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NEWS

author | haftmann |

Tue Aug 09 07:44:17 2011 +0200 (2011-08-09) | |

changeset 44086 | c0847967a25a |

parent 44081 | 730f7cced3a6 |

parent 44082 | 81e55342cb86 |

child 44103 | cedaca00789f |

permissions | -rw-r--r-- |

merged

1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes

2 ==============================================

4 New in this Isabelle version

5 ----------------------------

7 *** General ***

9 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1

10 digests. Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional

11 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.

13 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to

14 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100). See also isabelle

15 usedir option -Q.

17 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version

18 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.

20 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been

21 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.

23 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master

24 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).

25 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.

26 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the

27 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".

28 INCOMPATIBILITY.

30 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and

31 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:

33 ISABELLE_CSDP (formerly CSDP_EXE)

34 ISABELLE_GHC (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)

35 ISABELLE_OCAML (formerly EXEC_OCAML)

36 ISABELLE_SWIPL (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)

37 ISABELLE_YAP (formerly EXEC_YAP)

39 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has

40 been discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY.

42 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper

43 configuration options, with more conventional names:

45 long_names ~> names_long

46 short_names ~> names_short

47 unique_names ~> names_unique

49 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:

51 declare [[names_unique = false]]

53 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`. Note

54 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications

55 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.

57 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual provides more formal references in

58 syntax diagrams.

61 *** HOL ***

63 * Classes bot and top require underlying partial order rather than preorder:

64 uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

66 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;

67 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong. New type classes for complete

68 boolean algebras and complete linear orders. Lemmas Inf_less_iff,

69 less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in class complete_linorder.

70 Changes proposition of lemmas Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.

71 Redundant lemmas Inf_singleton, Sup_singleton, Inf_binary and Sup_binary have

72 been discarded.

73 More consistent and less misunderstandable names:

74 INFI_def ~> INF_def

75 SUPR_def ~> SUP_def

76 le_SUPI ~> le_SUP_I

77 le_SUPI2 ~> le_SUP_I2

78 le_INFI ~> le_INF_I

79 INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq

80 SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq

81 INFI_apply ~> INF_apply

82 SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply

83 INCOMPATIBILITY.

85 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems referring

86 to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection UN_ball_bex_simps.

87 INCOMPATIBILITY.

89 * Archimedean_Field.thy:

90 floor now is defined as parameter of a separate type class floor_ceiling.

92 * Finite_Set.thy: more coherent development of fold_set locales:

94 locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute

95 locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem

97 Both use point-free characterisation; interpretation proofs may need adjustment.

98 INCOMPATIBILITY.

100 * Code generation:

101 - theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of characters

102 in the target language.

103 - commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code instead.

104 - method evaluation is legacy, use method eval instead.

105 - legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default. To activate it, add the following

106 line in your theory:

107 setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}

109 * Declare ext [intro] by default. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.

111 * Nitpick:

112 - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.

113 - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.

114 - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.

115 INCOMPATIBILITY.

117 * Sledgehammer:

118 - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.

119 INCOMPATIBILITY.

120 - Added support for SNARK and ToFoF-E on SystemOnTPTP and for simply typed

121 TPTP problems (TFF).

122 - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound", "max_mono_iters",

123 and "max_new_mono_instances" options.

124 - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full Types"

125 Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.

127 * Metis:

128 - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

129 - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

131 * "try":

132 - Renamed "try_methods" and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and "elim:"

133 options. INCOMPATIBILITY.

134 - Introduced "try" that not only runs "try_methods" but also "solve_direct",

135 "sledgehammer", "quickcheck", and "nitpick".

137 * Quickcheck:

138 - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample

139 (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester)

140 - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples

141 (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester)

142 - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables

143 narrowing-based testing.

144 It requires that the Glasgow Haskell compiler is installed and

145 its location is known to Isabelle with the environment variable

146 ISABELLE_GHC.

147 - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator

148 from HOL-Library

150 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".

151 INCOMPATIBILITY. Use partial_function instead.

153 * HOL-Probability:

154 - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.

155 - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.

156 - Use extended reals instead of positive extended reals.

157 INCOMPATIBILITY.

159 * Old recdef package has been moved to Library/Old_Recdef.thy, where it

160 must be loaded explicitly. INCOMPATIBILITY.

162 * Well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has been moved to

163 Library/Wfrec.thy. INCOMPATIBILITY.

165 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to Library/Extended_Nat.

166 The names of the following types and constants have changed:

167 inat (type) ~> enat

168 Fin ~> enat

169 Infty ~> infinity (overloaded)

170 iSuc ~> eSuc

171 the_Fin ~> the_enat

172 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has

173 been renamed accordingly.

175 * Limits.thy: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in

176 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.

179 *** Document preparation ***

181 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators, which are better

182 avoided in the first place. Implicit tab-width is 1.

184 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also

185 isar-ref manual.

187 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its result.

189 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups

190 like this:

192 \isabellestyle{it} %preferred default

193 {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}

195 * New term style "isub" as ad-hoc conversion of variables x1, y23 into

196 subscripted form x\<^isub>1, y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.

198 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>

199 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).

202 *** ML ***

204 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML

205 representations within quoted string tokens. By encoding logical

206 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be

207 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text

208 under external program control.

210 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory

211 data, which requires explicit setup.

213 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official

214 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop

215 (better known as Proof General).

217 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme. Old

218 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.

220 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes

221 former start_timing/end_timing etc.

223 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users

224 (including quotes etc.).

226 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories

227 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as

228 type constraints). Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant

229 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints. Positions can

230 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /

231 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant

232 "_strip_positions" within parse trees. As last resort, positions can

233 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is

234 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.

236 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute

237 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less

238 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY,

239 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,

240 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.

242 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is

243 already available via context of "advanced" translation.

245 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic

246 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.

248 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving

249 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).

251 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types

252 claset/clasimpset. Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs

253 operate directly on Proof.context. Raw type claset retains its use as

254 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via

255 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc. Type clasimpset has been discontinued.

256 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require

257 proper Proof.context.

259 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static

260 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.

261 For example:

263 Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"

267 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)

268 ----------------------------------

270 *** General ***

272 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see

273 src/Tools/jEdit). This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with

274 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis. The

275 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run

276 like this:

278 Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit

280 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.

282 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER

283 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),

284 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra

285 suffix. This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each

286 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.

287 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.

289 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned

290 ISO-Latin-1. INCOMPATIBILITY. Isabelle LaTeX documents might require

291 the following package declarations:

293 \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}

294 \usepackage{textcomp}

296 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that

297 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of

298 non-ASCII bytes as before. Since Isabelle/ML string literals may

299 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be

300 used here as well. Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a

301 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)

302 merely give a byte-oriented representation.

304 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master

305 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).

306 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.

307 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use

308 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.

310 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.

311 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --

312 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies. Recall that Isabelle/ML

313 files exclusively use the .ML extension. Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.

315 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly

316 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of

317 unsynchronized references or print modes. There are both ML Config.T

318 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.

320 ML (Config.T) Isar (attribute)

322 eta_contract eta_contract

323 show_brackets show_brackets

324 show_sorts show_sorts

325 show_types show_types

326 show_question_marks show_question_marks

327 show_consts show_consts

328 show_abbrevs show_abbrevs

330 Syntax.ast_trace syntax_ast_trace

331 Syntax.ast_stat syntax_ast_stat

332 Syntax.ambiguity_level syntax_ambiguity_level

334 Goal_Display.goals_limit goals_limit

335 Goal_Display.show_main_goal show_main_goal

337 Method.rule_trace rule_trace

339 Thy_Output.display thy_output_display

340 Thy_Output.quotes thy_output_quotes

341 Thy_Output.indent thy_output_indent

342 Thy_Output.source thy_output_source

343 Thy_Output.break thy_output_break

345 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be

346 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.

347 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode

348 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.

350 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.

351 INCOMPATIBILITY.

353 trace_simp ~> simp_trace

354 debug_simp ~> simp_debug

356 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic

357 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for

358 float_token.

360 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):

361 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.

362 INCOMPATIBILITY.

364 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from

365 DejaVu Sans.

367 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.

370 *** Pure ***

372 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat

373 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some

374 time.

376 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)

377 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

379 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for

380 experimentation in Isar without any result. INCOMPATIBILITY.

382 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept

383 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate

384 entities in the context of the interpretation. The 'interpretation'

385 command already provided this functionality.

387 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances

388 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in

389 the current context. Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context

390 without interpretations.

392 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs

393 in addition to interpretations in theories.

395 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate

396 the theory name space. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY. The ML functions

397 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this

398 feature is still required for historical reasons.

400 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

401 'definition' instead.

403 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of

404 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as

405 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon. Consider using "assms"

406 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.

408 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type

409 constructors.

411 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within

412 the local file system.

415 *** HOL ***

417 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type

418 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term. Theory

419 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as

420 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:

422 declare [[coercion f]]

424 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to

425 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.

427 declare [[coercion_map map]]

429 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including

430 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main. This is controlled by

431 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in

432 other theories like this:

434 declare [[coercion_enabled]]

436 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive

437 function definitions over complete partial orders. Concrete instances

438 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary

439 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL. See

440 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy

441 for examples.

443 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared

444 as [simp]. INCOMPATIBILITY.

446 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class

447 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.

449 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to

450 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for

451 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.

453 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the

454 functorial structure of types.

456 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator

457 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.

459 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target

460 languages.

462 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"

463 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".

464 INCOMPATIBILITY.

466 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints

467 to standard output. INCOMPATIBILITY.

469 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case

470 combinators any longer.

472 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with

473 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".

475 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record

476 types. Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code

477 generation any longer. INCOMPATIBILITY. In cases of need, a suitable

478 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:

480 record 'a foo = ...

481 ...

482 rep_datatype foo_ext ...

484 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a

485 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).

486 INCOMPATIBILITY.

488 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random

489 testing. Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",

490 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".

492 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite

493 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to

494 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.

496 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to

497 "random". INCOMPATIBILITY.

499 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30

500 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the

501 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set

502 independently.

504 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for

505 counter example search.

507 * Sledgehammer:

508 - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof

509 method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc

510 sledgehammer").

511 - Renamed commands:

512 sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers

513 sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers

514 sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers

515 INCOMPATIBILITY.

516 - Renamed options:

517 sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]

518 sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]

519 sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]

520 (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)

521 INCOMPATIBILITY.

523 * Nitpick:

524 - Renamed options:

525 nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]

526 nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]

527 INCOMPATIBILITY.

528 - Added support for partial quotient types.

529 - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.

530 - Added "whack" option.

531 - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.

532 - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.

533 - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.

534 - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach

535 higher cardinalities.

536 - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.

538 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options

539 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled

540 to diagnose these tools. E.g.

542 using [[metis_trace = true]]

544 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct". The tool is now available

545 manually as command 'solve_direct'.

547 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to

548 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable

549 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example. For

550 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;

551 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option

552 "smt_solver".

554 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,

555 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".

557 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using

558 the oracle mode (no proofs). Direct support of pairs has been dropped

559 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT

560 support for a similar behavior). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

562 * Changed SMT configuration options:

563 - Renamed:

564 z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)

565 z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts

566 INCOMPATIBILITY.

567 - Added:

568 smt_verbose

569 smt_random_seed

570 smt_datatypes

571 smt_infer_triggers

572 smt_monomorph_limit

573 cvc3_options

574 remote_cvc3_options

575 remote_z3_options

576 yices_options

578 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory

579 header.

581 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list

582 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions. Occasional

583 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:

585 declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]

587 * Removed old version of primrec package. INCOMPATIBILITY.

589 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long

590 been the case with "split". INCOMPATIBILITY.

592 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype. INCOMPATIBILITY.

594 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of

595 [split_format]. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

597 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction

598 rules. INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.

600 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name

601 contents for other uses. INCOMPATIBILITY.

603 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class

604 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various

605 tuning. INCOMPATIBILITY.

607 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1. INCOMPATIBILITY.

609 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".

610 INCOMPATIBILITY.

612 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to

613 avoid confusion with finite sets. INCOMPATIBILITY.

615 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence

616 relations. INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same

617 for congruent(2)).

619 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:

621 types

622 bool ~> HOL.bool

623 nat ~> Nat.nat

625 constants

626 Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop

627 True ~> HOL.True

628 False ~> HOL.False

629 op & ~> HOL.conj

630 op | ~> HOL.disj

631 op --> ~> HOL.implies

632 op = ~> HOL.eq

633 Not ~> HOL.Not

634 The ~> HOL.The

635 All ~> HOL.All

636 Ex ~> HOL.Ex

637 Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1

638 Let ~> HOL.Let

639 If ~> HOL.If

640 Ball ~> Set.Ball

641 Bex ~> Set.Bex

642 Suc ~> Nat.Suc

643 Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair

644 fst ~> Product_Type.fst

645 snd ~> Product_Type.snd

646 curry ~> Product_Type.curry

647 op : ~> Set.member

648 Collect ~> Set.Collect

650 INCOMPATIBILITY.

652 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:

654 bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def

655 top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def

656 inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def

657 sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def

658 bot_fun_eq ~> bot_fun_def

659 top_fun_eq ~> top_fun_def

660 inf_fun_eq ~> inf_fun_def

661 sup_fun_eq ~> sup_fun_def

663 INCOMPATIBILITY.

665 * More stylized fact names:

667 expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff

668 expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff

669 set_ext ~> set_eqI

670 nat_number ~> eval_nat_numeral

672 INCOMPATIBILITY.

674 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:

676 constants

677 null ~> List.null

679 facts

680 mem_iff ~> member_def

681 null_empty ~> null_def

683 INCOMPATIBILITY. Note that these were not supposed to be used

684 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code

685 generation.

687 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating

688 Haskell code.

690 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV". Term

691 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV". The theorems

692 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged. INCOMPATIBILITY.

694 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace

695 "*" and "+" respectively. INCOMPATIBILITY.

697 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden. Write

698 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.

700 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of

701 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,

702 though. INCOMPATIBILITY.

704 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"

705 instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

707 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".

708 INCOMPATIBILITY.

710 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.

711 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be

712 referred to by its qualified name.

714 enum ~> Enum.enum

715 nlists ~> Enum.nlists

716 product ~> Enum.product

718 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.

719 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.

720 INCOMPATIBILITY.

722 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into

723 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names

724 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.

725 INCOMPATIBILITY.

727 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of

728 sort_key.

730 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.

731 INCOMPATIBILITY.

733 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean

734 space. Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces

735 instead of finite cartesian products.

737 types

738 real ^ 'n ~> 'a::real_vector

739 ~> 'a::euclidean_space

740 ~> 'a::ordered_euclidean_space

741 (depends on your needs)

743 constants

744 _ $ _ ~> _ $$ _

745 \<chi> x. _ ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _

746 CARD('n) ~> DIM('a)

748 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some

749 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products

750 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to

751 be euclidean_spaces. INCOMPATIBILITY.

753 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real

754 numbers. Use pextreal as value for measures. Introduce the

755 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for

756 arbitrary sigma finite measures. Introduces Lebesgue measure based on

757 the integral in Multivariate Analysis. INCOMPATIBILITY.

759 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.

760 INCOMPATIBILITY.

762 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and

763 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program

764 verifier. See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.

767 *** HOL-Algebra ***

769 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and

770 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative

771 counterparts. Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory

772 qualifier 'add'. Previous theorem names are redeclared for

773 compatibility.

775 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a

776 definition). This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.

779 *** HOLCF ***

781 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The

782 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'. To use the domain

783 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.

784 INCOMPATIBILITY.

786 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort. Class "predomain"

787 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by

788 replacing sort annotations as shown below. INCOMPATIBILITY.

790 'a::type ~> 'a::countable

791 'a::cpo ~> 'a::predomain

792 'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain

794 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".

795 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any

796 "default_sort rep" declarations. INCOMPATIBILITY.

798 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed

799 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict

800 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following

801 domain definition now works:

803 domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")

805 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class

806 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,

807 'a option, and 'a list. Additionally, it configures fixrec and the

808 domain package to work with these types. For example:

810 fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"

811 where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"

813 domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")

815 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a

816 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See

817 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.

819 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class

820 now just asserts that such a function exists. INCOMPATIBILITY.

822 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl". HOLCF no longer

823 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances

824 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in

825 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.

827 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".

829 * The predicate "directed" has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

831 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

833 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".

834 INCOMPATIBILITY.

836 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax

837 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents

838 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".

840 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed

841 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set

842 syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY.

844 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom". The syntax "UU" is

845 still supported as an input translation.

847 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).

849 expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff

850 below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI

851 expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff

852 ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI

853 expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff

854 below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI

855 cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP

857 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.

858 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.

860 Rep_CFun ~> Rep_cfun

861 Abs_CFun ~> Abs_cfun

862 Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod

863 Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod

864 Rep_Ssum ~> Rep_ssum

865 Abs_Ssum ~> Abs_ssum

867 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have

868 been renamed to *_bottom_iff. INCOMPATIBILITY.

870 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:

872 - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.

873 - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.

874 - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.

875 - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.

877 INCOMPATIBILITY.

879 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are

880 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when". INCOMPATIBILITY.

882 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the

883 names of constants and types involved. INCOMPATIBILITY.

885 thelub_const ~> lub_const

886 lub_const ~> is_lub_const

887 thelubI ~> lub_eqI

888 is_lub_lub ~> is_lubD2

889 lubI ~> is_lub_lub

890 unique_lub ~> is_lub_unique

891 is_ub_lub ~> is_lub_rangeD1

892 lub_bin_chain ~> is_lub_bin_chain

893 lub_fun ~> is_lub_fun

894 thelub_fun ~> lub_fun

895 thelub_cfun ~> lub_cfun

896 thelub_Pair ~> lub_Pair

897 lub_cprod ~> is_lub_prod

898 thelub_cprod ~> lub_prod

899 minimal_cprod ~> minimal_prod

900 inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo

901 UU_I ~> bottomI

902 compact_UU ~> compact_bottom

903 deflation_UU ~> deflation_bottom

904 finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom

906 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY.

908 sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans

909 sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans

910 refl_less ~> below_refl

911 trans_less ~> below_trans

912 antisym_less ~> below_antisym

913 antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]

914 box_less ~> box_below

915 rev_trans_less ~> rev_below_trans

916 not_less2not_eq ~> not_below2not_eq

917 less_UU_iff ~> below_UU_iff

918 flat_less_iff ~> flat_below_iff

919 adm_less ~> adm_below

920 adm_not_less ~> adm_not_below

921 adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below

922 less_fun_def ~> below_fun_def

923 expand_fun_less ~> fun_below_iff

924 less_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI

925 less_discr_def ~> below_discr_def

926 discr_less_eq ~> discr_below_eq

927 less_unit_def ~> below_unit_def

928 less_cprod_def ~> below_prod_def

929 prod_lessI ~> prod_belowI

930 Pair_less_iff ~> Pair_below_iff

931 fst_less_iff ~> fst_below_iff

932 snd_less_iff ~> snd_below_iff

933 expand_cfun_less ~> cfun_below_iff

934 less_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI

935 injection_less ~> injection_below

936 less_up_def ~> below_up_def

937 not_Iup_less ~> not_Iup_below

938 Iup_less ~> Iup_below

939 up_less ~> up_below

940 Def_inject_less_eq ~> Def_below_Def

941 Def_less_is_eq ~> Def_below_iff

942 spair_less_iff ~> spair_below_iff

943 less_sprod ~> below_sprod

944 spair_less ~> spair_below

945 sfst_less_iff ~> sfst_below_iff

946 ssnd_less_iff ~> ssnd_below_iff

947 fix_least_less ~> fix_least_below

948 dist_less_one ~> dist_below_one

949 less_ONE ~> below_ONE

950 ONE_less_iff ~> ONE_below_iff

951 less_sinlD ~> below_sinlD

952 less_sinrD ~> below_sinrD

955 *** FOL and ZF ***

957 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper

958 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =". INCOMPATIBILITY.

961 *** ML ***

963 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises

964 Fail if the argument is false. Due to inlining the source position of

965 failed assertions is included in the error output.

967 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML

968 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.

969 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.

971 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of

972 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.

973 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.

975 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority

976 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.

978 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax

979 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.

981 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with

982 ListPair.UnequalLengths.

984 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier. Note that the

985 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.

987 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its

988 meaning. Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in

989 almost all situations.

991 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.

992 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in

993 Isabelle/ML.

995 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its

996 meaning.

998 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its

999 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is

1000 rarely-used global-only stuff.

1002 * Discontinued Output.debug. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln

1003 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).

1005 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty

1006 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.

1008 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive. Rare

1009 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and

1010 @{thms} for most purposes.

1012 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar

1013 interaction mode as before. Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been

1014 discontinued -- use plain := instead. This should be *rare* anyway,

1015 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably

1016 configuration options.

1018 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning

1019 interrupts. Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that

1020 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt. User code must not absorb

1021 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be

1022 followed by re-raising of the original exception. Another common

1023 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of

1024 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.

1028 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)

1029 ---------------------------------

1031 *** General ***

1033 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type

1034 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust

1035 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax. Within

1036 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by

1037 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with

1038 their full internal name.

1040 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations

1041 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).

1042 Some hints on upgrading:

1044 - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced

1045 by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',

1046 which are independent of this issue.

1048 - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax

1049 provides the following special forms:

1051 CONST c -- produces syntax version of constant c from context

1052 XCONST c -- literally c, checked as constant from context

1053 c -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'

1055 Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the

1056 system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains

1057 extra variables".

1059 Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their

1060 concrete syntax. Some old translations rules need to be written

1061 for the "type" category, using type constructor application

1062 instead of pseudo-term application of the default category

1063 "logic".

1065 - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following

1066 antiquotations:

1068 @{class_syntax c} -- type class c within parse tree / AST

1069 @{term_syntax c} -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST

1070 @{const_syntax c} -- ML version of "CONST c" above

1071 @{syntax_const c} -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)

1073 - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*

1074 represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim. Use @{class

1075 c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax

1076 antiquotations.

1078 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base

1079 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide. Recall

1080 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to

1081 diagnose syntax problems.

1083 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.

1085 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof

1086 body, too. This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',

1087 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is

1088 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.

1090 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --

1091 need to specify constant name and syntax separately. Internal ML

1092 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.

1093 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

1095 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,

1096 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',

1097 'schematic_corollary'. Thus the relevance of the proof is made

1098 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or

1099 asynchronous interactive environment. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

1101 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been

1102 discontinued (old legacy feature).

1104 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by

1105 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the

1106 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via

1108 using [[trace_simp = true]]

1110 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in

1111 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or

1112 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.

1114 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',

1115 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command. Minor

1116 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1118 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is

1119 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.

1122 *** Pure ***

1124 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the

1125 "unconstrain" operation internally. This eliminates all sort

1126 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit

1127 OFCLASS-premises. On the proof term level, this operation is

1128 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs

1129 are always free of sort constraints. INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that

1130 inspect proof terms.

1132 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that

1133 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself

1134 are added internally. For example:

1136 definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"

1138 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory

1139 "class" prefix. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1141 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1143 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

1144 'class' instead.

1146 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into

1147 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.

1148 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1150 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying

1151 invariants.

1153 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the

1154 user space functionality any longer.

1156 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale

1157 subgoals. This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.

1158 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1160 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body. This allows to

1161 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.

1163 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax

1164 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the

1165 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).

1167 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory

1168 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or

1169 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.

1171 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works

1172 within a local theory context. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

1175 *** HOL ***

1177 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without

1178 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not

1179 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL. Note that the logical environment may

1180 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different

1181 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.

1183 * New package for quotient types. Commands 'quotient_type' and

1184 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by

1185 quotient constructions. An example is the type of integers created by

1186 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:

1188 fun

1189 intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"

1190 where

1191 "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"

1193 quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel

1194 by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)

1196 quotient_definition

1197 "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"

1199 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the

1200 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type. The example

1201 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient

1202 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.

1204 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid

1205 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.

1207 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating

1208 separate HOL-SMT session.

1210 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.

1211 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1213 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed. Use library Word/Word.thy

1214 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in

1215 the AFP entry RSAPPS.

1217 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no

1218 longer shadowed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1220 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.

1221 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1223 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.

1224 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1226 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes

1227 instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1229 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and

1230 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"

1231 instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1233 floor_number_of_eq ~> floor_number_of

1234 le_floor_eq_number_of ~> number_of_le_floor

1235 le_floor_eq_zero ~> zero_le_floor

1236 le_floor_eq_one ~> one_le_floor

1237 floor_less_eq_number_of ~> floor_less_number_of

1238 floor_less_eq_zero ~> floor_less_zero

1239 floor_less_eq_one ~> floor_less_one

1240 less_floor_eq_number_of ~> number_of_less_floor

1241 less_floor_eq_zero ~> zero_less_floor

1242 less_floor_eq_one ~> one_less_floor

1243 floor_le_eq_number_of ~> floor_le_number_of

1244 floor_le_eq_zero ~> floor_le_zero

1245 floor_le_eq_one ~> floor_le_one

1246 floor_subtract_number_of ~> floor_diff_number_of

1247 floor_subtract_one ~> floor_diff_one

1248 ceiling_number_of_eq ~> ceiling_number_of

1249 ceiling_le_eq_number_of ~> ceiling_le_number_of

1250 ceiling_le_zero_eq ~> ceiling_le_zero

1251 ceiling_le_eq_one ~> ceiling_le_one

1252 less_ceiling_eq_number_of ~> number_of_less_ceiling

1253 less_ceiling_eq_zero ~> zero_less_ceiling

1254 less_ceiling_eq_one ~> one_less_ceiling

1255 ceiling_less_eq_number_of ~> ceiling_less_number_of

1256 ceiling_less_eq_zero ~> ceiling_less_zero

1257 ceiling_less_eq_one ~> ceiling_less_one

1258 le_ceiling_eq_number_of ~> number_of_le_ceiling

1259 le_ceiling_eq_zero ~> zero_le_ceiling

1260 le_ceiling_eq_one ~> one_le_ceiling

1261 ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of

1262 ceiling_subtract_one ~> ceiling_diff_one

1264 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the

1265 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.

1267 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"

1268 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as

1269 implementation. INCOMPATIBILTY.

1271 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by

1272 AFP/thys/Coinductive.

1274 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has

1275 been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1277 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.

1279 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,

1280 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1282 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",

1283 "Int" etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1285 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1287 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute

1288 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.

1290 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory

1291 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more

1292 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes

1293 within the HOL theories. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1295 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:

1296 - less_eq, less: Orderings

1297 - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups

1298 - inverse, divide: Rings

1299 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1301 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and

1302 lattices):

1304 lower_semilattice ~> semilattice_inf

1305 upper_semilattice ~> semilattice_sup

1307 dense_linear_order ~> dense_linorder

1309 pordered_ab_group_add ~> ordered_ab_group_add

1310 pordered_ab_group_add_abs ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs

1311 pordered_ab_semigroup_add ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add

1312 pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le

1313 pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add

1314 pordered_cancel_comm_semiring ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring

1315 pordered_cancel_semiring ~> ordered_cancel_semiring

1316 pordered_comm_monoid_add ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add

1317 pordered_comm_ring ~> ordered_comm_ring

1318 pordered_comm_semiring ~> ordered_comm_semiring

1319 pordered_ring ~> ordered_ring

1320 pordered_ring_abs ~> ordered_ring_abs

1321 pordered_semiring ~> ordered_semiring

1323 ordered_ab_group_add ~> linordered_ab_group_add

1324 ordered_ab_semigroup_add ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add

1325 ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add

1326 ordered_comm_semiring_strict ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict

1327 ordered_field ~> linordered_field

1328 ordered_field_no_lb ~> linordered_field_no_lb

1329 ordered_field_no_ub ~> linordered_field_no_ub

1330 ordered_field_dense_linear_order ~> dense_linordered_field

1331 ordered_idom ~> linordered_idom

1332 ordered_ring ~> linordered_ring

1333 ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor

1334 ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor

1335 ordered_ring_strict ~> linordered_ring_strict

1336 ordered_semidom ~> linordered_semidom

1337 ordered_semiring ~> linordered_semiring

1338 ordered_semiring_1 ~> linordered_semiring_1

1339 ordered_semiring_1_strict ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict

1340 ordered_semiring_strict ~> linordered_semiring_strict

1342 The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a

1343 separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:

1345 lordered_ab_group_add ~> lattice_ab_group_add

1346 lordered_ab_group_add_abs ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs

1347 lordered_ab_group_add_meet ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add

1348 lordered_ab_group_add_join ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add

1349 lordered_ring ~> lattice_ring

1351 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1353 * Refined field classes:

1354 - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,

1355 linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --

1356 subsumes former division_by_zero class;

1357 - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.

1358 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1360 * Refined algebra theorem collections:

1361 - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;

1362 - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;

1363 - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem

1364 groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;

1365 - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for

1366 equal_neg_zero.

1367 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1369 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from

1370 sets to lattices:

1372 fun_left_comm_idem_inter ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf

1373 fun_left_comm_idem_union ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup

1374 inter_Inter_fold_inter ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf

1375 union_Union_fold_union ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup

1376 Inter_fold_inter ~> Inf_fold_inf

1377 Union_fold_union ~> Sup_fold_sup

1378 inter_INTER_fold_inter ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf

1379 union_UNION_fold_union ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup

1380 INTER_fold_inter ~> INFI_fold_inf

1381 UNION_fold_union ~> SUPR_fold_sup

1383 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been

1384 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.

1385 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed

1386 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert. Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace

1387 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ. Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right

1388 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1390 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and

1391 multiset order:

1393 - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax

1394 <= and <;

1395 - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties

1396 are provided by means of interpretation with prefix

1397 multiset_order;

1398 - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,

1399 conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code

1400 generation;

1401 - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,

1402 if needed.

1404 Renamed:

1406 multiset_eq_conv_count_eq ~> multiset_ext_iff

1407 multi_count_ext ~> multiset_ext

1408 diff_union_inverse2 ~> diff_union_cancelR

1410 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1412 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.

1414 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.

1416 * Theory List: added transpose.

1418 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions

1419 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries

1420 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1422 Constants:

1423 Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat ~> prod_encode

1424 Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2 ~> prod_decode

1425 Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij ~> int_encode

1426 Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij ~> int_decode

1427 Countable.pair_encode ~> prod_encode

1428 NatIso.prod2nat ~> prod_encode

1429 NatIso.nat2prod ~> prod_decode

1430 NatIso.sum2nat ~> sum_encode

1431 NatIso.nat2sum ~> sum_decode

1432 NatIso.list2nat ~> list_encode

1433 NatIso.nat2list ~> list_decode

1434 NatIso.set2nat ~> set_encode

1435 NatIso.nat2set ~> set_decode

1437 Lemmas:

1438 Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij ~> bij_int_decode

1439 Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj ~> inj_prod_encode

1440 Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj ~> surj_prod_encode

1441 Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj ~> inj_prod_decode

1442 Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj ~> surj_prod_decode

1443 Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id ~> int_encode_inverse

1444 Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id ~> int_decode_inverse

1445 Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode

1446 Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode

1447 Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij ~> inj_int_encode

1448 Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij ~> inj_int_decode

1449 Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij ~> bij_int_encode

1450 Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij ~> bij_int_decode

1452 * Sledgehammer:

1453 - Renamed ATP commands:

1454 atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_atps

1455 atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_atps

1456 atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages

1457 atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize

1458 print_atps ~> sledgehammer available_atps

1459 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1460 - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").

1461 - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize

1462 Sledgehammer's behavior. See the manual for details.

1463 - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces

1464 direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction. (This feature

1465 is still experimental.)

1466 - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in

1467 full-typed mode.

1468 - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.

1470 * Nitpick:

1471 - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.

1472 - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.

1473 - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision

1474 of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.

1475 - Added support for quotient types.

1476 - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"

1477 constructs.

1478 - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and

1479 "termination" proofs).

1480 - Added support for term postprocessors.

1481 - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".

1482 - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.

1483 - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and

1484 record getters.

1485 - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.

1486 - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.

1487 - Improved precision of set constructs.

1488 - Added "atoms" option.

1489 - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same

1490 problems.

1491 - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and

1492 "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and

1493 "SAT4J_Light". INCOMPATIBILITY.

1494 - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",

1495 "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1496 - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1498 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not

1499 a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.

1500 If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.

1501 By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations

1502 are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases

1503 to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.

1504 Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old

1505 behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"

1506 and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.

1507 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1510 *** HOLCF ***

1512 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have

1513 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype

1514 package. Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.

1516 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for

1517 recursive domain "foo". The reach lemma is now stated directly in

1518 terms of "foo_take". Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must

1519 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.

1521 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously

1522 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form

1523 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.

1524 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,

1525 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

1527 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now

1528 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each

1529 constructor). INCOMPATIBILITY.

1531 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"

1532 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.

1534 foo_bar.reach ~> foo.reach bar.reach

1535 foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma bar.take_lemma

1537 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for

1538 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.

1540 foo.ind ~> foo.induct

1541 foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct

1542 foo.coind ~> foo.coinduct

1543 foo.casedist ~> foo.exhaust

1544 foo.exhaust ~> foo.nchotomy

1546 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package

1547 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.

1549 foo_simps ~> foo.simps

1550 foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold

1551 foo_induct ~> foo.induct

1553 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed. The "fixrec_simp"

1554 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.

1555 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1557 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed. Proof scripts should use

1558 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.

1560 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.

1562 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of

1563 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.

1566 *** ML ***

1568 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:

1570 @{class NAME} -- type class

1571 @{class_syntax NAME} -- syntax representation of the above

1573 @{type_name NAME} -- logical type

1574 @{type_abbrev NAME} -- type abbreviation

1575 @{nonterminal NAME} -- type of concrete syntactic category

1576 @{type_syntax NAME} -- syntax representation of any of the above

1578 @{const_name NAME} -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)

1579 @{const_abbrev NAME} -- abbreviated constant

1580 @{const_syntax NAME} -- syntax representation of any of the above

1582 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw

1583 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).

1585 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary

1586 values similar to the ML toplevel. The result is compiler dependent

1587 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.

1589 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to

1590 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}. This replaces impure

1591 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do

1592 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.

1594 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on

1595 the context or even global references.

1597 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174). It

1598 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).

1600 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names

1601 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:

1603 OuterKeyword ~> Keyword

1604 OuterLex ~> Token

1605 OuterParse ~> Parse

1606 OuterSyntax ~> Outer_Syntax

1607 PrintMode ~> Print_Mode

1608 SpecParse ~> Parse_Spec

1609 ThyInfo ~> Thy_Info

1610 ThyLoad ~> Thy_Load

1611 ThyOutput ~> Thy_Output

1612 TypeInfer ~> Type_Infer

1614 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting

1615 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.

1617 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named

1618 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or

1619 ProofContext.init_global. There are some situations where a global

1620 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to

1621 pass the proper local context through the code!

1623 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data

1624 needs to be pure. Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional

1625 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard

1626 Theory_Data version.

1628 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms

1629 no longer minimize sorts. Thus certification at the boundary of the

1630 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,

1631 which is an important monotonicity principle. Sorts are now minimized

1632 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the

1633 system. Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort

1634 explicitly in rare situations.

1636 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to

1637 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.

1638 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1640 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as

1641 usual for resolution. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.

1643 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global

1644 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is

1645 quite rare).

1647 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted

1648 as infinity (as in chop). Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.

1650 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical

1651 order of type variables. INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof

1652 terms.

1654 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs

1655 may no longer carry premises. User-level specifications are

1656 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.

1659 *** System ***

1661 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;

1662 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions. Note that

1663 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.

1665 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy

1666 feature since Isabelle2009). Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,

1667 respectively.

1669 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the

1670 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit

1671 variant, even on a 64 bit machine. The following example setting

1672 prefers 64 bit if available:

1674 ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"

1676 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging

1677 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.

1678 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built

1679 component.

1681 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono

1682 and Bluesky TeX fonts. It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,

1683 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system

1684 (cf. isabellesym.sty). The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System

1685 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking

1686 the user for manual installation.

1690 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)

1691 -------------------------------------

1693 *** General ***

1695 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>. Only

1696 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.

1699 *** Pure ***

1701 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.

1702 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map

1703 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.

1705 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'. Use "print_interps

1706 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.

1707 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.

1709 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial. New section on conditional

1710 interpretation.

1712 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters

1713 are formally declared. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1716 *** Document preparation ***

1718 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}

1719 instead of @{foo_style style ...} (old form is still retained for

1720 backward compatibility). Styles can be also applied for

1721 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.

1724 *** HOL ***

1726 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with

1727 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and

1728 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order

1729 features (esp. lambda abstractions). It is an incomplete decision

1730 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;

1731 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing. Certificates

1732 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for

1733 re-checking proofs. Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for

1734 installing SMT solvers locally. See src/HOL/SMT.

1736 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by

1737 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C

1738 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#). See src/HOL/Boogie.

1740 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod

1741 relational model finder. See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and

1742 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.

1744 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate

1745 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.

1747 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.

1749 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;

1750 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records

1751 and datatypes. Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory

1752 Library/SML_Quickcheck.

1754 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools. Applies

1755 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to

1756 every proof step in a theory. To be used in batch mode via the

1757 "mirabelle" utility.

1759 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real

1760 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory

1761 Library/Sum_Of_Squares. It is not a complete decision procedure but

1762 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,

1763 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and

1764 inequalities between polynomials. It makes use of external

1765 semidefinite programming solvers. Method "sos" generates a

1766 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need

1767 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked. See

1768 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.

1770 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision

1771 procedure only.

1773 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.

1775 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.

1776 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs. This slows

1777 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"

1778 that fail later.

1780 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type

1781 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.

1783 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using

1784 the same method as the approximation method.

1786 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as

1787 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor

1788 series expansion.

1790 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype

1791 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.

1793 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of

1794 reals.

1796 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure

1797 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.

1799 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's

1800 fixpoint theorem.

1802 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:

1803 - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides

1804 and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory

1805 - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int

1806 accordingly

1807 - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including

1808 theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)

1809 - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to

1810 src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory

1812 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and

1813 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete

1814 lattice.

1816 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of

1817 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,

1818 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been

1819 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems

1820 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and

1821 zdiv_zmult_zmult2. div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.

1822 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1824 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:

1825 - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default

1826 intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity

1827 - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with

1828 le_inf_iff

1829 - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and

1830 sup_aci)

1831 - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci

1832 - new class "boolean_algebra"

1833 - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory

1834 "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)

1835 renamed and with authentic syntax:

1836 Set.Inf ~> Complete_Lattice.Inf

1837 Set.Sup ~> Complete_Lattice.Sup

1838 Set.INFI ~> Complete_Lattice.INFI

1839 Set.SUPR ~> Complete_Lattice.SUPR

1840 Set.Inter ~> Complete_Lattice.Inter

1841 Set.Union ~> Complete_Lattice.Union

1842 Set.INTER ~> Complete_Lattice.INTER

1843 Set.UNION ~> Complete_Lattice.UNION

1844 - authentic syntax for

1845 Set.Pow

1846 Set.image

1847 - mere abbreviations:

1848 Set.empty (for bot)

1849 Set.UNIV (for top)

1850 Set.inter (for inf, formerly Set.Int)

1851 Set.union (for sup, formerly Set.Un)

1852 Complete_Lattice.Inter (for Inf)

1853 Complete_Lattice.Union (for Sup)

1854 Complete_Lattice.INTER (for INFI)

1855 Complete_Lattice.UNION (for SUPR)

1856 - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate

1858 INCOMPATIBILITY. Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or

1859 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also

1860 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be

1861 deleted to achieve the desired effect.

1863 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp

1864 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1

1865 etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1867 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as

1868 pred_set_conv by default. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1870 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated

1871 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^". Power operation on

1872 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic

1873 in class power. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1875 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:

1876 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}". INCOMPATIBILITY,

1877 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally

1878 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this. Fix using

1879 O_assoc[symmetric]. The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".

1881 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an

1882 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV". Lemmas are renamed accordingly.

1883 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1885 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory

1886 prefixes. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1888 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by

1889 the attribute of the same name. Each of the theorems in the list

1890 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and

1891 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the

1892 Simplifier. Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative

1893 of most elementary terms. Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and

1894 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).

1895 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1897 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:

1898 code_unfold replaces code unfold

1899 code_post replaces code post

1900 etc.

1901 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1903 * Renamed methods:

1904 sizechange -> size_change

1905 induct_scheme -> induction_schema

1906 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1908 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".

1909 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.

1911 * Renamed theorems:

1912 Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1

1913 Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left

1914 Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1

1915 *anti_sym -> *antisym*

1916 vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def

1917 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1919 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp]. Removed List.map_compose.

1920 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1922 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).

1923 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1926 *** HOLCF ***

1928 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are

1929 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".

1930 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.

1932 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the

1933 domain package, for representable domains. Syntax is identical to the

1934 old domain package. The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect

1935 recursion using previously-defined type constructors. See

1936 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.

1938 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant

1939 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs

1940 simplification. Rewriting is done using rules declared with the

1941 "fixrec_simp" attribute. The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a

1942 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.

1944 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors

1945 with HOL function types. Pattern-match combinators for the Pair

1946 constructor are pre-configured.

1948 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules

1949 for mutually-recursive definitions: Induction rules have conclusions

1950 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".

1952 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has

1953 been renamed to "below". The name "below" now replaces "less" in many

1954 theorem names. (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported

1955 as well.)

1957 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns". Bottom

1958 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make

1959 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the

1960 Glasgow Haskell Compiler). See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for

1961 examples.

1964 *** ML ***

1966 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler

1967 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.

1969 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely

1970 identified entries, with some additional information such as source

1971 position, logical grouping etc.

1973 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and

1974 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data. Data needs

1975 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit

1976 copy operation) is still available for some time.

1978 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)

1979 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state

1980 variables with atomic update. This works via pure function

1981 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as

1982 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,

1983 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!

1985 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)

1986 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe

1987 behaviour. The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to

1988 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive

1989 experiments with references.

1991 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for

1992 parallel tactical reasoning.

1994 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS

1995 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the

1996 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the

1997 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.

1999 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has

2000 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion. Use SUBPROOF

2001 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.

2003 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph. (Since

2004 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them

2005 separately.) Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

2007 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2009 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar. Occasional,

2010 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2012 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty

2013 mode, which avoids critical setmp.

2015 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related

2016 combinators for "args". INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified

2017 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.

2019 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of. May fall

2020 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as

2021 last resort. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2023 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former

2024 ProofContext.pretty_thm). May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global

2025 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.

2026 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2028 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

2029 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context

2030 instead of global theory.

2033 *** System ***

2035 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores

2036 (max. speedup factor 5.0). See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and

2037 usedir option -q.

2039 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see

2040 also the system manual.

2042 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with

2043 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".

2045 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;

2046 this is always enabled.

2048 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.

2050 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'

2051 on a given logic image. This requires the lighttpd webserver and is

2052 currently supported on Linux only.

2056 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)

2057 --------------------------------

2059 *** General ***

2061 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on

2062 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).

2064 - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of

2065 "isatool."

2067 - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been

2068 removed (should rarely occur to regular users).

2070 - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been

2071 removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).

2073 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables

2074 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,

2075 respectively. (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)

2077 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if

2078 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise. Individual

2079 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the

2080 Isabelle system manual. In particular, Proof General is now available

2081 via "isabelle emacs".

2083 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts. Users may need to

2084 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle

2085 install -p ...", or use symlinks.

2087 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the

2088 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause

2089 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).

2091 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,

2092 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place. Special

2093 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle. Note that

2094 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any

2095 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.

2097 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on

2098 multi-core systems. A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on

2099 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably

2100 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H). (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)

2102 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and

2103 "system") have been updated and extended. Formally checked references

2104 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.

2107 *** Pure ***

2109 * Complete re-implementation of locales. INCOMPATIBILITY in several

2110 respects. The most important changes are listed below. See the

2111 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.

2113 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming. Parameters

2114 must be declared in a for clause. To aid compatibility with previous

2115 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not

2116 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added

2117 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.

2119 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in

2120 locale expressions and context elements. The latter is particularly

2121 useful in locale declarations.

2123 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale

2124 expressions. Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale

2125 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or

2126 optional (syntax "name?:"). The default depends for plain "name:"

2127 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in

2128 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in

2129 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory. The old

2130 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are

2131 no longer generated.

2133 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e". The

2134 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square

2135 brackets) is no longer available. Use locale expressions.

2137 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in

2138 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even

2139 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior. In the

2140 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones. Qualifiers

2141 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.

2143 - Dropped locale element "includes". This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.

2144 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the

2145 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those

2146 that are already present in the theorem specification. Multiple

2147 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one

2148 involving the locale predicate. In the proof body, declarations (most

2149 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective

2150 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").

2152 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the

2153 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,

2154 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on

2155 the parameters (context element "constrains").

2157 - Discontinued "locale (open)". INCOMPATIBILITY.

2159 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.

2160 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs. Use

2161 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.

2163 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation

2164 attributes. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2166 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import

2167 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification. Particularly

2168 in HOL, write

2170 class foo = ...

2172 instead of

2174 class foo = type + ...

2176 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a

2177 parameter prefix any longer. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2179 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.

2180 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.

2182 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in

2183 Isabelle2007. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really

2184 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.

2186 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in

2187 isar-ref manual. Removed locales meta_term_syntax and

2188 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,

2189 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations. Note that &&& should not be used

2190 directly in regular applications.

2192 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal

2193 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).

2195 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command. INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML

2196 interface with 'setup' command instead.

2198 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local

2199 theory context.

2201 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory

2202 context. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2204 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort

2205 hypotheses. Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be

2206 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the

2207 type instance information of the background theory. Non-trivial sort

2208 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via

2209 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c). For example:

2211 lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...

2213 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --

2214 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule

2215 normalization.

2217 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state

2218 addressing etc.

2220 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:

2222 unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)

2223 unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)

2225 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):

2227 a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular

2228 constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other

2229 parts of the code generator framework).

2231 b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code

2232 attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming

2233 from definition, primrec, fun etc.

2235 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2237 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators. Thus [code

2238 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2240 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name

2241 patterns, e.g.

2243 find_consts "_ => bool"

2245 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to

2246 the whole type. Searching by name is possible. Multiple queries are

2247 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a

2248 hyphen:

2250 find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"

2252 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that

2253 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).

2255 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal

2256 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could

2257 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.

2258 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,

2259 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of

2260 higher-order unification.

2263 *** Document preparation ***

2265 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,

2266 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression

2267 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.

2270 *** HOL ***

2272 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL. Entry

2273 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.

2275 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important

2276 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...). This facilitates

2277 experimentation and tool development. Note that user applications

2278 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory

2279 Main, as before.

2281 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates

2282 experimentation due to shorter build times.

2284 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which

2285 were previously part of former HOL-Complex. Entry point Hyperreal

2286 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use

2287 new entry point Hypercomplex.

2289 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of

2290 Posix processes. Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML

2291 process. New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix

2292 platforms (Cygwin). Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined

2293 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions. Basic Sledgehammer

2294 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.

2296 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use

2297 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other

2298 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also

2299 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.

2301 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings

2302 menu.

2304 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial

2305 (contains the empty clause).

2307 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising

2308 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.

2310 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also

2311 src/Tools/coherent.ML).

2313 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary". Usually

2314 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though

2315 logically there is no difference. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2317 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms. The

2318 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed. In

2319 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be

2320 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]). See further

2321 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.

2323 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.

2324 Declare with attribute [code nbe].

2326 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules

2327 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the

2328 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes. Mutual induction rules

2329 are now presented as a list of individual projections

2330 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with

2331 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported. INCOMPATIBILITY, in

2332 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple

2333 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t

2334 rule: prod.exhaust) here.

2336 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.

2338 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".

2340 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option. Renamed

2341 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.

2343 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial

2344 orders. With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about

2345 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",

2346 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".

2348 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with

2349 authentic syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY:

2351 op Int ~> Set.Int

2352 op Un ~> Set.Un

2353 INTER ~> Set.INTER

2354 UNION ~> Set.UNION

2355 Inter ~> Set.Inter

2356 Union ~> Set.Union

2357 {} ~> Set.empty

2358 UNIV ~> Set.UNIV

2360 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in

2361 theory Set.

2363 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any

2364 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.

2366 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.

2368 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,

2369 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.

2371 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof

2372 method "approximation". It proves formulas on real values by using

2373 interval arithmetic. In the formulas are also the transcendental

2374 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are

2375 allowed. For examples see

2376 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.

2378 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.

2380 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".

2381 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2383 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution

2384 structure:

2386 src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy

2387 src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/

2388 src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/

2389 src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/

2390 src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/

2391 src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/

2392 src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/

2393 src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/

2394 src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/

2395 src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/

2396 src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/

2397 src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/

2398 src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/

2399 src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/

2400 src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/

2401 src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/

2402 src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/

2403 src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/

2404 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/

2405 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/

2406 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/

2407 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/

2408 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/

2409 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/

2410 src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/

2411 src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/

2412 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/

2413 src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/

2414 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/

2415 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/

2416 src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/

2417 src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach

2418 src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/

2420 src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

2421 src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

2422 src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

2423 src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML

2424 src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

2425 src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

2426 src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

2427 src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

2428 src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

2429 src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

2431 src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

2432 src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

2433 src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

2434 src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

2435 src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

2436 src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

2438 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof

2439 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if

2440 possible), avoiding strange error messages.

2442 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a

2443 modification of) the size-change principle. Requires SAT solver. See

2444 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.

2446 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound

2447 variable occurs at most once in let expression body. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2449 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when

2450 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.

2452 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used

2453 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in

2454 proofs, e.g.

2456 assumes [arith]: "x > 0"

2458 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.

2460 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and

2461 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"

2462 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot". INCOMPATIBILITY.

2464 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an

2465 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.

2466 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2468 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit

2469 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption. For instantiation of

2470 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.

2471 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2473 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".

2474 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder

2475 etc. slightly changed. Some theorems named order_class.* now named

2476 preorder_class.*.

2478 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,

2479 "diag" to "Id_on".

2481 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type

2483 ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b

2485 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator

2486 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to

2487 fold_image.

2489 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"

2490 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be

2491 extended with further lemmas!). At the moment both still exist but

2492 the former will disappear at some point.

2494 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in

2495 class recpower. Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types

2496 have been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:

2498 rat_power_0 -> power_0

2499 rat_power_Suc -> power_Suc

2500 realpow_0 -> power_0

2501 realpow_Suc -> power_Suc

2502 complexpow_0 -> power_0

2503 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc

2504 power_poly_0 -> power_0

2505 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc

2507 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been

2508 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on

2509 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1. Likewise a bunch

2510 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class

2511 semiring_div. INCOMPATIBILITY. This involves the following theorem

2512 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:

2514 dvd_def_mod ~> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0

2515 zero_dvd_iff ~> dvd_0_left_iff

2516 dvd_0 ~> dvd_0_right

2517 DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0

2518 DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0

2519 mult_div ~> div_mult_self2_is_id

2520 mult_mod ~> mod_mult_self2_is_0

2522 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based

2523 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field). INCOMPATIBILITY,

2524 rename old lemmas as follows:

2526 dvd_diff -> nat_dvd_diff

2527 dvd_zminus_iff -> dvd_minus_iff

2528 mod_add1_eq -> mod_add_eq

2529 mod_mult1_eq -> mod_mult_right_eq

2530 mod_mult1_eq' -> mod_mult_left_eq

2531 mod_mult_distrib_mod -> mod_mult_eq

2532 nat_mod_add_left_eq -> mod_add_left_eq

2533 nat_mod_add_right_eq -> mod_add_right_eq

2534 nat_mod_div_trivial -> mod_div_trivial

2535 nat_mod_mod_trivial -> mod_mod_trivial

2536 zdiv_zadd_self1 -> div_add_self1

2537 zdiv_zadd_self2 -> div_add_self2

2538 zdiv_zmult_self1 -> div_mult_self2_is_id

2539 zdiv_zmult_self2 -> div_mult_self1_is_id

2540 zdvd_triv_left -> dvd_triv_left

2541 zdvd_triv_right -> dvd_triv_right

2542 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left

2543 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]

2544 zmod_zadd_left_eq -> mod_add_left_eq

2545 zmod_zadd_right_eq -> mod_add_right_eq

2546 zmod_zadd_self1 -> mod_add_self1

2547 zmod_zadd_self2 -> mod_add_self2

2548 zmod_zadd1_eq -> mod_add_eq

2549 zmod_zdiff1_eq -> mod_diff_eq

2550 zmod_zdvd_zmod -> mod_mod_cancel

2551 zmod_zmod_cancel -> mod_mod_cancel

2552 zmod_zmult_self1 -> mod_mult_self2_is_0

2553 zmod_zmult_self2 -> mod_mult_self1_is_0

2554 zmod_1 -> mod_by_1

2555 zdiv_1 -> div_by_1

2556 zdvd_abs1 -> abs_dvd_iff

2557 zdvd_abs2 -> dvd_abs_iff

2558 zdvd_refl -> dvd_refl

2559 zdvd_trans -> dvd_trans

2560 zdvd_zadd -> dvd_add

2561 zdvd_zdiff -> dvd_diff

2562 zdvd_zminus_iff -> dvd_minus_iff

2563 zdvd_zminus2_iff -> minus_dvd_iff

2564 zdvd_zmultD -> dvd_mult_right

2565 zdvd_zmultD2 -> dvd_mult_left

2566 zdvd_zmult_mono -> mult_dvd_mono

2567 zdvd_0_right -> dvd_0_right

2568 zdvd_0_left -> dvd_0_left_iff

2569 zdvd_1_left -> one_dvd

2570 zminus_dvd_iff -> minus_dvd_iff

2572 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2574 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated

2575 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.

2577 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of

2578 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a. In addition to

2579 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod. Code

2580 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.

2582 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real

2583 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a

2584 => real. Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from

2585 theory RealVector.

2587 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product

2588 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.

2589 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,

2590 and inner products are included.

2592 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2. In

2593 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also

2594 supported.

2596 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's

2597 first diagonalization argument.

2599 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,

2600 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in

2601 the HOL Distribution. Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and

2602 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY,

2603 may recover tupled syntax as follows:

2605 hide (open) const gcd

2606 abbreviation gcd where

2607 "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"

2608 notation (output)

2609 GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")

2611 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.

2613 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more

2614 instantiations for algebraic structures. Removed some duplicate

2615 theorems. Changes in simp rules. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2617 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates

2618 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding

2619 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.

2620 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated

2621 simultaneously. Provides a generic and safe interface for

2622 instrumentalizing code generation. See

2623 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.

2624 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML

2625 code on the ML toplevel. Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}

2626 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are

2627 set. Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that

2628 cases.

2630 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now

2631 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be

2632 represented as datatype. The characteristic theorems have to be

2633 proven. INCOMPATIBILITY. Also observe that the following theorems

2634 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:

2636 unit_induct ~> unit.induct

2637 prod_induct ~> prod.induct

2638 sum_induct ~> sum.induct

2639 Suc_Suc_eq ~> nat.inject

2640 Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc ~> nat.distinct

2643 *** HOL-Algebra ***

2645 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation

2646 is not restricted to equality. INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice

2647 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.

2649 * New theory of factorial domains.

2651 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.

2652 INCOMPATIBILITY. Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv

2653 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.

2655 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:

2657 UpperD ~> Upper_memD

2658 LowerD ~> Lower_memD

2659 least_carrier ~> least_closed

2660 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed

2661 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below

2662 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero

2663 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero (collision with assumption)

2666 *** HOL-Nominal ***

2668 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.

2670 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local

2671 theory targets.

2673 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its

2674 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in

2675 'inductive' etc.

2677 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes

2678 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.

2680 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the

2681 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.

2683 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction

2684 principles for inductive definitions. In contrast to

2685 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of

2686 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of

2687 atoms to be avoided. The only inductive definition we have at the

2688 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in

2689 the algorithm W:

2691 Gamma |- t1 : T1 (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2 x#Gamma

2692 -----------------------------------------------------------------

2693 Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2

2695 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by

2696 "close Gamma T1". We are looking for other examples where this

2697 feature might be useful. Please let us know.

2700 *** HOLCF ***

2702 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity

2703 subgoals. The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional

2704 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].

2706 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for

2707 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions. In

2708 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the

2709 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.

2710 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

2712 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general

2713 format as seen in 'inductive' etc. See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for

2714 examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2717 *** ZF ***

2719 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.

2722 *** ML ***

2724 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for

2725 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later. Important note: the TimeLimit facility

2726 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML

2727 5.2.1!

2729 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see

2730 src/Pure/Cuncurrent. The data-oriented model of "future values" is

2731 particularly convenient to organize independent functional

2732 computations. The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a

2733 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the

2734 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables. (Requires

2735 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)

2737 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar

2738 context (theory or proof). Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'

2739 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning

2740 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).

2741 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the

2742 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a

2743 theory. (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)

2745 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof

2746 context. Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in

2747 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.

2748 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the

2749 proof. (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)

2751 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup

2752 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and

2753 'method_setup'. INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify

2754 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old

2755 Method.add_method.

2757 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm

2758 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle

2759 name. The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type

2760 is specified. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code

2761 accordingly. Note that extra performance may be gained by producing

2762 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.

2764 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via

2765 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally

2766 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user

2767 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common

2768 examples.

2770 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and

2771 name space operations. Basic operations on qualified names have been

2772 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,

2773 Long_Name.append. Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by

2774 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise

2775 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper

2776 tracking of source positions. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old

2777 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract

2778 bindings everywhere. See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,

2779 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML

2781 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,

2782 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the

2783 bstring as before. INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!

2785 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,

2786 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,

2787 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.). INCOMPATIBILITY, should

2788 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,

2789 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last

2790 resort for legacy applications.

2792 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to

2793 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,

2794 Simp_tac, SIMPSET). INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in

2795 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as

2796 explicit runtime argument.

2798 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,

2799 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof

2800 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking. Moreover,

2801 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings

2802 thereof. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2804 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of

2805 transactions. E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML

2806 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new

2807 theory state.

2809 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by

2810 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:

2812 @{binding name} - basic name binding

2813 @{let ?pat = term} - term abbreviation (HO matching)

2814 @{note name = fact} - fact abbreviation

2815 @{thm fact} - singleton fact (with attributes)

2816 @{thms fact} - general fact (with attributes)

2817 @{lemma prop by method} - singleton goal

2818 @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2} - singleton goal

2819 @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method} - general goal

2820 @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal

2821 @{lemma (open) ...} - open derivation

2824 *** System ***

2826 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke

2827 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not

2828 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on

2829 isabelle-process). The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the

2830 installation location of the Proof General distribution.

2832 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate

2833 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application. See

2834 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example. (The obsolete Java

2835 process wrapper has been discontinued.)

2837 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.

2839 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are

2840 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled. This allows

2841 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal

2842 prover operations.

2846 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)

2847 -------------------------------

2849 *** General ***

2851 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized

2852 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.

2854 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the

2855 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in

2856 conflict with concurrency. INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which

2857 provides a proper context already.

2859 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy

2860 file are no longer supported. INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and

2861 'use' within a theory file will do the job.

2863 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space

2864 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first

2865 space take precedence. INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to

2866 swap theory imports.

2868 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter. Potential

2869 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.

2871 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,

2872 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

2873 white space without escapes.

2875 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes

2876 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML). E.g. "foo\095bar" for

2877 "foo_bar".

2880 *** Pure ***

2882 * Context-dependent token translations. Default setup reverts locally

2883 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.

2885 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.

2886 There are three ways of invoking it:

2888 (1) unused_thms

2889 Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.

2891 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -

2892 Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,

2893 excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.

2895 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m

2896 Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of

2897 their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of

2898 their ancestors.

2900 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by

2901 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance

2902 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered

2903 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in

2904 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer

2905 reported as unused. Moreover, if all theorems in the group are

2906 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.

2908 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for

2909 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is

2910 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).

2912 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous

2913 theorems within the same name space. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove

2914 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications. Note

2915 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using

2916 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.

2918 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.

2920 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and

2921 clasimpset. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear

2922 update of theories within ML code.

2924 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.

2925 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require

2926 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics

2927 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.

2929 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on

2930 theory/local_theory. Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'

2931 instead. Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.

2932 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2934 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.

2936 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class

2937 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.

2938 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.

2939 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and

2940 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.

2942 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only

2943 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the

2944 background context (locale etc.). Affects `prop` notation and method

2945 "fact". INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare

2946 situations.

2948 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented

2949 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the

2950 proof text.

2952 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".

2953 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.

2955 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';

2956 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale

2957 predicates.

2960 *** Document preparation ***

2962 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for

2963 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed

2964 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the

2965 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default

2966 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets

2967 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).

2969 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given

2970 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method

2971 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.

2974 *** HOL ***

2976 * New primrec package. Specification syntax conforms in style to

2977 definition/function/.... No separate induction rule is provided. The

2978 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications

2979 by syntax. The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.

2980 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style

2981 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.

2983 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works

2984 with multithreading.

2986 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a

2987 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses. Theorems that

2988 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.

2990 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To

2991 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]]. Attributes

2992 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed

2993 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2995 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules

2996 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors

2997 out some operations that are done internally by the function package

2998 and makes them available separately. See

2999 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.

3001 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination

3002 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the

3003 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.

3004 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and

3005 just guides the heuristic. To find suitable measure functions, the

3006 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate

3007 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using

3008 the declared rules.

3010 This setup also deals with rules like

3012 "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"

3014 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.

3015 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.

3017 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"

3019 INCOMPATIBILITIES:

3021 - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by

3022 definitions on => and bool.

3024 - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved

3025 using the definitions of the operators on => and bool. Therefore,

3026 the following theorems have been renamed:

3028 subset_def -> subset_eq

3029 psubset_def -> psubset_eq

3030 set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq

3031 Compl_def -> Compl_eq

3032 Sup_set_def -> Sup_set_eq

3033 Inf_set_def -> Inf_set_eq

3034 sup_set_def -> sup_set_eq

3035 inf_set_def -> inf_set_eq

3037 - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some

3038 rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of

3039 the unknowns in the rule is a set.

3041 - Higher order unification and forward proofs:

3042 The proof pattern

3044 have "P (S::'a set)" <...>

3045 then have "EX S. P S" ..

3047 no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification

3048 algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern

3050 have "EX S. P S"

3051 proof

3052 show "P S" <...>

3053 qed

3055 - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):

3056 The proof pattern

3058 have "P (S::'a set)" <...>

3059 also have "S = T" <...>

3060 finally have "P T" .

3062 no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and

3063 must be replaced by something like

3065 have "P (S::'a set)" <...>

3066 moreover have "S = T" <...>

3067 ultimately have "P T" by simp

3069 - Tactics or packages written in ML code:

3070 Code performing pattern matching on types via

3072 Type ("set", [T]) => ...

3074 must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or

3075 binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a

3076 type of the form

3078 T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool

3080 rather than

3082 T1 => ... => Tn => U set

3084 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and

3085 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.

3087 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3089 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter. Use class

3090 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.

3091 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3093 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"

3094 and "Cons". INCOMPATIBILITY.

3096 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.

3097 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

3099 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and

3100 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.

3101 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3103 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of

3104 the same name in theory Orderings:

3106 less_trans

3107 less_linear

3108 le_imp_less_or_eq

3109 le_less_trans

3110 less_le_trans

3111 less_not_sym

3112 less_asym

3114 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to

3115 less_irrefl_nat. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types

3116 and different variable names.

3118 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.

3120 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of

3121 finite maps.

3123 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.

3125 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed. The infix

3126 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have

3127 disappeared. INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in

3128 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively. Theorems

3129 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"

3130 accordingly.

3132 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer

3133 depend on well-founded relations. INCOMPATIBILITY. Definitions

3134 le_def and less_def have disappeared. Consider lemmas not_less

3135 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.

3137 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin

3138 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been

3139 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes

3140 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,

3141 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.

3142 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3144 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper

3145 case_names ("base" and "step"). INCOMPATIBILITY.

3147 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete

3148 lattices. The form set-specific version is available as

3149 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.

3151 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".

3152 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3154 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings

3155 with division and modulo operations. Subsumes former class dvd_mod.

3157 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory

3158 Int. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3160 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural

3161 numbers rather than integers. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3163 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class

3164 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).

3165 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3167 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic

3168 syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3170 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,

3171 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,

3172 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,

3173 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,

3174 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object

3175 equality. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3177 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term

3178 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.

3179 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.

3181 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.

3183 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.

3185 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of

3186 pairs. Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and

3187 well-orders on sets and on types.

3190 *** ZF ***

3192 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the

3193 same session:

3195 Datatype -> Datatype_ZF

3196 Inductive -> Inductive_ZF

3197 Int -> Int_ZF

3198 IntDiv -> IntDiv_ZF

3199 Nat -> Nat_ZF

3200 List -> List_ZF

3201 Main -> Main_ZF

3203 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below

3204 Main might need to be adapted. Regular theory Main is still

3205 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.

3208 *** ML ***

3210 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const

3211 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.

3213 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact

3214 (of the same name). Removed obsolete print command.

3216 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.

3218 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global

3219 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes

3220 non-critical. The global print_mode reference is for session

3221 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,

3222 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3224 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external

3225 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML

3226 5.2.1). Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!

3229 *** System ***

3231 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---

3232 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.

3234 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;

3235 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR

3236 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".

3238 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general

3239 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.

3241 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to

3242 standard XML transfer syntax. See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and

3243 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.

3245 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)

3246 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust

3247 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.

3249 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),

3250 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).

3252 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature. NB: the documented

3253 way of changing the user's settings is via

3254 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash

3255 script.

3257 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU

3258 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for

3259 optimal performance tuning. The corresponding usedir option -M allows

3260 "max" as an alias for "0". WARNING: does not work on certain versions

3261 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).

3263 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the

3264 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably

3265 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).

3269 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)

3270 -----------------------------------

3272 *** General ***

3274 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a

3275 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the

3276 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:

3277 legacy features will disappear eventually.

3279 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been

3280 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''. Use isatool

3281 fixheaders to convert existing theory files. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3283 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been

3284 discontinued altogether. Note that ML proof scripts may still be used

3285 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML

3286 function use_legacy_bindings. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3288 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',

3289 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords. INCOMPATIBILITY, use double

3290 quotes.

3292 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory

3293 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the

3294 accidental file locations of previously successful loads. The strict

3295 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by

3296 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several

3297 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header

3298 specification, but without merging the results. Potential

3299 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands

3300 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.

3302 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file

3303 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical

3304 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting

3305 (cf. the system manual). The new scheme allows to work with

3306 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source

3307 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.

3309 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy

3310 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy

3311 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader

3312 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.

3314 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is

3315 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous

3316 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the

3317 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and

3318 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit

3319 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.

3321 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',

3322 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in

3323 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations

3324 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space

3325 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse

3326 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax

3327 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and

3328 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.

3330 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required

3331 to keep existing proof scripts running. Most other user-level

3332 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open

3333 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).

3334 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because

3335 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being

3336 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().

3338 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"

3339 criterion; "with_dups" option. Certain ProofGeneral versions might

3340 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).

3342 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1

3343 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are

3344 suppressed from proof state output. Note that the ProofGeneral

3345 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but

3346 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems

3347 limit is imposed.

3349 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of

3350 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''. The body may

3351 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism

3352 that has been implemented on top of these primitives. This concept

3353 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility

3354 and scalability.

3356 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;

3357 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).

3360 *** Document preparation ***

3362 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,

3363 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the

3364 current context.

3366 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which

3367 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.

3369 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation

3370 "c args == rhs" given in the current context. (Any number of

3371 arguments may be given on the LHS.)

3374 *** Pure ***

3376 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to

3377 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle. Definitions and

3378 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with

3379 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic

3380 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class

3381 context). Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate

3382 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting

3383 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.

3384 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).

3385 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.

3387 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable

3388 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes). A short usage

3389 sketch:

3391 internal compilation:

3392 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML

3393 writing SML code to a file:

3394 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>

3395 writing OCaml code to a file:

3396 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>

3397 writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:

3398 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>

3400 evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:

3401 method ``eval''

3403 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.

3405 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:

3407 [code fun]: select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant

3408 [code fun del]: deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant

3409 [code inline]: select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place

3410 [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place

3412 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):

3414 code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>

3415 {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+

3417 code_type <and-list of type constructors>

3418 {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+

3420 code_instance <and-list of instances>

3421 {(target)}+

3422 where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>

3424 code_class <and_list of classes>

3425 {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+

3426 where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?

3428 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.

3430 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and

3431 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy. A separate tutorial on code

3432 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc

3433 codegen".

3435 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now

3436 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type

3437 annotations).

3439 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory

3440 syntax.

3442 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic

3443 dependencies. The overloading scheme is slightly more general than

3444 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact

3445 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.

3446 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more

3447 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!

3449 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the

3450 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general

3451 declaration given in the signature. For example, with the declaration

3452 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented

3453 as c(nat). Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural

3454 recursion over such type arguments. Incomplete specification patterns

3455 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the

3456 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.

3457 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive

3458 equations, see section "definitions".

3460 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof

3461 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple

3462 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data. Tools may

3463 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to

3464 these values using Config.get etc. Users may change options via an

3465 associated attribute of the same name. This form of context

3466 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or

3467 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''. Thus it has become

3468 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar

3469 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.

3471 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into

3472 configuration options:

3474 Unify.search_bound unify_search_bound

3475 Unify.trace_bound unify_trace_bound

3476 Unify.trace_simp unify_trace_simp

3477 Unify.trace_types unify_trace_types

3478 Simplifier.simp_depth_limit simp_depth_limit

3479 Blast.depth_limit blast_depth_limit

3480 DatatypeProp.dtK datatype_distinctness_limit

3481 fast_arith_neq_limit fast_arith_neq_limit

3482 fast_arith_split_limit fast_arith_split_limit

3484 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context

3485 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also

3486 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML). The user may add or delete facts via

3487 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command. This facility is

3488 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way

3489 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical

3490 order.

3492 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic

3493 declaration functions written in ML. This enables arbitrary content

3494 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the

3495 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application

3496 context encountered later on.

3498 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures. Command

3499 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body

3500 text in ML). Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current

3501 context. ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.

3503 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations

3504 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,

3505 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on

3506 the background context will persist. This form of in-place

3507 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and

3508 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.

3510 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now

3511 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying

3512 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic

3513 assumption steps. This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'

3514 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",

3515 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the

3516 Isar proof context. POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is

3517 more permissive.

3519 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is

3520 considered a legacy feature. Common applications like ``have A .''

3521 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''. In general,

3522 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and

3523 maintainability of proof texts.

3525 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives

3526 the obtained context from the course of reasoning! For example:

3528 assume "EX x y. A x & B y" -- "any previous fact"

3529 then guess x and y by clarify

3531 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and

3532 proof tools being involved here.

3534 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal

3535 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax. This works wherever

3536 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof

3537 methods, attributes etc. Literal facts are retrieved from the context

3538 according to unification of type and term parameters. For example,

3539 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known

3540 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:

3541 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.

3543 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition

3544 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with

3545 certain special cases of literal facts:

3547 have "A" by fact == note `A`

3548 have "A ==> B" by fact == note `A ==> B`

3549 have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact == note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`

3550 have "P a ==> Q a" by fact == note `P a ==> Q a`

3552 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in

3553 outer syntax. Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without

3554 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.

3556 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,

3557 both named and unnamed ones.

3559 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:

3561 def x == "t" and y == "u"

3563 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to

3564 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given

3565 rewrite rules. Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or

3566 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.

3568 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',

3569 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities

3570 (potentially conditional). The underlying notion of rewrite rule is

3571 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the

3572 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).

3574 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the

3575 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.

3577 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a

3578 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N

3579 sub-goals, which need to exist. For example, ``simp_all [3]''

3580 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]

3581 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the

3582 originally first one.

3584 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order

3585 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as

3586 expected.

3588 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either

3589 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'

3590 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and

3591 assumptions). The latter allows to express general elimination rules

3592 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:

3594 lemma exE: -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

3595 assumes "EX x. P x"

3596 obtains x where "P x"

3598 lemma conjE: -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

3599 assumes "A & B"

3600 obtains A and B

3602 lemma disjE: -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

3603 assumes "A | B"

3604 obtains

3605 A

3606 | B

3608 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"

3609 explicitly:

3611 lemma classical: -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

3612 obtains "~ thesis"

3614 lemma Peirce's_Law: -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

3615 obtains "thesis ==> something"

3617 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the

3618 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.

3619 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be

3620 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the

3621 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute

3622 case_names).

3624 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as

3625 "assms" fact in the proof context. This is more appropriate than the

3626 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current

3627 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.

3629 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or

3630 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a

3631 top-level lemma.

3633 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context

3634 introduction rule (default "that").

3636 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

3637 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens

3638 to occur.

3640 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant

3641 according to the current context. This is particularly useful for

3642 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant

3643 representations independently of name spaces.

3645 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"

3646 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist

3647 in the same context. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3649 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'

3650 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and

3651 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation

3652 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the

3653 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the

3654 current context.

3656 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',

3657 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit

3658 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence). See also the

3659 isar-ref manual. Examples:

3661 axiomatization

3662 eq (infix "===" 50) where

3663 eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"

3665 definition "f x y = x + y + 1"

3666 definition g where "g x = f x x"

3668 abbreviation

3669 neq (infix "=!=" 50) where

3670 "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"

3672 These specifications may be also used in a locale context. Then the

3673 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the

3674 constant name is qualified by the locale base name. An internal

3675 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the

3676 parameters implicit and using the original short name. See also

3677 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic

3678 entities from a monomorphic theory.

3680 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but

3681 not inherited by general import expressions. Also note that

3682 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +

3683 'translations' in common applications. The "no_abbrevs" print mode

3684 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.

3686 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,

3687 independently of name spaces. The parse tree representation is

3688 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and

3689 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.

3691 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms

3692 (e.g. 'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits

3693 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_"). For example:

3695 definition "K x _ = x"

3697 inductive conj for A B

3698 where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"

3700 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of

3701 the current context. Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of

3702 abbreviations on output.

3704 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and

3705 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer

3706 required to be injective. For example, this allows to define

3707 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.

3709 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.

3710 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is

3711 now an interpretation. INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of

3712 locale expressions. In particular, in interpretations of locales with

3713 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not

3714 removed automatically. Use methods `intro_locales' and

3715 `unfold_locales'; see below.

3717 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'

3718 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates. The methods are

3719 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.

3720 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not

3721 unfold predicates to assumptions.

3723 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated

3724 has changed. This enables to override declarations from fragments due

3725 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.

3727 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been

3728 extended. One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are

3729 unfolded in interpreted theorems. This is useful for replacing

3730 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by

3731 concepts already existing in the target context. Example:

3733 interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]

3734 where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"

3736 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a

3737 definition specification element in the context of locale

3738 partial_order.

3740 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support

3741 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level

3742 connectives !! and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals

3743 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long

3744 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in

3745 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also

3746 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic

3747 examples.

3749 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of

3750 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into

3751 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested

3752 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,

3753 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.

3755 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list

3756 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide

3757 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive

3758 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify

3759 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:

3761 (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)

3762 (induct set: foo bar)

3763 (induct pred: foo bar)

3764 (induct type: foo bar)

3766 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the

3767 new format.

3769 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see

3770 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.

3772 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is

3773 considered a legacy feature.

3775 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic

3776 variables (index 0). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

3778 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level

3779 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by

3780 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The

3781 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.

3783 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format

3784 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when

3785 manipulating the claset.

3787 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,

3788 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at

3789 least one premise.

3791 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional

3792 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions). Weights are

3793 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single

3794 rule steps.

3796 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",

3797 where the body does not mention the bound variable. Note that dummy

3798 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes

3799 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected. Potential

3800 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic

3801 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.

3803 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated

3804 parse translation. INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,

3805 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".

3807 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using

3808 the graph browser tool.

3810 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by

3811 default; use '!' option for full details.

3814 *** HOL ***

3816 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose

3817 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).

3818 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples. WARNING: the

3819 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with

3820 multi-threading.

3822 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as

3823 background processes. It generates calls to the "metis" method if

3824 successful. These can be pasted into the proof. Users do not have to

3825 wait for the automatic provers to return. WARNING: does not really

3826 work with multi-threading.

3828 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for

3829 potential counter-examples. Controlled by ML references

3830 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default

3831 5000 milliseconds). Fails silently if statements is outside of

3832 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.

3834 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".

3836 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic

3837 equality.

3839 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in

3840 the new 'class' package:

3842 HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs

3843 HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide

3844 0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero

3845 1 ~> HOL.one_class.one

3846 op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus

3847 op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus

3848 uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus

3849 op * ~> HOL.times_class.times

3850 op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less

3851 op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq

3852 Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power

3853 Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size

3854 Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of

3855 FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf

3856 FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup

3857 Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min

3858 Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max

3859 Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div

3860 Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod

3861 Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd

3863 INCOMPATIBILITY. Adaptions may be required in the following cases:

3865 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",

3866 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for

3867 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong. INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific

3868 names.

3870 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"

3871 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.

3873 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")

3874 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative

3875 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows

3876 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle

3877 distribution). INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs

3879 d) ML code directly refering to constant names

3880 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and

3881 so on. INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.

3882 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.

3884 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".

3886 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex

3887 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn". Two possible defs of

3888 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and

3889 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.

3890 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3892 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory

3893 Orderings), added parameter "less". INCOMPATIBILITY.

3895 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and

3896 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid

3897 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans". INCOMPATIBILITY.

3899 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to

3900 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.

3902 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up

3903 for classes "order" and "linorder". Instances of the reasoner are available

3904 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.

3905 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner

3906 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver. Diagnostic

3907 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner

3908 in the current context.

3910 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated

3911 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.

3912 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3914 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration

3915 with new class dense_linear_order.

3917 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.

3919 constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"

3920 constant "Meet" now named "Inf"

3922 classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named

3923 "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"

3924 class "lorder" now named "lattice"

3925 class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"

3927 Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions

3928 for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).

3930 INCOMPATIBILITY. Theorem renames:

3932 meet_left_le ~> inf_le1

3933 meet_right_le ~> inf_le2

3934 join_left_le ~> sup_ge1

3935 join_right_le ~> sup_ge2

3936 meet_join_le ~> inf_sup_ord

3937 le_meetI ~> le_infI

3938 join_leI ~> le_supI

3939 le_meet ~> le_inf_iff

3940 le_join ~> ge_sup_conv

3941 meet_idempotent ~> inf_idem

3942 join_idempotent ~> sup_idem

3943 meet_comm ~> inf_commute

3944 join_comm ~> sup_commute

3945 meet_leI1 ~> le_infI1

3946 meet_leI2 ~> le_infI2

3947 le_joinI1 ~> le_supI1

3948 le_joinI2 ~> le_supI2

3949 meet_assoc ~> inf_assoc

3950 join_assoc ~> sup_assoc

3951 meet_left_comm ~> inf_left_commute

3952 meet_left_idempotent ~> inf_left_idem

3953 join_left_comm ~> sup_left_commute

3954 join_left_idempotent ~> sup_left_idem

3955 meet_aci ~> inf_aci

3956 join_aci ~> sup_aci

3957 le_def_meet ~> le_iff_inf

3958 le_def_join ~> le_iff_sup

3959 join_absorp2 ~> sup_absorb2

3960 join_absorp1 ~> sup_absorb1

3961 meet_absorp1 ~> inf_absorb1

3962 meet_absorp2 ~> inf_absorb2

3963 meet_join_absorp ~> inf_sup_absorb

3964 join_meet_absorp ~> sup_inf_absorb

3965 distrib_join_le ~> distrib_sup_le

3966 distrib_meet_le ~> distrib_inf_le

3968 add_meet_distrib_left ~> add_inf_distrib_left

3969 add_join_distrib_left ~> add_sup_distrib_left

3970 is_join_neg_meet ~> is_join_neg_inf

3971 is_meet_neg_join ~> is_meet_neg_sup

3972 add_meet_distrib_right ~> add_inf_distrib_right

3973 add_join_distrib_right ~> add_sup_distrib_right

3974 add_meet_join_distribs ~> add_sup_inf_distribs

3975 join_eq_neg_meet ~> sup_eq_neg_inf

3976 meet_eq_neg_join ~> inf_eq_neg_sup

3977 add_eq_meet_join ~> add_eq_inf_sup

3978 meet_0_imp_0 ~> inf_0_imp_0

3979 join_0_imp_0 ~> sup_0_imp_0

3980 meet_0_eq_0 ~> inf_0_eq_0

3981 join_0_eq_0 ~> sup_0_eq_0

3982 neg_meet_eq_join ~> neg_inf_eq_sup

3983 neg_join_eq_meet ~> neg_sup_eq_inf

3984 join_eq_if ~> sup_eq_if

3986 mono_meet ~> mono_inf

3987 mono_join ~> mono_sup

3988 meet_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_eq

3989 join_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_eq

3990 meet_fun_eq ~> inf_fun_eq

3991 join_fun_eq ~> sup_fun_eq

3992 meet_set_eq ~> inf_set_eq

3993 join_set_eq ~> sup_set_eq

3994 meet1_iff ~> inf1_iff

3995 meet2_iff ~> inf2_iff

3996 meet1I ~> inf1I

3997 meet2I ~> inf2I

3998 meet1D1 ~> inf1D1

3999 meet2D1 ~> inf2D1

4000 meet1D2 ~> inf1D2

4001 meet2D2 ~> inf2D2

4002 meet1E ~> inf1E

4003 meet2E ~> inf2E

4004 join1_iff ~> sup1_iff

4005 join2_iff ~> sup2_iff

4006 join1I1 ~> sup1I1

4007 join2I1 ~> sup2I1

4008 join1I1 ~> sup1I1

4009 join2I2 ~> sup1I2

4010 join1CI ~> sup1CI

4011 join2CI ~> sup2CI

4012 join1E ~> sup1E

4013 join2E ~> sup2E

4015 is_meet_Meet ~> is_meet_Inf

4016 Meet_bool_def ~> Inf_bool_def

4017 Meet_fun_def ~> Inf_fun_def

4018 Meet_greatest ~> Inf_greatest

4019 Meet_lower ~> Inf_lower

4020 Meet_set_def ~> Inf_set_def

4022 Sup_def ~> Sup_Inf

4023 Sup_bool_eq ~> Sup_bool_def

4024 Sup_fun_eq ~> Sup_fun_def

4025 Sup_set_eq ~> Sup_set_def

4027 listsp_meetI ~> listsp_infI

4028 listsp_meet_eq ~> listsp_inf_eq

4030 meet_min ~> inf_min

4031 join_max ~> sup_max

4033 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has

4034 type "'a::size ==> bool"

4036 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems

4037 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still

4038 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named

4039 "*.size".

4041 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".

4042 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4044 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,

4045 Linorder etc. have disappeared; operations defined in terms of

4046 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4048 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4050 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size

4051 machine words, with arithemtic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating

4052 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for

4053 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including

4054 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity. Instantiated to all appropriate

4055 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of

4056 numerals on all operations.

4058 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.

4060 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).

4062 * Code generator library theories:

4063 - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target

4064 languages.

4065 - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target

4066 languages.

4067 - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character

4068 codes; includes Code_Integer.

4069 - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.

4070 - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,

4071 denominator).

4072 - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those

4073 representable by rational numbers.

4074 - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will

4075 result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;

4076 includes Code_Integer.

4077 - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to

4078 target-language built-in integers.

4079 - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to

4080 strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.

4082 * New package for inductive predicates

4084 An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via

4086 inductive

4087 p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

4088 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

4089 where

4090 rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"

4091 | ...

4093 with full support for type-inference, rather than

4095 consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

4097 abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

4098 where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

4100 inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"

4101 intros

4102 rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

4103 ...

4105 For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive

4106 sets to be defined with the new package via

4108 inductive_set

4109 s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

4110 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

4111 where

4112 rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

4113 | ...

4115 or

4117 inductive_set

4118 s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

4119 and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

4120 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

4121 where

4122 "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

4123 | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"

4124 | ...

4126 if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.

4128 Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,

4129 src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.

4131 INCOMPATIBILITIES:

4133 - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates

4134 is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly

4135 introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the

4136 introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather

4137 than before the actual inductive definition.

4139 - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now

4140 quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction

4141 rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break

4142 some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by

4143 reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'

4144 statements of the form

4146 case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})

4148 or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding

4149 meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.

4151 | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"

4153 - The format of the elimination rules is now

4155 p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>

4156 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)

4157 ==> ... ==> P

4159 for predicates and

4161 (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>

4162 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)

4163 ==> ... ==> P

4165 for sets rather than

4167 x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>

4168 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)

4169 ==> ... ==> P

4171 This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples

4172 (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all

4173 rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.

4175 - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive

4176 sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The

4177 list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.

4179 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,

4180 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,

4181 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy

4182 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function

4183 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but

4184 users are encouraged to use the new package.

4186 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination

4187 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures.

4189 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including

4190 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional

4191 programming. Internally, this is translated into nested

4192 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined

4193 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show

4194 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow

4195 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an

4196 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new

4197 variable.

4199 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"

4200 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification

4201 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did

4202 previously. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:

4203 - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"

4204 - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules

4206 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using

4207 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the

4208 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for

4209 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding

4210 declarations for computation on the coefficients. The method is

4211 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class

4212 of idoms with numerals. See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at

4213 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this

4214 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.

4216 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over

4217 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to

4218 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class

4219 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,

4220 rat, etc.

4222 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append". Use ML

4223 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to

4224 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.

4226 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".

4228 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.

4229 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)

4231 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.

4232 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.

4234 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :

4235 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list

4236 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4238 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders. It used to be

4239 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]

4240 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4242 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD" to "set_takeWhileD".

4244 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.

4246 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for

4247 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all

4248 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or

4249 positive/negative (in inequations).

4251 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib

4252 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and

4253 ring_distribs. Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field

4254 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4256 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function

4257 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried. Infix syntax for

4258 algebraic operations.

4260 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.

4261 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4263 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.

4264 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4266 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the

4267 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update

4268 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.

4269 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be

4270 adapted.

4272 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0

4273 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring. Richer structures do not

4274 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem

4275 there, not an axiom. INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,

4276 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.

4278 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just

4279 commutative semirings. INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate

4280 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.

4282 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.

4283 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,

4284 better use 'abbreviation'.

4286 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member". INCOMPATIBILITY.

4288 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has

4289 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'. INCOMPATIBILITY --

4290 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:

4291 - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead

4292 of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.

4293 - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.

4294 - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.

4295 - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.

4297 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.

4299 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may

4300 contain free variables. For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''

4301 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof). This command is suitable for

4302 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML

4303 first. Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided. See

4304 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.

4306 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority

4307 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is

4308 "A = B" (with priority 50).

4310 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.

4311 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,

4312 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z". Potential

4313 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4315 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).

4317 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds

4318 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4320 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been

4321 removed. Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.

4323 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites

4324 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq"). INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using

4325 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.

4327 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to

4328 True/False.

4330 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".

4332 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.

4334 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the

4335 ``rule'' method.

4337 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:

4338 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences

4339 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form

4340 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.

4342 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.

4343 zChaff is still supported as well.

4345 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,

4346 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;

4348 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to

4349 Library.

4351 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.

4353 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists

4354 as greatest fixed-point.

4356 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as

4357 association lists.

4359 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)

4360 efficiently by compiling it to ML. The goal is "proved" (via an

4361 oracle) if it evaluates to True.

4363 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)

4364 also when invoked by the simplifier. This results in the Simplifier

4365 being more powerful on arithmetic goals. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4366 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old

4367 behavior.

4369 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.

4371 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an

4372 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional

4373 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the

4374 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The

4375 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs

4376 s. If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.

4378 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)

4379 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,

4380 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code

4381 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then

4382 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =

4383 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the

4384 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.

4386 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is

4387 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy

4389 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a

4390 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an

4391 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of

4392 HOL types. This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,

4393 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.

4396 *** HOL-Complex ***

4398 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real

4399 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.

4400 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so

4401 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential

4402 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4404 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and

4405 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a

4406 and norm :: 'a => real.

4408 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from

4409 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now

4410 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

4412 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.

4413 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.

4415 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the

4416 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector

4417 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential

4418 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4420 Infinitesimal :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

4421 HFinite :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

4422 HInfinite :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

4423 approx :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool

4424 monad :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set

4425 galaxy :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set

4426 (NS)LIMSEQ :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool

4427 (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

4428 (NS)Bseq :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

4429 (NS)Cauchy :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

4430 (NS)LIM :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool

4431 is(NS)Cont :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool

4432 deriv :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool

4433 sgn :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a

4434 exp :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a

4436 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for

4437 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =

4438 hnorm. Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the

4439 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):

4441 approx <-- capprox

4442 HFinite <-- CFinite

4443 HInfinite <-- CInfinite

4444 Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal

4445 monad <-- cmonad

4446 galaxy <-- cgalaxy

4447 (NS)LIM <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM

4448 is(NS)Cont <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR

4449 (ns)deriv <-- (ns)cderiv

4452 *** HOL-Algebra ***

4454 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.

4456 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.

4457 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4459 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->

4460 greatest_closed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4462 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute. For examples see

4463 Ring.thy. INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations

4464 of algebraic structures.

4466 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.

4469 *** HOL-Nominal ***

4471 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding

4472 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic. See src/HOL/Nominal and

4473 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples. Prospective users should consult

4474 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/

4477 *** ML ***

4479 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int

4480 (even on SML/NJ).

4482 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked

4483 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at

4484 compile-time. For example:

4486 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}

4487 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}

4488 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}

4489 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}

4490 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}

4491 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}

4492 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}

4493 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}

4494 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}

4495 ML {* @{type_name c} *}

4496 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}

4497 ML {* @{const_name c} *}

4498 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}

4499 ML {* @{context} *}

4500 ML {* @{theory} *}

4501 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}

4502 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}

4503 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}

4504 ML {* @{simpset} *}

4505 ML {* @{claset} *}

4506 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}

4508 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.

4510 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with

4511 ML_Context.trace enabled.

4513 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions

4514 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and

4515 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.

4517 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now

4518 use Context.generic instead of just theory.

4520 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and

4521 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of

4522 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.

4524 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always

4525 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.

4526 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while

4527 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and

4528 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure

4529 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably

4530 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type

4531 declarations and definitions.

4533 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed

4534 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,

4535 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need

4536 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)

4538 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in

4539 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the

4540 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,

4541 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

4543 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with

4544 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed

4545 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --

4546 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and

4547 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede

4548 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.

4550 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --

4551 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been

4552 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted

4553 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for

4554 attributes, methods, etc.

4556 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."

4557 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to

4558 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and

4559 fold_map combinators.

4561 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional

4562 comments (tags) are now strictly separate. Name hints -- which are

4563 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the

4564 derivation.

4566 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an

4567 actual goal state (thm). Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to

4568 achieve the old behaviour.

4570 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a

4571 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule

4572 statements.

4574 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now

4575 enforced instead of silently assumed. INCOMPATIBILITY, may use

4576 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.

4578 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating

4579 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc. This replaces

4580 some popular functions from term.ML:

4582 Term.variant -> Name.variant

4583 Term.variantlist -> Name.variant_list

4584 Term.invent_names -> Name.invent_list

4586 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations

4587 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).

4589 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper

4590 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context. For example,

4591 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and

4592 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces

4593 various freeze_thaw operations.

4595 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for

4596 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former

4597 Tactic.prove). Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results

4598 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for

4599 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard. Note that

4600 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is

4601 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or

4602 in a locale context).

4604 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)

4605 and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations

4606 (Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.

4607 which are considered legacy and await removal.

4609 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking

4610 (Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),

4611 with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term

4612 etc.). Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still

4613 available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using

4614 a mere theory instead of a full context.

4616 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception

4617 ERROR of string uniformly. Function error now merely raises ERROR,

4618 without any side effect on output channels. The Isar toplevel takes

4619 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions. ML code may use plain

4620 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:

4622 ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."

4624 Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be

4625 embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like

4626 this:

4628 Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)

4630 INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed

4631 obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,

4632 Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)

4633 -- use plain ERROR instead.

4635 * Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a

4636 list. INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.

4638 * Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to

4639 ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.

4641 * Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the

4642 theory before entering a proof state. Transactions now always see a

4643 quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and

4644 batch mode.

4646 * Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax. Renamed

4647 OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords. Removed

4648 OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in

4649 OuterSyntax.command etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4651 * Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now

4652 contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the

4653 very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by

4654 simpset_of/local_simpset_of). Consequently, all plug-in components

4655 (solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.

4657 * Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the

4658 local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc

4659 etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this! Removed

4660 former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --

4661 INCOMPATIBILITY. Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to

4662 specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.

4664 * Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces

4665 change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a

4666 theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --

4667 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4669 * Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired

4670 "Trueprop" etc.

4673 *** System ***

4675 * settings: the default heap location within ISABELLE_HOME_USER now

4676 includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER. This simplifies use of multiple

4677 Isabelle installations.

4679 * isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical

4680 operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source

4681 code.

4683 * Basic Isabelle mode for jEdit, see Isabelle/lib/jedit/.

4685 * Support for parallel execution, using native multicore support of

4686 Poly/ML 5.1. The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing

4687 independent theories, according to the given theory header

4688 specifications. The maximum number of worker threads is specified via

4689 usedir option -M or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. A

4690 speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected on a 4-core machine, and up

4691 to 6 on a 8-core machine. User-code needs to observe certain

4692 guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A in the Isar

4693 Implementation manual.

4697 New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)

4698 ----------------------------------

4700 *** General ***

4702 * Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is

4704 theory <name>

4705 imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>

4706 uses <file1> ... <fileM>

4707 begin

4709 where the 'uses' part is optional. The previous syntax

4711 theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:

4713 will disappear in the next release. Use isatool fixheaders to convert

4714 existing theory files. Note that there is no change in ancient

4715 non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.

4717 * Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via

4718 relative and absolute paths.

4720 * Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a

4721 list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,

4722 simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select

4723 theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that

4724 match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified

4725 name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose

4726 lhs match term. Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects

4727 all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under

4728 'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f. Example:

4730 C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."

4732 prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",

4733 matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."

4734 in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).

4736 * Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of

4737 'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.

4739 * Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that

4740 Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both

4741 formal and informal parts). Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof

4742 General interface. Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):

4744 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html

4745 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html

4747 * Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the

4748 Classical Reasoner. Typical big applications run around 2 times

4749 faster.

4752 *** Document preparation ***

4754 * Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output

4755 of raw sources. Only those symbols that do not require additional

4756 LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are

4757 displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim. isatool display

4758 and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the

4759 DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).

4761 * Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,

4762 notably folding and hiding. Predefined tags include "theory" (for

4763 theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for

4764 commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and

4765 "invisible" are unused by default. Users may give explicit tag

4766 specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''. The

4767 interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document

4768 preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of

4769 isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,

4770 \isadroptag.

4772 Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool

4773 usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them). Typical

4774 specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present

4775 theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold

4776 proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit

4777 these parts without any formal replacement text. The Isabelle site

4778 default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as

4779 specified above.

4781 * Several new antiquotations:

4783 @{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;

4785 @{typeof term} prints the type of a term;

4787 @{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the

4788 argument is a known logical constant;

4790 @{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or

4791 theorem applying a "style" to it

4793 @{ML text}

4795 Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of

4796 definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the

4797 conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem19'

4798 to print the specified premise. TermStyle.add_style provides an ML

4799 interface for introducing further styles. See also the "LaTeX Sugar"

4800 document practical applications. The ML antiquotation prints

4801 type-checked ML expressions verbatim.

4803 * Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',

4804 and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which

4805 specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations. For

4806 example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.

4808 * Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative

4809 context interpreting the subsequent argument. For example: @{thm

4810 [locale=lattice] inf_assoc}.

4812 * Proper output of proof terms (@{prf ...} and @{full_prf ...}) within

4813 a proof context.

4815 * Proper output of antiquotations for theory commands involving a

4816 proof context (such as 'locale' or 'theorem (in loc) ...').

4818 * Delimiters of outer tokens (string etc.) now produce separate LaTeX

4819 macros (\isachardoublequoteopen, isachardoublequoteclose etc.).

4821 * isatool usedir: new option -C (default true) controls whether option

4822 -D should include a copy of the original document directory; -C false

4823 prevents unwanted effects such as copying of administrative CVS data.

4826 *** Pure ***

4828 * Considerably improved version of 'constdefs' command. Now performs

4829 automatic type-inference of declared constants; additional support for

4830 local structure declarations (cf. locales and HOL records), see also

4831 isar-ref manual. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to observe strictly

4832 sequential dependencies of definitions within a single 'constdefs'

4833 section; moreover, the declared name needs to be an identifier. If

4834 all fails, consider to fall back on 'consts' and 'defs' separately.

4836 * Improved indexed syntax and implicit structures. First of all,

4837 indexed syntax provides a notational device for subscripted

4838 application, using the new syntax \<^bsub>term\<^esub> for arbitrary

4839 expressions. Secondly, in a local context with structure

4840 declarations, number indexes \<^sub>n or the empty index (default

4841 number 1) refer to a certain fixed variable implicitly; option

4842 show_structs controls printing of implicit structures. Typical

4843 applications of these concepts involve record types and locales.

4845 * New command 'no_syntax' removes grammar declarations (and

4846 translations) resulting from the given syntax specification, which is

4847 interpreted in the same manner as for the 'syntax' command.

4849 * 'Advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) may depend

4850 on the signature of the theory context being presently used for

4851 parsing/printing, see also isar-ref manual.

4853 * Improved 'oracle' command provides a type-safe interface to turn an

4854 ML expression of type theory -> T -> term into a primitive rule of

4855 type theory -> T -> thm (i.e. the functionality of Thm.invoke_oracle

4856 is already included here); see also FOL/ex/IffExample.thy;

4857 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4859 * axclass: name space prefix for class "c" is now "c_class" (was "c"

4860 before); "cI" is no longer bound, use "c.intro" instead.

4861 INCOMPATIBILITY. This change avoids clashes of fact bindings for

4862 axclasses vs. locales.

4864 * Improved internal renaming of symbolic identifiers -- attach primes

4865 instead of base 26 numbers.

4867 * New flag show_question_marks controls printing of leading question

4868 marks in schematic variable names.

4870 * In schematic variable names, *any* symbol following \<^isub> or

4871 \<^isup> is now treated as part of the base name. For example, the

4872 following works without printing of awkward ".0" indexes:

4874 lemma "x\<^isub>1 = x\<^isub>2 ==> x\<^isub>2 = x\<^isub>1"

4875 by simp

4877 * Inner syntax includes (*(*nested*) comments*).

4879 * Pretty printer now supports unbreakable blocks, specified in mixfix

4880 annotations as "(00...)".

4882 * Clear separation of logical types and nonterminals, where the latter

4883 may only occur in 'syntax' specifications or type abbreviations.

4884 Before that distinction was only partially implemented via type class

4885 "logic" vs. "{}". Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare cases of improper

4886 use of 'types'/'consts' instead of 'nonterminals'/'syntax'. Some very

4887 exotic syntax specifications may require further adaption

4888 (e.g. Cube/Cube.thy).

4890 * Removed obsolete type class "logic", use the top sort {} instead.

4891 Note that non-logical types should be declared as 'nonterminals'

4892 rather than 'types'. INCOMPATIBILITY for new object-logic

4893 specifications.

4895 * Attributes 'induct' and 'cases': type or set names may now be

4896 locally fixed variables as well.

4898 * Simplifier: can now control the depth to which conditional rewriting

4899 is traced via the PG menu Isabelle -> Settings -> Trace Simp Depth

4900 Limit.

4902 * Simplifier: simplification procedures may now take the current

4903 simpset into account (cf. Simplifier.simproc(_i) / mk_simproc

4904 interface), which is very useful for calling the Simplifier

4905 recursively. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: the 'prems' argument of simprocs

4906 is gone -- use prems_of_ss on the simpset instead. Moreover, the

4907 low-level mk_simproc no longer applies Logic.varify internally, to

4908 allow for use in a context of fixed variables.

4910 * thin_tac now works even if the assumption being deleted contains !!

4911 or ==>. More generally, erule now works even if the major premise of

4912 the elimination rule contains !! or ==>.

4914 * Method 'rules' has been renamed to 'iprover'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4916 * Reorganized bootstrapping of the Pure theories; CPure is now derived

4917 from Pure, which contains all common declarations already. Both

4918 theories are defined via plain Isabelle/Isar .thy files.

4919 INCOMPATIBILITY: elements of CPure (such as the CPure.intro /

4920 CPure.elim / CPure.dest attributes) now appear in the Pure name space;

4921 use isatool fixcpure to adapt your theory and ML sources.

4923 * New syntax 'name(i-j, i-, i, ...)' for referring to specific

4924 selections of theorems in named facts via index ranges.

4926 * 'print_theorems': in theory mode, really print the difference

4927 wrt. the last state (works for interactive theory development only),

4928 in proof mode print all local facts (cf. 'print_facts');

4930 * 'hide': option '(open)' hides only base names.

4932 * More efficient treatment of intermediate checkpoints in interactive

4933 theory development.

4935 * Code generator is now invoked via code_module (incremental code

4936 generation) and code_library (modular code generation, ML structures

4937 for each theory). INCOMPATIBILITY: new keywords 'file' and 'contains'

4938 must be quoted when used as identifiers.

4940 * New 'value' command for reading, evaluating and printing terms using

4941 the code generator. INCOMPATIBILITY: command keyword 'value' must be

4942 quoted when used as identifier.

4945 *** Locales ***

4947 * New commands for the interpretation of locale expressions in

4948 theories (1), locales (2) and proof contexts (3). These generate

4949 proof obligations from the expression specification. After the

4950 obligations have been discharged, theorems of the expression are added

4951 to the theory, target locale or proof context. The synopsis of the

4952 commands is a follows:

4954 (1) interpretation expr inst

4955 (2) interpretation target < expr

4956 (3) interpret expr inst

4958 Interpretation in theories and proof contexts require a parameter

4959 instantiation of terms from the current context. This is applied to

4960 specifications and theorems of the interpreted expression.

4961 Interpretation in locales only permits parameter renaming through the

4962 locale expression. Interpretation is smart in that interpretations

4963 that are active already do not occur in proof obligations, neither are

4964 instantiated theorems stored in duplicate. Use 'print_interps' to

4965 inspect active interpretations of a particular locale. For details,

4966 see the Isar Reference manual. Examples can be found in

4967 HOL/Finite_Set.thy and HOL/Algebra/UnivPoly.thy.

4969 INCOMPATIBILITY: former 'instantiate' has been withdrawn, use

4970 'interpret' instead.

4972 * New context element 'constrains' for adding type constraints to

4973 parameters.

4975 * Context expressions: renaming of parameters with syntax

4976 redeclaration.

4978 * Locale declaration: 'includes' disallowed.

4980 * Proper static binding of attribute syntax -- i.e. types / terms /

4981 facts mentioned as arguments are always those of the locale definition

4982 context, independently of the context of later invocations. Moreover,

4983 locale operations (renaming and type / term instantiation) are applied

4984 to attribute arguments as expected.

4986 INCOMPATIBILITY of the ML interface: always pass Attrib.src instead of

4987 actual attributes; rare situations may require Attrib.attribute to

4988 embed those attributes into Attrib.src that lack concrete syntax.

4989 Attribute implementations need to cooperate properly with the static

4990 binding mechanism. Basic parsers Args.XXX_typ/term/prop and

4991 Attrib.XXX_thm etc. already do the right thing without further

4992 intervention. Only unusual applications -- such as "where" or "of"

4993 (cf. src/Pure/Isar/attrib.ML), which process arguments depending both

4994 on the context and the facts involved -- may have to assign parsed

4995 values to argument tokens explicitly.

4997 * Changed parameter management in theorem generation for long goal

4998 statements with 'includes'. INCOMPATIBILITY: produces a different

4999 theorem statement in rare situations.

5001 * Locale inspection command 'print_locale' omits notes elements. Use

5002 'print_locale!' to have them included in the output.

5005 *** Provers ***

5007 * Provers/hypsubst.ML: improved version of the subst method, for

5008 single-step rewriting: it now works in bound variable contexts. New is

5009 'subst (asm)', for rewriting an assumption. INCOMPATIBILITY: may

5010 rewrite a different subterm than the original subst method, which is

5011 still available as 'simplesubst'.

5013 * Provers/quasi.ML: new transitivity reasoners for transitivity only

5014 and quasi orders.

5016 * Provers/trancl.ML: new transitivity reasoner for transitive and

5017 reflexive-transitive closure of relations.

5019 * Provers/blast.ML: new reference depth_limit to make blast's depth

5020 limit (previously hard-coded with a value of 20) user-definable.

5022 * Provers/simplifier.ML has been moved to Pure, where Simplifier.setup

5023 is peformed already. Object-logics merely need to finish their

5024 initial simpset configuration as before. INCOMPATIBILITY.

5027 *** HOL ***

5029 * Symbolic syntax of Hilbert Choice Operator is now as follows:

5031 syntax (epsilon)

5032 "_Eps" :: "[pttrn, bool] => 'a" ("(3\<some>_./ _)" [0, 10] 10)

5034 The symbol \<some> is displayed as the alternative epsilon of LaTeX

5035 and x-symbol; use option '-m epsilon' to get it actually printed.

5036 Moreover, the mathematically important symbolic identifier \<epsilon>

5037 becomes available as variable, constant etc. INCOMPATIBILITY,

5039 * "x > y" abbreviates "y < x" and "x >= y" abbreviates "y <= x".

5040 Similarly for all quantifiers: "ALL x > y" etc. The x-symbol for >=

5041 is \<ge>. New transitivity rules have been added to HOL/Orderings.thy to

5042 support corresponding Isar calculations.

5044 * "{x:A. P}" abbreviates "{x. x:A & P}", and similarly for "\<in>"

5045 instead of ":".

5047 * theory SetInterval: changed the syntax for open intervals:

5049 Old New

5050 {..n(} {..<n}

5051 {)n..} {n<..}

5052 {m..n(} {m..<n}

5053 {)m..n} {m<..n}

5054 {)m..n(} {m<..<n}

5056 The old syntax is still supported but will disappear in the next

5057 release. For conversion use the following Emacs search and replace

5058 patterns (these are not perfect but work quite well):

5060 {)\([^\.]*\)\.\. -> {\1<\.\.}

5061 \.\.\([^(}]*\)(} -> \.\.<\1}

5063 * Theory Commutative_Ring (in Library): method comm_ring for proving

5064 equalities in commutative rings; method 'algebra' provides a generic

5065 interface.

5067 * Theory Finite_Set: changed the syntax for 'setsum', summation over

5068 finite sets: "setsum (%x. e) A", which used to be "\<Sum>x:A. e", is

5069 now either "SUM x:A. e" or "\<Sum>x \<in> A. e". The bound variable can

5070 be a tuple pattern.

5072 Some new syntax forms are available:

5074 "\<Sum>x | P. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {x. P}"

5075 "\<Sum>x = a..b. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {a..b}"

5076 "\<Sum>x = a..<b. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {a..<b}"

5077 "\<Sum>x < k. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {..<k}"

5079 The latter form "\<Sum>x < k. e" used to be based on a separate

5080 function "Summation", which has been discontinued.

5082 * theory Finite_Set: in structured induction proofs, the insert case

5083 is now 'case (insert x F)' instead of the old counterintuitive 'case

5084 (insert F x)'.

5086 * The 'refute' command has been extended to support a much larger

5087 fragment of HOL, including axiomatic type classes, constdefs and

5088 typedefs, inductive datatypes and recursion.

5090 * New tactics 'sat' and 'satx' to prove propositional tautologies.

5091 Requires zChaff with proof generation to be installed. See

5092 HOL/ex/SAT_Examples.thy for examples.

5094 * Datatype induction via method 'induct' now preserves the name of the

5095 induction variable. For example, when proving P(xs::'a list) by

5096 induction on xs, the induction step is now P(xs) ==> P(a#xs) rather

5097 than P(list) ==> P(a#list) as previously. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY

5098 in unstructured proof scripts.

5100 * Reworked implementation of records. Improved scalability for

5101 records with many fields, avoiding performance problems for type

5102 inference. Records are no longer composed of nested field types, but

5103 of nested extension types. Therefore the record type only grows linear

5104 in the number of extensions and not in the number of fields. The

5105 top-level (users) view on records is preserved. Potential

5106 INCOMPATIBILITY only in strange cases, where the theory depends on the

5107 old record representation. The type generated for a record is called

5108 <record_name>_ext_type.

5110 Flag record_quick_and_dirty_sensitive can be enabled to skip the

5111 proofs triggered by a record definition or a simproc (if

5112 quick_and_dirty is enabled). Definitions of large records can take

5113 quite long.

5115 New simproc record_upd_simproc for simplification of multiple record

5116 updates enabled by default. Moreover, trivial updates are also

5117 removed: r(|x := x r|) = r. INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break

5118 occasionally, since simplification is more powerful by default.

5120 * typedef: proper support for polymorphic sets, which contain extra

5121 type-variables in the term.

5123 * Simplifier: automatically reasons about transitivity chains

5124 involving "trancl" (r^+) and "rtrancl" (r^*) by setting up tactics

5125 provided by Provers/trancl.ML as additional solvers. INCOMPATIBILITY:

5126 old proofs break occasionally as simplification may now solve more

5127 goals than previously.

5129 * Simplifier: converts x <= y into x = y if assumption y <= x is

5130 present. Works for all partial orders (class "order"), in particular

5131 numbers and sets. For linear orders (e.g. numbers) it treats ~ x < y

5132 just like y <= x.

5134 * Simplifier: new simproc for "let x = a in f x". If a is a free or

5135 bound variable or a constant then the let is unfolded. Otherwise

5136 first a is simplified to b, and then f b is simplified to g. If

5137 possible we abstract b from g arriving at "let x = b in h x",

5138 otherwise we unfold the let and arrive at g. The simproc can be

5139 enabled/disabled by the reference use_let_simproc. Potential

5140 INCOMPATIBILITY since simplification is more powerful by default.

5142 * Classical reasoning: the meson method now accepts theorems as arguments.

5144 * Prover support: pre-release of the Isabelle-ATP linkup, which runs background

5145 jobs to provide advice on the provability of subgoals.

5147 * Theory OrderedGroup and Ring_and_Field: various additions and

5148 improvements to faciliate calculations involving equalities and

5149 inequalities.

5151 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

5152 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

5154 abs_eq now named abs_of_nonneg

5155 abs_of_ge_0 now named abs_of_nonneg

5156 abs_minus_eq now named abs_of_nonpos

5157 imp_abs_id now named abs_of_nonneg

5158 imp_abs_neg_id now named abs_of_nonpos

5159 mult_pos now named mult_pos_pos

5160 mult_pos_le now named mult_nonneg_nonneg

5161 mult_pos_neg_le now named mult_nonneg_nonpos

5162 mult_pos_neg2_le now named mult_nonneg_nonpos2

5163 mult_neg now named mult_neg_neg

5164 mult_neg_le now named mult_nonpos_nonpos

5166 * The following lemmas in Ring_and_Field have been added to the simplifier:

5168 zero_le_square

5169 not_square_less_zero

5171 The following lemmas have been deleted from Real/RealPow:

5173 realpow_zero_zero

5174 realpow_two

5175 realpow_less

5176 zero_le_power

5177 realpow_two_le

5178 abs_realpow_two

5179 realpow_two_abs

5181 * Theory Parity: added rules for simplifying exponents.

5183 * Theory List:

5185 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

5186 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

5188 list_all_Nil now named list_all.simps(1)

5189 list_all_Cons now named list_all.simps(2)

5190 list_all_conv now named list_all_iff

5191 set_mem_eq now named mem_iff

5193 * Theories SetsAndFunctions and BigO (see HOL/Library) support

5194 asymptotic "big O" calculations. See the notes in BigO.thy.

5197 *** HOL-Complex ***

5199 * Theory RealDef: better support for embedding natural numbers and

5200 integers in the reals.

5202 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

5203 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

5205 exp_ge_add_one_self now requires no hypotheses

5206 real_of_int_add reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

5207 real_of_int_minus reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

5208 real_of_int_diff reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

5209 real_of_int_mult reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

5211 * Theory RComplete: expanded support for floor and ceiling functions.

5213 * Theory Ln is new, with properties of the natural logarithm

5215 * Hyperreal: There is a new type constructor "star" for making

5216 nonstandard types. The old type names are now type synonyms:

5218 hypreal = real star

5219 hypnat = nat star

5220 hcomplex = complex star

5222 * Hyperreal: Many groups of similarly-defined constants have been

5223 replaced by polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):

5225 star_of <-- hypreal_of_real, hypnat_of_nat, hcomplex_of_complex

5227 starset <-- starsetNat, starsetC

5228 *s* <-- *sNat*, *sc*

5229 starset_n <-- starsetNat_n, starsetC_n

5230 *sn* <-- *sNatn*, *scn*

5231 InternalSets <-- InternalNatSets, InternalCSets

5233 starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

5234 *f* <-- *fNat*, *fNat2*, *fc*, *fRc*, *fcR*

5235 starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n

5236 *fn* <-- *fNatn*, *fNat2n*, *fcn*, *fRcn*, *fcRn*

5237 InternalFuns <-- InternalNatFuns, InternalNatFuns2, Internal{C,RC,CR}Funs

5239 * Hyperreal: Many type-specific theorems have been removed in favor of

5240 theorems specific to various axiomatic type classes (INCOMPATIBILITY):

5242 add_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_commute

5243 add_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_assocs

5244 OrderedGroup.add_0 <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_zero_left

5245 OrderedGroup.add_0_right <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_zero_right

5246 right_minus <-- hypreal_add_minus

5247 left_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_minus_left

5248 mult_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_commute

5249 mult_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_assoc

5250 mult_1_left <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_1, hcomplex_mult_one_left

5251 mult_1_right <-- hcomplex_mult_one_right

5252 mult_zero_left <-- hcomplex_mult_zero_left

5253 left_distrib <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_mult_distrib

5254 right_distrib <-- hypnat_add_mult_distrib2

5255 zero_neq_one <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_not_eq_one

5256 right_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse

5257 left_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse_left, hcomplex_mult_inv_left

5258 order_refl <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_refl

5259 order_trans <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_trans

5260 order_antisym <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_anti_sym

5261 order_less_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less_le

5262 linorder_linear <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_linear

5263 add_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_add_left_mono

5264 mult_strict_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_less_mono2

5265 add_nonneg_nonneg <-- hypreal_le_add_order

5267 * Hyperreal: Separate theorems having to do with type-specific

5268 versions of constants have been merged into theorems that apply to the

5269 new polymorphic constants (INCOMPATIBILITY):

5271 STAR_UNIV_set <-- {STAR_real,NatStar_real,STARC_complex}_set

5272 STAR_empty_set <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_empty_set

5273 STAR_Un <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Un

5274 STAR_Int <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Int

5275 STAR_Compl <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Compl

5276 STAR_subset <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_subset

5277 STAR_mem <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_mem

5278 STAR_mem_Compl <-- {STAR,STARC}_mem_Compl

5279 STAR_diff <-- {STAR,STARC}_diff

5280 STAR_star_of_image_subset <-- {STAR_hypreal_of_real, NatStar_hypreal_of_real,

5281 STARC_hcomplex_of_complex}_image_subset

5282 starset_n_Un <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Un

5283 starset_n_Int <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Int

5284 starset_n_Compl <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Compl

5285 starset_n_diff <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_diff

5286 InternalSets_Un <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Un

5287 InternalSets_Int <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Int

5288 InternalSets_Compl <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Compl

5289 InternalSets_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_diff

5290 InternalSets_UNIV_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_UNIV_diff

5291 InternalSets_starset_n <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_starset{Nat,C}_n

5292 starset_starset_n_eq <-- starset{Nat,C}_starset{Nat,C}_n_eq

5293 starset_n_starset <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_starset{Nat,C}

5294 starfun_n_starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n_starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

5295 starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

5296 starfun_mult <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_mult

5297 starfun_add <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_add

5298 starfun_minus <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_minus

5299 starfun_diff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_diff

5300 starfun_o <-- starfun{NatNat2,Nat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o

5301 starfun_o2 <-- starfun{NatNat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o2

5302 starfun_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_const_fun

5303 starfun_inverse <-- starfun{Nat,C,RC,CR}_inverse

5304 starfun_eq <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_eq

5305 starfun_eq_iff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_eq_iff

5306 starfun_Id <-- starfunC_Id

5307 starfun_approx <-- starfun{Nat,CR}_approx

5308 starfun_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_capprox

5309 starfun_abs <-- starfunNat_rabs

5310 starfun_lambda_cancel <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel

5311 starfun_lambda_cancel2 <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel2

5312 starfun_mult_HFinite_approx <-- starfunCR_mult_HFinite_capprox

5313 starfun_mult_CFinite_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_mult_CFinite_capprox

5314 starfun_add_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_add_capprox

5315 starfun_add_approx <-- starfunCR_add_approx

5316 starfun_inverse_inverse <-- starfunC_inverse_inverse

5317 starfun_divide <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_divide

5318 starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n

5319 starfun_n_mult <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_mult

5320 starfun_n_add <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_add

5321 starfun_n_add_minus <-- starfunNat_n_add_minus

5322 starfun_n_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_const_fun

5323 starfun_n_minus <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_minus

5324 starfun_n_eq <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_eq

5326 star_n_add <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add

5327 star_n_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_minus

5328 star_n_diff <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_diff

5329 star_n_mult <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_mult

5330 star_n_inverse <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_inverse

5331 star_n_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le

5332 star_n_less <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less

5333 star_n_zero_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_num

5334 star_n_one_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_one_num

5335 star_n_abs <-- hypreal_hrabs

5336 star_n_divide <-- hcomplex_divide

5338 star_of_add <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_add

5339 star_of_minus <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_minus

5340 star_of_diff <-- hypreal_of_real_diff

5341 star_of_mult <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_mult

5342 star_of_one <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_one

5343 star_of_zero <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_zero

5344 star_of_le <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_le_iff

5345 star_of_less <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_less_iff

5346 star_of_eq <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_eq_iff

5347 star_of_inverse <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_inverse

5348 star_of_divide <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_divide

5349 star_of_of_nat <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_nat

5350 star_of_of_int <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_int

5351 star_of_number_of <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_number_of

5352 star_of_number_less <-- number_of_less_hypreal_of_real_iff

5353 star_of_number_le <-- number_of_le_hypreal_of_real_iff

5354 star_of_eq_number <-- hypreal_of_real_eq_number_of_iff

5355 star_of_less_number <-- hypreal_of_real_less_number_of_iff

5356 star_of_le_number <-- hypreal_of_real_le_number_of_iff

5357 star_of_power <-- hypreal_of_real_power

5358 star_of_eq_0 <-- hcomplex_of_complex_zero_iff

5360 * Hyperreal: new method "transfer" that implements the transfer

5361 principle of nonstandard analysis. With a subgoal that mentions

5362 nonstandard types like "'a star", the command "apply transfer"

5363 replaces it with an equivalent one that mentions only standard types.

5364 To be successful, all free variables must have standard types; non-

5365 standard variables must have explicit universal quantifiers.

5367 * Hyperreal: A theory of Taylor series.

5370 *** HOLCF ***

5372 * Discontinued special version of 'constdefs' (which used to support

5373 continuous functions) in favor of the general Pure one with full

5374 type-inference.

5376 * New simplification procedure for solving continuity conditions; it

5377 is much faster on terms with many nested lambda abstractions (cubic

5378 instead of exponential time).

5380 * New syntax for domain package: selector names are now optional.

5381 Parentheses should be omitted unless argument is lazy, for example:

5383 domain 'a stream = cons "'a" (lazy "'a stream")

5385 * New command 'fixrec' for defining recursive functions with pattern

5386 matching; defining multiple functions with mutual recursion is also

5387 supported. Patterns may include the constants cpair, spair, up, sinl,

5388 sinr, or any data constructor defined by the domain package. The given

5389 equations are proven as rewrite rules. See HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for

5390 syntax and examples.

5392 * New commands 'cpodef' and 'pcpodef' for defining predicate subtypes

5393 of cpo and pcpo types. Syntax is exactly like the 'typedef' command,

5394 but the proof obligation additionally includes an admissibility

5395 requirement. The packages generate instances of class cpo or pcpo,

5396 with continuity and strictness theorems for Rep and Abs.

5398 * HOLCF: Many theorems have been renamed according to a more standard naming

5399 scheme (INCOMPATIBILITY):

5401 foo_inject: "foo$x = foo$y ==> x = y"

5402 foo_eq: "(foo$x = foo$y) = (x = y)"

5403 foo_less: "(foo$x << foo$y) = (x << y)"

5404 foo_strict: "foo$UU = UU"

5405 foo_defined: "... ==> foo$x ~= UU"

5406 foo_defined_iff: "(foo$x = UU) = (x = UU)"

5409 *** ZF ***

5411 * ZF/ex: theories Group and Ring provide examples in abstract algebra,

5412 including the First Isomorphism Theorem (on quotienting by the kernel

5413 of a homomorphism).

5415 * ZF/Simplifier: install second copy of type solver that actually

5416 makes use of TC rules declared to Isar proof contexts (or locales);

5417 the old version is still required for ML proof scripts.

5420 *** Cube ***

5422 * Converted to Isar theory format; use locales instead of axiomatic

5423 theories.

5426 *** ML ***

5428 * Pure/library.ML: added ##>, ##>>, #>> -- higher-order counterparts

5429 for ||>, ||>>, |>>,

5431 * Pure/library.ML no longer defines its own option datatype, but uses

5432 that of the SML basis, which has constructors NONE and SOME instead of

5433 None and Some, as well as exception Option.Option instead of OPTION.

5434 The functions the, if_none, is_some, is_none have been adapted

5435 accordingly, while Option.map replaces apsome.

5437 * Pure/library.ML: the exception LIST has been given up in favour of

5438 the standard exceptions Empty and Subscript, as well as

5439 Library.UnequalLengths. Function like Library.hd and Library.tl are

5440 superceded by the standard hd and tl functions etc.

5442 A number of basic list functions are no longer exported to the ML

5443 toplevel, as they are variants of predefined functions. The following

5444 suggests how one can translate existing code:

5446 rev_append xs ys = List.revAppend (xs, ys)

5447 nth_elem (i, xs) = List.nth (xs, i)

5448 last_elem xs = List.last xs

5449 flat xss = List.concat xss

5450 seq fs = List.app fs

5451 partition P xs = List.partition P xs

5452 mapfilter f xs = List.mapPartial f xs

5454 * Pure/library.ML: several combinators for linear functional

5455 transformations, notably reverse application and composition:

5457 x |> f f #> g

5458 (x, y) |-> f f #-> g

5460 * Pure/library.ML: introduced/changed precedence of infix operators:

5462 infix 1 |> |-> ||> ||>> |>> |>>> #> #->;

5463 infix 2 ?;

5464 infix 3 o oo ooo oooo;

5465 infix 4 ~~ upto downto;

5467 Maybe INCOMPATIBILITY when any of those is used in conjunction with other

5468 infix operators.

5470 * Pure/library.ML: natural list combinators fold, fold_rev, and

5471 fold_map support linear functional transformations and nesting. For

5472 example:

5474 fold f [x1, ..., xN] y =

5475 y |> f x1 |> ... |> f xN

5477 (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] y =

5478 y |> fold f xs1 |> ... |> fold f xsN

5480 fold f [x1, ..., xN] =

5481 f x1 #> ... #> f xN

5483 (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] =

5484 fold f xs1 #> ... #> fold f xsN

5486 * Pure/library.ML: the following selectors on type 'a option are

5487 available:

5489 the: 'a option -> 'a (*partial*)

5490 these: 'a option -> 'a where 'a = 'b list

5491 the_default: 'a -> 'a option -> 'a

5492 the_list: 'a option -> 'a list

5494 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides

5495 basic operations for association lists, following natural argument

5496 order; moreover the explicit equality predicate passed here avoids

5497 potentially expensive polymorphic runtime equality checks.

5498 The old functions may be expressed as follows:

5500 assoc = uncurry (AList.lookup (op =))

5501 assocs = these oo AList.lookup (op =)

5502 overwrite = uncurry (AList.update (op =)) o swap

5504 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides

5506 val make: ('a -> 'b) -> 'a list -> ('a * 'b) list

5507 val find: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> ('c * 'b) list -> 'a -> 'c list

5509 replacing make_keylist and keyfilter (occassionally used)

5510 Naive rewrites:

5512 make_keylist = AList.make

5513 keyfilter = AList.find (op =)

5515 * eq_fst and eq_snd now take explicit equality parameter, thus

5516 avoiding eqtypes. Naive rewrites:

5518 eq_fst = eq_fst (op =)

5519 eq_snd = eq_snd (op =)

5521 * Removed deprecated apl and apr (rarely used).

5522 Naive rewrites:

5524 apl (n, op) =>>= curry op n

5525 apr (op, m) =>>= fn n => op (n, m)

5527 * Pure/General: structure OrdList (cf. Pure/General/ord_list.ML)

5528 provides a reasonably efficient light-weight implementation of sets as

5529 lists.

5531 * Pure/General: generic tables (cf. Pure/General/table.ML) provide a

5532 few new operations; existing lookup and update are now curried to

5533 follow natural argument order (for use with fold etc.);

5534 INCOMPATIBILITY, use (uncurry Symtab.lookup) etc. as last resort.

5536 * Pure/General: output via the Isabelle channels of

5537 writeln/warning/error etc. is now passed through Output.output, with a

5538 hook for arbitrary transformations depending on the print_mode

5539 (cf. Output.add_mode -- the first active mode that provides a output

5540 function wins). Already formatted output may be embedded into further

5541 text via Output.raw; the result of Pretty.string_of/str_of and derived

5542 functions (string_of_term/cterm/thm etc.) is already marked raw to

5543 accommodate easy composition of diagnostic messages etc. Programmers

5544 rarely need to care about Output.output or Output.raw at all, with

5545 some notable exceptions: Output.output is required when bypassing the

5546 standard channels (writeln etc.), or in token translations to produce

5547 properly formatted results; Output.raw is required when capturing

5548 already output material that will eventually be presented to the user

5549 a second time. For the default print mode, both Output.output and

5550 Output.raw have no effect.

5552 * Pure/General: Output.time_accumulator NAME creates an operator ('a

5553 -> 'b) -> 'a -> 'b to measure runtime and count invocations; the

5554 cumulative results are displayed at the end of a batch session.

5556 * Pure/General: File.sysify_path and File.quote_sysify path have been

5557 replaced by File.platform_path and File.shell_path (with appropriate

5558 hooks). This provides a clean interface for unusual systems where the

5559 internal and external process view of file names are different.

5561 * Pure: more efficient orders for basic syntactic entities: added

5562 fast_string_ord, fast_indexname_ord, fast_term_ord; changed sort_ord

5563 and typ_ord to use fast_string_ord and fast_indexname_ord (term_ord is

5564 NOT affected); structures Symtab, Vartab, Typtab, Termtab use the fast

5565 orders now -- potential INCOMPATIBILITY for code that depends on a

5566 particular order for Symtab.keys, Symtab.dest, etc. (consider using

5567 Library.sort_strings on result).

5569 * Pure/term.ML: combinators fold_atyps, fold_aterms, fold_term_types,

5570 fold_types traverse types/terms from left to right, observing natural

5571 argument order. Supercedes previous foldl_XXX versions, add_frees,

5572 add_vars etc. have been adapted as well: INCOMPATIBILITY.

5574 * Pure: name spaces have been refined, with significant changes of the

5575 internal interfaces -- INCOMPATIBILITY. Renamed cond_extern(_table)

5576 to extern(_table). The plain name entry path is superceded by a

5577 general 'naming' context, which also includes the 'policy' to produce

5578 a fully qualified name and external accesses of a fully qualified

5579 name; NameSpace.extend is superceded by context dependent

5580 Sign.declare_name. Several theory and proof context operations modify

5581 the naming context. Especially note Theory.restore_naming and

5582 ProofContext.restore_naming to get back to a sane state; note that

5583 Theory.add_path is no longer sufficient to recover from

5584 Theory.absolute_path in particular.

5586 * Pure: new flags short_names (default false) and unique_names

5587 (default true) for controlling output of qualified names. If

5588 short_names is set, names are printed unqualified. If unique_names is

5589 reset, the name prefix is reduced to the minimum required to achieve

5590 the original result when interning again, even if there is an overlap

5591 with earlier declarations.

5593 * Pure/TheoryDataFun: change of the argument structure; 'prep_ext' is

5594 now 'extend', and 'merge' gets an additional Pretty.pp argument

5595 (useful for printing error messages). INCOMPATIBILITY.

5597 * Pure: major reorganization of the theory context. Type Sign.sg and

5598 Theory.theory are now identified, referring to the universal

5599 Context.theory (see Pure/context.ML). Actual signature and theory

5600 content is managed as theory data. The old code and interfaces were

5601 spread over many files and structures; the new arrangement introduces

5602 considerable INCOMPATIBILITY to gain more clarity:

5604 Context -- theory management operations (name, identity, inclusion,

5605 parents, ancestors, merge, etc.), plus generic theory data;

5607 Sign -- logical signature and syntax operations (declaring consts,

5608 types, etc.), plus certify/read for common entities;

5610 Theory -- logical theory operations (stating axioms, definitions,

5611 oracles), plus a copy of logical signature operations (consts,

5612 types, etc.); also a few basic management operations (Theory.copy,

5613 Theory.merge, etc.)

5615 The most basic sign_of operations (Theory.sign_of, Thm.sign_of_thm

5616 etc.) as well as the sign field in Thm.rep_thm etc. have been retained

5617 for convenience -- they merely return the theory.

5619 * Pure: type Type.tsig is superceded by theory in most interfaces.

5621 * Pure: the Isar proof context type is already defined early in Pure

5622 as Context.proof (note that ProofContext.context and Proof.context are

5623 aliases, where the latter is the preferred name). This enables other

5624 Isabelle components to refer to that type even before Isar is present.

5626 * Pure/sign/theory: discontinued named name spaces (i.e. classK,

5627 typeK, constK, axiomK, oracleK), but provide explicit operations for

5628 any of these kinds. For example, Sign.intern typeK is now

5629 Sign.intern_type, Theory.hide_space Sign.typeK is now

5630 Theory.hide_types. Also note that former

5631 Theory.hide_classes/types/consts are now

5632 Theory.hide_classes_i/types_i/consts_i, while the non '_i' versions

5633 internalize their arguments! INCOMPATIBILITY.

5635 * Pure: get_thm interface (of PureThy and ProofContext) expects

5636 datatype thmref (with constructors Name and NameSelection) instead of

5637 plain string -- INCOMPATIBILITY;

5639 * Pure: cases produced by proof methods specify options, where NONE

5640 means to remove case bindings -- INCOMPATIBILITY in

5641 (RAW_)METHOD_CASES.

5643 * Pure: the following operations retrieve axioms or theorems from a

5644 theory node or theory hierarchy, respectively:

5646 Theory.axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list

5647 Theory.all_axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list

5648 PureThy.thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list

5649 PureThy.all_thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list

5651 * Pure: print_tac now outputs the goal through the trace channel.

5653 * Isar toplevel: improved diagnostics, mostly for Poly/ML only.

5654 Reference Toplevel.debug (default false) controls detailed printing

5655 and tracing of low-level exceptions; Toplevel.profiling (default 0)

5656 controls execution profiling -- set to 1 for time and 2 for space

5657 (both increase the runtime).

5659 * Isar session: The initial use of ROOT.ML is now always timed,

5660 i.e. the log will show the actual process times, in contrast to the

5661 elapsed wall-clock time that the outer shell wrapper produces.

5663 * Simplifier: improved handling of bound variables (nameless

5664 representation, avoid allocating new strings). Simprocs that invoke

5665 the Simplifier recursively should use Simplifier.inherit_bounds to

5666 avoid local name clashes. Failure to do so produces warnings

5667 "Simplifier: renamed bound variable ..."; set Simplifier.debug_bounds

5668 for further details.

5670 * ML functions legacy_bindings and use_legacy_bindings produce ML fact

5671 bindings for all theorems stored within a given theory; this may help

5672 in porting non-Isar theories to Isar ones, while keeping ML proof

5673 scripts for the time being.

5675 * ML operator HTML.with_charset specifies the charset begin used for

5676 generated HTML files. For example:

5678 HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Hebrew";

5679 HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Chinese";

5682 *** System ***

5684 * Allow symlinks to all proper Isabelle executables (Isabelle,

5685 isabelle, isatool etc.).

5687 * ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT setting specifies preferred document format (for

5688 isatool doc, isatool mkdir, display_drafts etc.).

5690 * isatool usedir: option -f allows specification of the ML file to be

5691 used by Isabelle; default is ROOT.ML.

5693 * New isatool version outputs the version identifier of the Isabelle

5694 distribution being used.

5696 * HOL: new isatool dimacs2hol converts files in DIMACS CNF format

5697 (containing Boolean satisfiability problems) into Isabelle/HOL

5698 theories.

5702 New in Isabelle2004 (April 2004)

5703 --------------------------------

5705 *** General ***

5707 * Provers/order.ML: new efficient reasoner for partial and linear orders.

5708 Replaces linorder.ML.

5710 * Pure: Greek letters (except small lambda, \<lambda>), as well as Gothic

5711 (\<aa>...\<zz>\<AA>...\<ZZ>), calligraphic (\<A>...\<Z>), and Euler

5712 (\<a>...\<z>), are now considered normal letters, and can therefore

5713 be used anywhere where an ASCII letter (a...zA...Z) has until

5714 now. COMPATIBILITY: This obviously changes the parsing of some

5715 terms, especially where a symbol has been used as a binder, say

5716 '\<Pi>x. ...', which is now a type error since \<Pi>x will be parsed

5717 as an identifier. Fix it by inserting a space around former

5718 symbols. Call 'isatool fixgreek' to try to fix parsing errors in

5719 existing theory and ML files.

5721 * Pure: Macintosh and Windows line-breaks are now allowed in theory files.

5723 * Pure: single letter sub/superscripts (\<^isub> and \<^isup>) are now

5724 allowed in identifiers. Similar to Greek letters \<^isub> is now considered

5725 a normal (but invisible) letter. For multiple letter subscripts repeat

5726 \<^isub> like this: x\<^isub>1\<^isub>2.

5728 * Pure: There are now sub-/superscripts that can span more than one

5729 character. Text between \<^bsub> and \<^esub> is set in subscript in

5730 ProofGeneral and LaTeX, text between \<^bsup> and \<^esup> in

5731 superscript. The new control characters are not identifier parts.

5733 * Pure: Control-symbols of the form \<^raw:...> will literally print the

5734 content of "..." to the latex file instead of \isacntrl... . The "..."

5735 may consist of any printable characters excluding the end bracket >.

5737 * Pure: Using new Isar command "finalconsts" (or the ML functions

5738 Theory.add_finals or Theory.add_finals_i) it is now possible to

5739 declare constants "final", which prevents their being given a definition

5740 later. It is useful for constants whose behaviour is fixed axiomatically

5741 rather than definitionally, such as the meta-logic connectives.

5743 * Pure: 'instance' now handles general arities with general sorts

5744 (i.e. intersections of classes),

5746 * Presentation: generated HTML now uses a CSS style sheet to make layout

5747 (somewhat) independent of content. It is copied from lib/html/isabelle.css.

5748 It can be changed to alter the colors/layout of generated pages.

5751 *** Isar ***

5753 * Tactic emulation methods rule_tac, erule_tac, drule_tac, frule_tac,

5754 cut_tac, subgoal_tac and thin_tac:

5755 - Now understand static (Isar) contexts. As a consequence, users of Isar

5756 locales are no longer forced to write Isar proof scripts.

5757 For details see Isar Reference Manual, paragraph 4.3.2: Further tactic

5758 emulations.

5759 - INCOMPATIBILITY: names of variables to be instantiated may no

5760 longer be enclosed in quotes. Instead, precede variable name with `?'.

5761 This is consistent with the instantiation attribute "where".

5763 * Attributes "where" and "of":

5764 - Now take type variables of instantiated theorem into account when reading

5765 the instantiation string. This fixes a bug that caused instantiated

5766 theorems to have too special types in some circumstances.

5767 - "where" permits explicit instantiations of type variables.

5769 * Calculation commands "moreover" and "also" no longer interfere with

5770 current facts ("this"), admitting arbitrary combinations with "then"

5771 and derived forms.

5773 * Locales:

5774 - Goal statements involving the context element "includes" no longer

5775 generate theorems with internal delta predicates (those ending on

5776 "_axioms") in the premise.

5777 Resolve particular premise with <locale>.intro to obtain old form.

5778 - Fixed bug in type inference ("unify_frozen") that prevented mix of target

5779 specification and "includes" elements in goal statement.

5780 - Rule sets <locale>.intro and <locale>.axioms no longer declared as

5781 [intro?] and [elim?] (respectively) by default.

5782 - Experimental command for instantiation of locales in proof contexts:

5783 instantiate <label>[<attrs>]: <loc>

5784 Instantiates locale <loc> and adds all its theorems to the current context

5785 taking into account their attributes. Label and attrs are optional

5786 modifiers, like in theorem declarations. If present, names of

5787 instantiated theorems are qualified with <label>, and the attributes

5788 <attrs> are applied after any attributes these theorems might have already.

5789 If the locale has assumptions, a chained fact of the form

5790 "<loc> t1 ... tn" is expected from which instantiations of the parameters

5791 are derived. The command does not support old-style locales declared

5792 with "locale (open)".

5793 A few (very simple) examples can be found in FOL/ex/LocaleInst.thy.

5795 * HOL: Tactic emulation methods induct_tac and case_tac understand static

5796 (Isar) contexts.

5799 *** HOL ***

5801 * Proof import: new image HOL4 contains the imported library from

5802 the HOL4 system with about 2500 theorems. It is imported by

5803 replaying proof terms produced by HOL4 in Isabelle. The HOL4 image

5804 can be used like any other Isabelle image. See

5805 HOL/Import/HOL/README for more information.

5807 * Simplifier:

5808 - Much improved handling of linear and partial orders.

5809 Reasoners for linear and partial orders are set up for type classes

5810 "linorder" and "order" respectively, and are added to the default simpset

5811 as solvers. This means that the simplifier can build transitivity chains

5812 to solve goals from the assumptions.

5813 - INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break occasionally. Typically, applications

5814 of blast or auto after simplification become unnecessary because the goal

5815 is solved by simplification already.

5817 * Numerics: new theory Ring_and_Field contains over 250 basic numerical laws,

5818 all proved in axiomatic type classes for semirings, rings and fields.

5820 * Numerics:

5821 - Numeric types (nat, int, and in HOL-Complex rat, real, complex, etc.) are

5822 now formalized using the Ring_and_Field theory mentioned above.

5823 - INCOMPATIBILITY: simplification and arithmetic behaves somewhat differently

5824 than before, because now they are set up once in a generic manner.

5825 - INCOMPATIBILITY: many type-specific arithmetic laws have gone.

5826 Look for the general versions in Ring_and_Field (and Power if they concern

5827 exponentiation).

5829 * Type "rat" of the rational numbers is now available in HOL-Complex.

5831 * Records:

5832 - Record types are now by default printed with their type abbreviation

5833 instead of the list of all field types. This can be configured via

5834 the reference "print_record_type_abbr".

5835 - Simproc "record_upd_simproc" for simplification of multiple updates added

5836 (not enabled by default).

5837 - Simproc "record_ex_sel_eq_simproc" to simplify EX x. sel r = x resp.

5838 EX x. x = sel r to True (not enabled by default).

5839 - Tactic "record_split_simp_tac" to split and simplify records added.

5841 * 'specification' command added, allowing for definition by

5842 specification. There is also an 'ax_specification' command that

5843 introduces the new constants axiomatically.

5845 * arith(_tac) is now able to generate counterexamples for reals as well.

5847 * HOL-Algebra: new locale "ring" for non-commutative rings.

5849 * HOL-ex: InductiveInvariant_examples illustrates advanced recursive function

5850 definitions, thanks to Sava Krsti\'{c} and John Matthews.

5852 * HOL-Matrix: a first theory for matrices in HOL with an application of

5853 matrix theory to linear programming.

5855 * Unions and Intersections:

5856 The latex output syntax of UN and INT has been changed

5857 from "\Union x \in A. B" to "\Union_{x \in A} B"

5858 i.e. the index formulae has become a subscript.

5859 Similarly for "\Union x. B", and for \Inter instead of \Union.

5861 * Unions and Intersections over Intervals:

5862 There is new short syntax "UN i<=n. A" for "UN i:{0..n}. A". There is

5863 also an x-symbol version with subscripts "\<Union>\<^bsub>i <= n\<^esub>. A"

5864 like in normal math, and corresponding versions for < and for intersection.

5866 * HOL/List: Ordering "lexico" is renamed "lenlex" and the standard

5867 lexicographic dictonary ordering has been added as "lexord".

5869 * ML: the legacy theory structures Int and List have been removed. They had

5870 conflicted with ML Basis Library structures having the same names.

5872 * 'refute' command added to search for (finite) countermodels. Only works

5873 for a fragment of HOL. The installation of an external SAT solver is

5874 highly recommended. See "HOL/Refute.thy" for details.

5876 * 'quickcheck' command: Allows to find counterexamples by evaluating

5877 formulae under an assignment of free variables to random values.

5878 In contrast to 'refute', it can deal with inductive datatypes,

5879 but cannot handle quantifiers. See "HOL/ex/Quickcheck_Examples.thy"

5880 for examples.

5883 *** HOLCF ***

5885 * Streams now come with concatenation and are part of the HOLCF image

5889 New in Isabelle2003 (May 2003)

5890 ------------------------------

5892 *** General ***

5894 * Provers/simplifier:

5896 - Completely reimplemented method simp (ML: Asm_full_simp_tac):

5897 Assumptions are now subject to complete mutual simplification,

5898 not just from left to right. The simplifier now preserves

5899 the order of assumptions.

5901 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:

5903 -- simp sometimes diverges where the old version did

5904 not, e.g. invoking simp on the goal

5906 [| P (f x); y = x; f x = f y |] ==> Q

5908 now gives rise to the infinite reduction sequence

5910 P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> P(f y) --(y = x)--> P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> ...

5912 Using "simp (asm_lr)" (ML: Asm_lr_simp_tac) instead often solves this

5913 kind of problem.

5915 -- Tactics combining classical reasoner and simplification (such as auto)

5916 are also affected by this change, because many of them rely on

5917 simp. They may sometimes diverge as well or yield a different numbers

5918 of subgoals. Try to use e.g. force, fastsimp, or safe instead of auto

5919 in case of problems. Sometimes subsequent calls to the classical

5920 reasoner will fail because a preceeding call to the simplifier too

5921 eagerly simplified the goal, e.g. deleted redundant premises.

5923 - The simplifier trace now shows the names of the applied rewrite rules

5925 - You can limit the number of recursive invocations of the simplifier

5926 during conditional rewriting (where the simplifie tries to solve the

5927 conditions before applying the rewrite rule):

5928 ML "simp_depth_limit := n"

5929 where n is an integer. Thus you can force termination where previously

5930 the simplifier would diverge.

5932 - Accepts free variables as head terms in congruence rules. Useful in Isar.

5934 - No longer aborts on failed congruence proof. Instead, the

5935 congruence is ignored.

5937 * Pure: New generic framework for extracting programs from constructive

5938 proofs. See HOL/Extraction.thy for an example instantiation, as well

5939 as HOL/Extraction for some case studies.

5941 * Pure: The main goal of the proof state is no longer shown by default, only

5942 the subgoals. This behaviour is controlled by a new flag.

5943 PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Settings -> Show Main Goal

5944 (ML: Proof.show_main_goal).

5946 * Pure: You can find all matching introduction rules for subgoal 1, i.e. all

5947 rules whose conclusion matches subgoal 1:

5948 PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Show me -> matching rules

5949 The rules are ordered by how closely they match the subgoal.

5950 In particular, rules that solve a subgoal outright are displayed first

5951 (or rather last, the way they are printed).

5952 (ML: ProofGeneral.print_intros())

5954 * Pure: New flag trace_unify_fail causes unification to print

5955 diagnostic information (PG: in trace buffer) when it fails. This is

5956 useful for figuring out why single step proofs like rule, erule or

5957 assumption failed.

5959 * Pure: Locale specifications now produce predicate definitions

5960 according to the body of text (covering assumptions modulo local

5961 definitions); predicate "loc_axioms" covers newly introduced text,

5962 while "loc" is cumulative wrt. all included locale expressions; the

5963 latter view is presented only on export into the global theory

5964 context; potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use "(open)" option to fall back

5965 on the old view without predicates;

5967 * Pure: predefined locales "var" and "struct" are useful for sharing

5968 parameters (as in CASL, for example); just specify something like

5969 ``var x + var y + struct M'' as import;

5971 * Pure: improved thms_containing: proper indexing of facts instead of

5972 raw theorems; check validity of results wrt. current name space;

5973 include local facts of proof configuration (also covers active

5974 locales), cover fixed variables in index; may use "_" in term

5975 specification; an optional limit for the number of printed facts may

5976 be given (the default is 40);

5978 * Pure: disallow duplicate fact bindings within new-style theory files

5979 (batch-mode only);

5981 * Provers: improved induct method: assumptions introduced by case

5982 "foo" are split into "foo.hyps" (from the rule) and "foo.prems" (from

5983 the goal statement); "foo" still refers to all facts collectively;

5985 * Provers: the function blast.overloaded has been removed: all constants

5986 are regarded as potentially overloaded, which improves robustness in exchange

5987 for slight decrease in efficiency;

5989 * Provers/linorder: New generic prover for transitivity reasoning over

5990 linear orders. Note: this prover is not efficient!

5992 * Isar: preview of problems to finish 'show' now produce an error

5993 rather than just a warning (in interactive mode);

5996 *** HOL ***

5998 * arith(_tac)

6000 - Produces a counter example if it cannot prove a goal.

6001 Note that the counter example may be spurious if the goal is not a formula

6002 of quantifier-free linear arithmetic.

6003 In ProofGeneral the counter example appears in the trace buffer.

6005 - Knows about div k and mod k where k is a numeral of type nat or int.

6007 - Calls full Presburger arithmetic (by Amine Chaieb) if quantifier-free

6008 linear arithmetic fails. This takes account of quantifiers and divisibility.

6009 Presburger arithmetic can also be called explicitly via presburger(_tac).

6011 * simp's arithmetic capabilities have been enhanced a bit: it now

6012 takes ~= in premises into account (by performing a case split);

6014 * simp reduces "m*(n div m) + n mod m" to n, even if the two summands

6015 are distributed over a sum of terms;

6017 * New tactic "trans_tac" and method "trans" instantiate

6018 Provers/linorder.ML for axclasses "order" and "linorder" (predicates

6019 "<=", "<" and "=").

6021 * function INCOMPATIBILITIES: Pi-sets have been redefined and moved from main

6022 HOL to Library/FuncSet; constant "Fun.op o" is now called "Fun.comp";

6024 * 'typedef' command has new option "open" to suppress the set

6025 definition;

6027 * functions Min and Max on finite sets have been introduced (theory

6028 Finite_Set);

6030 * attribute [symmetric] now works for relations as well; it turns

6031 (x,y) : R^-1 into (y,x) : R, and vice versa;

6033 * induct over a !!-quantified statement (say !!x1..xn):

6034 each "case" automatically performs "fix x1 .. xn" with exactly those names.

6036 * Map: `empty' is no longer a constant but a syntactic abbreviation for

6037 %x. None. Warning: empty_def now refers to the previously hidden definition

6038 of the empty set.

6040 * Algebra: formalization of classical algebra. Intended as base for

6041 any algebraic development in Isabelle. Currently covers group theory

6042 (up to Sylow's theorem) and ring theory (Universal Property of

6043 Univariate Polynomials). Contributions welcome;

6045 * GroupTheory: deleted, since its material has been moved to Algebra;

6047 * Complex: new directory of the complex numbers with numeric constants,

6048 nonstandard complex numbers, and some complex analysis, standard and

6049 nonstandard (Jacques Fleuriot);

6051 * HOL-Complex: new image for analysis, replacing HOL-Real and HOL-Hyperreal;

6053 * Hyperreal: introduced Gauge integration and hyperreal logarithms (Jacques

6054 Fleuriot);

6056 * Real/HahnBanach: updated and adapted to locales;

6058 * NumberTheory: added Gauss's law of quadratic reciprocity (by Avigad,

6059 Gray and Kramer);

6061 * UNITY: added the Meier-Sanders theory of progress sets;

6063 * MicroJava: bytecode verifier and lightweight bytecode verifier

6064 as abstract algorithms, instantiated to the JVM;

6066 * Bali: Java source language formalization. Type system, operational

6067 semantics, axiomatic semantics. Supported language features:

6068 classes, interfaces, objects,virtual methods, static methods,

6069 static/instance fields, arrays, access modifiers, definite

6070 assignment, exceptions.

6073 *** ZF ***

6075 * ZF/Constructible: consistency proof for AC (Gdel's constructible

6076 universe, etc.);

6078 * Main ZF: virtually all theories converted to new-style format;

6081 *** ML ***

6083 * Pure: Tactic.prove provides sane interface for internal proofs;

6084 omits the infamous "standard" operation, so this is more appropriate

6085 than prove_goalw_cterm in many situations (e.g. in simprocs);

6087 * Pure: improved error reporting of simprocs;

6089 * Provers: Simplifier.simproc(_i) provides sane interface for setting

6090 up simprocs;

6093 *** Document preparation ***

6095 * uses \par instead of \\ for line breaks in theory text. This may

6096 shift some page breaks in large documents. To get the old behaviour

6097 use \renewcommand{\isanewline}{\mbox{}\\\mbox{}} in root.tex.

6099 * minimized dependencies of isabelle.sty and isabellesym.sty on

6100 other packages

6102 * \<euro> now needs package babel/greek instead of marvosym (which

6103 broke \Rightarrow)

6105 * normal size for \<zero>...\<nine> (uses \mathbf instead of

6106 textcomp package)

6110 New in Isabelle2002 (March 2002)

6111 --------------------------------

6113 *** Document preparation ***

6115 * greatly simplified document preparation setup, including more

6116 graceful interpretation of isatool usedir -i/-d/-D options, and more

6117 instructive isatool mkdir; users should basically be able to get

6118 started with "isatool mkdir HOL Test && isatool make"; alternatively,

6119 users may run a separate document processing stage manually like this:

6120 "isatool usedir -D output HOL Test && isatool document Test/output";

6122 * theory dependency graph may now be incorporated into documents;

6123 isatool usedir -g true will produce session_graph.eps/.pdf for use

6124 with \includegraphics of LaTeX;

6126 * proper spacing of consecutive markup elements, especially text

6127 blocks after section headings;

6129 * support bold style (for single symbols only), input syntax is like

6130 this: "\<^bold>\<alpha>" or "\<^bold>A";

6132 * \<bullet> is now output as bold \cdot by default, which looks much

6133 better in printed text;

6135 * added default LaTeX bindings for \<tturnstile> and \<TTurnstile>;

6136 note that these symbols are currently unavailable in Proof General /

6137 X-Symbol; new symbols \<zero>, \<one>, ..., \<nine>, and \<euro>;

6139 * isatool latex no longer depends on changed TEXINPUTS, instead

6140 isatool document copies the Isabelle style files to the target

6141 location;

6144 *** Isar ***

6146 * Pure/Provers: improved proof by cases and induction;

6147 - 'case' command admits impromptu naming of parameters (such as

6148 "case (Suc n)");

6149 - 'induct' method divinates rule instantiation from the inductive

6150 claim; no longer requires excessive ?P bindings for proper

6151 instantiation of cases;

6152 - 'induct' method properly enumerates all possibilities of set/type

6153 rules; as a consequence facts may be also passed through *type*

6154 rules without further ado;

6155 - 'induct' method now derives symbolic cases from the *rulified*

6156 rule (before it used to rulify cases stemming from the internal

6157 atomized version); this means that the context of a non-atomic

6158 statement becomes is included in the hypothesis, avoiding the

6159 slightly cumbersome show "PROP ?case" form;

6160 - 'induct' may now use elim-style induction rules without chaining

6161 facts, using ``missing'' premises from the goal state; this allows

6162 rules stemming from inductive sets to be applied in unstructured

6163 scripts, while still benefitting from proper handling of non-atomic

6164 statements; NB: major inductive premises need to be put first, all

6165 the rest of the goal is passed through the induction;

6166 - 'induct' proper support for mutual induction involving non-atomic

6167 rule statements (uses the new concept of simultaneous goals, see

6168 below);

6169 - append all possible rule selections, but only use the first

6170 success (no backtracking);

6171 - removed obsolete "(simplified)" and "(stripped)" options of methods;

6172 - undeclared rule case names default to numbers 1, 2, 3, ...;

6173 - added 'print_induct_rules' (covered by help item in recent Proof

6174 General versions);

6175 - moved induct/cases attributes to Pure, methods to Provers;

6176 - generic method setup instantiated for FOL and HOL;

6178 * Pure: support multiple simultaneous goal statements, for example

6179 "have a: A and b: B" (same for 'theorem' etc.); being a pure

6180 meta-level mechanism, this acts as if several individual goals had

6181 been stated separately; in particular common proof methods need to be

6182 repeated in order to cover all claims; note that a single elimination

6183 step is *not* sufficient to establish the two conjunctions, so this

6184 fails:

6186 assume "A & B" then have A and B .. (*".." fails*)

6188 better use "obtain" in situations as above; alternative refer to

6189 multi-step methods like 'auto', 'simp_all', 'blast+' etc.;

6191 * Pure: proper integration with ``locales''; unlike the original

6192 version by Florian Kammller, Isar locales package high-level proof

6193 contexts rather than raw logical ones (e.g. we admit to include

6194 attributes everywhere); operations on locales include merge and

6195 rename; support for implicit arguments (``structures''); simultaneous

6196 type-inference over imports and text; see also HOL/ex/Locales.thy for

6197 some examples;

6199 * Pure: the following commands have been ``localized'', supporting a

6200 target locale specification "(in name)": 'lemma', 'theorem',

6201 'corollary', 'lemmas', 'theorems', 'declare'; the results will be

6202 stored both within the locale and at the theory level (exported and

6203 qualified by the locale name);

6205 * Pure: theory goals may now be specified in ``long'' form, with

6206 ad-hoc contexts consisting of arbitrary locale elements. for example

6207 ``lemma foo: fixes x assumes "A x" shows "B x"'' (local syntax and

6208 definitions may be given, too); the result is a meta-level rule with

6209 the context elements being discharged in the obvious way;

6211 * Pure: new proof command 'using' allows to augment currently used

6212 facts after a goal statement ('using' is syntactically analogous to

6213 'apply', but acts on the goal's facts only); this allows chained facts

6214 to be separated into parts given before and after a claim, as in

6215 ``from a and b have C using d and e <proof>'';

6217 * Pure: renamed "antecedent" case to "rule_context";

6219 * Pure: new 'judgment' command records explicit information about the

6220 object-logic embedding (used by several tools internally); no longer

6221 use hard-wired "Trueprop";

6223 * Pure: added 'corollary' command;

6225 * Pure: fixed 'token_translation' command;

6227 * Pure: removed obsolete 'exported' attribute;

6229 * Pure: dummy pattern "_" in is/let is now automatically lifted over