorem `split_t_case_asm' of the form

5989 P(t_case f1 ... fn x) =

5990 ~( (? y1 ... ym1. x = C1 y1 ... ym1 & ~P(f1 y1 ... ym1)) |

5991 ...

5992 (? y1 ... ymn. x = Cn y1 ... ymn & ~P(f1 y1 ... ymn))

5993 )

5994 which can be added to a simpset via `addsplits'. The existing theorems

5995 expand_list_case and expand_option_case have been renamed to

5996 split_list_case and split_option_case.

5998 * HOL/Arithmetic:

5999 - `pred n' is automatically converted to `n-1'.

6000 Users are strongly encouraged not to use `pred' any longer,

6001 because it will disappear altogether at some point.

6002 - Users are strongly encouraged to write "0 < n" rather than

6003 "n ~= 0". Theorems and proof tools have been modified towards this

6004 `standard'.

6006 * HOL/Lists:

6007 the function "set_of_list" has been renamed "set" (and its theorems too);

6008 the function "nth" now takes its arguments in the reverse order and

6009 has acquired the infix notation "!" as in "xs!n".

6011 * HOL/Set: UNIV is now a constant and is no longer translated to Compl{};

6013 * HOL/Set: The operator (UN x.B x) now abbreviates (UN x:UNIV. B x) and its

6014 specialist theorems (like UN1_I) are gone. Similarly for (INT x.B x);

6016 * HOL/record: extensible records with schematic structural subtyping

6017 (single inheritance); EXPERIMENTAL version demonstrating the encoding,

6018 still lacks various theorems and concrete record syntax;

6021 *** HOLCF ***

6023 * removed "axioms" and "generated by" sections;

6025 * replaced "ops" section by extended "consts" section, which is capable of

6026 handling the continuous function space "->" directly;

6028 * domain package:

6029 . proves theorems immediately and stores them in the theory,

6030 . creates hierachical name space,

6031 . now uses normal mixfix annotations (instead of cinfix...),

6032 . minor changes to some names and values (for consistency),

6033 . e.g. cases -> casedist, dists_eq -> dist_eqs, [take_lemma] -> take_lemmas,

6034 . separator between mutual domain defs: changed "," to "and",

6035 . improved handling of sort constraints; now they have to

6036 appear on the left-hand side of the equations only;

6038 * fixed LAM <x,y,zs>.b syntax;

6040 * added extended adm_tac to simplifier in HOLCF -- can now discharge

6041 adm (%x. P (t x)), where P is chainfinite and t continuous;

6044 *** FOL and ZF ***

6046 * FOL: there is a new splitter `split_asm_tac' that can be used e.g.

6047 with `addloop' of the simplifier to faciliate case splitting in premises.

6049 * qed_spec_mp, qed_goal_spec_mp, qed_goalw_spec_mp are available, as

6050 in HOL, they strip ALL and --> from proved theorems;

6054 New in Isabelle94-8 (May 1997)

6055 ------------------------------

6057 *** General Changes ***

6059 * new utilities to build / run / maintain Isabelle etc. (in parts

6060 still somewhat experimental); old Makefiles etc. still functional;

6062 * new 'Isabelle System Manual';

6064 * INSTALL text, together with ./configure and ./build scripts;

6066 * reimplemented type inference for greater efficiency, better error

6067 messages and clean internal interface;

6069 * prlim command for dealing with lots of subgoals (an easier way of

6070 setting goals_limit);

6073 *** Syntax ***

6075 * supports alternative (named) syntax tables (parser and pretty

6076 printer); internal interface is provided by add_modesyntax(_i);

6078 * Pure, FOL, ZF, HOL, HOLCF now support symbolic input and output; to

6079 be used in conjunction with the Isabelle symbol font; uses the

6080 "symbols" syntax table;

6082 * added token_translation interface (may translate name tokens in

6083 arbitrary ways, dependent on their type (free, bound, tfree, ...) and

6084 the current print_mode); IMPORTANT: user print translation functions

6085 are responsible for marking newly introduced bounds

6086 (Syntax.mark_boundT);

6088 * token translations for modes "xterm" and "xterm_color" that display

6089 names in bold, underline etc. or colors (which requires a color

6090 version of xterm);

6092 * infixes may now be declared with names independent of their syntax;

6094 * added typed_print_translation (like print_translation, but may

6095 access type of constant);

6098 *** Classical Reasoner ***

6100 Blast_tac: a new tactic! It is often more powerful than fast_tac, but has

6101 some limitations. Blast_tac...

6102 + ignores addss, addbefore, addafter; this restriction is intrinsic

6103 + ignores elimination rules that don't have the correct format

6104 (the conclusion MUST be a formula variable)

6105 + ignores types, which can make HOL proofs fail

6106 + rules must not require higher-order unification, e.g. apply_type in ZF

6107 [message "Function Var's argument not a bound variable" relates to this]

6108 + its proof strategy is more general but can actually be slower

6110 * substitution with equality assumptions no longer permutes other

6111 assumptions;

6113 * minor changes in semantics of addafter (now called addaltern); renamed

6114 setwrapper to setWrapper and compwrapper to compWrapper; added safe wrapper

6115 (and access functions for it);

6117 * improved combination of classical reasoner and simplifier:

6118 + functions for handling clasimpsets

6119 + improvement of addss: now the simplifier is called _after_ the

6120 safe steps.

6121 + safe variant of addss called addSss: uses safe simplifications

6122 _during_ the safe steps. It is more complete as it allows multiple

6123 instantiations of unknowns (e.g. with slow_tac).

6125 *** Simplifier ***

6127 * added interface for simplification procedures (functions that

6128 produce *proven* rewrite rules on the fly, depending on current

6129 redex);

6131 * ordering on terms as parameter (used for ordered rewriting);

6133 * new functions delcongs, deleqcongs, and Delcongs. richer rep_ss;

6135 * the solver is now split into a safe and an unsafe part.

6136 This should be invisible for the normal user, except that the

6137 functions setsolver and addsolver have been renamed to setSolver and

6138 addSolver; added safe_asm_full_simp_tac;

6141 *** HOL ***

6143 * a generic induction tactic `induct_tac' which works for all datatypes and

6144 also for type `nat';

6146 * a generic case distinction tactic `exhaust_tac' which works for all

6147 datatypes and also for type `nat';

6149 * each datatype comes with a function `size';

6151 * patterns in case expressions allow tuple patterns as arguments to

6152 constructors, for example `case x of [] => ... | (x,y,z)#ps => ...';

6154 * primrec now also works with type nat;

6156 * recdef: a new declaration form, allows general recursive functions to be

6157 defined in theory files. See HOL/ex/Fib, HOL/ex/Primes, HOL/Subst/Unify.

6159 * the constant for negation has been renamed from "not" to "Not" to

6160 harmonize with FOL, ZF, LK, etc.;

6162 * HOL/ex/LFilter theory of a corecursive "filter" functional for

6163 infinite lists;

6165 * HOL/Modelcheck demonstrates invocation of model checker oracle;

6167 * HOL/ex/Ring.thy declares cring_simp, which solves equational

6168 problems in commutative rings, using axiomatic type classes for + and *;

6170 * more examples in HOL/MiniML and HOL/Auth;

6172 * more default rewrite rules for quantifiers, union/intersection;

6174 * a new constant `arbitrary == @x.False';

6176 * HOLCF/IOA replaces old HOL/IOA;

6178 * HOLCF changes: derived all rules and arities

6179 + axiomatic type classes instead of classes

6180 + typedef instead of faking type definitions

6181 + eliminated the internal constants less_fun, less_cfun, UU_fun, UU_cfun etc.

6182 + new axclasses cpo, chfin, flat with flat < chfin < pcpo < cpo < po

6183 + eliminated the types void, one, tr

6184 + use unit lift and bool lift (with translations) instead of one and tr

6185 + eliminated blift from Lift3.thy (use Def instead of blift)

6186 all eliminated rules are derived as theorems --> no visible changes ;

6189 *** ZF ***

6191 * ZF now has Fast_tac, Simp_tac and Auto_tac. Union_iff is a now a default

6192 rewrite rule; this may affect some proofs. eq_cs is gone but can be put back

6193 as ZF_cs addSIs [equalityI];

6197 New in Isabelle94-7 (November 96)

6198 ---------------------------------

6200 * allowing negative levels (as offsets) in prlev and choplev;

6202 * super-linear speedup for large simplifications;

6204 * FOL, ZF and HOL now use miniscoping: rewriting pushes

6205 quantifications in as far as possible (COULD MAKE EXISTING PROOFS

6206 FAIL); can suppress it using the command Delsimps (ex_simps @

6207 all_simps); De Morgan laws are also now included, by default;

6209 * improved printing of ==> : ~:

6211 * new object-logic "Sequents" adds linear logic, while replacing LK

6212 and Modal (thanks to Sara Kalvala);

6214 * HOL/Auth: correctness proofs for authentication protocols;

6216 * HOL: new auto_tac combines rewriting and classical reasoning (many

6217 examples on HOL/Auth);

6219 * HOL: new command AddIffs for declaring theorems of the form P=Q to

6220 the rewriter and classical reasoner simultaneously;

6222 * function uresult no longer returns theorems in "standard" format;

6223 regain previous version by: val uresult = standard o uresult;

6227 New in Isabelle94-6

6228 -------------------

6230 * oracles -- these establish an interface between Isabelle and trusted

6231 external reasoners, which may deliver results as theorems;

6233 * proof objects (in particular record all uses of oracles);

6235 * Simp_tac, Fast_tac, etc. that refer to implicit simpset / claset;

6237 * "constdefs" section in theory files;

6239 * "primrec" section (HOL) no longer requires names;

6241 * internal type "tactic" now simply "thm -> thm Sequence.seq";

6245 New in Isabelle94-5

6246 -------------------

6248 * reduced space requirements;

6250 * automatic HTML generation from theories;

6252 * theory files no longer require "..." (quotes) around most types;

6254 * new examples, including two proofs of the Church-Rosser theorem;

6256 * non-curried (1994) version of HOL is no longer distributed;

6260 New in Isabelle94-4

6261 -------------------

6263 * greatly reduced space requirements;</