NEWS
author wenzelm
Tue Sep 24 20:24:14 2013 +0200 (2013-09-24)
changeset 53852 c7707223d782
parent 53803 b6a947a2c615
child 53886 c83727c7a510
permissions -rw-r--r--
NEWS;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
    10 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
    11 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
    12 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
    13 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
    14 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
    15 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
    16 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
    17 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
    18 syntax.
    19 
    20 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
    21 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    22 
    23 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
    24 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
    25 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
    26 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
    27 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
    28 
    29 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
    30 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    31 
    32 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
    33 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
    34 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation, with its
    35 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs, has been discontinued.
    36 The default chapter is "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for HTML
    37 presentation of theories.
    38 
    39 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
    40 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
    41 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    42 
    43 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
    44 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    45 
    46 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
    47 eliminated old "ref" manual.
    48 
    49 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
    50 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
    51 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
    52 
    53 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
    54 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
    55 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
    56 
    57 
    58 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    59 
    60 * Separate manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
    61 Documentation panel.
    62 
    63 * Improved "Theories" panel: Continuous checking of proof document
    64 (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly, using check
    65 box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may be marked
    66 explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box or
    67 shortcut "C+e SPACE".
    68 
    69 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancelation of
    70 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
    71 such command executions while editing.
    72 
    73 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
    74 document content.
    75 
    76 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
    77 toplevel theorem statements.
    78 
    79 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
    80 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
    81 
    82 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
    83 documentation.
    84 
    85 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
    86 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
    87 normal editing and checking process.
    88 
    89 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
    90 timing information.
    91 
    92 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
    93 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size"
    94 (cf. keyboard shortcut C+0).
    95 
    96 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
    97 / Global Options / Appearance".
    98 
    99 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   100 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.
   101 
   102   - Various Isabelle plugin options to control popup behaviour and
   103     immediate insertion into buffer.
   104 
   105   - Light-weight popup, which avoids explicit window (more reactive
   106     and more robust).  Interpreted key events include TAB, ESCAPE, UP,
   107     DOWN, PAGE_UP, PAGE_DOWN.  All other key events are passed to
   108     the jEdit text area.
   109 
   110   - Explicit completion via standard jEdit shortcut C+b, which has
   111     been remapped to action "isabelle.complete" (fall-back on regular
   112     "complete-word" for non-Isabelle buffers).
   113 
   114   - Implicit completion via keyboard input on text area, with popup or
   115     immediate insertion into buffer.
   116 
   117   - Implicit completion of plain words requires at least 3 characters
   118     (was 2 before).
   119 
   120   - Immediate completion ignores plain words; it requires > 1
   121     characters of symbol abbreviation to complete, otherwise fall-back
   122     on completion popup.
   123 
   124   - Isabelle Symbols are only completed in backslashed forms,
   125     e.g. \forall or \<forall> that both produce the Isabelle symbol
   126     \<forall> in its Unicode rendering.
   127 
   128   - Refined table of Isabelle symbol abbreviations (see
   129     $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   130 
   131 
   132 *** Pure ***
   133 
   134 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   135 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   136 
   137 * Type theory is now immutable, without any special treatment of
   138 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
   139 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
   140 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
   141 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   142 
   143 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   144 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   145 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   146 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   147 
   148 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   149 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   150 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   151 
   152 * Target-sensitive commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale'.
   153 Particulary, 'interpretation' now allows for non-persistent
   154 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks.  See
   155 "isar-ref" manual for details.
   156 
   157 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   158 
   159 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   160 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   161 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   162 
   163 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   164 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   165 
   166 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   167 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   168 situations.
   169 
   170 
   171 *** HOL ***
   172 
   173 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   174 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   175 
   176 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   177 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   178 to distinguish both when desired.
   179 
   180 * Code generator:
   181   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   182     'code_instance'.
   183   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   184     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   185   See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories
   186   for examples.
   187 
   188 * HOL/BNF:
   189   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including new
   190     commands "primrec_new", "primcorecursive", and "datatype_new_compat",
   191     as well as documentation. See "datatypes.pdf" for details.
   192   - Renamed keywords:
   193     data ~> datatype_new
   194     codata ~> codatatype
   195     bnf_def ~> bnf
   196   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
   197     discs ~> disc
   198     map_comp' ~> map_comp
   199     map_id' ~> map_id
   200     sels ~> sel
   201     set_map' ~> set_map
   202     sets ~> set
   203 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   204 
   205 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   206 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   207 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   208 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   209 
   210 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   211 automatically generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x =
   212 t".
   213 
   214 * New command "fun_cases" derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   215 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   216 inductive_cases.  See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   217 
   218 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   219   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   220   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
   221     generated code.
   222   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   223   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   224   - Fact renames:
   225     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   226     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
   227     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
   228 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   229 
   230 * Reification and reflection:
   231   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   232     "Reification".
   233   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   234   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   235 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   236 
   237 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on sets,
   238 in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   239 
   240 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   241 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   242 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   243 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   244 
   245   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   246 
   247 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
   248 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
   249 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
   250 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
   251 
   252 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   253 
   254 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   255   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   256     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   257     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   258   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   259     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   260   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   261     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   262     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   263     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   264     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   265     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   266     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   267     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly. 
   268   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   269     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   270   - Fact renames:
   271       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   272       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   273 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   274 
   275 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   276 
   277 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   278 
   279 * Discontinued obsolete src/HOL/IsaMakefile (considered legacy since
   280 Isabelle2013).  Use "isabelle build" to operate on Isabelle sessions.
   281 
   282 * Numeric types mapped by default to target language numerals: natural
   283 (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former code_int).
   284 Conversions are available as integer_of_natural / natural_of_integer /
   285 integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   286 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   287 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   288 
   289 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   290 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   291 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   292 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   293 
   294 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   295 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   296 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   297 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   298 
   299 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   300 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   301 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   302 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   303 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   304 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   305 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   306 lemmas.
   307 
   308 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   309 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   310 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   311 
   312 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top 
   313 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions. 
   314 INCOMPATIBILITY: Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   315 
   316 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   317 top and bottom elements.
   318 
   319 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   320 
   321 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   322 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   323 
   324  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and linear_continuum_topology.
   325    Allows to generalize theorems about limits and order.
   326    Instances are reals and extended reals.
   327 
   328  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   329    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.
   330    "isCont" is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   331 
   332    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an arbitrary
   333    filter.
   334 
   335  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma
   336    to prove compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   337    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a continuous
   338    function is continuous, when the function is continuous on a compact set.
   339 
   340  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   341    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   342    linear_continuum_topology).
   343 
   344  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   345    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and on
   346    all sequences converging to x.
   347 
   348  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved theorems
   349    from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the definition of DERIV on
   350    FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV which are restricted to sets,
   351    i.e. to represent derivatives from left or right.
   352 
   353  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   354 
   355      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   356 
   357  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   358    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   359 
   360  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros, continuous_intros,
   361    continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems in tendsto_intros (or
   362    FDERIV_intros) are also available as tendsto_eq_intros (or
   363    FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side is replaced by a congruence
   364    rule. This allows to apply them as intro rules and then proving
   365    equivalence by the simplifier.
   366 
   367  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   368 
   369    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   370 
   371    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   372      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   373 
   374    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   375 
   376    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces, Real_Vector_Spaces, and
   377      Limits
   378 
   379    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   380 
   381    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   382 
   383  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   384 
   385 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   386 
   387 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   388 
   389     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   390     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   391 
   392 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   393 
   394 * Nitpick:
   395   - Added option "spy"
   396   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors
   397 
   398 * Sledgehammer:
   399   - Renamed option:
   400       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   401     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   402   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy"
   403   - Better support for "isar_proofs"
   404   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server
   405 
   406 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
   407 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
   408 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
   409 
   410 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
   411 .../poly.  Existing theories should be based on
   412 src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides integration
   413 with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   414 
   415 
   416 *** ML ***
   417 
   418 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
   419 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
   420 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
   421 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
   422 
   423 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
   424 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
   425 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
   426 Examples.thy in particular.
   427 
   428 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
   429 
   430     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
   431     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
   432 
   433 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
   434 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
   435 
   436 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
   437 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
   438 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
   439 clasets separately from the context.
   440 
   441 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
   442 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
   443 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
   444 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
   445 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
   446 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
   447 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
   448 
   449 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
   450 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
   451 
   452 
   453 *** System ***
   454 
   455 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
   456 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   457 
   458 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
   459 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   460 
   461 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
   462 settings variable.
   463 
   464 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
   465 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
   466 always pdf.
   467 
   468 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
   469 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
   470 
   471 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
   472 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
   473 
   474 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
   475 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
   476 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
   477 
   478 
   479 
   480 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
   481 -----------------------------------
   482 
   483 *** General ***
   484 
   485 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
   486 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
   487 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
   488 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
   489 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
   490 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
   491 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
   492 
   493 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
   494 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
   495 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
   496 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
   497 
   498 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
   499 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
   500 
   501 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
   502 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
   503 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
   504 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
   505 dependencies properly.
   506 
   507 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
   508 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
   509 
   510 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
   511 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
   512 
   513 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
   514 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
   515 and "class ... context ...".
   516 
   517 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
   518 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
   519 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
   520 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
   521 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
   522 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
   523 
   524 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
   525 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
   526 
   527 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
   528 to name patterns (with clickable results).
   529 
   530 
   531 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   532 
   533 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
   534 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
   535 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
   536 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
   537 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
   538 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
   539 
   540 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
   541 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
   542 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
   543 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
   544 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
   545 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
   546 
   547 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
   548 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
   549 browser on demand.
   550 
   551 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
   552 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
   553 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
   554 that frequently occur in user interaction.
   555 
   556 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
   557 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
   558 
   559 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
   560 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
   561 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
   562 potentially infinite message streams.
   563 
   564 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
   565 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
   566 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
   567 schemes.
   568 
   569 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
   570 symbols.
   571 
   572 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
   573 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
   574 
   575 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
   576 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
   577 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
   578 
   579 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
   580 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
   581 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
   582 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
   583 
   584 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
   585 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
   586 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
   587 
   588 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
   589 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
   590 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
   591 Isabelle distribution.
   592 
   593 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
   594 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   595 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   596 
   597 
   598 *** Pure ***
   599 
   600 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   601 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   602 
   603 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
   604 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
   605 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   606 
   607 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   608 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   609 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   610 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   611 with some care where this is really required.
   612 
   613 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   614 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   615 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   616 
   617   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   618 
   619 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
   620 a Hasse diagram.
   621 
   622 
   623 *** HOL ***
   624 
   625 * Sledgehammer:
   626 
   627   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   628     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   629   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
   630   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   631   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
   632   - Renamed options:
   633       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   634       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   635       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   636       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   637 
   638 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
   639 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
   640 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   641 
   642 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
   643 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   644 
   645 * Lifting:
   646   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
   647   - quot_del attribute
   648   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
   649 
   650 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   651 expressions.
   652 
   653 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   654 pointfree expressions.
   655 
   656 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   657 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   658 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   659 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
   660 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   661 
   662 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   663 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   664 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   665 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   666 accordingly.
   667 
   668 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   669 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   670 
   671 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
   672 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   673 
   674 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   675 
   676 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   677 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   678 
   679 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   680 
   681 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
   682 
   683   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
   684   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
   685 
   686 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   687 
   688 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
   689 
   690   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   691   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   692 
   693 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   694 
   695 * Generalized the definition of limits:
   696 
   697   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
   698     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
   699     output f x converges to G.
   700 
   701   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
   702     infinity (at_bot).
   703 
   704   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
   705     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
   706 
   707   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
   708     at_top".
   709 
   710 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   711 
   712 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
   713 lattice type classes.
   714 
   715 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
   716 
   717     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
   718     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
   719 
   720 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   721 
   722 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
   723 changes as follows.
   724 
   725   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
   726 
   727       prefix ~> prefixeq
   728       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   729 
   730   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
   731     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
   732     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
   733     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
   734 
   735   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
   736     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
   737     "list_hembeq (op =)".
   738 
   739   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
   740     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   741     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
   742     Library/Prefix_Order.
   743 
   744   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
   745     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
   746 
   747       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
   748       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
   749       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
   750       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
   751       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
   752       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
   753       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
   754       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
   755       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
   756       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
   757       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
   758       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
   759       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
   760       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   761       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   762       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
   763 
   764 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   765 
   766 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
   767 
   768 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
   769 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   770 
   771 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
   772 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
   773 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
   774 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
   775 
   776   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
   777   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
   778   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
   779   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
   780   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
   781   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
   782   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
   783   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
   784   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
   785   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
   786 
   787 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   788 
   789 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
   790 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
   791 Data").
   792 
   793 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
   794 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
   795 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
   796 code.
   797 
   798 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
   799 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   800 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
   801 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   802 
   803 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
   804 
   805 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
   806 
   807 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
   808 
   809   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
   810   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
   811 
   812 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
   813 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
   814 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
   815 
   816   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
   817 
   818     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
   819     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
   820     cart_base i  removed
   821     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
   822 
   823   Theorems about these constants where removed.
   824 
   825   Renamed lemmas:
   826 
   827     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
   828     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
   829     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
   830     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
   831     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
   832     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
   833     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
   834     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
   835     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
   836     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
   837 
   838 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   839 
   840 * HOL/Probability:
   841 
   842   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
   843 
   844   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
   845     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
   846     (borel_measurable_induct).
   847 
   848   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
   849     projective family).
   850 
   851 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
   852 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
   853 
   854 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
   855 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
   856 datatypes.
   857 
   858 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
   859 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
   860 
   861 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
   862 trees for the code generator.
   863 
   864 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
   865 Lifting/Transfer.
   866 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
   867 
   868 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
   869 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   870 
   871 
   872 *** Document preparation ***
   873 
   874 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
   875 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
   876 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
   877 
   878 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
   879 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
   880 
   881 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
   882 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
   883 document/root.tex.
   884 
   885 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
   886 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   887 
   888 
   889 *** ML ***
   890 
   891 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
   892 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
   893 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
   894 
   895 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
   896 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
   897 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
   898 
   899 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
   900 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
   901 necessarily printing visible text.
   902 
   903 
   904 *** System ***
   905 
   906 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
   907 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
   908 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
   909 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
   910 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
   911 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
   912 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
   913 
   914 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
   915 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
   916 
   917   isabelle build -s -b HOL
   918 
   919 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
   920 
   921 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
   922 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
   923 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
   924 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
   925 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
   926 
   927 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
   928 required for "isabelle build", for example.
   929 
   930 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
   931 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
   932 
   933 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
   934 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   935 
   936 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
   937 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
   938 version of Isabelle.
   939 
   940 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
   941 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
   942 
   943 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
   944 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   945 for home-made settings.
   946 
   947 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
   948 
   949 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
   950 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
   951 configuration.
   952 
   953 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
   954 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
   955 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
   956 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
   957 bundled as Isabelle component.
   958 
   959 
   960 
   961 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
   962 ------------------------------
   963 
   964 *** General ***
   965 
   966 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
   967 
   968   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
   969     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
   970   - markup for bound variables
   971   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
   972   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
   973   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
   974     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
   975 
   976 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
   977 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
   978 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
   979 
   980 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
   981 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
   982 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
   983 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
   984 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
   985 
   986   context
   987     fixes x y z :: 'a
   988     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
   989   begin
   990 
   991   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
   992 
   993   end
   994 
   995   thm my_trans
   996 
   997 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
   998 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
   999 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1000 
  1001 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1002 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1003 
  1004 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1005 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1006 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1007 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1008 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1009 
  1010 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1011 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1012 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1013 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1014 indices of schematic variables.
  1015 
  1016 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1017 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1018 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1019 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1020 etc. was exploited.
  1021 
  1022 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1023 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1024 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1025 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1026 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1027 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1028 
  1029 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1030 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1031 manual.
  1032 
  1033 
  1034 *** Pure ***
  1035 
  1036 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1037 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1038 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1039 
  1040 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1041 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1042 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1043 undocumented feature.)
  1044 
  1045 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1046 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1047 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1048 
  1049   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1050 
  1051   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1052     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1053 
  1054 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1055 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1056 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1057 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1058 
  1059 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1060 
  1061     num ~> num_token
  1062     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1063     xstr ~> str_token
  1064 
  1065 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1066 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1067 position information via constraints).
  1068 
  1069 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1070 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1071 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1072 
  1073 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1074 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1075 
  1076 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1077 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1078 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1079 
  1080 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1081 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1082 
  1083 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1084 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1085 
  1086   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1087 
  1088 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1089 
  1090 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1091 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1092 
  1093 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1094 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1095 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1096 
  1097 
  1098 *** HOL ***
  1099 
  1100 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1101 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1102 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1103 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1104 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1105 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1106 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1107 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1108 possible.
  1109 
  1110 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1111 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1112 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1113 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1114 
  1115 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1116 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1117 
  1118 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1119 
  1120 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1121 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1122 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1123 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1124 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1125 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1126 
  1127   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1128     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1129 
  1130   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1131     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1132     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1133 
  1134   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1135     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1136 
  1137   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1138     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1139     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1140 
  1141   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1142     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1143 
  1144 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1145 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1146 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1147 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1148 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1149 
  1150   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1151     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1152     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1153     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1154     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1155 
  1156     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1157     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1158 
  1159   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1160     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1161     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1162     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1163     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1164     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1165     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1166     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1167 
  1168   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1169     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1170     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1171     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1172 
  1173   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1174     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1175     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1176     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1177 
  1178   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1179     from type nat to type int.
  1180 
  1181 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1182 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1183 
  1184   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1185     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1186     type.  Example syntax:
  1187 
  1188     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1189       is List.insert
  1190 
  1191     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1192     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1193     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1194     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1195     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1196     by the package.
  1197 
  1198   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1199     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1200     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1201     code generation for each constant.
  1202 
  1203   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1204     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1205     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1206     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1207     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1208 
  1209   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1210     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1211     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1212 
  1213 * Quotient package:
  1214 
  1215   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1216     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1217 
  1218   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1219     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1220 
  1221   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1222     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1223     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1224 
  1225   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1226     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1227 
  1228 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1229 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1230 
  1231 * Quickcheck:
  1232 
  1233   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1234     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1235     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1236     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1237     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1238 
  1239     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1240     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1241     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1242 
  1243     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1244     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1245 
  1246     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1247     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1248     show genuine counterexamples.
  1249 
  1250   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1251     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1252 
  1253     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1254     constructors of that type.
  1255 
  1256   - Support for multisets.
  1257 
  1258   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1259 
  1260   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1261     conjectures in a locale context.
  1262 
  1263 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1264 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1265 
  1266 * Sledgehammer:
  1267   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1268     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1269   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1270   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1271     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1272   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1273   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1274   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1275   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1276 
  1277 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1278 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1279 
  1280 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1281 
  1282 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1283 
  1284 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1285 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1286 
  1287   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1288 
  1289 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1290 a list and a nat.
  1291 
  1292 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1293 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1294 
  1295 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1296 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1297 default.
  1298 
  1299 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1300 
  1301   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1302 
  1303 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1304 
  1305 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1306 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1307 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1308 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1309 one_case.
  1310 
  1311 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1312 the result of the fact expression.
  1313 
  1314 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1315 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1316 of some relation theorems:
  1317 
  1318   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1319   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1320   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1321   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1322   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1323   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1324 
  1325 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1326 
  1327 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1328 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1329 
  1330 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1331 
  1332 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1333 to match the constant's name:
  1334 
  1335   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1336   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1337   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1338   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1339   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1340   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1341   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1342   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1343   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1344   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1345   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1346   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1347   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1348   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1349   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1350   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1351   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1352   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1353   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1354   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1355   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1356   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1357   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1358   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1359 
  1360 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1361 
  1362 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1363 and corresponding theorem names:
  1364 
  1365   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1366 
  1367   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1368 
  1369   - Renamed theorems:
  1370 
  1371     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1372     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1373     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1374     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1375     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1376     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1377     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1378     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1379     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1380     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1381     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1382     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1383     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1384     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1385     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1386     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1387     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1388     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1389     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1390     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1391     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1392     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1393     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1394 
  1395     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1396 
  1397     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1398 
  1399 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1400 
  1401 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1402 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1403 
  1404   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1405   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1406   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1407   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1408   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1409   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1410   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1411   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1412   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1413   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1414   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1415   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1416   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1417   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1418   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1419   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1420   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1421   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1422   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1423   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1424   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1425 
  1426 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1427 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1428 
  1429 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1430 
  1431 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1432 
  1433   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1434   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1435   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1436   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1437   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1438   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1439   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1440   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1441   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1442   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1443   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1444   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1445   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1446   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1447   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1448   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1449   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1450   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1451 
  1452 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1453 
  1454 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1455 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1456 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1457 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1458 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1459 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1460 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1461 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1462 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1463 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1464 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1465 
  1466 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1467 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1468 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1469 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1470 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1471 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1472 
  1473 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1474 through option types.
  1475 
  1476 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1477 relations.
  1478 
  1479 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1480 
  1481 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1482 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1483 
  1484   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1485   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1486   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1487   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1488   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1489   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1490   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1491   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1492   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1493   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1494   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1495   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1496   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1497   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1498   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1499   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1500   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1501   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1502   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1503   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1504   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1505   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1506   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1507   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1508   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1509   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1510   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1511   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1512   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1513   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1514   zless_le ~> less_le
  1515   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1516   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1517   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1518 
  1519 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1520 
  1521   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1522 
  1523 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1524 
  1525 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1526 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1527 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1528 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1529 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1530 
  1531 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1532 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1533 
  1534 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1535 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1536 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1537 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1538 follows:
  1539 
  1540   Operations:
  1541   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1542   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1543   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1544   del -> rbt_del
  1545   delete -> rbt_delete
  1546   ins -> rbt_ins
  1547   insert -> rbt_insert
  1548   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1549   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1550   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1551   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1552   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1553   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1554   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1555   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1556   union -> rbt_union
  1557   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1558   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1559 
  1560   Lemmas:
  1561   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1562   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1563   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1564   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1565   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1566   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1567   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1568   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1569   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1570   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1571   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1572   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1573   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1574   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1575   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1576   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1577   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1578   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1579   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1580   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1581   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1582   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1583   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1584   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1585   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1586   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1587   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1588   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1589   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1590   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1591   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1592   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1593   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1594   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1595   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1596   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1597   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1598   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1599   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1600   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1601   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1602   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1603   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1604   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1605   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1606   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1607   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1608   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1609   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1610   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1611   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1612   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1613   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1614   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1615   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1616   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1617   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1618   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1619   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1620   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1621   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1622   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1623   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1624   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1625   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1626   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1627   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1628   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1629   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1630   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1631   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1632   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1633   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1634   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1635   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1636   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1637   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1638   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1639   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1640   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1641   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1642   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1643   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1644 
  1645 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1646 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1647 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1648 
  1649   Changed Operations:
  1650   float_abs -> abs
  1651   float_nprt -> nprt
  1652   float_pprt -> pprt
  1653   pow2 -> use powr
  1654   round_down -> float_round_down
  1655   round_up -> float_round_up
  1656   scale -> exponent
  1657 
  1658   Removed Operations:
  1659   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1660 
  1661   Renamed Lemmas:
  1662   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1663   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1664   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1665   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1666   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1667   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1668   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1669   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1670   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1671   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1672   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1673   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1674   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1675   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1676   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1677   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1678   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1679   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1680   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1681   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1682   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1683   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1684   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1685   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1686   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1687   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1688   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1689   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1690   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1691   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1692   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1693   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1694   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1695   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1696   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1697   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1698 
  1699   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1700   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1701   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1702   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1703   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1704   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1705   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1706   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1707   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1708   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1709 
  1710 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1711 association lists with distinct keys.
  1712 
  1713 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1714 annotated commands.
  1715 
  1716 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1717 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1718 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1719 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1720 
  1721 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1722 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1723 instead.
  1724 
  1725   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1726   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1727   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1728   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1729   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1730   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1731   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1732   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1733   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1734   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1735   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1736   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1737   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1738   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1739   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1740   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1741   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1742   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1743   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1744   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1745   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1746   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1747   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1748   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1749   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1750   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1751   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1752   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1753   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1754   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1755   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1756   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1757   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1758   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1759   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1760   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1761   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1762   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1763   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1764   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1765   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1766 
  1767 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1768 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1769 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1770 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1771 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1772 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1773 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1774 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1775 
  1776 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1777 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1778 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1779 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1780 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1781 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1782 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1783 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1784 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1785 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1786 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1787 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1788 
  1789   Renamed constants:
  1790   measure -> emeasure
  1791   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1792   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1793   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1794   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1795 
  1796   Removed locales:
  1797   completeable_measure_space
  1798   finite_measure_space
  1799   finite_prob_space
  1800   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1801   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1802   finite_sigma_algebra
  1803   measure_space
  1804   pair_finite_prob_space
  1805   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1806   pair_finite_space
  1807   pair_sigma_algebra
  1808   product_sigma_algebra
  1809 
  1810   Removed constants:
  1811   conditional_space
  1812   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1813   image_space
  1814   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1815   pair_measure_generator
  1816   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1817   subvimage
  1818 
  1819   Replacement theorems:
  1820   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1821   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1822   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1823   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1824   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1825   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1826   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1827   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1828   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1829   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1830   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1831   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1832   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1833   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1834   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1835   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1836   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1837   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1838   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1839   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1840   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1841   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1842   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1843   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1844   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1845   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1846   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1847   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1848   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1849   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1850   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1851   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1852   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1853   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1854   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1855   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1856   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1857   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1858   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1859   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1860   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1861   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1862   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1863   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1864   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1865   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1866   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1867   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1868   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1869   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1870   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1871   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1872   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1873   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1874   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1875   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1876   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1877   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1878   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1879   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1880   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1881   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1882   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1883   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1884   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1885   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1886   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1887   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1888   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1889   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1890   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1891   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1892   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1893   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1894   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1895   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1896   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1897   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1898   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1899   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1900   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1901   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1902   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1903   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1904   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1905   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1906   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1907   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1908   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1909   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1910   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1911   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1912   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1913   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1914   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1915   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1916   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1917   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1918   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1919   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1920   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1921   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1922   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1923   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1924   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1925   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1926   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1927   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1928   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1929   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1930   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1931   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1932   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1933   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1934   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1935   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1936   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1937   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1938   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1939   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1940   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1941   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1942   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1943   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1944   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1945   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1946   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1947   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1948 
  1949 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1950 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1951 
  1952 
  1953 *** FOL ***
  1954 
  1955 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1956 
  1957 
  1958 *** ZF ***
  1959 
  1960 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1961 analysis.
  1962 
  1963 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1964 
  1965 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1966 
  1967 
  1968 *** ML ***
  1969 
  1970 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1971 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1972 
  1973 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1974 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1975 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1976 
  1977 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1978 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1979 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1980 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1981 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1982 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1983 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1984 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1985 
  1986 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1987 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1988 
  1989 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1990 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1991 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1992 
  1993 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1994 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1995 
  1996 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1997 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  1998 context as well.
  1999 
  2000 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2001 
  2002   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2003   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2004   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2005   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2006   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2007   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2008   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2009   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2010   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2011   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2012   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2013   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2014 
  2015 
  2016 *** System ***
  2017 
  2018 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2019 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2020 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2021 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2022 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2023 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2024 the generic user home was intended.
  2025 
  2026 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2027 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2028 
  2029 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2030 (not just JRE).
  2031 
  2032 
  2033 
  2034 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2035 ------------------------------------
  2036 
  2037 *** General ***
  2038 
  2039 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2040 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2041 
  2042   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2043     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2044     files for checking).
  2045 
  2046   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2047     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2048     positions.
  2049 
  2050   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2051     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2052     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2053 
  2054   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2055     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2056     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2057 
  2058   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2059     cores.
  2060 
  2061   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2062     versions (garbage collection).
  2063 
  2064 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2065 including some remaining limitations.
  2066 
  2067 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2068 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2069 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2070 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2071 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2072 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2073 
  2074 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2075 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2076 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2077 
  2078 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2079 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2080 usedir option -Q.
  2081 
  2082 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2083 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2084 
  2085   long_names   ~> names_long
  2086   short_names  ~> names_short
  2087   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2088 
  2089 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2090 
  2091   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2092 
  2093 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2094 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2095 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2096 
  2097 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2098 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2099 
  2100 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2101   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2102   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2103   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2104     "Classical Reasoner".
  2105 
  2106 
  2107 *** HOL ***
  2108 
  2109 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2110 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2111 
  2112 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2113 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2114 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2115 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2116 class complete_linorder.
  2117 
  2118 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2119 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2120 
  2121 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2122 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2123 
  2124   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2125   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2126   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2127   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2128   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2129   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2130   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2131   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2132   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2133   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2134   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2135 
  2136 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2137 
  2138   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2139   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2140   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2141   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2142   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2143   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2144   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2145   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2146   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2147   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2148   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2149   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2150   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2151   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2152   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2153   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2154 
  2155 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2156 
  2157 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2158 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2159 
  2160 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2161 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2162 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2163 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2164 
  2165 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2166 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2167 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2168 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2169 
  2170 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2171 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2172 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2173 
  2174 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2175 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2176 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2177 
  2178 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2179 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2180 
  2181 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2182 
  2183     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2184     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2185 
  2186 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2187 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2188 
  2189 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2190 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2191 
  2192 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2193 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2194 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2195 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2196 
  2197   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2198   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2199   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2200   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2201   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2202   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2203   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2204 
  2205 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2206 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2207 
  2208   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2209   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2210   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2211   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2212   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2213   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2214   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2215   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2216   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2217   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2218   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2219   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2220   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2221   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2222   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2223   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2224   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2225   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2226   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2227   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2228   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2229   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2230   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2231   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2232   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2233   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2234   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2235   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2236   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2237   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2238   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2239   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2240   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2241   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2242   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2243   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2244   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2245   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2246   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2247   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2248   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2249   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2250   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2251   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2252   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2253   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2254   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2255   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2256   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2257   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2258   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2259   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2260   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2261   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2262   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2263   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2264   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2265   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2266   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2267   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2268   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2269   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2270   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2271   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2272   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2273   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2274   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2275   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2276   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2277   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2278   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2279   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2280   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2281   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2282   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2283   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2284   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2285   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2286   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2287   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2288   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2289   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2290 
  2291 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2292 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2293 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2294 
  2295 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2296 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2297 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2298 
  2299 * Code generation:
  2300 
  2301   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2302     characters in the target language.
  2303 
  2304   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2305     instead.
  2306 
  2307   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2308 
  2309   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2310     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2311 
  2312       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2313 
  2314 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2315 
  2316 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2317 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2318 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2319 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2320 syntax.
  2321 
  2322 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2323 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2324 
  2325 * Nitpick:
  2326   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2327   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2328   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2329     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2330 
  2331 * Sledgehammer:
  2332   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2333   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2334     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2335   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2336     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2337   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2338     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2339   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2340     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2341   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2342     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2343 
  2344 * Metis:
  2345   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2346   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2347     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2348 
  2349 * Command 'try':
  2350   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2351     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2352   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2353     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2354 
  2355 * Quickcheck:
  2356   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2357     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2358   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2359     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2360   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2361     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2362     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2363     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2364   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2365     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2366 
  2367 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2368 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2369 
  2370 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2371 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2372 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2373 
  2374 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2375 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2376 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2377 
  2378 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2379 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2380 
  2381 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2382 arithmetic.
  2383 
  2384 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2385 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2386 and lattice type classes.
  2387 
  2388 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2389 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2390 
  2391 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2392 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2393 
  2394 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2395 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2396 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2397 
  2398   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2399   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2400   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2401   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2402 
  2403 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2404 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2405 constants:
  2406 
  2407   type inat   ~> type enat
  2408   Fin         ~> enat
  2409   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2410   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2411   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2412 
  2413 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2414 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2415 
  2416 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2417 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2418 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2419 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2420 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2421 
  2422 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2423 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2424 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2425 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2426 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2427 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2428 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2429 
  2430   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2431   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2432   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2433   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2434 
  2435 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2436 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2437 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2438 
  2439   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2440   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2441   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2442   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2443   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2444   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2445   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2446   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2447   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2448   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2449   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2450   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2451   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2452   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2453   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2454   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2455   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2456   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2457   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2458   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2459   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2460   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2461   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2462   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2463   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2464   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2465   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2466   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2467   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2468   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2469   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2470   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2471   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2472   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2473   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2474   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2475   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2476   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2477   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2478   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2479   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2480   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2481   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2482   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2483   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2484   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2485   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2486   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2487   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2488   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2489   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2490 
  2491 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2492   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2493   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2494   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2495   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2496     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2497 
  2498 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2499 
  2500   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2501   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2502   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2503   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2504   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2505   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2506   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2507   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2508   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2509   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2510   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2511   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2512   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2513   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2514   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2515   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2516   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2517   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2518   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2519   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2520   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2521   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2522   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2523   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2524   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2525 
  2526 
  2527 *** Document preparation ***
  2528 
  2529 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2530 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2531 same.
  2532 
  2533 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2534 result.
  2535 
  2536 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2537 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2538 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2539 
  2540 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2541 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2542 
  2543 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2544 like this:
  2545 
  2546   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2547   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2548 
  2549 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2550 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2551 layouts.
  2552 
  2553 
  2554 *** ML ***
  2555 
  2556 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2557 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2558 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2559 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2560 under external program control.
  2561 
  2562 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2563 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2564 
  2565 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2566 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2567 (better known as Proof General).
  2568 
  2569 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2570 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2571 
  2572 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2573 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2574 
  2575 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2576 (including quotes etc.).
  2577 
  2578 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2579 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2580 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2581 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2582 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2583 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2584 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2585 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2586 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2587 
  2588 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2589 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2590 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2591 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2592 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2593 
  2594 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2595 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2596 
  2597 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2598 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2599 
  2600 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2601 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2602 
  2603 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2604 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2605 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2606 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2607 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2608 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2609 proper Proof.context.
  2610 
  2611 
  2612 *** System ***
  2613 
  2614 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2615 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2616 
  2617 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2618 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2619 
  2620 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2621 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2622 
  2623   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2624   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2625   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2626   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2627   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2628 
  2629 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2630 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2631 
  2632 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2633 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2634 example:
  2635 
  2636   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2637 
  2638 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2639 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2640 
  2641 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2642 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2643 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2644 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2645 
  2646 
  2647 
  2648 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2649 ----------------------------------
  2650 
  2651 *** General ***
  2652 
  2653 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2654 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2655 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2656 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2657 like this:
  2658 
  2659   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2660 
  2661 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2662 
  2663 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2664 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2665 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2666 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2667 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2668 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2669 
  2670 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2671 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2672 the following package declarations:
  2673 
  2674   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2675   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2676 
  2677 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2678 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2679 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2680 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2681 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2682 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2683 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2684 
  2685 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2686 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2687 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2688 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2689 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2690 
  2691 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2692 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2693 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2694 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2695 
  2696 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2697 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2698 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2699 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2700 
  2701   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2702 
  2703   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2704   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2705   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2706   show_types                    show_types
  2707   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2708   show_consts                   show_consts
  2709   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2710 
  2711   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2712   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2713   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2714 
  2715   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2716   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2717 
  2718   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2719 
  2720   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2721   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2722   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2723   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2724   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2725 
  2726 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2727 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2728 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2729 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2730 
  2731 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2732 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2733 
  2734   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2735   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2736 
  2737 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2738 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2739 float_token.
  2740 
  2741 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2742 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2743 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2744 
  2745 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2746 DejaVu Sans.
  2747 
  2748 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2749 
  2750 
  2751 *** Pure ***
  2752 
  2753 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2754 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2755 time.
  2756 
  2757 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2758 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2759 
  2760 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2761 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2762 
  2763 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2764 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2765 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2766 command already provided this functionality.
  2767 
  2768 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2769 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2770 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2771 without interpretations.
  2772 
  2773 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2774 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2775 
  2776 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2777 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2778 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2779 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2780 
  2781 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2782 'definition' instead.
  2783 
  2784 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2785 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2786 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2787 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2788 
  2789 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2790 constructors.
  2791 
  2792 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2793 the local file system.
  2794 
  2795 
  2796 *** HOL ***
  2797 
  2798 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2799 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2800 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2801 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2802 
  2803   declare [[coercion f]]
  2804 
  2805 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2806 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2807 
  2808   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2809 
  2810 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2811 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2812 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2813 other theories like this:
  2814 
  2815   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2816 
  2817 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2818 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2819 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2820 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2821 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2822 for examples.
  2823 
  2824 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2825 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2826 
  2827 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2828 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2829 
  2830 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2831 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2832 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2833 
  2834 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2835 functorial structure of types.
  2836 
  2837 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2838 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2839 
  2840 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2841 languages.
  2842 
  2843 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2844 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2845 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2846 
  2847 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2848 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2849 
  2850 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2851 combinators any longer.
  2852 
  2853 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2854 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2855 
  2856 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2857 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2858 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2859 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2860 
  2861   record 'a foo = ...
  2862   ...
  2863   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2864 
  2865 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2866 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2867 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2868 
  2869 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2870 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2871 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2872 
  2873 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2874 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2875 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2876 
  2877 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2878 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2879 
  2880 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2881 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2882 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2883 independently.
  2884 
  2885 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2886 counter example search.
  2887 
  2888 * Sledgehammer:
  2889   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2890     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2891     sledgehammer").
  2892   - Renamed commands:
  2893     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2894     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2895     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2896     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2897   - Renamed options:
  2898     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2899     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2900     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2901     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2902     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2903 
  2904 * Nitpick:
  2905   - Renamed options:
  2906     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2907     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2908     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2909   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2910   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2911   - Added "whack" option.
  2912   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2913   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2914   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2915   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2916     higher cardinalities.
  2917   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2918 
  2919 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2920 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2921 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2922 
  2923     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2924 
  2925 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2926 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2927 
  2928 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2929 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2930 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2931 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2932 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2933 "smt_solver".
  2934 
  2935 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2936 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2937 
  2938 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2939 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2940 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2941 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2942 
  2943 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2944   - Renamed:
  2945     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2946     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2947     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2948   - Added:
  2949     smt_verbose
  2950     smt_random_seed
  2951     smt_datatypes
  2952     smt_infer_triggers
  2953     smt_monomorph_limit
  2954     cvc3_options
  2955     remote_cvc3_options
  2956     remote_z3_options
  2957     yices_options
  2958 
  2959 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2960 header.
  2961 
  2962 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2963 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2964 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2965 
  2966   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2967 
  2968 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2969 
  2970 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2971 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2972 
  2973 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2974 
  2975 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2976 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2977 
  2978 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2979 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2980 
  2981 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2982 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2983 
  2984 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2985 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2986 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2987 
  2988 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2989 
  2990 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2991 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2992 
  2993 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2994 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2995 
  2996 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2997 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  2998 for congruent(2)).
  2999 
  3000 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3001 
  3002   types
  3003     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3004     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3005 
  3006   constants
  3007     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3008     True ~> HOL.True
  3009     False ~> HOL.False
  3010     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3011     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3012     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3013     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3014     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3015     The ~> HOL.The
  3016     All ~> HOL.All
  3017     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3018     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3019     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3020     If ~> HOL.If
  3021     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3022     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3023     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3024     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3025     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3026     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3027     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3028     op : ~> Set.member
  3029     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3030 
  3031 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3032 
  3033 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3034 
  3035     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3036     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3037     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3038     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3039     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3040     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3041     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3042     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3043 
  3044 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3045 
  3046 * More stylized fact names:
  3047 
  3048   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3049   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3050   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3051   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3052 
  3053 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3054 
  3055 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3056 
  3057   constants
  3058     null ~> List.null
  3059 
  3060   facts
  3061     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3062     null_empty ~> null_def
  3063 
  3064 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3065 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3066 generation.
  3067 
  3068 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3069 Haskell code.
  3070 
  3071 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3072 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3073 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3074 
  3075 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3076 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3077 
  3078 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3079 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3080 
  3081 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3082 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3083 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3084 
  3085 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3086 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3087 
  3088 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3089 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3090 
  3091 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3092 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3093 referred to by its qualified name.
  3094 
  3095   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3096   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3097   product ~>  Enum.product
  3098 
  3099 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3100 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3101 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3102 
  3103 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3104 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3105 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3106 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3107 
  3108 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3109 sort_key.
  3110 
  3111 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3112 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3113 
  3114 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3115 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3116 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3117 
  3118   types
  3119     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3120               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3121               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3122         (depends on your needs)
  3123 
  3124   constants
  3125      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3126      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3127      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3128 
  3129 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3130 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3131 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3132 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3133 
  3134 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3135 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3136 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3137 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3138 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3139 
  3140 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3141 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3142 
  3143 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3144 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3145 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3146 
  3147 
  3148 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3149 
  3150 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3151 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3152 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3153 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3154 compatibility.
  3155 
  3156 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3157 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3158 
  3159 
  3160 *** HOLCF ***
  3161 
  3162 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3163 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3164 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3165 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3166 
  3167 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3168 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3169 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3170 
  3171   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3172   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3173   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3174 
  3175 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3176 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3177 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3178 
  3179 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3180 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3181 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3182 domain definition now works:
  3183 
  3184   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3185 
  3186 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3187 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3188 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3189 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3190 
  3191   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3192     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3193 
  3194   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3195 
  3196 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3197 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3198 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3199 
  3200 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3201 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3202 
  3203 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3204 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3205 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3206 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3207 
  3208 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3209 
  3210 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3211 
  3212 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3213 
  3214 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3215 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3216 
  3217 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3218 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3219 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3220 
  3221 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3222 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3223 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3224 
  3225 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3226 still supported as an input translation.
  3227 
  3228 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3229 
  3230   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3231   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3232   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3233   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3234   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3235   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3236   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3237 
  3238 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3239 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3240 
  3241   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3242   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3243   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3244   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3245   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3246   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3247 
  3248 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3249 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3250 
  3251 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3252 
  3253   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3254   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3255   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3256   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3257 
  3258 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3259 
  3260 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3261 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3262 
  3263 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3264 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3265 
  3266   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3267   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3268   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3269   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3270   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3271   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3272   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3273   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3274   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3275   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3276   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3277   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3278   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3279   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3280   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3281   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3282   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3283   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3284   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3285   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3286 
  3287 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3288 
  3289   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3290   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3291   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3292   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3293   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3294   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3295   box_less             ~> box_below
  3296   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3297   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3298   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3299   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3300   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3301   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3302   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3303   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3304   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3305   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3306   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3307   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3308   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3309   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3310   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3311   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3312   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3313   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3314   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3315   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3316   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3317   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3318   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3319   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3320   up_less              ~> up_below
  3321   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3322   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3323   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3324   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3325   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3326   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3327   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3328   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3329   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3330   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3331   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3332   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3333   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3334 
  3335 
  3336 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3337 
  3338 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3339 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3340 
  3341 
  3342 *** ML ***
  3343 
  3344 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3345 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3346 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3347 
  3348 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3349 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3350 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3351 
  3352 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3353 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3354 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3355 
  3356 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3357 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3358 
  3359 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3360 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3361 
  3362 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3363 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3364 
  3365 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3366 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3367 
  3368 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3369 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3370 almost all situations.
  3371 
  3372 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3373 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3374 Isabelle/ML.
  3375 
  3376 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3377 meaning.
  3378 
  3379 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3380 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3381 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3382 
  3383 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3384 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3385 
  3386 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3387 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3388 
  3389 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3390 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3391 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3392 
  3393 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3394 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3395 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3396 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3397 configuration options.
  3398 
  3399 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3400 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3401 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3402 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3403 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3404 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3405 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3406 
  3407 
  3408 
  3409 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3410 ---------------------------------
  3411 
  3412 *** General ***
  3413 
  3414 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3415 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3416 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3417 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3418 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3419 their full internal name.
  3420 
  3421 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3422 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3423 Some hints on upgrading:
  3424 
  3425   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3426     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3427     which are independent of this issue.
  3428 
  3429   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3430     provides the following special forms:
  3431 
  3432       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3433       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3434       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3435 
  3436     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3437     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3438     extra variables".
  3439 
  3440     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3441     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3442     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3443     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3444     "logic".
  3445 
  3446   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3447     antiquotations:
  3448 
  3449       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3450       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3451       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3452       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3453 
  3454   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3455     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3456     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3457     antiquotations.
  3458 
  3459 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3460 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3461 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3462 diagnose syntax problems.
  3463 
  3464 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3465 
  3466 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3467 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3468 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3469 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3470 
  3471 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3472 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3473 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3474 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3475 
  3476 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3477 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3478 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3479 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3480 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3481 
  3482 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3483 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3484 
  3485 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3486 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3487 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3488 
  3489   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3490 
  3491 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3492 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3493 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3494 
  3495 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3496 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3497 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3498 
  3499 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3500 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3501 
  3502 
  3503 *** Pure ***
  3504 
  3505 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3506 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3507 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3508 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3509 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3510 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3511 inspect proof terms.
  3512 
  3513 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3514 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3515 are added internally.  For example:
  3516 
  3517   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3518 
  3519 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3520 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3521 
  3522 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3523 
  3524 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3525 'class' instead.
  3526 
  3527 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3528 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3529 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3530 
  3531 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3532 invariants.
  3533 
  3534 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3535 user space functionality any longer.
  3536 
  3537 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3538 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3539 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3540 
  3541 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3542 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3543 
  3544 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3545 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3546 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3547 
  3548 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3549 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3550 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3551 
  3552 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3553 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3554 
  3555 
  3556 *** HOL ***
  3557 
  3558 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3559 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3560 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3561 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3562 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3563 
  3564 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3565 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3566 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3567 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3568 
  3569   fun
  3570     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3571   where
  3572     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3573 
  3574   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3575     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3576 
  3577   quotient_definition
  3578     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3579 
  3580 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3581 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3582 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3583 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3584 
  3585 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3586 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3587 
  3588 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3589 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3590 
  3591 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3592 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3593 
  3594 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3595 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3596 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3597 
  3598 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3599 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3600 
  3601 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3602 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3603 
  3604 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3605 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3606 
  3607 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3608 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3609 
  3610 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3611 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3612 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3613 
  3614   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3615   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3616   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3617   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3618   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3619   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3620   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3621   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3622   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3623   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3624   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3625   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3626   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3627   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3628   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3629   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3630   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3631   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3632   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3633   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3634   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3635   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3636   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3637   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3638   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3639   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3640   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3641   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3642   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3643   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3644 
  3645 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3646 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3647 
  3648 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3649 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3650 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3651 
  3652 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3653 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3654 
  3655 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3656 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3657 
  3658 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3659 
  3660 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3661 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3662 
  3663 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3664 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3665 
  3666 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3667 
  3668 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3669 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3670 
  3671 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3672 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3673 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3674 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3675 
  3676 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3677   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3678   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3679   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3680 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3681 
  3682 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3683 lattices):
  3684 
  3685     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3686     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3687 
  3688     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3689 
  3690     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3691     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3692     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3693     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3694     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3695     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3696     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3697     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3698     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3699     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3700     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3701     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3702     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3703 
  3704     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3705     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3706     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3707     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3708     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3709     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3710     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3711     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3712     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3713     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3714     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3715     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3716     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3717     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3718     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3719     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3720     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3721     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3722 
  3723   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3724   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3725 
  3726     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3727     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3728     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3729     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3730     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3731 
  3732 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3733 
  3734 * Refined field classes:
  3735   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3736     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3737     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3738   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3739 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3740 
  3741 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3742   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3743   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3744   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3745     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3746   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3747     equal_neg_zero.
  3748 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3749 
  3750 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3751 sets to lattices:
  3752 
  3753   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3754   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3755   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3756   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3757   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3758   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3759   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3760   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3761   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3762   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3763 
  3764 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3765 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3766 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3767 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3768 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3769 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3770 
  3771 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3772 multiset order:
  3773 
  3774   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3775     <= and <;
  3776   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3777     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3778     multiset_order;
  3779   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3780     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3781     generation;
  3782   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3783     if needed.
  3784 
  3785 Renamed:
  3786 
  3787   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3788   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3789   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3790 
  3791 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3792 
  3793 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3794 
  3795 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3796 
  3797 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3798 
  3799 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3800 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3801 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3802 
  3803   Constants:
  3804   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3805   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3806   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3807   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3808   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3809   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3810   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3811   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3812   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3813   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3814   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3815   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3816   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3817 
  3818   Lemmas:
  3819   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3820   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3821   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3822   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3823   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3824   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3825   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3826   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3827   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3828   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3829   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3830   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3831   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3832 
  3833 * Sledgehammer:
  3834   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3835     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3836     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3837     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3838     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3839     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3840     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3841   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3842   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3843     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3844   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3845     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3846     is still experimental.)
  3847   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3848     full-typed mode.
  3849   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3850 
  3851 * Nitpick:
  3852   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3853   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3854   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3855     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3856   - Added support for quotient types.
  3857   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3858     constructs.
  3859   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3860     "termination" proofs).
  3861   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3862   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3863   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3864   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3865     record getters.
  3866   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3867   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3868   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3869   - Added "atoms" option.
  3870   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3871     problems.
  3872   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3873     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3874     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3875   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3876     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3877   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3878 
  3879 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3880   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3881   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3882   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3883   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3884   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3885   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3886   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3887   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3888   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3889 
  3890 
  3891 *** HOLCF ***
  3892 
  3893 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3894 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3895 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3896 
  3897 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3898 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3899 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3900 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3901 
  3902 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3903 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3904 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3905 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3906 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3907 
  3908 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3909 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3910 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3911 
  3912 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3913 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3914 
  3915   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3916   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3917 
  3918 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3919 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3920 
  3921   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3922   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3923   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3924   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3925   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3926 
  3927 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3928 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3929 
  3930   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3931   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3932   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3933 
  3934 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3935 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3936 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3937 
  3938 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3939 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3940 
  3941 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3942 
  3943 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3944 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3945 
  3946 
  3947 *** ML ***
  3948 
  3949 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3950 
  3951     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3952     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3953 
  3954     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3955     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3956     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3957     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3958 
  3959     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3960     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3961     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3962 
  3963 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3964 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3965 
  3966 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3967 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3968 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3969 
  3970 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3971 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3972 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3973 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3974 
  3975 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3976 the context or even global references.
  3977 
  3978 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3979 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3980 
  3981 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3982 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3983 
  3984   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3985   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3986   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3987   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3988   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3989   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3990   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3991   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3992   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3993   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3994 
  3995 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3996 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3997 
  3998 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  3999 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4000 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4001 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4002 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4003 
  4004 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4005 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4006 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4007 Theory_Data version.
  4008 
  4009 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4010 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4011 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4012 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4013 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4014 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4015 explicitly in rare situations.
  4016 
  4017 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4018 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4019 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4020 
  4021 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4022 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4023 
  4024 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4025 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4026 quite rare).
  4027 
  4028 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4029 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4030 
  4031 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4032 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4033 terms.
  4034 
  4035 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4036 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4037 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4038 
  4039 
  4040 *** System ***
  4041 
  4042 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4043 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4044 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4045 
  4046 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4047 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4048 respectively.
  4049 
  4050 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4051 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4052 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4053 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4054 
  4055   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4056 
  4057 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4058 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4059 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4060 component.
  4061 
  4062 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4063 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4064 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4065 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4066 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4067 the user for manual installation.
  4068 
  4069 
  4070 
  4071 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4072 -------------------------------------
  4073 
  4074 *** General ***
  4075 
  4076 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4077 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4078 
  4079 
  4080 *** Pure ***
  4081 
  4082 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4083 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4084 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4085 
  4086 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4087 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4088 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4089 
  4090 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4091 interpretation.
  4092 
  4093 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4094 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4095 
  4096 
  4097 *** Document preparation ***
  4098 
  4099 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4100 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4101 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4102 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4103 
  4104 
  4105 *** HOL ***
  4106 
  4107 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4108 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4109 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4110 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4111 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4112 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4113 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4114 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4115 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4116 
  4117 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4118 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4119 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4120 
  4121 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4122 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4123 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4124 
  4125 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4126 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4127 
  4128 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4129 
  4130 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4131 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4132 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4133 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4134 
  4135 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4136 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4137 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4138 "mirabelle" utility.
  4139 
  4140 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4141 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4142 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4143 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4144 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4145 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4146 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4147 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4148 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4149 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4150 
  4151 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4152 procedure only.
  4153 
  4154 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4155 
  4156 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4157 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4158 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4159 that fail later.
  4160 
  4161 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4162 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4163 
  4164 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4165 the same method as the approximation method.
  4166 
  4167 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4168 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4169 series expansion.
  4170 
  4171 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4172 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4173 
  4174 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4175 reals.
  4176 
  4177 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4178 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4179 
  4180 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4181 fixpoint theorem.
  4182 
  4183 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4184   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4185     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4186   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4187     accordingly
  4188   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4189     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4190   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4191     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4192 
  4193 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4194 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4195 lattice.
  4196 
  4197 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4198 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4199 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4200 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4201 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4202 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4203 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4204 
  4205 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4206   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4207     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4208   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4209     le_inf_iff
  4210   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4211     sup_aci)
  4212   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4213   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4214   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4215     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4216     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4217     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4218     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4219     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4220     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4221     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4222     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4223     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4224     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4225   - authentic syntax for
  4226     Set.Pow
  4227     Set.image
  4228   - mere abbreviations:
  4229     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4230     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4231     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4232     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4233     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4234     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4235     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4236     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4237   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4238 
  4239 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4240 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4241 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4242 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4243 
  4244 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4245 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4246 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4247 
  4248 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4249 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4250 
  4251 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4252 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4253 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4254 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4255 
  4256 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4257 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4258 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4259 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4260 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4261 
  4262 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4263 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4264 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4265 
  4266 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4267 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4268 
  4269 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4270 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4271 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4272 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4273 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4274 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4275 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4276 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4277 
  4278 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4279     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4280     code_post       replaces    code post
  4281     etc.
  4282   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4283 
  4284 * Renamed methods:
  4285     sizechange -> size_change
  4286     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4287   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4288 
  4289 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4290 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4291 
  4292 * Renamed theorems:
  4293     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4294     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4295     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4296     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4297     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4298   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4299 
  4300 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4301 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4302 
  4303 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4304 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4305 
  4306 
  4307 *** HOLCF ***
  4308 
  4309 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4310 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4311 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4312 
  4313 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4314 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4315 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4316 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4317 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4318 
  4319 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4320 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4321 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4322 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4323 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4324 
  4325 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4326 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4327 constructor are pre-configured.
  4328 
  4329 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4330 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4331 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4332 
  4333 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4334 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4335 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4336 as well.)
  4337 
  4338 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4339 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4340 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4341 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4342 examples.
  4343 
  4344 
  4345 *** ML ***
  4346 
  4347 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4348 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4349 
  4350 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4351 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4352 position, logical grouping etc.
  4353 
  4354 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4355 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4356 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4357 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4358 
  4359 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4360 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4361 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4362 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4363 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4364 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4365 
  4366 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4367 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4368 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4369 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4370 experiments with references.
  4371 
  4372 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4373 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4374 
  4375 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4376 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4377 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4378 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4379 
  4380 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4381 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4382 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4383 
  4384 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4385 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4386 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4387 
  4388 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4389 
  4390 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4391 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4392 
  4393 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4394 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4395 
  4396 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4397 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4398 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4399 
  4400 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4401 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4402 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4403 
  4404 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4405 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4406 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4407 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4408 
  4409 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4410 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4411 instead of global theory.
  4412 
  4413 
  4414 *** System ***
  4415 
  4416 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4417 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4418 usedir option -q.
  4419 
  4420 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4421 also the system manual.
  4422 
  4423 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4424 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4425 
  4426 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4427 this is always enabled.
  4428 
  4429 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4430 
  4431 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4432 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4433 currently supported on Linux only.
  4434 
  4435 
  4436 
  4437 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4438 --------------------------------
  4439 
  4440 *** General ***
  4441 
  4442 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4443 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4444 
  4445   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4446     "isatool."
  4447 
  4448   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4449     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4450 
  4451   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4452     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4453 
  4454 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4455 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4456 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4457 
  4458 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4459 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4460 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4461 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4462 via "isabelle emacs".
  4463 
  4464 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4465 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4466 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4467 
  4468 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4469 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4470 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4471 
  4472 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4473 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4474 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4475 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4476 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4477 
  4478 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4479 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4480 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4481 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4482 
  4483 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4484 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4485 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4486 
  4487 
  4488 *** Pure ***
  4489 
  4490 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4491 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4492 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4493 
  4494 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4495 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4496 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4497 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4498 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4499 
  4500 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4501 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4502 useful in locale declarations.
  4503 
  4504 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4505 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4506 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4507 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4508 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4509 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4510 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4511 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4512 no longer generated.
  4513 
  4514 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4515 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4516 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4517 
  4518 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4519 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4520 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4521 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4522 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4523 
  4524 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4525 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4526 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4527 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4528 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4529 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4530 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4531 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4532 
  4533 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4534 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4535 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4536 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4537 
  4538 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4539 
  4540 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4541 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4542 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4543 
  4544 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4545 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4546 
  4547 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4548 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4549 in HOL, write
  4550 
  4551     class foo = ...
  4552 
  4553 instead of
  4554 
  4555     class foo = type + ...
  4556 
  4557 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4558 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4559 
  4560 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4561 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4562 
  4563 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4564 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4565 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4566 
  4567 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4568 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4569 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4570 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4571 directly in regular applications.
  4572 
  4573 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4574 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4575 
  4576 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4577 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4578 
  4579 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4580 theory context.
  4581 
  4582 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4583 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4584 
  4585 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4586 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4587 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4588 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4589 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4590 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4591 
  4592   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4593 
  4594 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4595 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4596 normalization.
  4597 
  4598 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4599 addressing etc.
  4600 
  4601 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4602 
  4603   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4604   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4605 
  4606 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4607 
  4608   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4609      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4610      parts of the code generator framework).
  4611 
  4612   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4613      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4614      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4615 
  4616 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4617 
  4618 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4619 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4620 
  4621 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4622 patterns, e.g.
  4623 
  4624     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4625 
  4626 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4627 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4628 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4629 hyphen:
  4630 
  4631     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4632 
  4633 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4634 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4635 
  4636 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4637 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4638 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4639 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4640 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4641 higher-order unification.
  4642 
  4643 
  4644 *** Document preparation ***
  4645 
  4646 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4647 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4648 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4649 
  4650 
  4651 *** HOL ***
  4652 
  4653 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4654 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4655 
  4656 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4657 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4658 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4659 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4660 Main, as before.
  4661 
  4662 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4663 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4664 
  4665 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4666 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4667 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4668 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4669 
  4670 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4671 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4672 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4673 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4674 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4675 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4676 
  4677 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4678 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4679 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4680 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4681 
  4682 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4683 menu.
  4684 
  4685 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4686 (contains the empty clause).
  4687 
  4688 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4689 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4690 
  4691 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4692 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4693 
  4694 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4695 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4696 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4697 
  4698 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4699 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4700 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4701 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4702 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4703 
  4704 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4705 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4706 
  4707 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4708 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4709 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4710 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4711 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4712 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4713 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4714 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4715 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4716 
  4717 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4718 
  4719 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4720 
  4721 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4722 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4723 
  4724 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4725 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4726 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4727 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4728 
  4729 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4730 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4731 
  4732     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4733     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4734     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4735     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4736     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4737     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4738     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4739     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4740 
  4741 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4742 theory Set.
  4743 
  4744 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4745 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4746 
  4747 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4748 
  4749 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4750 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4751 
  4752 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4753 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4754 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4755 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4756 allowed. For examples see
  4757 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4758 
  4759 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4760 
  4761 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4762 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4763 
  4764 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4765 structure:
  4766 
  4767     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4768     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4769     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4770     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4771     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4772     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4773     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4774     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4775     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4776     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4777     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4778     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4779     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4780     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4781     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4782     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4783     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4784     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4785     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4786     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4787     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4788     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4789     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4790     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4791     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4792     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4793     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4794     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4795     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4796     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4797     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4798     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4799     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4800 
  4801     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4802     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4803     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4804     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4805     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4806     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4807     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4808     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4809     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4810     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4811 
  4812     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4813     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4814     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4815     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4816     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4817     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4818 
  4819 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4820 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4821 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4822 
  4823 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4824 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4825 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4826 
  4827 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4828 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4829 
  4830 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4831 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4832 
  4833 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4834 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4835 proofs, e.g.
  4836 
  4837   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4838 
  4839 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4840 
  4841 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4842 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4843 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4844 
  4845 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4846 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4847 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4848 
  4849 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4850 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4851 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4852 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4853 
  4854 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4855 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4856 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4857 preorder_class.*.
  4858 
  4859 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4860 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4861 
  4862 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4863 
  4864   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4865 
  4866 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4867 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4868 fold_image.
  4869 
  4870 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4871 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4872 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4873 the former will disappear at some point.
  4874 
  4875 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4876 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4877 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4878 
  4879 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4880 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4881 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4882 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4883 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4884 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4885 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4886 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4887 
  4888 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4889 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4890 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4891 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4892 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4893 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4894 
  4895     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4896     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4897     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4898     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4899     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4900     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4901     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4902 
  4903 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4904 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4905 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4906 
  4907 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4908 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4909 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4910 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4911 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4912 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4913 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4914 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4915 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4916 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4917 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4918 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4919 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4920 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4921 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4922 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4923 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4924 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4925 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4926 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4927 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4928 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4929 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4930 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4931 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4932 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4933 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4934 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4935 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4936 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4937 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4938 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4939 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4940 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4941 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4942 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4943 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4944 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4945 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4946 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4947 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4948 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4949 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4950 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4951 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4952 
  4953 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4954 
  4955 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4956 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4957 
  4958 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4959 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4960 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4961 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4962 
  4963 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4964 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4965 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4966 theory RealVector.
  4967 
  4968 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4969 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4970 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4971 and inner products are included.
  4972 
  4973 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4974 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4975 supported.
  4976 
  4977 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4978 first diagonalization argument.
  4979 
  4980 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4981 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4982 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4983 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4984 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4985 
  4986     hide (open) const gcd
  4987     abbreviation gcd where
  4988       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4989     notation (output)
  4990       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4991 
  4992 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4993 
  4994 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4995 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4996 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4997 
  4998 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  4999 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5000 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5001 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5002 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5003 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5004 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5005 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5006 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5007 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5008 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5009 cases.
  5010 
  5011 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5012 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5013 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5014 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5015 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5016 
  5017     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5018     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5019     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5020     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5021     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5022 
  5023 
  5024 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5025 
  5026 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5027 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5028 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5029 
  5030 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5031 
  5032 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5033 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5034 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5035 
  5036 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5037 
  5038 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5039 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5040 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5041 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5042 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5043 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5044 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5045 
  5046 
  5047 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5048 
  5049 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5050 
  5051 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5052 theory targets.
  5053 
  5054 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5055 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5056 'inductive' etc.
  5057 
  5058 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5059 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5060 
  5061 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5062 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5063 
  5064 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5065 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5066 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5067 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5068 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5069 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5070 the algorithm W:
  5071 
  5072  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5073  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5074          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5075 
  5076 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5077 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5078 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5079 
  5080 
  5081 *** HOLCF ***
  5082 
  5083 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5084 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5085 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5086 
  5087 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5088 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5089 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5090 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5091 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5092 
  5093 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5094 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5095 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5096 
  5097 
  5098 *** ZF ***
  5099 
  5100 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5101 
  5102 
  5103 *** ML ***
  5104 
  5105 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5106 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5107 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5108 5.2.1!
  5109 
  5110 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5111 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5112 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5113 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5114 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5115 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5116 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5117 
  5118 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5119 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5120 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5121 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5122 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5123 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5124 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5125 
  5126 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5127 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5128 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5129 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5130 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5131 
  5132 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5133 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5134 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5135 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5136 Method.add_method.
  5137 
  5138 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5139 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5140 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5141 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5142 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5143 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5144 
  5145 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5146 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5147 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5148 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5149 examples.
  5150 
  5151 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5152 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5153 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5154 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5155 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5156 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5157 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5158 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5159 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5160 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5161 
  5162 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5163 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5164 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5165 
  5166 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5167 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5168 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5169 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5170 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5171 resort for legacy applications.
  5172 
  5173 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5174 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5175 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5176 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5177 explicit runtime argument.
  5178 
  5179 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5180 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5181 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5182 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5183 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5184 
  5185 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5186 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5187 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5188 theory state.
  5189 
  5190 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5191 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5192 
  5193   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5194   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5195   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5196   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5197   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5198   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5199   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5200   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5201   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5202   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5203 
  5204 
  5205 *** System ***
  5206 
  5207 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5208 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5209 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5210 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5211 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5212 
  5213 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5214 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5215 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5216 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5217 
  5218 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5219 
  5220 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5221 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5222 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5223 prover operations.
  5224 
  5225 
  5226 
  5227 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5228 -------------------------------
  5229 
  5230 *** General ***
  5231 
  5232 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5233 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5234 
  5235 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5236 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5237 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5238 provides a proper context already.
  5239 
  5240 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5241 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5242 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5243 
  5244 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5245 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5246 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5247 swap theory imports.
  5248 
  5249 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5250 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5251 
  5252 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5253 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5254 white space without escapes.
  5255 
  5256 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5257 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5258 "foo_bar".
  5259 
  5260 
  5261 *** Pure ***
  5262 
  5263 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5264 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5265 
  5266 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5267 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5268 
  5269 (1) unused_thms
  5270      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5271 
  5272 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5273      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5274      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5275 
  5276 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5277      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5278      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5279      their ancestors.
  5280 
  5281 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5282 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5283 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5284 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5285 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5286 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5287 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5288 
  5289 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5290 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5291 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5292 
  5293 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5294 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5295 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5296 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5297 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5298 
  5299 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5300 
  5301 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5302 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5303 update of theories within ML code.
  5304 
  5305 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5306 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5307 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5308 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5309 
  5310 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5311 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5312 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5313 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5314 
  5315 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5316 
  5317 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5318 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5319 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5320 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5321 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5322 
  5323 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5324 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5325 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5326 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5327 situations.
  5328 
  5329 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5330 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5331 proof text.
  5332 
  5333 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5334 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5335 
  5336 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5337 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5338 predicates.
  5339 
  5340 
  5341 *** Document preparation ***
  5342 
  5343 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5344 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5345 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5346 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5347 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5348 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5349 
  5350 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5351 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5352 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5353 
  5354 
  5355 *** HOL ***
  5356 
  5357 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5358 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5359 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5360 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5361 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5362 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5363 
  5364 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5365 with multithreading.
  5366 
  5367 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5368 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5369 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5370 
  5371 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5372 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5373 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5374 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5375 
  5376 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5377 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5378 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5379 and makes them available separately.  See
  5380 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5381 
  5382 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5383 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5384 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5385 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5386 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5387 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5388 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5389 the declared rules.
  5390 
  5391 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5392 
  5393   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5394 
  5395 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5396 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5397 
  5398 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5399 
  5400   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5401 
  5402   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5403     definitions on => and bool.
  5404 
  5405   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5406     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5407     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5408 
  5409       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5410       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5411       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5412       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5413       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5414       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5415       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5416       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5417 
  5418   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5419     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5420     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5421 
  5422   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5423     The proof pattern
  5424 
  5425       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5426       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5427 
  5428     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5429     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5430 
  5431       have "EX S. P S"
  5432       proof
  5433         show "P S" <...>
  5434       qed
  5435 
  5436   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5437     The proof pattern
  5438 
  5439       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5440       also have "S = T" <...>
  5441       finally have "P T" .
  5442 
  5443     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5444     must be replaced by something like
  5445 
  5446       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5447       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5448       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5449 
  5450   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5451     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5452 
  5453       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5454 
  5455     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5456     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5457     type of the form
  5458 
  5459       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5460 
  5461     rather than
  5462 
  5463       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5464 
  5465 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5466 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5467 
  5468 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5469 
  5470 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5471 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5472 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5473 
  5474 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5475 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5476 
  5477 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5478 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5479 
  5480 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5481 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5482 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5483 
  5484 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5485 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5486 
  5487   less_trans
  5488   less_linear
  5489   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5490   le_less_trans
  5491   less_le_trans
  5492   less_not_sym
  5493   less_asym
  5494 
  5495 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5496 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5497 and different variable names.
  5498 
  5499 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5500 
  5501 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5502 finite maps.
  5503 
  5504 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5505 
  5506 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5507 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5508 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5509 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5510 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5511 accordingly.
  5512 
  5513 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5514 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5515 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5516 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5517 
  5518 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5519 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5520 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5521 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5522 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5523 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5524 
  5525 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5526 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5527 
  5528 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5529 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5530 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5531 
  5532 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5533 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5534 
  5535 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5536 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5537 
  5538 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5539 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5540 
  5541 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5542 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5543 
  5544 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5545 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5546 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5547 
  5548 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5549 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5550 
  5551 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5552 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5553 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5554 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5555 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5556 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5557 
  5558 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5559 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5560 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5561 
  5562 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5563 
  5564 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5565 
  5566 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5567 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5568 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5569 
  5570 
  5571 *** ZF ***
  5572 
  5573 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5574 same session:
  5575 
  5576   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5577   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5578   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5579   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5580   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5581   List      -> List_ZF
  5582   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5583 
  5584 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5585 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5586 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5587 
  5588 
  5589 *** ML ***
  5590 
  5591 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5592 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5593 
  5594 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5595 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5596 
  5597 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5598 
  5599 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5600 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5601 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5602 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5603 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5604 
  5605 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5606 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5607 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5608 
  5609 
  5610 *** System ***
  5611 
  5612 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5613 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5614 
  5615 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5616 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5617 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5618 
  5619 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5620 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5621 
  5622 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5623 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5624 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5625 
  5626 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5627 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5628 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5629 
  5630 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5631 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5632 
  5633 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5634 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5635 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5636 script.
  5637 
  5638 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5639 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5640 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5641 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5642 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5643 
  5644 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5645 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5646 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5647 
  5648 
  5649 
  5650 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5651 -----------------------------------
  5652 
  5653 *** General ***
  5654 
  5655 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5656 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5657 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5658 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5659 
  5660 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5661 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5662 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5663 
  5664 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5665 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5666 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5667 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5668 
  5669 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5670 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5671 quotes.
  5672 
  5673 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5674 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5675 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5676 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5677 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5678 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5679 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5680 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5681 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5682 
  5683 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5684 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5685 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5686 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5687 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5688 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5689 
  5690 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5691 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5692 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5693 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5694 
  5695 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5696 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5697 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5698 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5699 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5700 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5701 
  5702 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5703 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5704 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5705 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5706 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5707 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5708 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5709 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5710 
  5711 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5712 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5713 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5714 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5715 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5716 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5717 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5718 
  5719 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5720 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5721 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5722 
  5723 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5724 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5725 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5726 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5727 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5728 limit is imposed.
  5729 
  5730 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5731 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5732 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5733 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5734 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5735 and scalability.
  5736 
  5737 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5738 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5739 
  5740 
  5741 *** Document preparation ***
  5742 
  5743 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5744 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5745 current context.
  5746 
  5747 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5748 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5749 
  5750 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5751 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5752 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5753 
  5754 
  5755 *** Pure ***
  5756 
  5757 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5758 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5759 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5760 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5761 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5762 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5763 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5764 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5765 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5766 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5767 
  5768 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5769 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5770 sketch:
  5771 
  5772     internal compilation:
  5773         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5774     writing SML code to a file:
  5775         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5776     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5777         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5778     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5779         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5780 
  5781     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5782         method ``eval''
  5783 
  5784 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5785 
  5786 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5787 
  5788     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5789     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5790     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5791     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5792 
  5793 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5794 
  5795     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5796       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5797 
  5798     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5799       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5800 
  5801     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5802       {(target)}+
  5803         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5804 
  5805     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5806       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5807         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5808 
  5809 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5810 
  5811 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5812 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5813 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5814 codegen".
  5815 
  5816 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5817 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5818 annotations).
  5819 
  5820 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5821 syntax.
  5822 
  5823 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5824 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5825 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5826 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5827 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5828 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5829 
  5830 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5831 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5832 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5833 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5834 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5835 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5836 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5837 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5838 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5839 equations, see section "definitions".
  5840 
  5841 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5842 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5843 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5844 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5845 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5846 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5847 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5848 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5849 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5850 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5851 
  5852 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5853 configuration options:
  5854 
  5855   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5856   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5857   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5858   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5859   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5860   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5861   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5862   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5863   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5864 
  5865 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5866 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5867 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5868 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5869 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5870 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5871 order.
  5872 
  5873 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5874 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5875 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5876 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5877 context encountered later on.
  5878 
  5879 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5880 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5881 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5882 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5883 
  5884 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5885 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5886 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5887 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5888 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5889 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5890 
  5891 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5892 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5893 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5894 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5895 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5896 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5897 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5898 more permissive.
  5899 
  5900 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5901 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5902 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5903 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5904 maintainability of proof texts.
  5905 
  5906 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5907 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5908 
  5909   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5910   then guess x and y by clarify
  5911 
  5912 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5913 proof tools being involved here.
  5914 
  5915 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5916 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5917 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5918 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5919 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5920 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5921 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5922 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5923 
  5924 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5925 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5926 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5927 
  5928   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5929   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5930   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5931   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5932 
  5933 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5934 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5935 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5936 
  5937 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5938 both named and unnamed ones.
  5939 
  5940 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5941 
  5942   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5943 
  5944 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5945 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5946 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5947 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5948 
  5949 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5950 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5951 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5952 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5953 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5954 
  5955 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5956 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5957 
  5958 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5959 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5960 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5961 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5962 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5963 originally first one.
  5964 
  5965 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5966 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5967 expected.
  5968 
  5969 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5970 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5971 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5972 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5973 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5974 
  5975   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5976     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5977     obtains x where "P x"
  5978 
  5979   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5980     assumes "A & B"
  5981     obtains A and B
  5982 
  5983   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5984     assumes "A | B"
  5985     obtains
  5986       A
  5987     | B
  5988 
  5989 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5990 explicitly:
  5991 
  5992   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5993     obtains "~ thesis"
  5994 
  5995   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5996     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5997 
  5998 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  5999 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  6000 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  6001 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  6002 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  6003 case_names).
  6004 
  6005 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  6006 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  6007 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  6008 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  6009 
  6010 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  6011 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  6012 top-level lemma.
  6013 
  6014 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  6015 introduction rule (default "that").
  6016 
  6017 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  6018 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  6019 to occur.
  6020 
  6021 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  6022 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  6023 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  6024 representations independently of name spaces.
  6025 
  6026 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  6027 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  6028 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6029 
  6030 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  6031 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  6032 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  6033 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  6034 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  6035 current context.
  6036 
  6037 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  6038 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  6039 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  6040 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  6041 
  6042   axiomatization
  6043     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  6044     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  6045 
  6046   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  6047   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  6048 
  6049   abbreviation
  6050     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  6051     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  6052 
  6053 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  6054 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  6055 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  6056 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  6057 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  6058 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  6059 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  6060 
  6061 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  6062 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  6063 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  6064 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  6065 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  6066 
  6067 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  6068 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  6069 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  6070 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  6071 
  6072 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  6073 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  6074 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  6075 
  6076   definition "K x _ = x"
  6077 
  6078   inductive conj for A B
  6079   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  6080 
  6081 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  6082 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  6083 abbreviations on output.
  6084 
  6085 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  6086 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  6087 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  6088 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  6089 
  6090 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  6091 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  6092 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  6093 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  6094 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  6095 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  6096 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  6097 
  6098 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  6099 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  6100 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  6101 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  6102 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  6103 
  6104 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  6105 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  6106 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  6107 
  6108 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  6109 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  6110 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  6111 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  6112 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  6113 
  6114   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  6115     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  6116 
  6117 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  6118 definition specification element in the context of locale
  6119 partial_order.
  6120 
  6121 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  6122 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  6123 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  6124 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  6125 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  6126 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  6127 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  6128 examples.
  6129 
  6130 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  6131 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  6132 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  6133 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  6134 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  6135 
  6136 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  6137 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  6138 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  6139 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  6140 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  6141 
  6142   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  6143   (induct set: foo bar)
  6144   (induct pred: foo bar)
  6145   (induct type: foo bar)
  6146 
  6147 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  6148 new format.
  6149 
  6150 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  6151 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  6152 
  6153 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  6154 considered a legacy feature.
  6155 
  6156 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  6157 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6158 
  6159 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  6160 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  6161 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  6162 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  6163   
  6164 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  6165 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  6166 manipulating the claset.
  6167 
  6168 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  6169 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  6170 least one premise.
  6171 
  6172 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  6173 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  6174 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  6175 rule steps.
  6176 
  6177 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  6178 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  6179 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  6180 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  6181 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  6182 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  6183 
  6184 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  6185 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  6186 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  6187 
  6188 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  6189 the graph browser tool.
  6190 
  6191 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  6192 default; use '!' option for full details.
  6193 
  6194 
  6195 *** HOL ***
  6196 
  6197 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  6198 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  6199 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  6200 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  6201 multi-threading.
  6202   
  6203 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  6204 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  6205 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  6206 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  6207 work with multi-threading.
  6208 
  6209 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  6210 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  6211 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  6212 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  6213 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  6214 
  6215 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  6216 
  6217 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  6218 equality.
  6219 
  6220 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  6221 the new 'class' package:
  6222 
  6223     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  6224     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  6225     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  6226     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  6227     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  6228     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  6229     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  6230     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  6231     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  6232     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  6233     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  6234     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  6235     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  6236     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  6237     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  6238     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  6239     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  6240     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  6241     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  6242     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  6243 
  6244 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  6245 
  6246 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  6247 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  6248 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  6249 names.
  6250 
  6251 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  6252 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  6253