NEWS
author wenzelm
Mon Oct 17 15:00:46 2016 +0200 (2016-10-17)
changeset 64274 c8990e5feac9
parent 64265 8eb6365f5916
child 64280 7ad033e28dbd
permissions -rw-r--r--
re-use "threads" for --gcthreads;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history of user-relevant changes
     2 =================================================
     3 
     4 (Note: Isabelle/jEdit shows a tree-view of the NEWS file in Sidekick.)
     5 
     6 
     7 New in Isabelle2016-1 (December 2016)
     8 -------------------------------------
     9 
    10 *** General ***
    11 
    12 * Command 'bundle' provides a local theory target to define a bundle
    13 from the body of specification commands (such as 'declare',
    14 'declaration', 'notation', 'lemmas', 'lemma'). For example:
    15 
    16 bundle foo
    17 begin
    18   declare a [simp]
    19   declare b [intro]
    20 end
    21 
    22 * Command 'unbundle' is like 'include', but works within a local theory
    23 context. Unlike "context includes ... begin", the effect of 'unbundle'
    24 on the target context persists, until different declarations are given.
    25 
    26 * Simplified outer syntax: uniform category "name" includes long
    27 identifiers. Former "xname" / "nameref" / "name reference" has been
    28 discontinued.
    29 
    30 * Embedded content (e.g. the inner syntax of types, terms, props) may be
    31 delimited uniformly via cartouches. This works better than old-fashioned
    32 quotes when sub-languages are nested.
    33 
    34 * Mixfix annotations support general block properties, with syntax
    35 "(\<open>x=a y=b z \<dots>\<close>". Notable property names are "indent", "consistent",
    36 "unbreakable", "markup". The existing notation "(DIGITS" is equivalent
    37 to "(\<open>indent=DIGITS\<close>". The former notation "(00" for unbreakable blocks
    38 is superseded by "(\<open>unbreabable\<close>" --- rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
    39 
    40 * Proof method "blast" is more robust wrt. corner cases of Pure
    41 statements without object-logic judgment.
    42 
    43 * Commands 'prf' and 'full_prf' are somewhat more informative (again):
    44 proof terms are reconstructed and cleaned from administrative thm nodes.
    45 
    46 * Code generator: config option "code_timing" triggers measurements of
    47 different phases of code generation. See src/HOL/ex/Code_Timing.thy for
    48 examples.
    49 
    50 * Code generator: implicits in Scala (stemming from type class
    51 instances) are generated into companion object of corresponding type
    52 class, to resolve some situations where ambiguities may occur.
    53 
    54 * Splitter in simp, auto and friends:
    55   - The syntax "split add" has been discontinued, use plain "split",
    56     INCOMPATIBILITY.
    57   - For situations with many conditional or case expressions, there is
    58     an alternative splitting strategy that can be much faster. It is
    59     selected by writing "split!" instead of "split". It applies safe
    60     introduction and elimination rules after each split rule. As a
    61     result the subgoal may be split into several subgoals.
    62 
    63 * Solve direct: option 'solve_direct_strict_warnings' gives explicit
    64   warnings for lemma statements with trivial proofs.
    65 
    66 
    67 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    68 
    69 * Highlighting of entity def/ref positions wrt. cursor.
    70 
    71 * Action "isabelle.select-entity" (shortcut CS+ENTER) selects all
    72 occurences of the formal entity at the caret position. This facilitates
    73 systematic renaming.
    74 
    75 * PIDE document markup works across multiple Isar commands, e.g. the
    76 results established at the end of a proof are properly identified in the
    77 theorem statement.
    78 
    79 * Cartouche abbreviations work both for " and ` to accomodate typical
    80 situations where old ASCII notation may be updated.
    81 
    82 * Dockable window "Symbols" also provides access to 'abbrevs' from the
    83 outer syntax of the current theory buffer. This provides clickable
    84 syntax templates, including entries with empty abbrevs name (which are
    85 inaccessible via keyboard completion).
    86 
    87 * IDE support for the Isabelle/Pure bootstrap process, with the
    88 following independent stages:
    89 
    90   src/Pure/ROOT0.ML
    91   src/Pure/ROOT.ML
    92   src/Pure/Pure.thy
    93   src/Pure/ML_Bootstrap.thy
    94 
    95 The ML ROOT files act like quasi-theories in the context of theory
    96 ML_Bootstrap: this allows continuous checking of all loaded ML files.
    97 The theory files are presented with a modified header to import Pure
    98 from the running Isabelle instance. Results from changed versions of
    99 each stage are *not* propagated to the next stage, and isolated from the
   100 actual Isabelle/Pure that runs the IDE itself. The sequential
   101 dependencies of the above files are only observed for batch build.
   102 
   103 * Isabelle/ML and Standard ML files are presented in Sidekick with the
   104 tree structure of section headings: this special comment format is
   105 described in "implementation" chapter 0, e.g. (*** section ***).
   106 
   107 * Sidekick parser "isabelle-context" shows nesting of context blocks
   108 according to 'begin' and 'end' structure.
   109 
   110 * Syntactic indentation according to Isabelle outer syntax. Action
   111 "indent-lines" (shortcut C+i) indents the current line according to
   112 command keywords and some command substructure. Action
   113 "isabelle.newline" (shortcut ENTER) indents the old and the new line
   114 according to command keywords only; see also option
   115 "jedit_indent_newline".
   116 
   117 * Semantic indentation for unstructured proof scripts ('apply' etc.) via
   118 number of subgoals. This requires information of ongoing document
   119 processing and may thus lag behind, when the user is editing too
   120 quickly; see also option "jedit_script_indent" and
   121 "jedit_script_indent_limit".
   122 
   123 * Refined folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax: 'next' and 'qed'
   124 are treated as delimiters for fold structure; 'begin' and 'end'
   125 structure of theory specifications is treated as well.
   126 
   127 * Action "isabelle.keymap-merge" asks the user to resolve pending
   128 Isabelle keymap changes that are in conflict with the current jEdit
   129 keymap; non-conflicting changes are always applied implicitly. This
   130 action is automatically invoked on Isabelle/jEdit startup and thus
   131 increases chances that users see new keyboard shortcuts when re-using
   132 old keymaps.
   133 
   134 * Command 'proof' provides information about proof outline with cases,
   135 e.g. for proof methods "cases", "induct", "goal_cases".
   136 
   137 * Completion templates for commands involving "begin ... end" blocks,
   138 e.g. 'context', 'notepad'.
   139 
   140 * Additional abbreviations for syntactic completion may be specified
   141 within the theory header as 'abbrevs'. The theory syntax for 'keywords'
   142 has been simplified accordingly: optional abbrevs need to go into the
   143 new 'abbrevs' section.
   144 
   145 * Global abbreviations via $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/abbrevs and
   146 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs are no longer supported. Minor
   147 INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'abbrevs' within theory header instead.
   148 
   149 * ML and document antiquotations for file-systems paths are more uniform
   150 and diverse:
   151 
   152   @{path NAME}   -- no file-system check
   153   @{file NAME}   -- check for plain file
   154   @{dir NAME}    -- check for directory
   155 
   156 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, former uses of @{file} and @{file_unchecked} may
   157 have to be changed.
   158 
   159 
   160 *** Document preparation ***
   161 
   162 * New symbol \<circle>, e.g. for temporal operator.
   163 
   164 * New document and ML antiquotation @{locale} for locales, similar to
   165 existing antiquotation @{class}.
   166 
   167 * Mixfix annotations support delimiters like \<^control>\<open>cartouche\<close> --
   168 this allows special forms of document output.
   169 
   170 * Raw LaTeX output now works via \<^latex>\<open>...\<close> instead of raw control
   171 symbol \<^raw:...>. INCOMPATIBILITY, notably for LaTeXsugar.thy and its
   172 derivatives.
   173 
   174 * \<^raw:...> symbols are no longer supported.
   175 
   176 * Old 'header' command is no longer supported (legacy since
   177 Isabelle2015).
   178 
   179 
   180 *** Isar ***
   181 
   182 * Many specification elements support structured statements with 'if' /
   183 'for' eigen-context, e.g. 'axiomatization', 'abbreviation',
   184 'definition', 'inductive', 'function'.
   185 
   186 * Toplevel theorem statements support eigen-context notation with 'if' /
   187 'for' (in postfix), which corresponds to 'assumes' / 'fixes' in the
   188 traditional long statement form (in prefix). Local premises are called
   189 "that" or "assms", respectively. Empty premises are *not* bound in the
   190 context: INCOMPATIBILITY.
   191 
   192 * Command 'define' introduces a local (non-polymorphic) definition, with
   193 optional abstraction over local parameters. The syntax resembles
   194 'definition' and 'obtain'. It fits better into the Isar language than
   195 old 'def', which is now a legacy feature.
   196 
   197 * Command 'obtain' supports structured statements with 'if' / 'for'
   198 context.
   199 
   200 * Command '\<proof>' is an alias for 'sorry', with different
   201 typesetting. E.g. to produce proof holes in examples and documentation.
   202 
   203 * The defining position of a literal fact \<open>prop\<close> is maintained more
   204 carefully, and made accessible as hyperlink in the Prover IDE.
   205 
   206 * Commands 'finally' and 'ultimately' used to expose the result as
   207 literal fact: this accidental behaviour has been discontinued. Rare
   208 INCOMPATIBILITY, use more explicit means to refer to facts in Isar.
   209 
   210 * Command 'axiomatization' has become more restrictive to correspond
   211 better to internal axioms as singleton facts with mandatory name. Minor
   212 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   213 
   214 * Proof methods may refer to the main facts via the dynamic fact
   215 "method_facts". This is particularly useful for Eisbach method
   216 definitions.
   217 
   218 * Proof method "use" allows to modify the main facts of a given method
   219 expression, e.g.
   220 
   221   (use facts in simp)
   222   (use facts in \<open>simp add: ...\<close>)
   223 
   224 * The old proof method "default" has been removed (legacy since
   225 Isabelle2016). INCOMPATIBILITY, use "standard" instead.
   226 
   227 
   228 *** Pure ***
   229 
   230 * Pure provides basic versions of proof methods "simp" and "simp_all"
   231 that only know about meta-equality (==). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in
   232 theory imports that merge Pure with e.g. Main of Isabelle/HOL: the order
   233 is relevant to avoid confusion of Pure.simp vs. HOL.simp.
   234 
   235 * The command 'unfolding' and proof method "unfold" include a second
   236 stage where given equations are passed through the attribute "abs_def"
   237 before rewriting. This ensures that definitions are fully expanded,
   238 regardless of the actual parameters that are provided. Rare
   239 INCOMPATIBILITY in some corner cases: use proof method (simp only:)
   240 instead, or declare [[unfold_abs_def = false]] in the proof context.
   241 
   242 * Type-inference improves sorts of newly introduced type variables for
   243 the object-logic, using its base sort (i.e. HOL.type for Isabelle/HOL).
   244 Thus terms like "f x" or "\<And>x. P x" without any further syntactic context
   245 produce x::'a::type in HOL instead of x::'a::{} in Pure. Rare
   246 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide explicit type constraints for Pure
   247 types where this is really intended.
   248 
   249 
   250 *** HOL ***
   251 
   252 * Sligthly more standardized theorem names:
   253     sgn_times ~> sgn_mult
   254     sgn_mult' ~> Real_Vector_Spaces.sgn_mult
   255     divide_zero_left ~> div_0
   256     zero_mod_left ~> mod_0
   257     divide_zero ~> div_by_0
   258     divide_1 ~> div_by_1
   259     nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_left ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_left
   260     div_mult_self1_is_id ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_left
   261     nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_right ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_right
   262     div_mult_self2_is_id ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_right
   263     is_unit_divide_mult_cancel_left ~> is_unit_div_mult_cancel_left
   264     is_unit_divide_mult_cancel_right ~> is_unit_div_mult_cancel_right
   265     mod_div_equality ~> div_mult_mod_eq
   266     mod_div_equality2 ~> mult_div_mod_eq
   267     mod_div_equality3 ~> mod_div_mult_eq
   268     mod_div_equality4 ~> mod_mult_div_eq
   269     minus_div_eq_mod ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod
   270     minus_div_eq_mod2 ~> minus_mult_div_eq_mod
   271     minus_mod_eq_div ~> minus_mod_eq_div_mult
   272     minus_mod_eq_div2 ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div
   273     div_mod_equality' ~> minus_mod_eq_div_mult [symmetric]
   274     mod_div_equality' ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod [symmetric]
   275     zmod_zdiv_equality ~> mult_div_mod_eq [symmetric]
   276     zmod_zdiv_equality' ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod [symmetric]
   277     Divides.mult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
   278     mult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
   279     zmult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
   280     div_1 ~> div_by_Suc_0
   281     mod_1 ~> mod_by_Suc_0
   282 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   283 
   284 * Dedicated syntax LENGTH('a) for length of types.
   285 
   286 * New proof method "argo" using the built-in Argo solver based on SMT
   287 technology. The method can be used to prove goals of quantifier-free
   288 propositional logic, goals based on a combination of quantifier-free
   289 propositional logic with equality, and goals based on a combination of
   290 quantifier-free propositional logic with linear real arithmetic
   291 including min/max/abs. See HOL/ex/Argo_Examples.thy for examples.
   292 
   293 * Metis: The problem encoding has changed very slightly. This might
   294 break existing proofs. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   295 
   296 * Sledgehammer:
   297   - The MaSh relevance filter is now faster than before.
   298   - Produce syntactically correct Vampire 4.0 problem files.
   299 
   300 * (Co)datatype package:
   301   - New commands for defining corecursive functions and reasoning about
   302     them in "~~/src/HOL/Library/BNF_Corec.thy": 'corec', 'corecursive',
   303     'friend_of_corec', and 'corecursion_upto'; and 'corec_unique' proof
   304     method. See 'isabelle doc corec'.
   305   - The predicator :: ('a \<Rightarrow> bool) \<Rightarrow> 'a F \<Rightarrow> bool is now a first-class
   306     citizen in bounded natural functors.
   307   - 'primrec' now allows nested calls through the predicator in addition
   308     to the map function.
   309   - 'bnf' automatically discharges reflexive proof obligations.
   310   - 'bnf' outputs a slightly modified proof obligation expressing rel in
   311        terms of map and set
   312        (not giving a specification for rel makes this one reflexive).
   313   - 'bnf' outputs a new proof obligation expressing pred in terms of set
   314        (not giving a specification for pred makes this one reflexive).
   315     INCOMPATIBILITY: manual 'bnf' declarations may need adjustment.
   316   - Renamed lemmas:
   317       rel_prod_apply ~> rel_prod_inject
   318       pred_prod_apply ~> pred_prod_inject
   319     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   320   - The "size" plugin has been made compatible again with locales.
   321   - The theorems about "rel" and "set" may have a slightly different (but
   322     equivalent) form.
   323     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   324 
   325 * The 'coinductive' command produces a proper coinduction rule for
   326 mutual coinductive predicates. This new rule replaces the old rule,
   327 which exposed details of the internal fixpoint construction and was
   328 hard to use. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   329 
   330 * New abbreviations for negated existence (but not bounded existence):
   331 
   332   \<nexists>x. P x \<equiv> \<not> (\<exists>x. P x)
   333   \<nexists>!x. P x \<equiv> \<not> (\<exists>!x. P x)
   334 
   335 * The print mode "HOL" for ASCII syntax of binders "!", "?", "?!", "@"
   336 has been removed for output. It is retained for input only, until it is
   337 eliminated altogether.
   338 
   339 * The unique existence quantifier no longer provides 'binder' syntax,
   340 but uses syntax translations (as for bounded unique existence). Thus
   341 iterated quantification \<exists>!x y. P x y with its slightly confusing
   342 sequential meaning \<exists>!x. \<exists>!y. P x y is no longer possible. Instead,
   343 pattern abstraction admits simultaneous unique existence \<exists>!(x, y). P x y
   344 (analogous to existing notation \<exists>!(x, y)\<in>A. P x y). Potential
   345 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.
   346 
   347 * Conventional syntax "%(). t" for unit abstractions. Slight syntactic
   348 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   349 
   350 * Characters (type char) are modelled as finite algebraic type
   351 corresponding to {0..255}.
   352 
   353   - Logical representation:
   354     * 0 is instantiated to the ASCII zero character.
   355     * All other characters are represented as "Char n"
   356       with n being a raw numeral expression less than 256.
   357     * Expressions of the form "Char n" with n greater than 255
   358       are non-canonical.
   359   - Printing and parsing:
   360     * Printable characters are printed and parsed as "CHR ''\<dots>''"
   361       (as before).
   362     * The ASCII zero character is printed and parsed as "0".
   363     * All other canonical characters are printed as "CHR 0xXX"
   364       with XX being the hexadecimal character code.  "CHR n"
   365       is parsable for every numeral expression n.
   366     * Non-canonical characters have no special syntax and are
   367       printed as their logical representation.
   368   - Explicit conversions from and to the natural numbers are
   369     provided as char_of_nat, nat_of_char (as before).
   370   - The auxiliary nibble type has been discontinued.
   371 
   372 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   373 
   374 * Type class "div" with operation "mod" renamed to type class "modulo"
   375 with operation "modulo", analogously to type class "divide". This
   376 eliminates the need to qualify any of those names in the presence of
   377 infix "mod" syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   378 
   379 * Statements and proofs of Knaster-Tarski fixpoint combinators lfp/gfp
   380 have been clarified. The fixpoint properties are lfp_fixpoint, its
   381 symmetric lfp_unfold (as before), and the duals for gfp. Auxiliary items
   382 for the proof (lfp_lemma2 etc.) are no longer exported, but can be
   383 easily recovered by composition with eq_refl. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   384 
   385 * Constant "surj" is a mere input abbreviation, to avoid hiding an
   386 equation in term output. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   387 
   388 * Command 'code_reflect' accepts empty constructor lists for datatypes,
   389 which renders those abstract effectively.
   390 
   391 * Command 'export_code' checks given constants for abstraction
   392 violations: a small guarantee that given constants specify a safe
   393 interface for the generated code.
   394 
   395 * Code generation for Scala: ambiguous implicts in class diagrams are
   396 spelt out explicitly.
   397 
   398 * Static evaluators (Code_Evaluation.static_* in Isabelle/ML) rely on
   399 explicitly provided auxiliary definitions for required type class
   400 dictionaries rather than half-working magic.  INCOMPATIBILITY, see
   401 the tutorial on code generation for details.
   402 
   403 * Theory Set_Interval.thy: substantial new theorems on indexed sums
   404 and products.
   405 
   406 * Theory List.thy: ranaming of listsum ~> sum_list, listprod ~>
   407 prod_list, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   408 
   409 * Locale bijection establishes convenient default simp rules such as
   410 "inv f (f a) = a" for total bijections.
   411 
   412 * Abstract locales semigroup, abel_semigroup, semilattice,
   413 semilattice_neutr, ordering, ordering_top, semilattice_order,
   414 semilattice_neutr_order, comm_monoid_set, semilattice_set,
   415 semilattice_neutr_set, semilattice_order_set,
   416 semilattice_order_neutr_set monoid_list, comm_monoid_list,
   417 comm_monoid_list_set, comm_monoid_mset, comm_monoid_fun use boldified
   418 syntax uniformly that does not clash with corresponding global syntax.
   419 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   420 
   421 * Former locale lifting_syntax is now a bundle, which is easier to
   422 include in a local context or theorem statement, e.g. "context includes
   423 lifting_syntax begin ... end". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   424 
   425 * Some old / obsolete theorems have been renamed / removed, potential
   426 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   427 
   428   nat_less_cases  --  removed, use linorder_cases instead
   429   inv_image_comp  --  removed, use image_inv_f_f instead
   430   image_surj_f_inv_f  ~>  image_f_inv_f
   431 
   432 * Some theorems about groups and orders have been generalised from
   433   groups to semi-groups that are also monoids:
   434     le_add_same_cancel1
   435     le_add_same_cancel2
   436     less_add_same_cancel1
   437     less_add_same_cancel2
   438     add_le_same_cancel1
   439     add_le_same_cancel2
   440     add_less_same_cancel1
   441     add_less_same_cancel2
   442 
   443 * Some simplifications theorems about rings have been removed, since
   444   superseeded by a more general version:
   445     less_add_cancel_left_greater_zero ~> less_add_same_cancel1
   446     less_add_cancel_right_greater_zero ~> less_add_same_cancel2
   447     less_eq_add_cancel_left_greater_eq_zero ~> le_add_same_cancel1
   448     less_eq_add_cancel_right_greater_eq_zero ~> le_add_same_cancel2
   449     less_eq_add_cancel_left_less_eq_zero ~> add_le_same_cancel1
   450     less_eq_add_cancel_right_less_eq_zero ~> add_le_same_cancel2
   451     less_add_cancel_left_less_zero ~> add_less_same_cancel1
   452     less_add_cancel_right_less_zero ~> add_less_same_cancel2
   453 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   454 
   455 * Renamed split_if -> if_split and split_if_asm -> if_split_asm to
   456 resemble the f.split naming convention, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   457 
   458 * Added class topological_monoid.
   459 
   460 * HOL-Library: theory FinFun bundles "finfun_syntax" and
   461 "no_finfun_syntax" allow to control optional syntax in local contexts;
   462 this supersedes former theory FinFun_Syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY, e.g. use
   463 "unbundle finfun_syntax" to imitate import of
   464 "~~/src/HOL/Library/FinFun_Syntax".
   465 
   466 * HOL-Library: theory Multiset_Permutations (executably) defines the set of
   467 permutations of a given set or multiset, i.e. the set of all lists that
   468 contain every element of the carrier (multi-)set exactly once.
   469 
   470 * HOL-Library: multiset membership is now expressed using set_mset
   471 rather than count.
   472 
   473   - Expressions "count M a > 0" and similar simplify to membership
   474     by default.
   475 
   476   - Converting between "count M a = 0" and non-membership happens using
   477     equations count_eq_zero_iff and not_in_iff.
   478 
   479   - Rules count_inI and in_countE obtain facts of the form
   480     "count M a = n" from membership.
   481 
   482   - Rules count_in_diffI and in_diff_countE obtain facts of the form
   483     "count M a = n + count N a" from membership on difference sets.
   484 
   485 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   486 
   487 * HOL-Library: theory LaTeXsugar uses new-style "dummy_pats" for
   488 displaying equations in functional programming style --- variables
   489 present on the left-hand but not on the righ-hand side are replaced by
   490 underscores.
   491 
   492 * HOL-Library: theory Combinator_PER provides combinator to build
   493 partial equivalence relations from a predicate and an equivalence
   494 relation.
   495 
   496 * HOL-Library: theory Perm provides basic facts about almost everywhere
   497 fix bijections.
   498 
   499 * HOL-Library: theory Normalized_Fraction allows viewing an element of a
   500 field of fractions as a normalized fraction (i.e. a pair of numerator
   501 and denominator such that the two are coprime and the denominator is
   502 normalized wrt. unit factors).
   503 
   504 * Session HOL-NSA has been renamed to HOL-Nonstandard_Analysis.
   505 
   506 * Session HOL-Multivariate_Analysis has been renamed to HOL-Analysis.
   507 
   508 * HOL-Analysis: measure theory has been moved here from HOL-Probability.
   509 When importing HOL-Analysis some theorems need additional name spaces
   510 prefixes due to name clashes. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   511 
   512 * HOL-Analysis: more complex analysis including Cauchy's inequality,
   513 Liouville theorem, open mapping theorem, maximum modulus principle,
   514 Residue theorem, Schwarz Lemma.
   515 
   516 * HOL-Analysis: Theory of polyhedra: faces, extreme points, polytopes,
   517 and the Krein–Milman Minkowski theorem.
   518 
   519 * HOL-Analysis: Numerous results ported from the HOL Light libraries:
   520 homeomorphisms, continuous function extensions, invariance of domain.
   521 
   522 * HOL-Probability: the type of emeasure and nn_integral was changed from
   523 ereal to ennreal, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   524 
   525   emeasure :: 'a measure \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> ennreal
   526   nn_integral :: 'a measure \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> ennreal) \<Rightarrow> ennreal
   527 
   528 * HOL-Probability: Code generation and QuickCheck for Probability Mass
   529 Functions.
   530 
   531 * HOL-Probability: theory Random_Permutations contains some theory about
   532 choosing a permutation of a set uniformly at random and folding over a
   533 list in random order.
   534 
   535 * HOL-Probability: theory SPMF formalises discrete subprobability
   536 distributions.
   537 
   538 * HOL-Number_Theory: algebraic foundation for primes: Generalisation of
   539 predicate "prime" and introduction of predicates "prime_elem",
   540 "irreducible", a "prime_factorization" function, and the
   541 "factorial_ring" typeclass with instance proofs for nat, int, poly. Some
   542 theorems now have different names, most notably "prime_def" is now
   543 "prime_nat_iff". INCOMPATIBILITY.
   544 
   545 * HOL-Library: the names of multiset theorems have been normalised to
   546 distinguish which ordering the theorems are about
   547 
   548     mset_less_eqI ~> mset_subset_eqI
   549     mset_less_insertD ~> mset_subset_insertD
   550     mset_less_eq_count ~> mset_subset_eq_count
   551     mset_less_diff_self ~> mset_subset_diff_self
   552     mset_le_exists_conv ~> mset_subset_eq_exists_conv
   553     mset_le_mono_add_right_cancel ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add_right_cancel
   554     mset_le_mono_add_left_cancel ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add_left_cancel
   555     mset_le_mono_add ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add
   556     mset_le_add_left ~> mset_subset_eq_add_left
   557     mset_le_add_right ~> mset_subset_eq_add_right
   558     mset_le_single ~> mset_subset_eq_single
   559     mset_le_multiset_union_diff_commute ~> mset_subset_eq_multiset_union_diff_commute
   560     diff_le_self ~> diff_subset_eq_self
   561     mset_leD ~> mset_subset_eqD
   562     mset_lessD ~> mset_subsetD
   563     mset_le_insertD ~> mset_subset_eq_insertD
   564     mset_less_of_empty ~> mset_subset_of_empty
   565     mset_less_size ~> mset_subset_size
   566     wf_less_mset_rel ~> wf_subset_mset_rel
   567     count_le_replicate_mset_le ~> count_le_replicate_mset_subset_eq
   568     mset_remdups_le ~> mset_remdups_subset_eq
   569     ms_lesseq_impl ~> subset_eq_mset_impl
   570 
   571 Some functions have been renamed:
   572     ms_lesseq_impl -> subset_eq_mset_impl
   573 
   574 * HOL-Library: multisets are now ordered with the multiset ordering
   575     #\<subseteq># ~> \<le>
   576     #\<subset># ~> <
   577     le_multiset ~> less_eq_multiset
   578     less_multiset ~> le_multiset
   579 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   580 
   581 * HOL-Library: the prefix multiset_order has been discontinued: the
   582 theorems can be directly accessed. As a consequence, the lemmas
   583 "order_multiset" and "linorder_multiset" have been discontinued, and the
   584 interpretations "multiset_linorder" and "multiset_wellorder" have been
   585 replaced by instantiations. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   586 
   587 * HOL-Library: some theorems about the multiset ordering have been
   588 renamed:
   589 
   590     le_multiset_def ~> less_eq_multiset_def
   591     less_multiset_def ~> le_multiset_def
   592     less_eq_imp_le_multiset ~> subset_eq_imp_le_multiset
   593     mult_less_not_refl ~> mset_le_not_refl
   594     mult_less_trans ~> mset_le_trans
   595     mult_less_not_sym ~> mset_le_not_sym
   596     mult_less_asym ~> mset_le_asym
   597     mult_less_irrefl ~> mset_le_irrefl
   598     union_less_mono2{,1,2} ~> union_le_mono2{,1,2}
   599 
   600     le_multiset\<^sub>H\<^sub>O ~> less_eq_multiset\<^sub>H\<^sub>O
   601     le_multiset_total ~> less_eq_multiset_total
   602     less_multiset_right_total ~> subset_eq_imp_le_multiset
   603     le_multiset_empty_left ~> less_eq_multiset_empty_left
   604     le_multiset_empty_right ~> less_eq_multiset_empty_right
   605     less_multiset_empty_right ~> le_multiset_empty_left
   606     less_multiset_empty_left ~> le_multiset_empty_right
   607     union_less_diff_plus ~> union_le_diff_plus
   608     ex_gt_count_imp_less_multiset ~> ex_gt_count_imp_le_multiset
   609     less_multiset_plus_left_nonempty ~> le_multiset_plus_left_nonempty
   610     le_multiset_plus_right_nonempty ~> le_multiset_plus_right_nonempty
   611 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   612 
   613 * HOL-Library: the lemma mset_map has now the attribute [simp].
   614 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   615 
   616 * HOL-Library: some theorems about multisets have been removed.
   617 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the following replacements:
   618 
   619     le_multiset_plus_plus_left_iff ~> add_less_cancel_right
   620     less_multiset_plus_plus_left_iff ~> add_less_cancel_right
   621     le_multiset_plus_plus_right_iff ~> add_less_cancel_left
   622     less_multiset_plus_plus_right_iff ~> add_less_cancel_left
   623     add_eq_self_empty_iff ~> add_cancel_left_right
   624     mset_subset_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
   625     mset_less_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
   626     mset_le_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
   627     empty_inter ~> subset_mset.inf_bot_left
   628     inter_empty ~> subset_mset.inf_bot_right
   629     empty_sup ~> subset_mset.sup_bot_left
   630     sup_empty ~> subset_mset.sup_bot_right
   631     bdd_below_multiset ~> subset_mset.bdd_above_bot
   632     subset_eq_empty ~> subset_mset.le_zero_eq
   633     le_empty ~> subset_mset.le_zero_eq
   634     mset_subset_empty_nonempty ~> subset_mset.zero_less_iff_neq_zero
   635     mset_less_empty_nonempty ~> subset_mset.zero_less_iff_neq_zero
   636 
   637 * HOL-Library: some typeclass constraints about multisets have been
   638 reduced from ordered or linordered to preorder. Multisets have the
   639 additional typeclasses order_bot, no_top,
   640 ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le, ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_add,
   641 linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add, and
   642 ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   643 
   644 * HOL-Library: there are some new simplification rules about multisets,
   645 the multiset ordering, and the subset ordering on multisets.
   646 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   647 
   648 * HOL-Library: the subset ordering on multisets has now the
   649 interpretations ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le and
   650 bounded_lattice_bot. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   651 
   652 * HOL-Library/Multiset: single has been removed in favor of add_mset
   653 that roughly corresponds to Set.insert. Some theorems have removed or
   654 changed:
   655 
   656   single_not_empty ~> add_mset_not_empty or empty_not_add_mset
   657   fold_mset_insert ~> fold_mset_add_mset
   658   image_mset_insert ~> image_mset_add_mset
   659   union_single_eq_diff
   660   multi_self_add_other_not_self
   661   diff_single_eq_union
   662 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   663 
   664 * HOL-Library/Multiset: some theorems have been changed to use add_mset
   665 instead of single:
   666 
   667   mset_add
   668   multi_self_add_other_not_self
   669   diff_single_eq_union
   670   union_single_eq_diff
   671   union_single_eq_member
   672   add_eq_conv_diff
   673   insert_noteq_member
   674   add_eq_conv_ex
   675   multi_member_split
   676   multiset_add_sub_el_shuffle
   677   mset_subset_eq_insertD
   678   mset_subset_insertD
   679   insert_subset_eq_iff
   680   insert_union_subset_iff
   681   multi_psub_of_add_self
   682   inter_add_left1
   683   inter_add_left2
   684   inter_add_right1
   685   inter_add_right2
   686   sup_union_left1
   687   sup_union_left2
   688   sup_union_right1
   689   sup_union_right2
   690   size_eq_Suc_imp_eq_union
   691   multi_nonempty_split
   692   mset_insort
   693   mset_update
   694   mult1I
   695   less_add
   696   mset_zip_take_Cons_drop_twice
   697   rel_mset_Zero
   698   msed_map_invL
   699   msed_map_invR
   700   msed_rel_invL
   701   msed_rel_invR
   702   le_multiset_right_total
   703   multiset_induct
   704   multiset_induct2_size
   705   multiset_induct2
   706 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   707 
   708 * HOL-Library/Multiset. The definitions of some constants have changed
   709 to use add_mset instead of adding a single element:
   710   image_mset
   711   mset
   712   replicate_mset
   713   mult1
   714   pred_mset
   715   rel_mset'
   716   mset_insort
   717 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   718 
   719 * HOL-Library/Multiset. Due to the above changes, the attributes of some
   720 multiset theorems have been changed:
   721   insert_DiffM  [] ~> [simp]
   722   insert_DiffM2 [simp] ~> []
   723   diff_add_mset_swap [simp]
   724   fold_mset_add_mset [simp]
   725   diff_diff_add [simp] (for multisets only)
   726   diff_cancel [simp] ~> []
   727   count_single [simp] ~> []
   728   set_mset_single [simp] ~> []
   729   size_multiset_single [simp] ~> []
   730   size_single [simp] ~> []
   731   image_mset_single [simp] ~> []
   732   mset_subset_eq_mono_add_right_cancel [simp] ~> []
   733   mset_subset_eq_mono_add_left_cancel [simp] ~> []
   734   fold_mset_single [simp] ~> []
   735   subset_eq_empty [simp] ~> []
   736   empty_sup [simp] ~> []
   737   sup_empty [simp] ~> []
   738   inter_empty [simp] ~> []
   739   empty_inter [simp] ~> []
   740 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   741 
   742 * HOL-Library/Multiset. The order of the variables in the second cases
   743 of multiset_induct, multiset_induct2_size, multiset_induct2 has been
   744 changed (e.g. Add A a ~> Add a A). INCOMPATIBILITY.
   745 
   746 * HOL-Library/Multiset. There is now a simplification procedure on
   747 multisets. It mimics the behavior of the procedure on natural numbers.
   748 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   749 
   750 * HOL-Library/Multiset. Renamed sums and products of multisets:
   751   msetsum ~> sum_mset
   752   msetprod ~> prod_mset
   753 
   754 * HOL-Library/Multiset. The notation for intersection and union of
   755 multisets have been changed:
   756   #\<inter> ~> \<inter>#
   757   #\<union> ~> \<union>#
   758 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   759 
   760 * HOL-Library/Multiset. The lemma one_step_implies_mult_aux on multisets
   761 has been removed, use one_step_implies_mult instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   762 
   763 * The following theorems have been renamed:
   764   setsum_left_distrib ~> setsum_distrib_right
   765   setsum_right_distrib ~> setsum_distrib_left
   766 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   767 
   768 * Compound constants INFIMUM and SUPREMUM are mere abbreviations now.
   769 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   770 
   771 * "Gcd (f ` A)" and "Lcm (f ` A)" are printed with optional
   772 comprehension-like syntax analogously to "Inf (f ` A)" and "Sup (f ` A)".
   773 
   774 * Class semiring_Lcd merged into semiring_Gcd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   775 
   776 * The type class ordered_comm_monoid_add is now called
   777 ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_add. A new type class ordered_comm_monoid_add
   778 is introduced as the combination of ordered_ab_semigroup_add +
   779 comm_monoid_add. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   780 
   781 * Introduced the type classes canonically_ordered_comm_monoid_add and
   782 dioid.
   783 
   784 * Introduced the type class ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le. When
   785 instantiating linordered_semiring_strict and ordered_ab_group_add, an
   786 explicit instantiation of ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le might
   787 be required. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   788 
   789 * HOL-Library: theory Complete_Partial_Order2 provides reasoning support
   790 for monotonicity and continuity in chain-complete partial orders and
   791 about admissibility conditions for fixpoint inductions.
   792 
   793 * HOL-Library: theory Polynomial contains also derivation of polynomials
   794 but not gcd/lcm on polynomials over fields. This has been moved to a
   795 separate theory Library/Polynomial_GCD_euclidean.thy, to pave way for a
   796 possible future different type class instantiation for polynomials over
   797 factorial rings. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   798 
   799 * HOL-Library: theory Sublist.thy provides function "prefixes" with the
   800 following renaming
   801 
   802   prefixeq -> prefix
   803   prefix -> strict_prefix
   804   suffixeq -> suffix
   805   suffix -> strict_suffix
   806 
   807 Added theory of longest common prefixes.
   808 
   809 * Dropped various legacy fact bindings, whose replacements are often
   810 of a more general type also:
   811   lcm_left_commute_nat ~> lcm.left_commute
   812   lcm_left_commute_int ~> lcm.left_commute
   813   gcd_left_commute_nat ~> gcd.left_commute
   814   gcd_left_commute_int ~> gcd.left_commute
   815   gcd_greatest_iff_nat ~> gcd_greatest_iff
   816   gcd_greatest_iff_int ~> gcd_greatest_iff
   817   coprime_dvd_mult_nat ~> coprime_dvd_mult
   818   coprime_dvd_mult_int ~> coprime_dvd_mult
   819   zpower_numeral_even ~> power_numeral_even
   820   gcd_mult_cancel_nat ~> gcd_mult_cancel
   821   gcd_mult_cancel_int ~> gcd_mult_cancel
   822   div_gcd_coprime_nat ~> div_gcd_coprime
   823   div_gcd_coprime_int ~> div_gcd_coprime
   824   zpower_numeral_odd ~> power_numeral_odd
   825   zero_less_int_conv ~> of_nat_0_less_iff
   826   gcd_greatest_nat ~> gcd_greatest
   827   gcd_greatest_int ~> gcd_greatest
   828   coprime_mult_nat ~> coprime_mult
   829   coprime_mult_int ~> coprime_mult
   830   lcm_commute_nat ~> lcm.commute
   831   lcm_commute_int ~> lcm.commute
   832   int_less_0_conv ~> of_nat_less_0_iff
   833   gcd_commute_nat ~> gcd.commute
   834   gcd_commute_int ~> gcd.commute
   835   Gcd_insert_nat ~> Gcd_insert
   836   Gcd_insert_int ~> Gcd_insert
   837   of_int_int_eq ~> of_int_of_nat_eq
   838   lcm_least_nat ~> lcm_least
   839   lcm_least_int ~> lcm_least
   840   lcm_assoc_nat ~> lcm.assoc
   841   lcm_assoc_int ~> lcm.assoc
   842   int_le_0_conv ~> of_nat_le_0_iff
   843   int_eq_0_conv ~> of_nat_eq_0_iff
   844   Gcd_empty_nat ~> Gcd_empty
   845   Gcd_empty_int ~> Gcd_empty
   846   gcd_assoc_nat ~> gcd.assoc
   847   gcd_assoc_int ~> gcd.assoc
   848   zero_zle_int ~> of_nat_0_le_iff
   849   lcm_dvd2_nat ~> dvd_lcm2
   850   lcm_dvd2_int ~> dvd_lcm2
   851   lcm_dvd1_nat ~> dvd_lcm1
   852   lcm_dvd1_int ~> dvd_lcm1
   853   gcd_zero_nat ~> gcd_eq_0_iff
   854   gcd_zero_int ~> gcd_eq_0_iff
   855   gcd_dvd2_nat ~> gcd_dvd2
   856   gcd_dvd2_int ~> gcd_dvd2
   857   gcd_dvd1_nat ~> gcd_dvd1
   858   gcd_dvd1_int ~> gcd_dvd1
   859   int_numeral ~> of_nat_numeral
   860   lcm_ac_nat ~> ac_simps
   861   lcm_ac_int ~> ac_simps
   862   gcd_ac_nat ~> ac_simps
   863   gcd_ac_int ~> ac_simps
   864   abs_int_eq ~> abs_of_nat
   865   zless_int ~> of_nat_less_iff
   866   zdiff_int ~> of_nat_diff
   867   zadd_int ~> of_nat_add
   868   int_mult ~> of_nat_mult
   869   int_Suc ~> of_nat_Suc
   870   inj_int ~> inj_of_nat
   871   int_1 ~> of_nat_1
   872   int_0 ~> of_nat_0
   873   Lcm_empty_nat ~> Lcm_empty
   874   Lcm_empty_int ~> Lcm_empty
   875   Lcm_insert_nat ~> Lcm_insert
   876   Lcm_insert_int ~> Lcm_insert
   877   comp_fun_idem_gcd_nat ~> comp_fun_idem_gcd
   878   comp_fun_idem_gcd_int ~> comp_fun_idem_gcd
   879   comp_fun_idem_lcm_nat ~> comp_fun_idem_lcm
   880   comp_fun_idem_lcm_int ~> comp_fun_idem_lcm
   881   Lcm_eq_0 ~> Lcm_eq_0_I
   882   Lcm0_iff ~> Lcm_0_iff
   883   Lcm_dvd_int ~> Lcm_least
   884   divides_mult_nat ~> divides_mult
   885   divides_mult_int ~> divides_mult
   886   lcm_0_nat ~> lcm_0_right
   887   lcm_0_int ~> lcm_0_right
   888   lcm_0_left_nat ~> lcm_0_left
   889   lcm_0_left_int ~> lcm_0_left
   890   dvd_gcd_D1_nat ~> dvd_gcdD1
   891   dvd_gcd_D1_int ~> dvd_gcdD1
   892   dvd_gcd_D2_nat ~> dvd_gcdD2
   893   dvd_gcd_D2_int ~> dvd_gcdD2
   894   coprime_dvd_mult_iff_nat ~> coprime_dvd_mult_iff
   895   coprime_dvd_mult_iff_int ~> coprime_dvd_mult_iff
   896   realpow_minus_mult ~> power_minus_mult
   897   realpow_Suc_le_self ~> power_Suc_le_self
   898   dvd_Gcd, dvd_Gcd_nat, dvd_Gcd_int removed in favour of Gcd_greatest
   899 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   900 
   901 * Renamed HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy to
   902 HOL/Quotient_Examples/Quotient_FSet.thy INCOMPATIBILITY.
   903 
   904 
   905 *** ML ***
   906 
   907 * ML antiquotation @{path} is superseded by @{file}, which ensures that
   908 the argument is a plain file. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   909 
   910 * Integer.gcd and Integer.lcm use efficient operations from the Poly/ML
   911 library (notably for big integers). Subtle change of semantics:
   912 Integer.gcd and Integer.lcm both normalize the sign, results are never
   913 negative. This coincides with the definitions in HOL/GCD.thy.
   914 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   915 
   916 * Structure Rat for rational numbers is now an integral part of
   917 Isabelle/ML, with special notation @int/nat or @int for numerals (an
   918 abbreviation for antiquotation @{Pure.rat argument}) and ML pretty
   919 printing. Standard operations on type Rat.rat are provided via ad-hoc
   920 overloading of + - * / < <= > >= ~ abs. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   921 use + instead of +/ etc. Moreover, exception Rat.DIVZERO has been
   922 superseded by General.Div.
   923 
   924 * The ML function "ML" provides easy access to run-time compilation.
   925 This is particularly useful for conditional compilation, without
   926 requiring separate files.
   927 
   928 * Low-level ML system structures (like PolyML and RunCall) are no longer
   929 exposed to Isabelle/ML user-space. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   930 
   931 * Antiquotation @{make_string} is available during Pure bootstrap --
   932 with approximative output quality.
   933 
   934 * Option ML_exception_debugger controls detailed exception trace via the
   935 Poly/ML debugger. Relevant ML modules need to be compiled beforehand
   936 with ML_file_debug, or with ML_file and option ML_debugger enabled. Note
   937 debugger information requires consirable time and space: main
   938 Isabelle/HOL with full debugger support may need ML_system_64.
   939 
   940 * Local_Theory.restore has been renamed to Local_Theory.reset to
   941 emphasize its disruptive impact on the cumulative context, notably the
   942 scope of 'private' or 'qualified' names. Note that Local_Theory.reset is
   943 only appropriate when targets are managed, e.g. starting from a global
   944 theory and returning to it. Regular definitional packages should use
   945 balanced blocks of Local_Theory.open_target versus
   946 Local_Theory.close_target instead. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   947 
   948 * Structure TimeLimit (originally from the SML/NJ library) has been
   949 replaced by structure Timeout, with slightly different signature.
   950 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   951 
   952 * Discontinued cd and pwd operations, which are not well-defined in a
   953 multi-threaded environment. Note that files are usually located
   954 relatively to the master directory of a theory (see also
   955 File.full_path). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   956 
   957 * Binding.empty_atts supersedes Thm.empty_binding and
   958 Attrib.empty_binding. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   959 
   960 
   961 *** System ***
   962 
   963 * Many Isabelle tools that require a Java runtime system refer to the
   964 settings ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS32 / ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS64,
   965 depending on the underlying platform. The settings for "isabelle build"
   966 ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS32 / ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS64 have been
   967 discontinued. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   968 
   969 * The Isabelle system environment always ensures that the main
   970 executables are found within the shell search $PATH: "isabelle" and
   971 "isabelle_scala_script".
   972 
   973 * Isabelle tools may consist of .scala files: the Scala compiler is
   974 invoked on the spot. The source needs to define some object that extends
   975 Isabelle_Tool.Body.
   976 
   977 * The Isabelle ML process is now managed directly by Isabelle/Scala, and
   978 shell scripts merely provide optional command-line access. In
   979 particular:
   980 
   981   . Scala module ML_Process to connect to the raw ML process,
   982     with interaction via stdin/stdout/stderr or in batch mode;
   983   . command-line tool "isabelle console" as interactive wrapper;
   984   . command-line tool "isabelle process" as batch mode wrapper.
   985 
   986 * The executable "isabelle_process" has been discontinued. Tools and
   987 prover front-ends should use ML_Process or Isabelle_Process in
   988 Isabelle/Scala. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   989 
   990 * New command-line tool "isabelle process" supports ML evaluation of
   991 literal expressions (option -e) or files (option -f) in the context of a
   992 given heap image. Errors lead to premature exit of the ML process with
   993 return code 1.
   994 
   995 * The system option "threads" (for the size of the Isabelle/ML thread
   996 farm) is also passed to the underlying ML runtime system as --gcthreads,
   997 unless there is already a default provided via ML_OPTIONS settings.
   998 
   999 * Command-line tool "isabelle console" provides option -r to help to
  1000 bootstrapping Isabelle/Pure interactively.
  1001 
  1002 * Command-line tool "isabelle yxml" has been discontinued.
  1003 INCOMPATIBILITY, use operations from the modules "XML" and "YXML" in
  1004 Isabelle/ML or Isabelle/Scala.
  1005 
  1006 * File.bash_string, File.bash_path etc. represent Isabelle/ML and
  1007 Isabelle/Scala strings authentically within GNU bash. This is useful to
  1008 produce robust shell scripts under program control, without worrying
  1009 about spaces or special characters. Note that user output works via
  1010 Path.print (ML) or Path.toString (Scala). INCOMPATIBILITY, the old (and
  1011 less versatile) operations File.shell_quote, File.shell_path etc. have
  1012 been discontinued.
  1013 
  1014 * SML/NJ and old versions of Poly/ML are no longer supported.
  1015 
  1016 * Poly/ML heaps now follow the hierarchy of sessions, and thus require
  1017 much less disk space.
  1018 
  1019 * System option "checkpoint" helps to fine-tune the global heap space
  1020 management of isabelle build. This is relevant for big sessions that may
  1021 exhaust the small 32-bit address space of the ML process (which is used
  1022 by default).
  1023 
  1024 * System option "ML_process_policy" specifies an optional command prefix
  1025 for the underlying ML process, e.g. to control CPU affinity on
  1026 multiprocessor systems. The "isabelle jedit" tool allows to override the
  1027 implicit default via option -p.
  1028 
  1029 * The isabelle_java executable allows to run a Java process within the
  1030 name space of Java and Scala components that are bundled with Isabelle,
  1031 but without the Isabelle settings environment.
  1032 
  1033 * The command-line tool "isabelle build" supports option -N for cyclic
  1034 shuffling of NUMA CPU nodes. This may help performance tuning on Linux
  1035 servers with separate CPU/memory modules.
  1036 
  1037 
  1038 
  1039 New in Isabelle2016 (February 2016)
  1040 -----------------------------------
  1041 
  1042 *** General ***
  1043 
  1044 * Eisbach is now based on Pure instead of HOL. Objects-logics may import
  1045 either the theory ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/Eisbach (for HOL etc.) or
  1046 ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/Eisbach_Old_Appl_Syntax (for FOL, ZF etc.). Note that
  1047 the HOL-Eisbach session located in ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/ contains further
  1048 examples that do require HOL.
  1049 
  1050 * Better resource usage on all platforms (Linux, Windows, Mac OS X) for
  1051 both Isabelle/ML and Isabelle/Scala.  Slightly reduced heap space usage.
  1052 
  1053 * Former "xsymbols" syntax with Isabelle symbols is used by default,
  1054 without any special print mode. Important ASCII replacement syntax
  1055 remains available under print mode "ASCII", but less important syntax
  1056 has been removed (see below).
  1057 
  1058 * Support for more arrow symbols, with rendering in LaTeX and Isabelle
  1059 fonts: \<Lleftarrow> \<Rrightarrow> \<longlongleftarrow> \<longlongrightarrow> \<longlonglongleftarrow> \<longlonglongrightarrow>.
  1060 
  1061 * Special notation \<struct> for the first implicit 'structure' in the
  1062 context has been discontinued. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit
  1063 structure name instead, notably in indexed notation with block-subscript
  1064 (e.g. \<odot>\<^bsub>A\<^esub>).
  1065 
  1066 * The glyph for \<diamond> in the IsabelleText font now corresponds better to its
  1067 counterpart \<box> as quantifier-like symbol. A small diamond is available as
  1068 \<diamondop>; the old symbol \<struct> loses this rendering and any special
  1069 meaning.
  1070 
  1071 * Syntax for formal comments "-- text" now also supports the symbolic
  1072 form "\<comment> text". Command-line tool "isabelle update_cartouches -c" helps
  1073 to update old sources.
  1074 
  1075 * Toplevel theorem statements have been simplified as follows:
  1076 
  1077   theorems             ~>  lemmas
  1078   schematic_lemma      ~>  schematic_goal
  1079   schematic_theorem    ~>  schematic_goal
  1080   schematic_corollary  ~>  schematic_goal
  1081 
  1082 Command-line tool "isabelle update_theorems" updates theory sources
  1083 accordingly.
  1084 
  1085 * Toplevel theorem statement 'proposition' is another alias for
  1086 'theorem'.
  1087 
  1088 * The old 'defs' command has been removed (legacy since Isabelle2014).
  1089 INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular 'definition' instead. Overloaded and/or
  1090 deferred definitions require a surrounding 'overloading' block.
  1091 
  1092 
  1093 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1094 
  1095 * IDE support for the source-level debugger of Poly/ML, to work with
  1096 Isabelle/ML and official Standard ML. Option "ML_debugger" and commands
  1097 'ML_file_debug', 'ML_file_no_debug', 'SML_file_debug',
  1098 'SML_file_no_debug' control compilation of sources with or without
  1099 debugging information. The Debugger panel allows to set breakpoints (via
  1100 context menu), step through stopped threads, evaluate local ML
  1101 expressions etc. At least one Debugger view needs to be active to have
  1102 any effect on the running ML program.
  1103 
  1104 * The State panel manages explicit proof state output, with dynamic
  1105 auto-update according to cursor movement. Alternatively, the jEdit
  1106 action "isabelle.update-state" (shortcut S+ENTER) triggers manual
  1107 update.
  1108 
  1109 * The Output panel no longer shows proof state output by default, to
  1110 avoid GUI overcrowding. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the State panel instead or
  1111 enable option "editor_output_state".
  1112 
  1113 * The text overview column (status of errors, warnings etc.) is updated
  1114 asynchronously, leading to much better editor reactivity. Moreover, the
  1115 full document node content is taken into account. The width of the
  1116 column is scaled according to the main text area font, for improved
  1117 visibility.
  1118 
  1119 * The main text area no longer changes its color hue in outdated
  1120 situations. The text overview column takes over the role to indicate
  1121 unfinished edits in the PIDE pipeline. This avoids flashing text display
  1122 due to ad-hoc updates by auxiliary GUI components, such as the State
  1123 panel.
  1124 
  1125 * Slightly improved scheduling for urgent print tasks (e.g. command
  1126 state output, interactive queries) wrt. long-running background tasks.
  1127 
  1128 * Completion of symbols via prefix of \<name> or \<^name> or \name is
  1129 always possible, independently of the language context. It is never
  1130 implicit: a popup will show up unconditionally.
  1131 
  1132 * Additional abbreviations for syntactic completion may be specified in
  1133 $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/abbrevs and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs, with
  1134 support for simple templates using ASCII 007 (bell) as placeholder.
  1135 
  1136 * Symbols \<oplus>, \<Oplus>, \<otimes>, \<Otimes>, \<odot>, \<Odot>, \<ominus>, \<oslash> no longer provide abbreviations for
  1137 completion like "+o", "*o", ".o" etc. -- due to conflicts with other
  1138 ASCII syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain backslash-completion or define
  1139 suitable abbreviations in $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs.
  1140 
  1141 * Action "isabelle-emph" (with keyboard shortcut C+e LEFT) controls
  1142 emphasized text style; the effect is visible in document output, not in
  1143 the editor.
  1144 
  1145 * Action "isabelle-reset" now uses keyboard shortcut C+e BACK_SPACE,
  1146 instead of former C+e LEFT.
  1147 
  1148 * The command-line tool "isabelle jedit" and the isabelle.Main
  1149 application wrapper treat the default $USER_HOME/Scratch.thy more
  1150 uniformly, and allow the dummy file argument ":" to open an empty buffer
  1151 instead.
  1152 
  1153 * New command-line tool "isabelle jedit_client" allows to connect to an
  1154 already running Isabelle/jEdit process. This achieves the effect of
  1155 single-instance applications seen on common GUI desktops.
  1156 
  1157 * The default look-and-feel for Linux is the traditional "Metal", which
  1158 works better with GUI scaling for very high-resolution displays (e.g.
  1159 4K). Moreover, it is generally more robust than "Nimbus".
  1160 
  1161 * Update to jedit-5.3.0, with improved GUI scaling and support of
  1162 high-resolution displays (e.g. 4K).
  1163 
  1164 * The main Isabelle executable is managed as single-instance Desktop
  1165 application uniformly on all platforms: Linux, Windows, Mac OS X.
  1166 
  1167 
  1168 *** Document preparation ***
  1169 
  1170 * Commands 'paragraph' and 'subparagraph' provide additional section
  1171 headings. Thus there are 6 levels of standard headings, as in HTML.
  1172 
  1173 * Command 'text_raw' has been clarified: input text is processed as in
  1174 'text' (with antiquotations and control symbols). The key difference is
  1175 the lack of the surrounding isabelle markup environment in output.
  1176 
  1177 * Text is structured in paragraphs and nested lists, using notation that
  1178 is similar to Markdown. The control symbols for list items are as
  1179 follows:
  1180 
  1181   \<^item>  itemize
  1182   \<^enum>  enumerate
  1183   \<^descr>  description
  1184 
  1185 * There is a new short form for antiquotations with a single argument
  1186 that is a cartouche: \<^name>\<open>...\<close> is equivalent to @{name \<open>...\<close>} and
  1187 \<open>...\<close> without control symbol is equivalent to @{cartouche \<open>...\<close>}.
  1188 \<^name> without following cartouche is equivalent to @{name}. The
  1189 standard Isabelle fonts provide glyphs to render important control
  1190 symbols, e.g. "\<^verbatim>", "\<^emph>", "\<^bold>".
  1191 
  1192 * Antiquotations @{noindent}, @{smallskip}, @{medskip}, @{bigskip} with
  1193 corresponding control symbols \<^noindent>, \<^smallskip>, \<^medskip>, \<^bigskip> specify spacing formally, using
  1194 standard LaTeX macros of the same names.
  1195 
  1196 * Antiquotation @{cartouche} in Isabelle/Pure is the same as @{text}.
  1197 Consequently, \<open>...\<close> without any decoration prints literal quasi-formal
  1198 text. Command-line tool "isabelle update_cartouches -t" helps to update
  1199 old sources, by approximative patching of the content of string and
  1200 cartouche tokens seen in theory sources.
  1201 
  1202 * The @{text} antiquotation now ignores the antiquotation option
  1203 "source". The given text content is output unconditionally, without any
  1204 surrounding quotes etc. Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, put quotes into the
  1205 argument where they are really intended, e.g. @{text \<open>"foo"\<close>}. Initial
  1206 or terminal spaces are ignored.
  1207 
  1208 * Antiquotations @{emph} and @{bold} output LaTeX source recursively,
  1209 adding appropriate text style markup. These may be used in the short
  1210 form \<^emph>\<open>...\<close> and \<^bold>\<open>...\<close>.
  1211 
  1212 * Document antiquotation @{footnote} outputs LaTeX source recursively,
  1213 marked as \footnote{}. This may be used in the short form \<^footnote>\<open>...\<close>.
  1214 
  1215 * Antiquotation @{verbatim [display]} supports option "indent".
  1216 
  1217 * Antiquotation @{theory_text} prints uninterpreted theory source text
  1218 (Isar outer syntax with command keywords etc.). This may be used in the
  1219 short form \<^theory_text>\<open>...\<close>. @{theory_text [display]} supports option "indent".
  1220 
  1221 * Antiquotation @{doc ENTRY} provides a reference to the given
  1222 documentation, with a hyperlink in the Prover IDE.
  1223 
  1224 * Antiquotations @{command}, @{method}, @{attribute} print checked
  1225 entities of the Isar language.
  1226 
  1227 * HTML presentation uses the standard IsabelleText font and Unicode
  1228 rendering of Isabelle symbols like Isabelle/Scala/jEdit.  The former
  1229 print mode "HTML" loses its special meaning.
  1230 
  1231 
  1232 *** Isar ***
  1233 
  1234 * Local goals ('have', 'show', 'hence', 'thus') allow structured rule
  1235 statements like fixes/assumes/shows in theorem specifications, but the
  1236 notation is postfix with keywords 'if' (or 'when') and 'for'. For
  1237 example:
  1238 
  1239   have result: "C x y"
  1240     if "A x" and "B y"
  1241     for x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  1242     <proof>
  1243 
  1244 The local assumptions are bound to the name "that". The result is
  1245 exported from context of the statement as usual. The above roughly
  1246 corresponds to a raw proof block like this:
  1247 
  1248   {
  1249     fix x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  1250     assume that: "A x" "B y"
  1251     have "C x y" <proof>
  1252   }
  1253   note result = this
  1254 
  1255 The keyword 'when' may be used instead of 'if', to indicate 'presume'
  1256 instead of 'assume' above.
  1257 
  1258 * Assumptions ('assume', 'presume') allow structured rule statements
  1259 using 'if' and 'for', similar to 'have' etc. above. For example:
  1260 
  1261   assume result: "C x y"
  1262     if "A x" and "B y"
  1263     for x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  1264 
  1265 This assumes "\<And>x y::'a. A x \<Longrightarrow> B y \<Longrightarrow> C x y" and produces a general
  1266 result as usual: "A ?x \<Longrightarrow> B ?y \<Longrightarrow> C ?x ?y".
  1267 
  1268 Vacuous quantification in assumptions is omitted, i.e. a for-context
  1269 only effects propositions according to actual use of variables. For
  1270 example:
  1271 
  1272   assume "A x" and "B y" for x and y
  1273 
  1274 is equivalent to:
  1275 
  1276   assume "\<And>x. A x" and "\<And>y. B y"
  1277 
  1278 * The meaning of 'show' with Pure rule statements has changed: premises
  1279 are treated in the sense of 'assume', instead of 'presume'. This means,
  1280 a goal like "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x" can be solved completely as
  1281 follows:
  1282 
  1283   show "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  1284 
  1285 or:
  1286 
  1287   show "C x" if "A x" "B x" for x
  1288 
  1289 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, the old behaviour may be recovered as follows:
  1290 
  1291   show "C x" when "A x" "B x" for x
  1292 
  1293 * New command 'consider' states rules for generalized elimination and
  1294 case splitting. This is like a toplevel statement "theorem obtains" used
  1295 within a proof body; or like a multi-branch 'obtain' without activation
  1296 of the local context elements yet.
  1297 
  1298 * Proof method "cases" allows to specify the rule as first entry of
  1299 chained facts.  This is particularly useful with 'consider':
  1300 
  1301   consider (a) A | (b) B | (c) C <proof>
  1302   then have something
  1303   proof cases
  1304     case a
  1305     then show ?thesis <proof>
  1306   next
  1307     case b
  1308     then show ?thesis <proof>
  1309   next
  1310     case c
  1311     then show ?thesis <proof>
  1312   qed
  1313 
  1314 * Command 'case' allows fact name and attribute specification like this:
  1315 
  1316   case a: (c xs)
  1317   case a [attributes]: (c xs)
  1318 
  1319 Facts that are introduced by invoking the case context are uniformly
  1320 qualified by "a"; the same name is used for the cumulative fact. The old
  1321 form "case (c xs) [attributes]" is no longer supported. Rare
  1322 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt uses of case facts in exotic situations,
  1323 and always put attributes in front.
  1324 
  1325 * The standard proof method of commands 'proof' and '..' is now called
  1326 "standard" to make semantically clear what it is; the old name "default"
  1327 is still available as legacy for some time. Documentation now explains
  1328 '..' more accurately as "by standard" instead of "by rule".
  1329 
  1330 * Nesting of Isar goal structure has been clarified: the context after
  1331 the initial backwards refinement is retained for the whole proof, within
  1332 all its context sections (as indicated via 'next'). This is e.g.
  1333 relevant for 'using', 'including', 'supply':
  1334 
  1335   have "A \<and> A" if a: A for A
  1336     supply [simp] = a
  1337   proof
  1338     show A by simp
  1339   next
  1340     show A by simp
  1341   qed
  1342 
  1343 * Command 'obtain' binds term abbreviations (via 'is' patterns) in the
  1344 proof body as well, abstracted over relevant parameters.
  1345 
  1346 * Improved type-inference for theorem statement 'obtains': separate
  1347 parameter scope for of each clause.
  1348 
  1349 * Term abbreviations via 'is' patterns also work for schematic
  1350 statements: result is abstracted over unknowns.
  1351 
  1352 * Command 'subgoal' allows to impose some structure on backward
  1353 refinements, to avoid proof scripts degenerating into long of 'apply'
  1354 sequences. Further explanations and examples are given in the isar-ref
  1355 manual.
  1356 
  1357 * Command 'supply' supports fact definitions during goal refinement
  1358 ('apply' scripts).
  1359 
  1360 * Proof method "goal_cases" turns the current subgoals into cases within
  1361 the context; the conclusion is bound to variable ?case in each case. For
  1362 example:
  1363 
  1364 lemma "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  1365   and "\<And>y z. U y \<Longrightarrow> V z \<Longrightarrow> W y z"
  1366 proof goal_cases
  1367   case (1 x)
  1368   then show ?case using \<open>A x\<close> \<open>B x\<close> sorry
  1369 next
  1370   case (2 y z)
  1371   then show ?case using \<open>U y\<close> \<open>V z\<close> sorry
  1372 qed
  1373 
  1374 lemma "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  1375   and "\<And>y z. U y \<Longrightarrow> V z \<Longrightarrow> W y z"
  1376 proof goal_cases
  1377   case prems: 1
  1378   then show ?case using prems sorry
  1379 next
  1380   case prems: 2
  1381   then show ?case using prems sorry
  1382 qed
  1383 
  1384 * The undocumented feature of implicit cases goal1, goal2, goal3, etc.
  1385 is marked as legacy, and will be removed eventually. The proof method
  1386 "goals" achieves a similar effect within regular Isar; often it can be
  1387 done more adequately by other means (e.g. 'consider').
  1388 
  1389 * The vacuous fact "TERM x" may be established "by fact" or as `TERM x`
  1390 as well, not just "by this" or "." as before.
  1391 
  1392 * Method "sleep" succeeds after a real-time delay (in seconds). This is
  1393 occasionally useful for demonstration and testing purposes.
  1394 
  1395 
  1396 *** Pure ***
  1397 
  1398 * Qualifiers in locale expressions default to mandatory ('!') regardless
  1399 of the command. Previously, for 'locale' and 'sublocale' the default was
  1400 optional ('?'). The old synatx '!' has been discontinued.
  1401 INCOMPATIBILITY, remove '!' and add '?' as required.
  1402 
  1403 * Keyword 'rewrites' identifies rewrite morphisms in interpretation
  1404 commands. Previously, the keyword was 'where'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1405 
  1406 * More gentle suppression of syntax along locale morphisms while
  1407 printing terms. Previously 'abbreviation' and 'notation' declarations
  1408 would be suppressed for morphisms except term identity. Now
  1409 'abbreviation' is also kept for morphims that only change the involved
  1410 parameters, and only 'notation' is suppressed. This can be of great help
  1411 when working with complex locale hierarchies, because proof states are
  1412 displayed much more succinctly. It also means that only notation needs
  1413 to be redeclared if desired, as illustrated by this example:
  1414 
  1415   locale struct = fixes composition :: "'a => 'a => 'a" (infixl "\<cdot>" 65)
  1416   begin
  1417     definition derived (infixl "\<odot>" 65) where ...
  1418   end
  1419 
  1420   locale morphism =
  1421     left: struct composition + right: struct composition'
  1422     for composition (infix "\<cdot>" 65) and composition' (infix "\<cdot>''" 65)
  1423   begin
  1424     notation right.derived ("\<odot>''")
  1425   end
  1426 
  1427 * Command 'global_interpretation' issues interpretations into global
  1428 theories, with optional rewrite definitions following keyword 'defines'.
  1429 
  1430 * Command 'sublocale' accepts optional rewrite definitions after keyword
  1431 'defines'.
  1432 
  1433 * Command 'permanent_interpretation' has been discontinued. Use
  1434 'global_interpretation' or 'sublocale' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1435 
  1436 * Command 'print_definitions' prints dependencies of definitional
  1437 specifications. This functionality used to be part of 'print_theory'.
  1438 
  1439 * Configuration option rule_insts_schematic has been discontinued
  1440 (intermediate legacy feature in Isabelle2015). INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1441 
  1442 * Abbreviations in type classes now carry proper sort constraint. Rare
  1443 INCOMPATIBILITY in situations where the previous misbehaviour has been
  1444 exploited.
  1445 
  1446 * Refinement of user-space type system in type classes: pseudo-local
  1447 operations behave more similar to abbreviations. Potential
  1448 INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
  1449 
  1450 
  1451 *** HOL ***
  1452 
  1453 * The 'typedef' command has been upgraded from a partially checked
  1454 "axiomatization", to a full definitional specification that takes the
  1455 global collection of overloaded constant / type definitions into
  1456 account. Type definitions with open dependencies on overloaded
  1457 definitions need to be specified as "typedef (overloaded)". This
  1458 provides extra robustness in theory construction. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1459 
  1460 * Qualification of various formal entities in the libraries is done more
  1461 uniformly via "context begin qualified definition ... end" instead of
  1462 old-style "hide_const (open) ...". Consequently, both the defined
  1463 constant and its defining fact become qualified, e.g. Option.is_none and
  1464 Option.is_none_def. Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY in applications.
  1465 
  1466 * Some old and rarely used ASCII replacement syntax has been removed.
  1467 INCOMPATIBILITY, standard syntax with symbols should be used instead.
  1468 The subsequent commands help to reproduce the old forms, e.g. to
  1469 simplify porting old theories:
  1470 
  1471   notation iff  (infixr "<->" 25)
  1472 
  1473   notation Times  (infixr "<*>" 80)
  1474 
  1475   type_notation Map.map  (infixr "~=>" 0)
  1476   notation Map.map_comp  (infixl "o'_m" 55)
  1477 
  1478   type_notation FinFun.finfun ("(_ =>f /_)" [22, 21] 21)
  1479 
  1480   notation FuncSet.funcset  (infixr "->" 60)
  1481   notation FuncSet.extensional_funcset  (infixr "->\<^sub>E" 60)
  1482 
  1483   notation Omega_Words_Fun.conc (infixr "conc" 65)
  1484 
  1485   notation Preorder.equiv ("op ~~")
  1486     and Preorder.equiv ("(_/ ~~ _)" [51, 51] 50)
  1487 
  1488   notation (in topological_space) tendsto (infixr "--->" 55)
  1489   notation (in topological_space) LIMSEQ ("((_)/ ----> (_))" [60, 60] 60)
  1490   notation LIM ("((_)/ -- (_)/ --> (_))" [60, 0, 60] 60)
  1491 
  1492   notation NSA.approx (infixl "@=" 50)
  1493   notation NSLIMSEQ ("((_)/ ----NS> (_))" [60, 60] 60)
  1494   notation NSLIM ("((_)/ -- (_)/ --NS> (_))" [60, 0, 60] 60)
  1495 
  1496 * The alternative notation "\<Colon>" for type and sort constraints has been
  1497 removed: in LaTeX document output it looks the same as "::".
  1498 INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain "::" instead.
  1499 
  1500 * Commands 'inductive' and 'inductive_set' work better when names for
  1501 intro rules are omitted: the "cases" and "induct" rules no longer
  1502 declare empty case_names, but no case_names at all. This allows to use
  1503 numbered cases in proofs, without requiring method "goal_cases".
  1504 
  1505 * Inductive definitions ('inductive', 'coinductive', etc.) expose
  1506 low-level facts of the internal construction only if the option
  1507 "inductive_internals" is enabled. This refers to the internal predicate
  1508 definition and its monotonicity result. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1509 
  1510 * Recursive function definitions ('fun', 'function', 'partial_function')
  1511 expose low-level facts of the internal construction only if the option
  1512 "function_internals" is enabled. Its internal inductive definition is
  1513 also subject to "inductive_internals". Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1514 
  1515 * BNF datatypes ('datatype', 'codatatype', etc.) expose low-level facts
  1516 of the internal construction only if the option "bnf_internals" is
  1517 enabled. This supersedes the former option "bnf_note_all". Rare
  1518 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1519 
  1520 * Combinator to represent case distinction on products is named
  1521 "case_prod", uniformly, discontinuing any input aliasses. Very popular
  1522 theorem aliasses have been retained.
  1523 
  1524 Consolidated facts:
  1525   PairE ~> prod.exhaust
  1526   Pair_eq ~> prod.inject
  1527   pair_collapse ~> prod.collapse
  1528   Pair_fst_snd_eq ~> prod_eq_iff
  1529   split_twice ~> prod.case_distrib
  1530   split_weak_cong ~> prod.case_cong_weak
  1531   split_split ~> prod.split
  1532   split_split_asm ~> prod.split_asm
  1533   splitI ~> case_prodI
  1534   splitD ~> case_prodD
  1535   splitI2 ~> case_prodI2
  1536   splitI2' ~> case_prodI2'
  1537   splitE ~> case_prodE
  1538   splitE' ~> case_prodE'
  1539   split_pair ~> case_prod_Pair
  1540   split_eta ~> case_prod_eta
  1541   split_comp ~> case_prod_comp
  1542   mem_splitI ~> mem_case_prodI
  1543   mem_splitI2 ~> mem_case_prodI2
  1544   mem_splitE ~> mem_case_prodE
  1545   The_split ~> The_case_prod
  1546   cond_split_eta ~> cond_case_prod_eta
  1547   Collect_split_in_rel_leE ~> Collect_case_prod_in_rel_leE
  1548   Collect_split_in_rel_leI ~> Collect_case_prod_in_rel_leI
  1549   in_rel_Collect_split_eq ~> in_rel_Collect_case_prod_eq
  1550   Collect_split_Grp_eqD ~> Collect_case_prod_Grp_eqD
  1551   Collect_split_Grp_inD ~> Collect_case_prod_Grp_in
  1552   Domain_Collect_split ~> Domain_Collect_case_prod
  1553   Image_Collect_split ~> Image_Collect_case_prod
  1554   Range_Collect_split ~> Range_Collect_case_prod
  1555   Eps_split ~> Eps_case_prod
  1556   Eps_split_eq ~> Eps_case_prod_eq
  1557   split_rsp ~> case_prod_rsp
  1558   curry_split ~> curry_case_prod
  1559   split_curry ~> case_prod_curry
  1560 
  1561 Changes in structure HOLogic:
  1562   split_const ~> case_prod_const
  1563   mk_split ~> mk_case_prod
  1564   mk_psplits ~> mk_ptupleabs
  1565   strip_psplits ~> strip_ptupleabs
  1566 
  1567 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1568 
  1569 * The coercions to type 'real' have been reorganised. The function
  1570 'real' is no longer overloaded, but has type 'nat => real' and
  1571 abbreviates of_nat for that type. Also 'real_of_int :: int => real'
  1572 abbreviates of_int for that type. Other overloaded instances of 'real'
  1573 have been replaced by 'real_of_ereal' and 'real_of_float'.
  1574 
  1575 Consolidated facts (among others):
  1576   real_of_nat_le_iff -> of_nat_le_iff
  1577   real_of_nat_numeral of_nat_numeral
  1578   real_of_int_zero of_int_0
  1579   real_of_nat_zero of_nat_0
  1580   real_of_one of_int_1
  1581   real_of_int_add of_int_add
  1582   real_of_nat_add of_nat_add
  1583   real_of_int_diff of_int_diff
  1584   real_of_nat_diff of_nat_diff
  1585   floor_subtract floor_diff_of_int
  1586   real_of_int_inject of_int_eq_iff
  1587   real_of_int_gt_zero_cancel_iff of_int_0_less_iff
  1588   real_of_int_ge_zero_cancel_iff of_int_0_le_iff
  1589   real_of_nat_ge_zero of_nat_0_le_iff
  1590   real_of_int_ceiling_ge le_of_int_ceiling
  1591   ceiling_less_eq ceiling_less_iff
  1592   ceiling_le_eq ceiling_le_iff
  1593   less_floor_eq less_floor_iff
  1594   floor_less_eq floor_less_iff
  1595   floor_divide_eq_div floor_divide_of_int_eq
  1596   real_of_int_zero_cancel of_nat_eq_0_iff
  1597   ceiling_real_of_int ceiling_of_int
  1598 
  1599 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1600 
  1601 * Theory Map: lemma map_of_is_SomeD was a clone of map_of_SomeD and has
  1602 been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1603 
  1604 * Quickcheck setup for finite sets.
  1605 
  1606 * Discontinued simp_legacy_precond. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1607 
  1608 * Sledgehammer:
  1609   - The MaSh relevance filter has been sped up.
  1610   - Proof reconstruction has been improved, to minimize the incidence of
  1611     cases where Sledgehammer gives a proof that does not work.
  1612   - Auto Sledgehammer now minimizes and preplays the results.
  1613   - Handle Vampire 4.0 proof output without raising exception.
  1614   - Eliminated "MASH" environment variable. Use the "MaSh" option in
  1615     Isabelle/jEdit instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1616   - Eliminated obsolete "blocking" option and related subcommands.
  1617 
  1618 * Nitpick:
  1619   - Fixed soundness bug in translation of "finite" predicate.
  1620   - Fixed soundness bug in "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  1621   - Fixed soundness bug in translation of "rat" type.
  1622   - Removed "check_potential" and "check_genuine" options.
  1623   - Eliminated obsolete "blocking" option.
  1624 
  1625 * (Co)datatype package:
  1626   - New commands "lift_bnf" and "copy_bnf" for lifting (copying) a BNF
  1627     structure on the raw type to an abstract type defined using typedef.
  1628   - Always generate "case_transfer" theorem.
  1629   - For mutual types, generate slightly stronger "rel_induct",
  1630     "rel_coinduct", and "coinduct" theorems. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1631   - Allow discriminators and selectors with the same name as the type
  1632     being defined.
  1633   - Avoid various internal name clashes (e.g., 'datatype f = f').
  1634 
  1635 * Transfer: new methods for interactive debugging of 'transfer' and
  1636 'transfer_prover': 'transfer_start', 'transfer_step', 'transfer_end',
  1637 'transfer_prover_start' and 'transfer_prover_end'.
  1638 
  1639 * New diagnostic command print_record for displaying record definitions.
  1640 
  1641 * Division on integers is bootstrapped directly from division on
  1642 naturals and uses generic numeral algorithm for computations. Slight
  1643 INCOMPATIBILITY, simproc numeral_divmod replaces and generalizes former
  1644 simprocs binary_int_div and binary_int_mod
  1645 
  1646 * Tightened specification of class semiring_no_zero_divisors. Minor
  1647 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1648 
  1649 * Class algebraic_semidom introduces common algebraic notions of
  1650 integral (semi)domains, particularly units. Although logically subsumed
  1651 by fields, is is not a super class of these in order not to burden
  1652 fields with notions that are trivial there.
  1653 
  1654 * Class normalization_semidom specifies canonical representants for
  1655 equivalence classes of associated elements in an integral (semi)domain.
  1656 This formalizes associated elements as well.
  1657 
  1658 * Abstract specification of gcd/lcm operations in classes semiring_gcd,
  1659 semiring_Gcd, semiring_Lcd. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: facts gcd_nat.commute
  1660 and gcd_int.commute are subsumed by gcd.commute, as well as
  1661 gcd_nat.assoc and gcd_int.assoc by gcd.assoc.
  1662 
  1663 * Former constants Fields.divide (_ / _) and Divides.div (_ div _) are
  1664 logically unified to Rings.divide in syntactic type class Rings.divide,
  1665 with infix syntax (_ div _). Infix syntax (_ / _) for field division is
  1666 added later as abbreviation in class Fields.inverse. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1667 instantiations must refer to Rings.divide rather than the former
  1668 separate constants, hence infix syntax (_ / _) is usually not available
  1669 during instantiation.
  1670 
  1671 * New cancellation simprocs for boolean algebras to cancel complementary
  1672 terms for sup and inf. For example, "sup x (sup y (- x))" simplifies to
  1673 "top". INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1674 
  1675 * Class uniform_space introduces uniform spaces btw topological spaces
  1676 and metric spaces. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: open_<type>_def needs to be
  1677 introduced in the form of an uniformity. Some constants are more general
  1678 now, it may be necessary to add type class constraints.
  1679 
  1680   open_real_def \<leadsto> open_dist
  1681   open_complex_def \<leadsto> open_dist
  1682 
  1683 * Library/Monad_Syntax: notation uses symbols \<bind> and \<then>. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1684 
  1685 * Library/Multiset:
  1686   - Renamed multiset inclusion operators:
  1687       < ~> <#
  1688       > ~> >#
  1689       <= ~> <=#
  1690       >= ~> >=#
  1691       \<le> ~> \<le>#
  1692       \<ge> ~> \<ge>#
  1693     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1694   - Added multiset inclusion operator syntax:
  1695       \<subset>#
  1696       \<subseteq>#
  1697       \<supset>#
  1698       \<supseteq>#
  1699   - "'a multiset" is no longer an instance of the "order",
  1700     "ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le", "ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_diff",
  1701     "semilattice_inf", and "semilattice_sup" type classes. The theorems
  1702     previously provided by these type classes (directly or indirectly)
  1703     are now available through the "subset_mset" interpretation
  1704     (e.g. add_mono ~> subset_mset.add_mono).
  1705     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1706   - Renamed conversions:
  1707       multiset_of ~> mset
  1708       multiset_of_set ~> mset_set
  1709       set_of ~> set_mset
  1710     INCOMPATIBILITY
  1711   - Renamed lemmas:
  1712       mset_le_def ~> subseteq_mset_def
  1713       mset_less_def ~> subset_mset_def
  1714       less_eq_multiset.rep_eq ~> subseteq_mset_def
  1715     INCOMPATIBILITY
  1716   - Removed lemmas generated by lift_definition:
  1717     less_eq_multiset.abs_eq, less_eq_multiset.rsp,
  1718     less_eq_multiset.transfer, less_eq_multiset_def
  1719     INCOMPATIBILITY
  1720 
  1721 * Library/Omega_Words_Fun: Infinite words modeled as functions nat \<Rightarrow> 'a.
  1722 
  1723 * Library/Bourbaki_Witt_Fixpoint: Added formalisation of the
  1724 Bourbaki-Witt fixpoint theorem for increasing functions in
  1725 chain-complete partial orders.
  1726 
  1727 * Library/Old_Recdef: discontinued obsolete 'defer_recdef' command.
  1728 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'function' instead.
  1729 
  1730 * Library/Periodic_Fun: a locale that provides convenient lemmas for
  1731 periodic functions.
  1732 
  1733 * Library/Formal_Power_Series: proper definition of division (with
  1734 remainder) for formal power series; instances for Euclidean Ring and
  1735 GCD.
  1736 
  1737 * HOL-Imperative_HOL: obsolete theory Legacy_Mrec has been removed.
  1738 
  1739 * HOL-Statespace: command 'statespace' uses mandatory qualifier for
  1740 import of parent, as for general 'locale' expressions. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1741 remove '!' and add '?' as required.
  1742 
  1743 * HOL-Decision_Procs: The "approximation" method works with "powr"
  1744 (exponentiation on real numbers) again.
  1745 
  1746 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: theory Cauchy_Integral_Thm with Contour
  1747 integrals (= complex path integrals), Cauchy's integral theorem, winding
  1748 numbers and Cauchy's integral formula, Liouville theorem, Fundamental
  1749 Theorem of Algebra. Ported from HOL Light.
  1750 
  1751 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: topological concepts such as connected
  1752 components, homotopic paths and the inside or outside of a set.
  1753 
  1754 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: radius of convergence of power series and
  1755 various summability tests; Harmonic numbers and the Euler–Mascheroni
  1756 constant; the Generalised Binomial Theorem; the complex and real
  1757 Gamma/log-Gamma/Digamma/ Polygamma functions and their most important
  1758 properties.
  1759 
  1760 * HOL-Probability: The central limit theorem based on Levy's uniqueness
  1761 and continuity theorems, weak convergence, and characterisitc functions.
  1762 
  1763 * HOL-Data_Structures: new and growing session of standard data
  1764 structures.
  1765 
  1766 
  1767 *** ML ***
  1768 
  1769 * The following combinators for low-level profiling of the ML runtime
  1770 system are available:
  1771 
  1772   profile_time          (*CPU time*)
  1773   profile_time_thread   (*CPU time on this thread*)
  1774   profile_allocations   (*overall heap allocations*)
  1775 
  1776 * Antiquotation @{undefined} or \<^undefined> inlines (raise Match).
  1777 
  1778 * Antiquotation @{method NAME} inlines the (checked) name of the given
  1779 Isar proof method.
  1780 
  1781 * Pretty printing of Poly/ML compiler output in Isabelle has been
  1782 improved: proper treatment of break offsets and blocks with consistent
  1783 breaks.
  1784 
  1785 * The auxiliary module Pure/display.ML has been eliminated. Its
  1786 elementary thm print operations are now in Pure/more_thm.ML and thus
  1787 called Thm.pretty_thm, Thm.string_of_thm etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1788 
  1789 * Simproc programming interfaces have been simplified:
  1790 Simplifier.make_simproc and Simplifier.define_simproc supersede various
  1791 forms of Simplifier.mk_simproc, Simplifier.simproc_global etc. Note that
  1792 term patterns for the left-hand sides are specified with implicitly
  1793 fixed variables, like top-level theorem statements. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1794 
  1795 * Instantiation rules have been re-organized as follows:
  1796 
  1797   Thm.instantiate  (*low-level instantiation with named arguments*)
  1798   Thm.instantiate' (*version with positional arguments*)
  1799 
  1800   Drule.infer_instantiate  (*instantiation with type inference*)
  1801   Drule.infer_instantiate'  (*version with positional arguments*)
  1802 
  1803 The LHS only requires variable specifications, instead of full terms.
  1804 Old cterm_instantiate is superseded by infer_instantiate.
  1805 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to re-adjust some ML names and types accordingly.
  1806 
  1807 * Old tactic shorthands atac, rtac, etac, dtac, ftac have been
  1808 discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular assume_tac, resolve_tac etc.
  1809 instead (with proper context).
  1810 
  1811 * Thm.instantiate (and derivatives) no longer require the LHS of the
  1812 instantiation to be certified: plain variables are given directly.
  1813 
  1814 * Subgoal.SUBPROOF and Subgoal.FOCUS combinators use anonymous
  1815 quasi-bound variables (like the Simplifier), instead of accidentally
  1816 named local fixes. This has the potential to improve stability of proof
  1817 tools, but can also cause INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that don't observe
  1818 the proof context discipline.
  1819 
  1820 * Isar proof methods are based on a slightly more general type
  1821 context_tactic, which allows to change the proof context dynamically
  1822 (e.g. to update cases) and indicate explicit Seq.Error results. Former
  1823 METHOD_CASES is superseded by CONTEXT_METHOD; further combinators are
  1824 provided in src/Pure/Isar/method.ML for convenience. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1825 
  1826 
  1827 *** System ***
  1828 
  1829 * Command-line tool "isabelle console" enables print mode "ASCII".
  1830 
  1831 * Command-line tool "isabelle update_then" expands old Isar command
  1832 conflations:
  1833 
  1834     hence  ~>  then have
  1835     thus   ~>  then show
  1836 
  1837 This syntax is more orthogonal and improves readability and
  1838 maintainability of proofs.
  1839 
  1840 * Global session timeout is multiplied by timeout_scale factor. This
  1841 allows to adjust large-scale tests (e.g. AFP) to overall hardware
  1842 performance.
  1843 
  1844 * Property values in etc/symbols may contain spaces, if written with the
  1845 replacement character "␣" (Unicode point 0x2324). For example:
  1846 
  1847     \<star>  code: 0x0022c6  group: operator  font: Deja␣Vu␣Sans␣Mono
  1848 
  1849 * Java runtime environment for x86_64-windows allows to use larger heap
  1850 space.
  1851 
  1852 * Java runtime options are determined separately for 32bit vs. 64bit
  1853 platforms as follows.
  1854 
  1855   - Isabelle desktop application: platform-specific files that are
  1856     associated with the main app bundle
  1857 
  1858   - isabelle jedit: settings
  1859     JEDIT_JAVA_SYSTEM_OPTIONS
  1860     JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS32 vs. JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS64
  1861 
  1862   - isabelle build: settings
  1863     ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS32 vs. ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS64
  1864 
  1865 * Bash shell function "jvmpath" has been renamed to "platform_path": it
  1866 is relevant both for Poly/ML and JVM processes.
  1867 
  1868 * Poly/ML default platform architecture may be changed from 32bit to
  1869 64bit via system option ML_system_64. A system restart (and rebuild) is
  1870 required after change.
  1871 
  1872 * Poly/ML 5.6 runs natively on x86-windows and x86_64-windows, which
  1873 both allow larger heap space than former x86-cygwin.
  1874 
  1875 * Heap images are 10-15% smaller due to less wasteful persistent theory
  1876 content (using ML type theory_id instead of theory);
  1877 
  1878 
  1879 
  1880 New in Isabelle2015 (May 2015)
  1881 ------------------------------
  1882 
  1883 *** General ***
  1884 
  1885 * Local theory specification commands may have a 'private' or
  1886 'qualified' modifier to restrict name space accesses to the local scope,
  1887 as provided by some "context begin ... end" block. For example:
  1888 
  1889   context
  1890   begin
  1891 
  1892   private definition ...
  1893   private lemma ...
  1894 
  1895   qualified definition ...
  1896   qualified lemma ...
  1897 
  1898   lemma ...
  1899   theorem ...
  1900 
  1901   end
  1902 
  1903 * Command 'experiment' opens an anonymous locale context with private
  1904 naming policy.
  1905 
  1906 * Command 'notepad' requires proper nesting of begin/end and its proof
  1907 structure in the body: 'oops' is no longer supported here. Minor
  1908 INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'sorry' instead.
  1909 
  1910 * Command 'named_theorems' declares a dynamic fact within the context,
  1911 together with an attribute to maintain the content incrementally. This
  1912 supersedes functor Named_Thms in Isabelle/ML, but with a subtle change
  1913 of semantics due to external visual order vs. internal reverse order.
  1914 
  1915 * 'find_theorems': search patterns which are abstractions are
  1916 schematically expanded before search. Search results match the naive
  1917 expectation more closely, particularly wrt. abbreviations.
  1918 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1919 
  1920 * Commands 'method_setup' and 'attribute_setup' now work within a local
  1921 theory context.
  1922 
  1923 * Outer syntax commands are managed authentically within the theory
  1924 context, without implicit global state. Potential for accidental
  1925 INCOMPATIBILITY, make sure that required theories are really imported.
  1926 
  1927 * Historical command-line terminator ";" is no longer accepted (and
  1928 already used differently in Isar). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle
  1929 update_semicolons" to remove obsolete semicolons from old theory
  1930 sources.
  1931 
  1932 * Structural composition of proof methods (meth1; meth2) in Isar
  1933 corresponds to (tac1 THEN_ALL_NEW tac2) in ML.
  1934 
  1935 * The Eisbach proof method language allows to define new proof methods
  1936 by combining existing ones with their usual syntax. The "match" proof
  1937 method provides basic fact/term matching in addition to
  1938 premise/conclusion matching through Subgoal.focus, and binds fact names
  1939 from matches as well as term patterns within matches. The Isabelle
  1940 documentation provides an entry "eisbach" for the Eisbach User Manual.
  1941 Sources and various examples are in ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/.
  1942 
  1943 
  1944 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1945 
  1946 * Improved folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax. Alternatively,
  1947 the "sidekick" mode may be used for document structure.
  1948 
  1949 * Extended bracket matching based on Isar language structure. System
  1950 option jedit_structure_limit determines maximum number of lines to scan
  1951 in the buffer.
  1952 
  1953 * Support for BibTeX files: context menu, context-sensitive token
  1954 marker, SideKick parser.
  1955 
  1956 * Document antiquotation @{cite} provides formal markup, which is
  1957 interpreted semi-formally based on .bib files that happen to be open in
  1958 the editor (hyperlinks, completion etc.).
  1959 
  1960 * Less waste of vertical space via negative line spacing (see Global
  1961 Options / Text Area).
  1962 
  1963 * Improved graphview panel with optional output of PNG or PDF, for
  1964 display of 'thy_deps', 'class_deps' etc.
  1965 
  1966 * The commands 'thy_deps' and 'class_deps' allow optional bounds to
  1967 restrict the visualized hierarchy.
  1968 
  1969 * Improved scheduling for asynchronous print commands (e.g. provers
  1970 managed by the Sledgehammer panel) wrt. ongoing document processing.
  1971 
  1972 
  1973 *** Document preparation ***
  1974 
  1975 * Document markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection',
  1976 'subsubsection', 'text', 'txt', 'text_raw' work uniformly in any
  1977 context, even before the initial 'theory' command. Obsolete proof
  1978 commands 'sect', 'subsect', 'subsubsect', 'txt_raw' have been
  1979 discontinued, use 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection', 'text_raw'
  1980 instead. The old 'header' command is still retained for some time, but
  1981 should be replaced by 'chapter', 'section' etc. (using "isabelle
  1982 update_header"). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1983 
  1984 * Official support for "tt" style variants, via \isatt{...} or
  1985 \begin{isabellett}...\end{isabellett}. The somewhat fragile \verb or
  1986 verbatim environment of LaTeX is no longer used. This allows @{ML} etc.
  1987 as argument to other macros (such as footnotes).
  1988 
  1989 * Document antiquotation @{verbatim} prints ASCII text literally in "tt"
  1990 style.
  1991 
  1992 * Discontinued obsolete option "document_graph": session_graph.pdf is
  1993 produced unconditionally for HTML browser_info and PDF-LaTeX document.
  1994 
  1995 * Diagnostic commands and document markup commands within a proof do not
  1996 affect the command tag for output. Thus commands like 'thm' are subject
  1997 to proof document structure, and no longer "stick out" accidentally.
  1998 Commands 'text' and 'txt' merely differ in the LaTeX style, not their
  1999 tags. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
  2000 
  2001 * System option "pretty_margin" is superseded by "thy_output_margin",
  2002 which is also accessible via document antiquotation option "margin".
  2003 Only the margin for document output may be changed, but not the global
  2004 pretty printing: that is 76 for plain console output, and adapted
  2005 dynamically in GUI front-ends. Implementations of document
  2006 antiquotations need to observe the margin explicitly according to
  2007 Thy_Output.string_of_margin. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2008 
  2009 * Specification of 'document_files' in the session ROOT file is
  2010 mandatory for document preparation. The legacy mode with implicit
  2011 copying of the document/ directory is no longer supported. Minor
  2012 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2013 
  2014 
  2015 *** Pure ***
  2016 
  2017 * Proof methods with explicit instantiation ("rule_tac", "subgoal_tac"
  2018 etc.) allow an optional context of local variables ('for' declaration):
  2019 these variables become schematic in the instantiated theorem; this
  2020 behaviour is analogous to 'for' in attributes "where" and "of".
  2021 Configuration option rule_insts_schematic (default false) controls use
  2022 of schematic variables outside the context. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2023 declare rule_insts_schematic = true temporarily and update to use local
  2024 variable declarations or dummy patterns instead.
  2025 
  2026 * Explicit instantiation via attributes "where", "of", and proof methods
  2027 "rule_tac" with derivatives like "subgoal_tac" etc. admit dummy patterns
  2028 ("_") that stand for anonymous local variables.
  2029 
  2030 * Generated schematic variables in standard format of exported facts are
  2031 incremented to avoid material in the proof context. Rare
  2032 INCOMPATIBILITY, explicit instantiation sometimes needs to refer to
  2033 different index.
  2034 
  2035 * Lexical separation of signed and unsigned numerals: categories "num"
  2036 and "float" are unsigned. INCOMPATIBILITY: subtle change in precedence
  2037 of numeral signs, particularly in expressions involving infix syntax
  2038 like "(- 1) ^ n".
  2039 
  2040 * Old inner token category "xnum" has been discontinued.  Potential
  2041 INCOMPATIBILITY for exotic syntax: may use mixfix grammar with "num"
  2042 token category instead.
  2043 
  2044 
  2045 *** HOL ***
  2046 
  2047 * New (co)datatype package:
  2048   - The 'datatype_new' command has been renamed 'datatype'. The old
  2049     command of that name is now called 'old_datatype' and is provided
  2050     by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
  2051     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
  2052     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2053   - Renamed theorems:
  2054       disc_corec ~> corec_disc
  2055       disc_corec_iff ~> corec_disc_iff
  2056       disc_exclude ~> distinct_disc
  2057       disc_exhaust ~> exhaust_disc
  2058       disc_map_iff ~> map_disc_iff
  2059       sel_corec ~> corec_sel
  2060       sel_exhaust ~> exhaust_sel
  2061       sel_map ~> map_sel
  2062       sel_set ~> set_sel
  2063       sel_split ~> split_sel
  2064       sel_split_asm ~> split_sel_asm
  2065       strong_coinduct ~> coinduct_strong
  2066       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
  2067     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2068   - The "no_code" option to "free_constructors", "datatype_new", and
  2069     "codatatype" has been renamed "plugins del: code".
  2070     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2071   - The rules "set_empty" have been removed. They are easy
  2072     consequences of other set rules "by auto".
  2073     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2074   - The rule "set_cases" is now registered with the "[cases set]"
  2075     attribute. This can influence the behavior of the "cases" proof
  2076     method when more than one case rule is applicable (e.g., an
  2077     assumption is of the form "w : set ws" and the method "cases w"
  2078     is invoked). The solution is to specify the case rule explicitly
  2079     (e.g. "cases w rule: widget.exhaust").
  2080     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2081   - Renamed theories:
  2082       BNF_Comp ~> BNF_Composition
  2083       BNF_FP_Base ~> BNF_Fixpoint_Base
  2084       BNF_GFP ~> BNF_Greatest_Fixpoint
  2085       BNF_LFP ~> BNF_Least_Fixpoint
  2086       BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> BNF_Wellorder_Constructions
  2087       Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> Cardinals/Wellorder_Constructions
  2088     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2089   - Lifting and Transfer setup for basic HOL types sum and prod (also
  2090     option) is now performed by the BNF package. Theories Lifting_Sum,
  2091     Lifting_Product and Lifting_Option from Main became obsolete and
  2092     were removed. Changed definitions of the relators rel_prod and
  2093     rel_sum (using inductive).
  2094     INCOMPATIBILITY: use rel_prod.simps and rel_sum.simps instead
  2095     of rel_prod_def and rel_sum_def.
  2096     Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: (rarely used by name) transfer theorem names
  2097     changed (e.g. map_prod_transfer ~> prod.map_transfer).
  2098   - Parametricity theorems for map functions, relators, set functions,
  2099     constructors, case combinators, discriminators, selectors and
  2100     (co)recursors are automatically proved and registered as transfer
  2101     rules.
  2102 
  2103 * Old datatype package:
  2104   - The old 'datatype' command has been renamed 'old_datatype', and
  2105     'rep_datatype' has been renamed 'old_rep_datatype'. They are
  2106     provided by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
  2107     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
  2108     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2109   - Renamed theorems:
  2110       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
  2111     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2112   - Renamed theory:
  2113       ~~/src/HOL/Datatype.thy ~> ~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy
  2114     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2115 
  2116 * Nitpick:
  2117   - Fixed soundness bug related to the strict and non-strict subset
  2118     operations.
  2119 
  2120 * Sledgehammer:
  2121   - CVC4 is now included with Isabelle instead of CVC3 and run by
  2122     default.
  2123   - Z3 is now always enabled by default, now that it is fully open
  2124     source. The "z3_non_commercial" option is discontinued.
  2125   - Minimization is now always enabled by default.
  2126     Removed sub-command:
  2127       min
  2128   - Proof reconstruction, both one-liners and Isar, has been
  2129     dramatically improved.
  2130   - Improved support for CVC4 and veriT.
  2131 
  2132 * Old and new SMT modules:
  2133   - The old 'smt' method has been renamed 'old_smt' and moved to
  2134     'src/HOL/Library/Old_SMT.thy'. It is provided for compatibility,
  2135     until applications have been ported to use the new 'smt' method. For
  2136     the method to work, an older version of Z3 (e.g. Z3 3.2 or 4.0) must
  2137     be installed, and the environment variable "OLD_Z3_SOLVER" must
  2138     point to it.
  2139     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2140   - The 'smt2' method has been renamed 'smt'.
  2141     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2142   - New option 'smt_reconstruction_step_timeout' to limit the
  2143     reconstruction time of Z3 proof steps in the new 'smt' method.
  2144   - New option 'smt_statistics' to display statistics of the new 'smt'
  2145     method, especially runtime statistics of Z3 proof reconstruction.
  2146 
  2147 * Lifting: command 'lift_definition' allows to execute lifted constants
  2148 that have as a return type a datatype containing a subtype. This
  2149 overcomes long-time limitations in the area of code generation and
  2150 lifting, and avoids tedious workarounds.
  2151 
  2152 * Command and antiquotation "value" provide different evaluation slots
  2153 (again), where the previous strategy (NBE after ML) serves as default.
  2154 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2155 
  2156 * Add NO_MATCH-simproc, allows to check for syntactic non-equality.
  2157 
  2158 * field_simps: Use NO_MATCH-simproc for distribution rules, to avoid
  2159 non-termination in case of distributing a division. With this change
  2160 field_simps is in some cases slightly less powerful, if it fails try to
  2161 add algebra_simps, or use divide_simps. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2162 
  2163 * Separate class no_zero_divisors has been given up in favour of fully
  2164 algebraic semiring_no_zero_divisors. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2165 
  2166 * Class linordered_semidom really requires no zero divisors.
  2167 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2168 
  2169 * Classes division_ring, field and linordered_field always demand
  2170 "inverse 0 = 0". Given up separate classes division_ring_inverse_zero,
  2171 field_inverse_zero and linordered_field_inverse_zero. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2172 
  2173 * Classes cancel_ab_semigroup_add / cancel_monoid_add specify explicit
  2174 additive inverse operation. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2175 
  2176 * Complex powers and square roots. The functions "ln" and "powr" are now
  2177 overloaded for types real and complex, and 0 powr y = 0 by definition.
  2178 INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be necessary.
  2179 
  2180 * The functions "sin" and "cos" are now defined for any type of sort
  2181 "{real_normed_algebra_1,banach}" type, so in particular on "real" and
  2182 "complex" uniformly. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be
  2183 needed.
  2184 
  2185 * New library of properties of the complex transcendental functions sin,
  2186 cos, tan, exp, Ln, Arctan, Arcsin, Arccos. Ported from HOL Light.
  2187 
  2188 * The factorial function, "fact", now has type "nat => 'a" (of a sort
  2189 that admits numeric types including nat, int, real and complex.
  2190 INCOMPATIBILITY: an expression such as "fact 3 = 6" may require a type
  2191 constraint, and the combination "real (fact k)" is likely to be
  2192 unsatisfactory. If a type conversion is still necessary, then use
  2193 "of_nat (fact k)" or "real_of_nat (fact k)".
  2194 
  2195 * Removed functions "natfloor" and "natceiling", use "nat o floor" and
  2196 "nat o ceiling" instead. A few of the lemmas have been retained and
  2197 adapted: in their names "natfloor"/"natceiling" has been replaced by
  2198 "nat_floor"/"nat_ceiling".
  2199 
  2200 * Qualified some duplicated fact names required for boostrapping the
  2201 type class hierarchy:
  2202   ab_add_uminus_conv_diff ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  2203   field_inverse_zero ~> inverse_zero
  2204   field_divide_inverse ~> divide_inverse
  2205   field_inverse ~> left_inverse
  2206 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2207 
  2208 * Eliminated fact duplicates:
  2209   mult_less_imp_less_right ~> mult_right_less_imp_less
  2210   mult_less_imp_less_left ~> mult_left_less_imp_less
  2211 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2212 
  2213 * Fact consolidation: even_less_0_iff is subsumed by
  2214 double_add_less_zero_iff_single_add_less_zero (simp by default anyway).
  2215 
  2216 * Generalized and consolidated some theorems concerning divsibility:
  2217   dvd_reduce ~> dvd_add_triv_right_iff
  2218   dvd_plus_eq_right ~> dvd_add_right_iff
  2219   dvd_plus_eq_left ~> dvd_add_left_iff
  2220 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2221 
  2222 * "even" and "odd" are mere abbreviations for "2 dvd _" and "~ 2 dvd _"
  2223 and part of theory Main.
  2224   even_def ~> even_iff_mod_2_eq_zero
  2225 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2226 
  2227 * Lemma name consolidation: divide_Numeral1 ~> divide_numeral_1. Minor
  2228 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2229 
  2230 * Bootstrap of listsum as special case of abstract product over lists.
  2231 Fact rename:
  2232     listsum_def ~> listsum.eq_foldr
  2233 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2234 
  2235 * Product over lists via constant "listprod".
  2236 
  2237 * Theory List: renamed drop_Suc_conv_tl and nth_drop' to
  2238 Cons_nth_drop_Suc.
  2239 
  2240 * New infrastructure for compiling, running, evaluating and testing
  2241 generated code in target languages in HOL/Library/Code_Test. See
  2242 HOL/Codegenerator_Test/Code_Test* for examples.
  2243 
  2244 * Library/Multiset:
  2245   - Introduced "replicate_mset" operation.
  2246   - Introduced alternative characterizations of the multiset ordering in
  2247     "Library/Multiset_Order".
  2248   - Renamed multiset ordering:
  2249       <# ~> #<#
  2250       <=# ~> #<=#
  2251       \<subset># ~> #\<subset>#
  2252       \<subseteq># ~> #\<subseteq>#
  2253     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2254   - Introduced abbreviations for ill-named multiset operations:
  2255       <#, \<subset># abbreviate < (strict subset)
  2256       <=#, \<le>#, \<subseteq># abbreviate <= (subset or equal)
  2257     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2258   - Renamed
  2259       in_multiset_of ~> in_multiset_in_set
  2260       Multiset.fold ~> fold_mset
  2261       Multiset.filter ~> filter_mset
  2262     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2263   - Removed mcard, is equal to size.
  2264   - Added attributes:
  2265       image_mset.id [simp]
  2266       image_mset_id [simp]
  2267       elem_multiset_of_set [simp, intro]
  2268       comp_fun_commute_plus_mset [simp]
  2269       comp_fun_commute.fold_mset_insert [OF comp_fun_commute_plus_mset, simp]
  2270       in_mset_fold_plus_iff [iff]
  2271       set_of_Union_mset [simp]
  2272       in_Union_mset_iff [iff]
  2273     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2274 
  2275 * Library/Sum_of_Squares: simplified and improved "sos" method. Always
  2276 use local CSDP executable, which is much faster than the NEOS server.
  2277 The "sos_cert" functionality is invoked as "sos" with additional
  2278 argument. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2279 
  2280 * HOL-Decision_Procs: New counterexample generator quickcheck
  2281 [approximation] for inequalities of transcendental functions. Uses
  2282 hardware floating point arithmetic to randomly discover potential
  2283 counterexamples. Counterexamples are certified with the "approximation"
  2284 method. See HOL/Decision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Quickcheck_Ex.thy for
  2285 examples.
  2286 
  2287 * HOL-Probability: Reworked measurability prover
  2288   - applies destructor rules repeatedly
  2289   - removed application splitting (replaced by destructor rule)
  2290   - added congruence rules to rewrite measure spaces under the sets
  2291     projection
  2292 
  2293 * New proof method "rewrite" (in theory ~~/src/HOL/Library/Rewrite) for
  2294 single-step rewriting with subterm selection based on patterns.
  2295 
  2296 
  2297 *** ML ***
  2298 
  2299 * Subtle change of name space policy: undeclared entries are now
  2300 considered inaccessible, instead of accessible via the fully-qualified
  2301 internal name. This mainly affects Name_Space.intern (and derivatives),
  2302 which may produce an unexpected Long_Name.hidden prefix. Note that
  2303 contemporary applications use the strict Name_Space.check (and
  2304 derivatives) instead, which is not affected by the change. Potential
  2305 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare applications of Name_Space.intern.
  2306 
  2307 * Subtle change of error semantics of Toplevel.proof_of: regular user
  2308 ERROR instead of internal Toplevel.UNDEF.
  2309 
  2310 * Basic combinators map, fold, fold_map, split_list, apply are available
  2311 as parameterized antiquotations, e.g. @{map 4} for lists of quadruples.
  2312 
  2313 * Renamed "pairself" to "apply2", in accordance to @{apply 2}.
  2314 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2315 
  2316 * Former combinators NAMED_CRITICAL and CRITICAL for central critical
  2317 sections have been discontinued, in favour of the more elementary
  2318 Multithreading.synchronized and its high-level derivative
  2319 Synchronized.var (which is usually sufficient in applications). Subtle
  2320 INCOMPATIBILITY: synchronized access needs to be atomic and cannot be
  2321 nested.
  2322 
  2323 * Synchronized.value (ML) is actually synchronized (as in Scala): subtle
  2324 change of semantics with minimal potential for INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2325 
  2326 * The main operations to certify logical entities are Thm.ctyp_of and
  2327 Thm.cterm_of with a local context; old-style global theory variants are
  2328 available as Thm.global_ctyp_of and Thm.global_cterm_of.
  2329 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2330 
  2331 * Elementary operations in module Thm are no longer pervasive.
  2332 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use qualified Thm.prop_of, Thm.cterm_of,
  2333 Thm.term_of etc.
  2334 
  2335 * Proper context for various elementary tactics: assume_tac,
  2336 resolve_tac, eresolve_tac, dresolve_tac, forward_tac, match_tac,
  2337 compose_tac, Splitter.split_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2338 
  2339 * Tactical PARALLEL_ALLGOALS is the most common way to refer to
  2340 PARALLEL_GOALS.
  2341 
  2342 * Goal.prove_multi is superseded by the fully general Goal.prove_common,
  2343 which also allows to specify a fork priority.
  2344 
  2345 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "COMMAND"} is superseded by
  2346 @{command_keyword COMMAND} (usually without quotes and with PIDE
  2347 markup). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2348 
  2349 * Cartouches within ML sources are turned into values of type
  2350 Input.source (with formal position information).
  2351 
  2352 
  2353 *** System ***
  2354 
  2355 * The Isabelle tool "update_cartouches" changes theory files to use
  2356 cartouches instead of old-style {* verbatim *} or `alt_string` tokens.
  2357 
  2358 * The Isabelle tool "build" provides new options -X, -k, -x.
  2359 
  2360 * Discontinued old-fashioned "codegen" tool. Code generation can always
  2361 be externally triggered using an appropriate ROOT file plus a
  2362 corresponding theory. Parametrization is possible using environment
  2363 variables, or ML snippets in the most extreme cases. Minor
  2364 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2365 
  2366 * JVM system property "isabelle.threads" determines size of Scala thread
  2367 pool, like Isabelle system option "threads" for ML.
  2368 
  2369 * JVM system property "isabelle.laf" determines the default Swing
  2370 look-and-feel, via internal class name or symbolic name as in the jEdit
  2371 menu Global Options / Appearance.
  2372 
  2373 * Support for Proof General and Isar TTY loop has been discontinued.
  2374 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use standard PIDE infrastructure instead.
  2375 
  2376 
  2377 
  2378 New in Isabelle2014 (August 2014)
  2379 ---------------------------------
  2380 
  2381 *** General ***
  2382 
  2383 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
  2384 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
  2385 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
  2386 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
  2387 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
  2388 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
  2389 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
  2390 some examples.
  2391 
  2392 * Standard tactics and proof methods such as "clarsimp", "auto" and
  2393 "safe" now preserve equality hypotheses "x = expr" where x is a free
  2394 variable.  Locale assumptions and chained facts containing "x"
  2395 continue to be useful.  The new method "hypsubst_thin" and the
  2396 configuration option "hypsubst_thin" (within the attribute name space)
  2397 restore the previous behavior.  INCOMPATIBILITY, especially where
  2398 induction is done after these methods or when the names of free and
  2399 bound variables clash.  As first approximation, old proofs may be
  2400 repaired by "using [[hypsubst_thin = true]]" in the critical spot.
  2401 
  2402 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
  2403 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
  2404 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
  2405 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
  2406 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
  2407 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
  2408 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
  2409 proof tools.
  2410 
  2411 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
  2412 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
  2413 supports input via ` (backquote).
  2414 
  2415 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
  2416 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
  2417 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
  2418 
  2419 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
  2420 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
  2421 string token.  General renovation of its syntax using text cartouches.
  2422 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2423 
  2424 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary workaround for
  2425 Isabelle/ML in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
  2426 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.  Potential
  2427 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2428 
  2429 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
  2430 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
  2431 
  2432 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
  2433 not check existence within the file-system.
  2434 
  2435 * Updated and extended manuals: codegen, datatypes, implementation,
  2436 isar-ref, jedit, system.
  2437 
  2438 
  2439 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  2440 
  2441 * Improved Document panel: simplified interaction where every single
  2442 mouse click (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit
  2443 buffer.
  2444 
  2445 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons), with connection
  2446 to PIDE hyperlinks.
  2447 
  2448 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
  2449 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
  2450 
  2451 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
  2452 auxiliary ML files.
  2453 
  2454 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism, with simple
  2455 templates, completion language context, name-space completion,
  2456 file-name completion, spell-checker completion.
  2457 
  2458 * Refined GUI popup for completion: more robust key/mouse event
  2459 handling and propagation to enclosing text area -- avoid loosing
  2460 keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
  2461 
  2462 * Completion popup supports both ENTER and TAB (default) to select an
  2463 item, depending on Isabelle options.
  2464 
  2465 * Refined insertion of completion items wrt. jEdit text: multiple
  2466 selections, rectangular selections, rectangular selection as "tall
  2467 caret".
  2468 
  2469 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
  2470 completion popup and context-menu.
  2471 
  2472 * More general "Query" panel supersedes "Find" panel, with GUI access
  2473 to commands 'find_theorems' and 'find_consts', as well as print
  2474 operations for the context.  Minor incompatibility in keyboard
  2475 shortcuts etc.: replace action isabelle-find by isabelle-query.
  2476 
  2477 * Search field for all output panels ("Output", "Query", "Info" etc.)
  2478 to highlight text via regular expression.
  2479 
  2480 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
  2481 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
  2482 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
  2483 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
  2484 
  2485 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
  2486 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
  2487 
  2488 * Empty editors buffers that are no longer required (e.g.\ via theory
  2489 imports) are automatically removed from the document model.
  2490 
  2491 * Improved monitor panel.
  2492 
  2493 * Improved Console/Scala plugin: more uniform scala.Console output,
  2494 more robust treatment of threads and interrupts.
  2495 
  2496 * Improved management of dockable windows: clarified keyboard focus
  2497 and window placement wrt. main editor view; optional menu item to
  2498 "Detach" a copy where this makes sense.
  2499 
  2500 * New Simplifier Trace panel provides an interactive view of the
  2501 simplification process, enabled by the "simp_trace_new" attribute
  2502 within the context.
  2503 
  2504 
  2505 *** Pure ***
  2506 
  2507 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
  2508 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
  2509 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
  2510 'instance' command with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem
  2511 might be postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof
  2512 finished trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous
  2513 (without any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
  2514 Axclass.class_axiomatization, Axclass.classrel_axiomatization,
  2515 Axclass.arity_axiomatization.
  2516 
  2517 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
  2518 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
  2519 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
  2520 renaming needs to be applied:
  2521 
  2522   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
  2523   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
  2524   all            ~>  Pure.all
  2525   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
  2526   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
  2527 
  2528 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
  2529 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
  2530 old constants:
  2531 
  2532 setup {*
  2533   fn thy => thy
  2534     |> Sign.root_path
  2535     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
  2536     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
  2537     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
  2538     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
  2539 *}
  2540 
  2541 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
  2542 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
  2543 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
  2544 
  2545 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
  2546 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
  2547 instantiated theorem.
  2548 
  2549 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
  2550 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
  2551 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
  2552 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
  2553 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
  2554 
  2555   attribute_setup standard =
  2556     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
  2557 
  2558 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
  2559 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
  2560 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
  2561 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
  2562 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
  2563 
  2564 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
  2565 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
  2566 differently, e.g. via cartouches).
  2567 
  2568 * Command 'print_term_bindings' supersedes 'print_binds' for clarity,
  2569 but the latter is retained some time as Proof General legacy.
  2570 
  2571 * Code generator preprocessor: explicit control of simp tracing on a
  2572 per-constant basis.  See attribute "code_preproc".
  2573 
  2574 
  2575 *** HOL ***
  2576 
  2577 * Code generator: enforce case of identifiers only for strict target
  2578 language requirements.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2579 
  2580 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
  2581 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2582 
  2583 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.  Minor
  2584 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2585 
  2586 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures"
  2587 option.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2588 
  2589 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
  2590 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2591 
  2592 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
  2593 with the given constants.
  2594 
  2595 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
  2596 operations on records.
  2597 
  2598 * Command and antiquotation "value" are now hardcoded against nbe and
  2599 ML.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2600 
  2601 * Renamed command 'enriched_type' to 'functor'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2602 
  2603 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
  2604 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
  2605 
  2606 * Qualified String.implode and String.explode.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2607 
  2608 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules can
  2609 now deal with conjunctions.  For help with converting proofs, the old
  2610 behaviour of the simplifier can be restored like this: declare/using
  2611 [[simp_legacy_precond]].  This configuration option will disappear
  2612 again in the future.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2613 
  2614 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
  2615 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2616 
  2617 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from session
  2618   "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".  The commands 'bnf', 'wrap_free_constructors',
  2619   'datatype_new', 'codatatype', 'primcorec', 'primcorecursive' are now
  2620   part of theory "Main".
  2621 
  2622   Theory renamings:
  2623     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
  2624     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
  2625     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
  2626     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
  2627     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
  2628     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
  2629     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
  2630     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
  2631     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
  2632     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
  2633     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
  2634     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
  2635     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
  2636     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
  2637     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
  2638     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
  2639     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
  2640     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
  2641     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
  2642     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
  2643     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
  2644     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
  2645 
  2646   New theories:
  2647     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
  2648     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
  2649     Library/BNF_Axomatization.thy
  2650     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
  2651     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
  2652 
  2653   Discontinued theories:
  2654     BNF/BNF.thy
  2655     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
  2656 
  2657 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2658 
  2659 * New (co)datatype package:
  2660   - Command 'primcorec' is fully implemented.
  2661   - Command 'datatype_new' generates size functions ("size_xxx" and
  2662     "size") as required by 'fun'.
  2663   - BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style
  2664     (co)datatypes with Transfer.
  2665   - Renamed commands:
  2666       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
  2667       primrec_new ~> primrec
  2668       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
  2669     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2670   - The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
  2671     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
  2672     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2673   - The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer
  2674     generated.  Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually
  2675     using "prim(co)rec".
  2676     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2677   - No discriminators are generated for nullary constructors by
  2678     default, eliminating the need for the odd "=:" syntax.
  2679     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2680   - No discriminators or selectors are generated by default by
  2681     "datatype_new", unless custom names are specified or the new
  2682     "discs_sels" option is passed.
  2683     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2684 
  2685 * Old datatype package:
  2686   - The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been
  2687     renamed "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" ->
  2688     "sum.case").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2689   - The generated constants "xxx_case", "xxx_rec", and "xxx_size" have
  2690     been renamed "case_xxx", "rec_xxx", and "size_xxx" (e.g.,
  2691     "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2692 
  2693 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions,
  2694   their relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new
  2695   BNF-based datatype package.
  2696 
  2697   Renamed constants:
  2698     Option.set ~> set_option
  2699     Option.map ~> map_option
  2700     option_rel ~> rel_option
  2701 
  2702   Renamed theorems:
  2703     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
  2704     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
  2705     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
  2706     option.recs ~> option.rec
  2707     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
  2708     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
  2709     map.simps ~> list.map
  2710     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
  2711     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
  2712     the.simps ~> option.sel
  2713 
  2714 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2715 
  2716 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
  2717     sum_map ~> map_sum
  2718     map_pair ~> map_prod
  2719     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
  2720     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
  2721     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
  2722     set_rel ~> rel_set
  2723     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
  2724     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "src/HOL/Library/FSet.thy")
  2725     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "src/HOL/Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
  2726     vset ~> rel_vset (in "src/HOL/Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
  2727 
  2728 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2729 
  2730 * Lifting and Transfer:
  2731   - a type variable as a raw type is supported
  2732   - stronger reflexivity prover
  2733   - rep_eq is always generated by lift_definition
  2734   - setup for Lifting/Transfer is now automated for BNFs
  2735     + holds for BNFs that do not contain a dead variable
  2736     + relator_eq, relator_mono, relator_distr, relator_domain,
  2737       relator_eq_onp, quot_map, transfer rules for bi_unique, bi_total,
  2738       right_unique, right_total, left_unique, left_total are proved
  2739       automatically
  2740     + definition of a predicator is generated automatically
  2741     + simplification rules for a predicator definition are proved
  2742       automatically for datatypes
  2743   - consolidation of the setup of Lifting/Transfer
  2744     + property that a relator preservers reflexivity is not needed any
  2745       more
  2746       Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2747     + left_total and left_unique rules are now transfer rules
  2748       (reflexivity_rule attribute not needed anymore)
  2749       INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2750     + Domainp does not have to be a separate assumption in
  2751       relator_domain theorems (=> more natural statement)
  2752       INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2753   - registration of code equations is more robust
  2754     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2755   - respectfulness proof obligation is preprocessed to a more readable
  2756     form
  2757     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2758   - eq_onp is always unfolded in respectfulness proof obligation
  2759     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2760   - unregister lifting setup for Code_Numeral.integer and
  2761     Code_Numeral.natural
  2762     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2763   - Lifting.invariant -> eq_onp
  2764     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2765 
  2766 * New internal SAT solver "cdclite" that produces models and proof
  2767 traces.  This solver replaces the internal SAT solvers "enumerate" and
  2768 "dpll".  Applications that explicitly used one of these two SAT
  2769 solvers should use "cdclite" instead. In addition, "cdclite" is now
  2770 the default SAT solver for the "sat" and "satx" proof methods and
  2771 corresponding tactics; the old default can be restored using "declare
  2772 [[sat_solver = zchaff_with_proofs]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2773 
  2774 * SMT module: A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called
  2775 "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2 and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g.,
  2776 4.3). The new proof method is called "smt2". CVC3 and CVC4 are also
  2777 supported as oracles. Yices is no longer supported, because no version
  2778 of the solver can handle both SMT-LIB 2 and quantifiers.
  2779 
  2780 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
  2781 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
  2782 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
  2783 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
  2784 
  2785 * Sledgehammer:
  2786   - Z3 can now produce Isar proofs.
  2787   - MaSh overhaul:
  2788     . New SML-based learning algorithms eliminate the dependency on
  2789       Python and increase performance and reliability.
  2790     . MaSh and MeSh are now used by default together with the
  2791       traditional MePo (Meng-Paulson) relevance filter. To disable
  2792       MaSh, set the "MaSh" system option in Isabelle/jEdit Plugin
  2793       Options / Isabelle / General to "none".
  2794   - New option:
  2795       smt_proofs
  2796   - Renamed options:
  2797       isar_compress ~> compress
  2798       isar_try0 ~> try0
  2799 
  2800 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2801 
  2802 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
  2803 
  2804 * Nitpick:
  2805   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could
  2806     take infinite values.
  2807   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as
  2808     "Abs_Integ" and "Rep_Integ".
  2809   - Removed "std" option.
  2810   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
  2811     "hide_types".
  2812 
  2813 * Metis: Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis
  2814 (full_types)' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2815 
  2816 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
  2817 
  2818 * Adjustion of INF and SUP operations:
  2819   - Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
  2820   - Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF and
  2821     SUP instead uniformly.
  2822   - More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
  2823     or SUP and Sup.
  2824   - INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
  2825   - Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.
  2826   - Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong, with
  2827     simplifier implication in premises.  Generalize and replace former
  2828     INT_cong, SUP_cong
  2829 
  2830 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2831 
  2832 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice.
  2833 
  2834 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
  2835 
  2836   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
  2837   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
  2838   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
  2839   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
  2840 
  2841 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2842 
  2843 * Theory reorganization: split of Big_Operators.thy into
  2844 Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy.
  2845 
  2846 * Consolidated some facts about big group operators:
  2847 
  2848     setsum_0' ~> setsum.neutral
  2849     setsum_0 ~> setsum.neutral_const
  2850     setsum_addf ~> setsum.distrib
  2851     setsum_cartesian_product ~> setsum.cartesian_product
  2852     setsum_cases ~> setsum.If_cases
  2853     setsum_commute ~> setsum.commute
  2854     setsum_cong ~> setsum.cong
  2855     setsum_delta ~> setsum.delta
  2856     setsum_delta' ~> setsum.delta'
  2857     setsum_diff1' ~> setsum.remove
  2858     setsum_empty ~> setsum.empty
  2859     setsum_infinite ~> setsum.infinite
  2860     setsum_insert ~> setsum.insert
  2861     setsum_inter_restrict'' ~> setsum.inter_filter
  2862     setsum_mono_zero_cong_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_left
  2863     setsum_mono_zero_cong_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_right
  2864     setsum_mono_zero_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_left
  2865     setsum_mono_zero_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_right
  2866     setsum_reindex ~> setsum.reindex
  2867     setsum_reindex_cong ~> setsum.reindex_cong
  2868     setsum_reindex_nonzero ~> setsum.reindex_nontrivial
  2869     setsum_restrict_set ~> setsum.inter_restrict
  2870     setsum_Plus ~> setsum.Plus
  2871     setsum_setsum_restrict ~> setsum.commute_restrict
  2872     setsum_Sigma ~> setsum.Sigma
  2873     setsum_subset_diff ~> setsum.subset_diff
  2874     setsum_Un_disjoint ~> setsum.union_disjoint
  2875     setsum_UN_disjoint ~> setsum.UNION_disjoint
  2876     setsum_Un_Int ~> setsum.union_inter
  2877     setsum_Union_disjoint ~> setsum.Union_disjoint
  2878     setsum_UNION_zero ~> setsum.Union_comp
  2879     setsum_Un_zero ~> setsum.union_inter_neutral
  2880     strong_setprod_cong ~> setprod.strong_cong
  2881     strong_setsum_cong ~> setsum.strong_cong
  2882     setprod_1' ~> setprod.neutral
  2883     setprod_1 ~> setprod.neutral_const
  2884     setprod_cartesian_product ~> setprod.cartesian_product
  2885     setprod_cong ~> setprod.cong
  2886     setprod_delta ~> setprod.delta
  2887     setprod_delta' ~> setprod.delta'
  2888     setprod_empty ~> setprod.empty
  2889     setprod_infinite ~> setprod.infinite
  2890     setprod_insert ~> setprod.insert
  2891     setprod_mono_one_cong_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_left
  2892     setprod_mono_one_cong_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_right
  2893     setprod_mono_one_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_left
  2894     setprod_mono_one_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_right
  2895     setprod_reindex ~> setprod.reindex
  2896     setprod_reindex_cong ~> setprod.reindex_cong
  2897     setprod_reindex_nonzero ~> setprod.reindex_nontrivial
  2898     setprod_Sigma ~> setprod.Sigma
  2899     setprod_subset_diff ~> setprod.subset_diff
  2900     setprod_timesf ~> setprod.distrib
  2901     setprod_Un2 ~> setprod.union_diff2
  2902     setprod_Un_disjoint ~> setprod.union_disjoint
  2903     setprod_UN_disjoint ~> setprod.UNION_disjoint
  2904     setprod_Un_Int ~> setprod.union_inter
  2905     setprod_Union_disjoint ~> setprod.Union_disjoint
  2906     setprod_Un_one ~> setprod.union_inter_neutral
  2907 
  2908   Dropped setsum_cong2 (simple variant of setsum.cong).
  2909   Dropped setsum_inter_restrict' (simple variant of setsum.inter_restrict)
  2910   Dropped setsum_reindex_id, setprod_reindex_id
  2911     (simple variants of setsum.reindex [symmetric], setprod.reindex [symmetric]).
  2912 
  2913 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2914 
  2915 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
  2916 
  2917   Fact consolidations:
  2918     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
  2919     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
  2920     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
  2921     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
  2922     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
  2923     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
  2924     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
  2925     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
  2926     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
  2927     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
  2928     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
  2929     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
  2930     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
  2931     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
  2932     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
  2933     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
  2934     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
  2935     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
  2936     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
  2937     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
  2938     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
  2939     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
  2940     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
  2941     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
  2942     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
  2943     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
  2944     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
  2945     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
  2946     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
  2947     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
  2948     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
  2949     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
  2950     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
  2951     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
  2952     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
  2953     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
  2954     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
  2955     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
  2956     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
  2957     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
  2958 
  2959 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
  2960 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
  2961 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
  2962 
  2963 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1,
  2964 min.cobounded2, max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
  2965 
  2966 For min_ac or max_ac, prefer more general collection ac_simps.
  2967 
  2968 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2969 
  2970 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~>
  2971 Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2972 
  2973 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
  2974 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2975 
  2976 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
  2977     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
  2978 
  2979 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2980 
  2981 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and
  2982   consolidation:
  2983     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
  2984     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
  2985 
  2986 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2987 
  2988 * Abolished neg_numeral.
  2989   - Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
  2990   - Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
  2991   - When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
  2992     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
  2993   - HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
  2994     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
  2995   - Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
  2996 
  2997 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2998 
  2999 * Reduced name variants for rules on associativity and commutativity:
  3000 
  3001     add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  3002     add_commute ~> add.commute
  3003     add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  3004     mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  3005     mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  3006     mult_left_commute ~> mult.left_commute
  3007     nat_add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  3008     nat_add_commute ~> add.commute
  3009     nat_add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  3010     nat_mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  3011     nat_mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  3012     eq_assoc ~> iff_assoc
  3013     eq_left_commute ~> iff_left_commute
  3014 
  3015 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3016 
  3017 * Fact collections add_ac and mult_ac are considered old-fashioned.
  3018 Prefer ac_simps instead, or specify rules
  3019 (add|mult).(assoc|commute|left_commute) individually.
  3020 
  3021 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
  3022     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
  3023     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
  3024     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
  3025     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
  3026 
  3027 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3028 
  3029 * Fact name consolidation:
  3030     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  3031     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
  3032     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
  3033     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
  3034     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
  3035 
  3036 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3037 
  3038 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
  3039 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
  3040 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
  3041 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
  3042 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
  3043 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly have
  3044 been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and field_simps.
  3045 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3046 
  3047 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
  3048 
  3049 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
  3050 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
  3051 
  3052 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
  3053 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
  3054 
  3055 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
  3056 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
  3057 or the brute way with
  3058 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
  3059 
  3060 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in theory
  3061 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them instead of explicitly
  3062 stating boundedness of sets.
  3063 
  3064 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow more
  3065 syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain shows up as
  3066 additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3067 
  3068 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
  3069   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
  3070   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
  3071   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
  3072   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
  3073   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
  3074   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
  3075   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
  3076   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
  3077   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
  3078   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
  3079   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
  3080 
  3081   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
  3082 
  3083   removed auxiliary lemmas:
  3084 
  3085     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
  3086     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr,
  3087     real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded, summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2,
  3088     sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom, sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero,
  3089     summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
  3090 
  3091 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3092 
  3093 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
  3094   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
  3095 
  3096   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
  3097 
  3098   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
  3099 
  3100   - removed constant isDiff
  3101 
  3102   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as
  3103     input syntax.
  3104 
  3105   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed.
  3106 
  3107   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
  3108 
  3109   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
  3110 
  3111   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
  3112 
  3113   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which
  3114     includes now rules for DERIV, has_derivative and
  3115     has_vector_derivative.
  3116 
  3117   - Other renamings:
  3118     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
  3119     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
  3120     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
  3121     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
  3122     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
  3123     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
  3124     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
  3125 
  3126 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3127 
  3128 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the
  3129 continuous_on_intros, isCont_intros collections, these facts are now
  3130 in continuous_intros.
  3131 
  3132 * Theorems about complex numbers are now stated only using Re and Im,
  3133 the Complex constructor is not used anymore. It is possible to use
  3134 primcorec to defined the behaviour of a complex-valued function.
  3135 
  3136 Removed theorems about the Complex constructor from the simpset, they
  3137 are available as the lemma collection legacy_Complex_simps. This
  3138 especially removes
  3139 
  3140     i_complex_of_real: "ii * complex_of_real r = Complex 0 r".
  3141 
  3142 Instead the reverse direction is supported with
  3143     Complex_eq: "Complex a b = a + \<i> * b"
  3144 
  3145 Moved csqrt from Fundamental_Algebra_Theorem to Complex.
  3146 
  3147   Renamings:
  3148     Re/Im                  ~>  complex.sel
  3149     complex_Re/Im_zero     ~>  zero_complex.sel
  3150     complex_Re/Im_add      ~>  plus_complex.sel
  3151     complex_Re/Im_minus    ~>  uminus_complex.sel
  3152     complex_Re/Im_diff     ~>  minus_complex.sel
  3153     complex_Re/Im_one      ~>  one_complex.sel
  3154     complex_Re/Im_mult     ~>  times_complex.sel
  3155     complex_Re/Im_inverse  ~>  inverse_complex.sel
  3156     complex_Re/Im_scaleR   ~>  scaleR_complex.sel
  3157     complex_Re/Im_i        ~>  ii.sel
  3158     complex_Re/Im_cnj      ~>  cnj.sel
  3159     Re/Im_cis              ~>  cis.sel
  3160 
  3161     complex_divide_def   ~>  divide_complex_def
  3162     complex_norm_def     ~>  norm_complex_def
  3163     cmod_def             ~>  norm_complex_de
  3164 
  3165   Removed theorems:
  3166     complex_zero_def
  3167     complex_add_def
  3168     complex_minus_def
  3169     complex_diff_def
  3170     complex_one_def
  3171     complex_mult_def
  3172     complex_inverse_def
  3173     complex_scaleR_def
  3174 
  3175 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3176 
  3177 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
  3178 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3179 
  3180 * HOL-Library: new theory src/HOL/Library/Tree.thy.
  3181 
  3182 * HOL-Library: removed theory src/HOL/Library/Kleene_Algebra.thy; it
  3183 is subsumed by session Kleene_Algebra in AFP.
  3184 
  3185 * HOL-Library / theory RBT: various constants and facts are hidden;
  3186 lifting setup is unregistered.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3187 
  3188 * HOL-Cardinals: new theory src/HOL/Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy.
  3189 
  3190 * HOL-Word: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
  3191 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3192 
  3193 * HOL-Word:
  3194   - Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a duplicate
  3195     of "word_arith_wis".
  3196   - Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
  3197     "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
  3198     "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
  3199 
  3200 * HOL-Number_Theory:
  3201   - consolidated the proofs of the binomial theorem
  3202   - the function fib is again of type nat => nat and not overloaded
  3203   - no more references to Old_Number_Theory in the HOL libraries
  3204     (except the AFP)
  3205 
  3206 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3207 
  3208 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
  3209   - Type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces.
  3210   - New theory Complex_Basic_Analysis defining complex derivatives,
  3211     holomorphic functions, etc., ported from HOL Light's canal.ml.
  3212   - Changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
  3213     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
  3214     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
  3215     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
  3216     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-)open
  3217     intervals.
  3218   - removed dependencies on type class ordered_euclidean_space with
  3219     introduction of "cbox" on euclidean_space
  3220     - renamed theorems:
  3221         interval ~> box
  3222         mem_interval ~> mem_box
  3223         interval_eq_empty ~> box_eq_empty
  3224         interval_ne_empty ~> box_ne_empty
  3225         interval_sing(1) ~> cbox_sing
  3226         interval_sing(2) ~> box_sing
  3227         subset_interval_imp ~> subset_box_imp
  3228         subset_interval ~> subset_box
  3229         open_interval ~> open_box
  3230         closed_interval ~> closed_cbox
  3231         interior_closed_interval ~> interior_cbox
  3232         bounded_closed_interval ~> bounded_cbox
  3233         compact_interval ~> compact_cbox
  3234         bounded_subset_closed_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_cbox_symmetric
  3235         bounded_subset_closed_interval ~> bounded_subset_cbox
  3236         mem_interval_componentwiseI ~> mem_box_componentwiseI
  3237         convex_box ~> convex_prod
  3238         rel_interior_real_interval ~> rel_interior_real_box
  3239         convex_interval ~> convex_box
  3240         convex_hull_eq_real_interval ~> convex_hull_eq_real_cbox
  3241         frechet_derivative_within_closed_interval ~> frechet_derivative_within_cbox
  3242         content_closed_interval' ~> content_cbox'
  3243         elementary_subset_interval ~> elementary_subset_box
  3244         diameter_closed_interval ~> diameter_cbox
  3245         frontier_closed_interval ~> frontier_cbox
  3246         frontier_open_interval ~> frontier_box
  3247         bounded_subset_open_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_box_symmetric
  3248         closure_open_interval ~> closure_box
  3249         open_closed_interval_convex ~> open_cbox_convex
  3250         open_interval_midpoint ~> box_midpoint
  3251         content_image_affinity_interval ~> content_image_affinity_cbox
  3252         is_interval_interval ~> is_interval_cbox + is_interval_box + is_interval_closed_interval
  3253         bounded_interval ~> bounded_closed_interval + bounded_boxes
  3254 
  3255     - respective theorems for intervals over the reals:
  3256         content_closed_interval + content_cbox
  3257         has_integral + has_integral_real
  3258         fine_division_exists + fine_division_exists_real
  3259         has_integral_null + has_integral_null_real
  3260         tagged_division_union_interval + tagged_division_union_interval_real
  3261         has_integral_const + has_integral_const_real
  3262         integral_const + integral_const_real
  3263         has_integral_bound + has_integral_bound_real
  3264         integrable_continuous + integrable_continuous_real
  3265         integrable_subinterval + integrable_subinterval_real
  3266         has_integral_reflect_lemma + has_integral_reflect_lemma_real
  3267         integrable_reflect + integrable_reflect_real
  3268         integral_reflect + integral_reflect_real
  3269         image_affinity_interval + image_affinity_cbox
  3270         image_smult_interval + image_smult_cbox
  3271         integrable_const + integrable_const_ivl
  3272         integrable_on_subinterval + integrable_on_subcbox
  3273 
  3274   - renamed theorems:
  3275     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
  3276     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
  3277     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
  3278 
  3279 * HOL-Probability:
  3280   - Renamed positive_integral to nn_integral:
  3281 
  3282     . Renamed all lemmas "*positive_integral*" to *nn_integral*"
  3283       positive_integral_positive ~> nn_integral_nonneg
  3284 
  3285     . Renamed abbreviation integral\<^sup>P to integral\<^sup>N.
  3286 
  3287   - replaced the Lebesgue integral on real numbers by the more general
  3288     Bochner integral for functions into a real-normed vector space.
  3289 
  3290     integral_zero               ~>  integral_zero / integrable_zero
  3291     integral_minus              ~>  integral_minus / integrable_minus
  3292     integral_add                ~>  integral_add / integrable_add
  3293     integral_diff               ~>  integral_diff / integrable_diff
  3294     integral_setsum             ~>  integral_setsum / integrable_setsum
  3295     integral_multc              ~>  integral_mult_left / integrable_mult_left
  3296     integral_cmult              ~>  integral_mult_right / integrable_mult_right
  3297     integral_triangle_inequality~>  integral_norm_bound
  3298     integrable_nonneg           ~>  integrableI_nonneg
  3299     integral_positive           ~>  integral_nonneg_AE
  3300     integrable_abs_iff          ~>  integrable_abs_cancel
  3301     positive_integral_lim_INF   ~>  nn_integral_liminf
  3302     lebesgue_real_affine        ~>  lborel_real_affine
  3303     borel_integral_has_integral ~>  has_integral_lebesgue_integral
  3304     integral_indicator          ~>
  3305          integral_real_indicator / integrable_real_indicator
  3306     positive_integral_fst       ~>  nn_integral_fst'
  3307     positive_integral_fst_measurable ~> nn_integral_fst
  3308     positive_integral_snd_measurable ~> nn_integral_snd
  3309 
  3310     integrable_fst_measurable   ~>
  3311          integral_fst / integrable_fst / AE_integrable_fst
  3312 
  3313     integrable_snd_measurable   ~>
  3314          integral_snd / integrable_snd / AE_integrable_snd
  3315 
  3316     integral_monotone_convergence  ~>
  3317          integral_monotone_convergence / integrable_monotone_convergence
  3318 
  3319     integral_monotone_convergence_at_top  ~>
  3320          integral_monotone_convergence_at_top /
  3321          integrable_monotone_convergence_at_top
  3322 
  3323     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lebesgue  ~>
  3324          has_integral_iff_has_bochner_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  3325 
  3326     lebesgue_integral_has_integral  ~>
  3327          has_integral_integrable_lebesgue_nonneg
  3328 
  3329     positive_integral_lebesgue_has_integral  ~>
  3330          integral_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg /
  3331          integrable_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  3332 
  3333     lebesgue_integral_real_affine  ~>
  3334          nn_integral_real_affine
  3335 
  3336     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lborel  ~>
  3337          integral_has_integral_nonneg / integrable_has_integral_nonneg
  3338 
  3339     The following theorems where removed:
  3340 
  3341     lebesgue_integral_nonneg
  3342     lebesgue_integral_uminus
  3343     lebesgue_integral_cmult
  3344     lebesgue_integral_multc
  3345     lebesgue_integral_cmult_nonneg
  3346     integral_cmul_indicator
  3347     integral_real
  3348 
  3349   - Formalized properties about exponentially, Erlang, and normal
  3350     distributed random variables.
  3351 
  3352 * HOL-Decision_Procs: Separate command 'approximate' for approximative
  3353 computation in src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation.  Minor
  3354 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3355 
  3356 
  3357 *** Scala ***
  3358 
  3359 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
  3360 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
  3361 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
  3362 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
  3363 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3364 
  3365 * Substantial reworking of internal PIDE protocol communication
  3366 channels.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3367 
  3368 
  3369 *** ML ***
  3370 
  3371 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
  3372 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
  3373 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
  3374 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
  3375 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
  3376 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
  3377 
  3378 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
  3379 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
  3380 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
  3381 actually belongs to it).
  3382 
  3383 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
  3384 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
  3385 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
  3386 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
  3387 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
  3388 of schematic variables.
  3389 
  3390 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
  3391 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3392 
  3393 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
  3394 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context
  3395 via "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3396 
  3397 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
  3398 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3399 
  3400 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
  3401 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
  3402 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
  3403 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3404 
  3405 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
  3406 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3407 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
  3408 formal context.
  3409 
  3410 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
  3411 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3412 
  3413 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
  3414 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
  3415 
  3416 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
  3417 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
  3418 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
  3419 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
  3420 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
  3421 
  3422 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
  3423 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
  3424 purposes.
  3425 
  3426 
  3427 *** System ***
  3428 
  3429 * Proof General with its traditional helper scripts is now an optional
  3430 Isabelle component, e.g. see ProofGeneral-4.2-2 from the Isabelle
  3431 component repository http://isabelle.in.tum.de/components/.  Note that
  3432 the "system" manual provides general explanations about add-on
  3433 components, especially those that are not bundled with the release.
  3434 
  3435 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
  3436 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
  3437 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
  3438 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
  3439 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the ISABELLE_PROCESS
  3440 settings variable.
  3441 
  3442 * Former "isabelle tty" has been superseded by "isabelle console",
  3443 with implicit build like "isabelle jedit", and without the mostly
  3444 obsolete Isar TTY loop.
  3445 
  3446 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
  3447 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
  3448 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
  3449 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
  3450 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
  3451 
  3452 * Removed obsolete "isabelle unsymbolize".  Note that the usual format
  3453 for email communication is the Unicode rendering of Isabelle symbols,
  3454 as produced by Isabelle/jEdit, for example.
  3455 
  3456 * Removed obsolete tool "wwwfind". Similar functionality may be
  3457 integrated into Isabelle/jEdit eventually.
  3458 
  3459 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
  3460 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
  3461 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
  3462 
  3463 * Session ROOT specifications require explicit 'document_files' for
  3464 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
  3465 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
  3466 processing is started.
  3467 
  3468 * Windows: support for regular TeX installation (e.g. MiKTeX) instead
  3469 of TeX Live from Cygwin.
  3470 
  3471 
  3472 
  3473 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
  3474 -------------------------------------
  3475 
  3476 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  3477 
  3478 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
  3479 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
  3480 
  3481 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
  3482 after edits surrounding the command location.
  3483 
  3484 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
  3485 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
  3486 e.g. out-of-memory).
  3487 
  3488 
  3489 *** System ***
  3490 
  3491 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
  3492 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
  3493 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
  3494 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
  3495 
  3496 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
  3497 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
  3498 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
  3499 
  3500 
  3501 
  3502 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
  3503 -------------------------------------
  3504 
  3505 *** General ***
  3506 
  3507 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
  3508 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
  3509 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3510 
  3511 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
  3512 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3513 
  3514 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
  3515 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
  3516 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
  3517 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
  3518 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
  3519 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
  3520 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
  3521 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
  3522 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
  3523 syntax.
  3524 
  3525 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
  3526 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3527 
  3528 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
  3529 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
  3530 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
  3531 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
  3532 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
  3533 
  3534 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
  3535 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3536 
  3537 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
  3538 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
  3539 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
  3540 
  3541 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
  3542 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
  3543 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
  3544 
  3545 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
  3546 eliminated old "ref" manual.
  3547 
  3548 
  3549 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  3550 
  3551 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
  3552 Documentation panel.
  3553 
  3554 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
  3555 documentation.
  3556 
  3557 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
  3558 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
  3559 
  3560 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
  3561 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
  3562 normal editing and checking process.
  3563 
  3564 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
  3565 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
  3566 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
  3567 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
  3568 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
  3569 
  3570 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
  3571 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
  3572 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
  3573 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
  3574 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
  3575 
  3576 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
  3577 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
  3578 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
  3579 
  3580 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
  3581 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
  3582 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
  3583 to resolve conflict.
  3584 
  3585 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
  3586 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
  3587 
  3588 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
  3589 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
  3590 such command executions while editing.
  3591 
  3592 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
  3593 document content.
  3594 
  3595 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
  3596 toplevel theorem statements.
  3597 
  3598 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
  3599 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
  3600 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
  3601 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
  3602 
  3603 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
  3604 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
  3605 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
  3606 
  3607 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
  3608 / Global Options / Appearance".
  3609 
  3610 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
  3611 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
  3612 
  3613 
  3614 *** Pure ***
  3615 
  3616 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
  3617 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
  3618 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
  3619 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
  3620 details.
  3621 
  3622 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
  3623 
  3624 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
  3625 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
  3626 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
  3627 
  3628 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
  3629 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3630 
  3631 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
  3632 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
  3633 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
  3634 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3635 
  3636 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
  3637 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
  3638 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3639 
  3640 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
  3641 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
  3642 
  3643 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
  3644 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
  3645 situations.
  3646 
  3647 
  3648 *** HOL ***
  3649 
  3650 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
  3651 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
  3652 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3653 
  3654 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
  3655 
  3656 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
  3657 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
  3658 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
  3659 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
  3660 
  3661   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
  3662 
  3663 * Code generator:
  3664   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
  3665     'code_instance'.
  3666   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
  3667     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
  3668 
  3669 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
  3670 examples.
  3671 
  3672 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
  3673 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
  3674 to distinguish both when desired.
  3675 
  3676 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
  3677 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
  3678 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
  3679 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3680 
  3681 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
  3682 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
  3683 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
  3684 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
  3685 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
  3686 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3687 
  3688 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
  3689 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
  3690 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3691 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
  3692 
  3693 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
  3694 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
  3695 
  3696 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
  3697 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
  3698 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
  3699 
  3700 * Lifting:
  3701   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
  3702     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
  3703       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
  3704       transfer rules
  3705     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
  3706       correspondence relation can be generated
  3707     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
  3708       parametricity
  3709     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
  3710   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
  3711   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
  3712     copies
  3713   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
  3714     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
  3715     anonymous context)
  3716   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
  3717     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  3718   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
  3719     lifting_forget, lifting_update
  3720   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
  3721     INCOMPATIBILITY
  3722 
  3723 * Transfer:
  3724   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
  3725     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
  3726   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
  3727   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
  3728     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
  3729   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
  3730 
  3731 * Reification and reflection:
  3732   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
  3733     "Reification".
  3734   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
  3735   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
  3736 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3737 
  3738 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
  3739   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
  3740     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  3741     This is now identity on infinite sets.
  3742   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
  3743     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
  3744   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
  3745     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
  3746     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
  3747     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
  3748     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
  3749     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
  3750     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
  3751     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
  3752   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
  3753     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
  3754   - Fact renames:
  3755       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
  3756       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
  3757 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3758 
  3759 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
  3760 
  3761 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
  3762 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
  3763 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
  3764 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3765 
  3766 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
  3767 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
  3768 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
  3769 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
  3770 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
  3771 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
  3772 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
  3773 lemmas.
  3774 
  3775 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
  3776 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
  3777 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3778 
  3779 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
  3780 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3781 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  3782 
  3783 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  3784 top and bottom elements.
  3785 
  3786 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  3787 
  3788 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  3789 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  3790 
  3791  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  3792    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  3793    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  3794 
  3795  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  3796    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  3797    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  3798 
  3799    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  3800    arbitrary filter.
  3801 
  3802  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  3803    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  3804    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  3805    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  3806    on a compact set.
  3807 
  3808  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  3809    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  3810    linear_continuum_topology).
  3811 
  3812  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  3813    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  3814    on all sequences converging to x.
  3815 
  3816  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  3817    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  3818    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  3819    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  3820    left or right.
  3821 
  3822  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  3823 
  3824      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  3825 
  3826  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  3827    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  3828 
  3829  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  3830    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  3831    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  3832    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  3833    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  3834    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  3835 
  3836  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  3837 
  3838    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  3839 
  3840    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  3841      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  3842 
  3843    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  3844 
  3845    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  3846      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  3847 
  3848    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  3849 
  3850    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  3851 
  3852  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  3853 
  3854 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3855 
  3856 * Nitpick:
  3857   - Added option "spy".
  3858   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  3859 
  3860 * Sledgehammer:
  3861   - Renamed option:
  3862       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  3863     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3864   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  3865   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  3866   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  3867 
  3868 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  3869 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  3870 
  3871 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  3872   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  3873   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  3874     generated code.
  3875   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  3876   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  3877   - Fact renames:
  3878     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  3879     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  3880     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  3881 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  3882 
  3883 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  3884 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  3885 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  3886 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  3887 
  3888 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  3889 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  3890 
  3891 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3892 
  3893 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  3894 
  3895     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  3896     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  3897 
  3898 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3899 
  3900 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  3901 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  3902 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  3903 
  3904 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  3905 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  3906 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  3907 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3908 
  3909 * HOL-BNF:
  3910   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  3911     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  3912     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  3913     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  3914   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  3915     coinduct).
  3916   - Renamed keywords:
  3917     data ~> datatype_new
  3918     codata ~> codatatype
  3919     bnf_def ~> bnf
  3920   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  3921     discs ~> disc
  3922     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  3923     map_id' ~> map_id
  3924     sels ~> sel
  3925     set_map' ~> set_map
  3926     sets ~> set
  3927 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  3928 
  3929 
  3930 *** ML ***
  3931 
  3932 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  3933 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  3934 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  3935 Examples.thy in particular.
  3936 
  3937 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  3938 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  3939 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  3940 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  3941 
  3942 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  3943 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  3944 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  3945 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  3946 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3947 
  3948 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  3949 
  3950     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  3951     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  3952 
  3953 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3954 
  3955 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  3956 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  3957 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  3958 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  3959 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  3960 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  3961 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  3962 
  3963 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  3964 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  3965 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  3966 clasets separately from the context.
  3967 
  3968 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  3969 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  3970 
  3971 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  3972 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  3973 
  3974 
  3975 *** System ***
  3976 
  3977 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  3978 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3979 
  3980 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  3981 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3982 
  3983 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  3984 settings variable.
  3985 
  3986 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  3987 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  3988 always pdf.
  3989 
  3990 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  3991 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  3992 
  3993 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  3994 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  3995 
  3996 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  3997 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  3998 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  3999 
  4000 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  4001 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  4002 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  4003 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  4004 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  4005 for HTML presentation of theories.
  4006 
  4007 
  4008 
  4009 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  4010 -----------------------------------
  4011 
  4012 *** General ***
  4013 
  4014 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  4015 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  4016 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  4017 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  4018 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  4019 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  4020 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  4021 
  4022 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  4023 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  4024 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  4025 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  4026 
  4027 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  4028 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  4029 
  4030 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  4031 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  4032 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  4033 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  4034 dependencies properly.
  4035 
  4036 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  4037 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  4038 
  4039 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  4040 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  4041 
  4042 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  4043 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  4044 and "class ... context ...".
  4045 
  4046 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  4047 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  4048 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  4049 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  4050 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  4051 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  4052 
  4053 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  4054 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  4055 
  4056 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  4057 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  4058 
  4059 
  4060 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  4061 
  4062 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  4063 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  4064 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  4065 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  4066 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  4067 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  4068 
  4069 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  4070 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  4071 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  4072 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  4073 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  4074 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  4075 
  4076 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  4077 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  4078 browser on demand.
  4079 
  4080 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  4081 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  4082 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  4083 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  4084 
  4085 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  4086 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  4087 
  4088 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  4089 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  4090 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  4091 potentially infinite message streams.
  4092 
  4093 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  4094 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  4095 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  4096 schemes.
  4097 
  4098 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  4099 symbols.
  4100 
  4101 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  4102 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  4103 
  4104 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  4105 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  4106 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  4107 
  4108 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  4109 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  4110 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  4111 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  4112 
  4113 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  4114 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  4115 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  4116 
  4117 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  4118 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  4119 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  4120 Isabelle distribution.
  4121 
  4122 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  4123 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  4124 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  4125 
  4126 
  4127 *** Pure ***
  4128 
  4129 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  4130 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  4131 
  4132 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  4133 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  4134 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4135 
  4136 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4137 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  4138 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  4139 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  4140 with some care where this is really required.
  4141 
  4142 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  4143 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  4144 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  4145 
  4146   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  4147 
  4148 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  4149 a Hasse diagram.
  4150 
  4151 
  4152 *** HOL ***
  4153 
  4154 * Sledgehammer:
  4155 
  4156   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  4157     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  4158   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  4159   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  4160   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  4161   - Renamed options:
  4162       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  4163       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  4164       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  4165       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  4166 
  4167 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  4168 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  4169 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  4170 
  4171 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  4172 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4173 
  4174 * Lifting:
  4175   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  4176   - quot_del attribute
  4177   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  4178 
  4179 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  4180 expressions.
  4181 
  4182 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  4183 pointfree expressions.
  4184 
  4185 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  4186 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  4187 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  4188 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  4189 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4190 
  4191 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  4192 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  4193 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  4194 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  4195 accordingly.
  4196 
  4197 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  4198 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4199 
  4200 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  4201 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4202 
  4203 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4204 
  4205 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  4206 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  4207 
  4208 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  4209 
  4210 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  4211 
  4212   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  4213   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  4214 
  4215 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4216 
  4217 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  4218 
  4219   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  4220   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  4221 
  4222 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4223 
  4224 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  4225 
  4226   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  4227     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  4228     output f x converges to G.
  4229 
  4230   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  4231     infinity (at_bot).
  4232 
  4233   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  4234     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  4235 
  4236   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  4237     at_top".
  4238 
  4239 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4240 
  4241 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  4242 lattice type classes.
  4243 
  4244 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  4245 
  4246     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  4247     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  4248 
  4249 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4250 
  4251 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  4252 changes as follows.
  4253 
  4254   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  4255 
  4256       prefix ~> prefixeq
  4257       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  4258 
  4259   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  4260     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  4261     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  4262     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  4263 
  4264   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  4265     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  4266     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  4267 
  4268   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  4269     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  4270     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  4271     Library/Prefix_Order.
  4272 
  4273   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  4274     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  4275 
  4276       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  4277       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  4278       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  4279       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  4280       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  4281       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  4282       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  4283       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  4284       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  4285       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  4286       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  4287       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  4288       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  4289       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  4290       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  4291       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  4292 
  4293 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4294 
  4295 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  4296 
  4297 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  4298 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  4299 
  4300 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  4301 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  4302 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  4303 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  4304 
  4305   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  4306   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  4307   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  4308   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  4309   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  4310   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  4311   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  4312   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  4313   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  4314   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  4315 
  4316 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4317 
  4318 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  4319 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  4320 Data").
  4321 
  4322 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  4323 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  4324 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  4325 code.
  4326 
  4327 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  4328 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  4329 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  4330 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4331 
  4332 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  4333 
  4334 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  4335 
  4336 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  4337 
  4338   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  4339   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  4340 
  4341 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  4342 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  4343 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  4344 
  4345   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  4346 
  4347     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  4348     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  4349     cart_base i  removed
  4350     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  4351 
  4352   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  4353 
  4354   Renamed lemmas:
  4355 
  4356     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  4357     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  4358     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  4359     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  4360     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  4361     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  4362     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  4363     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  4364     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  4365     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  4366 
  4367 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4368 
  4369 * HOL/Probability:
  4370 
  4371   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  4372 
  4373   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  4374     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  4375     (borel_measurable_induct).
  4376 
  4377   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  4378     projective family).
  4379 
  4380 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  4381 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  4382 
  4383 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  4384 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  4385 datatypes.
  4386 
  4387 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  4388 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  4389 
  4390 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  4391 trees for the code generator.
  4392 
  4393 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  4394 Lifting/Transfer.
  4395 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4396 
  4397 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  4398 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4399 
  4400 
  4401 *** Document preparation ***
  4402 
  4403 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  4404 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  4405 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  4406 
  4407 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  4408 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  4409 
  4410 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  4411 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  4412 document/root.tex.
  4413 
  4414 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  4415 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4416 
  4417 
  4418 *** ML ***
  4419 
  4420 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  4421 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  4422 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  4423 
  4424 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  4425 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  4426 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  4427 
  4428 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  4429 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  4430 necessarily printing visible text.
  4431 
  4432 
  4433 *** System ***
  4434 
  4435 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  4436 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  4437 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  4438 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  4439 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  4440 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  4441 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  4442 
  4443 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  4444 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  4445 
  4446   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  4447 
  4448 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  4449 
  4450 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  4451 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  4452 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  4453 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  4454 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  4455 
  4456 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  4457 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  4458 
  4459 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  4460 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  4461 
  4462 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  4463 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4464 
  4465 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  4466 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  4467 version of Isabelle.
  4468 
  4469 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  4470 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  4471 
  4472 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  4473 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  4474 for home-made settings.
  4475 
  4476 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  4477 
  4478 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  4479 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  4480 configuration.
  4481 
  4482 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  4483 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  4484 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  4485 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  4486 bundled as Isabelle component.
  4487 
  4488 
  4489 
  4490 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  4491 ------------------------------
  4492 
  4493 *** General ***
  4494 
  4495 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  4496 
  4497   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  4498     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  4499   - markup for bound variables
  4500   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  4501   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  4502   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  4503     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  4504 
  4505 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  4506 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  4507 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  4508 
  4509 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  4510 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  4511 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  4512 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  4513 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  4514 
  4515   context
  4516     fixes x y z :: 'a
  4517     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  4518   begin
  4519 
  4520   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  4521 
  4522   end
  4523 
  4524   thm my_trans
  4525 
  4526 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  4527 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  4528 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  4529 
  4530 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  4531 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  4532 
  4533 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  4534 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  4535 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  4536 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  4537 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  4538 
  4539 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  4540 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  4541 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  4542 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  4543 indices of schematic variables.
  4544 
  4545 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  4546 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  4547 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  4548 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  4549 etc. was exploited.
  4550 
  4551 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  4552 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  4553 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  4554 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  4555 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  4556 of the material of that old tutorial.
  4557 
  4558 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  4559 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  4560 manual.
  4561 
  4562 
  4563 *** Pure ***
  4564 
  4565 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  4566 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  4567 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  4568 
  4569 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  4570 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  4571 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  4572 undocumented feature.)
  4573 
  4574 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  4575 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  4576 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  4577 
  4578   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  4579 
  4580   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  4581     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  4582 
  4583 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  4584 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  4585 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  4586 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  4587 
  4588 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  4589 
  4590     num ~> num_token
  4591     xnum ~> xnum_token
  4592     xstr ~> str_token
  4593 
  4594 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  4595 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  4596 position information via constraints).
  4597 
  4598 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  4599 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  4600 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4601 
  4602 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  4603 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  4604 
  4605 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  4606 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  4607 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4608 
  4609 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  4610 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4611 
  4612 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  4613 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  4614 
  4615   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  4616 
  4617 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4618 
  4619 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  4620 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4621 
  4622 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  4623 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  4624 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  4625 
  4626 
  4627 *** HOL ***
  4628 
  4629 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  4630 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  4631 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  4632 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  4633 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  4634 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  4635 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  4636 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  4637 possible.
  4638 
  4639 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  4640 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  4641 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  4642 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  4643 
  4644 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  4645 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4646 
  4647 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  4648 
  4649 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  4650 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  4651 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  4652 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  4653 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  4654 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  4655 
  4656   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  4657     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  4658 
  4659   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  4660     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  4661     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  4662 
  4663   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  4664     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  4665 
  4666   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  4667     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  4668     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  4669 
  4670   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  4671     Redefine using other integer operations.
  4672 
  4673 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  4674 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  4675 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  4676 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  4677 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  4678 
  4679   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  4680     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  4681     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  4682     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  4683     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  4684 
  4685     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  4686     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  4687 
  4688   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  4689     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  4690     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  4691     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  4692     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  4693     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  4694     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  4695     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  4696 
  4697   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  4698     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  4699     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  4700     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  4701 
  4702   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  4703     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  4704     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  4705     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  4706 
  4707   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  4708     from type nat to type int.
  4709 
  4710 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  4711 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  4712 
  4713   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  4714     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  4715     type.  Example syntax:
  4716 
  4717     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  4718       is List.insert
  4719 
  4720     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  4721     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  4722     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  4723     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  4724     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  4725     by the package.
  4726 
  4727   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  4728     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  4729     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  4730     code generation for each constant.
  4731 
  4732   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  4733     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  4734     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  4735     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  4736     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  4737 
  4738   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  4739     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  4740     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  4741 
  4742 * Quotient package:
  4743 
  4744   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  4745     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  4746 
  4747   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  4748     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  4749 
  4750   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  4751     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  4752     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4753 
  4754   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  4755     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4756 
  4757 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  4758 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  4759 
  4760 * Quickcheck:
  4761 
  4762   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  4763     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  4764     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  4765     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  4766     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  4767 
  4768     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  4769     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  4770     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  4771 
  4772     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  4773     continues searching for genuine ones.
  4774 
  4775     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  4776     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  4777     show genuine counterexamples.
  4778 
  4779   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  4780     value generators for a given type and operations.
  4781 
  4782     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  4783     constructors of that type.
  4784 
  4785   - Support for multisets.
  4786 
  4787   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  4788 
  4789   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  4790     conjectures in a locale context.
  4791 
  4792 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  4793 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  4794 
  4795 * Sledgehammer:
  4796   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  4797     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  4798   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  4799   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  4800     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  4801   - Sped up the minimizer.
  4802   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  4803   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  4804   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  4805 
  4806 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  4807 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  4808 
  4809 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  4810 
  4811 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4812 
  4813 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  4814 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  4815 
  4816   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  4817 
  4818 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  4819 a list and a nat.
  4820 
  4821 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  4822 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  4823 
  4824 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  4825 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  4826 default.
  4827 
  4828 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  4829 
  4830   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  4831 
  4832 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  4833 
  4834 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  4835 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  4836 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  4837 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  4838 one_case.
  4839 
  4840 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  4841 the result of the fact expression.
  4842 
  4843 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  4844 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  4845 of some relation theorems:
  4846 
  4847   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  4848   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  4849   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  4850   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  4851   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  4852   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  4853 
  4854 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  4855 
  4856 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  4857 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  4858 
  4859 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4860 
  4861 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  4862 to match the constant's name:
  4863 
  4864   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  4865   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  4866   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  4867   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  4868   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  4869   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  4870   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  4871   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  4872   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  4873   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  4874   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  4875   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  4876   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  4877   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  4878   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  4879   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  4880   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  4881   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  4882   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  4883   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  4884   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  4885   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  4886   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  4887   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  4888 
  4889 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4890 
  4891 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  4892 and corresponding theorem names:
  4893 
  4894   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  4895 
  4896   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  4897 
  4898   - Renamed theorems:
  4899 
  4900     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  4901     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  4902     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  4903     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  4904     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  4905     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  4906     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  4907     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  4908     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  4909     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  4910     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  4911     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  4912     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  4913     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  4914     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  4915     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  4916     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  4917     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  4918     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  4919     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  4920     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  4921     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  4922     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  4923 
  4924     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  4925 
  4926     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  4927 
  4928 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4929 
  4930 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  4931 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  4932 
  4933   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  4934   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  4935   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  4936   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  4937   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  4938   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  4939   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  4940   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  4941   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  4942   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  4943   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  4944   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  4945   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  4946   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  4947   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  4948   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  4949   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  4950   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  4951   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  4952   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  4953   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  4954 
  4955 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  4956 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4957 
  4958 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4959 
  4960 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  4961 
  4962   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  4963   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  4964   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  4965   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  4966   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  4967   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  4968   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  4969   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  4970   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  4971   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  4972   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  4973   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  4974   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  4975   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  4976   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  4977   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  4978   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  4979   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  4980 
  4981 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4982 
  4983 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  4984 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  4985 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  4986 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  4987 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  4988 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  4989 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  4990 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  4991 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  4992 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  4993 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  4994 
  4995 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  4996 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  4997 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  4998 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  4999 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  5000 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  5001 
  5002 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  5003 through option types.
  5004 
  5005 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  5006 relations.
  5007 
  5008 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5009 
  5010 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  5011 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  5012 
  5013   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  5014   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  5015   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  5016   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  5017   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  5018   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  5019   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  5020   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  5021   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  5022   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  5023   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  5024   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  5025   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  5026   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  5027   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  5028   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  5029   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  5030   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  5031   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  5032   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  5033   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  5034   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  5035   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  5036   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  5037   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  5038   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  5039   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  5040   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  5041   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  5042   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  5043   zless_le ~> less_le
  5044   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  5045   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  5046   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  5047 
  5048 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  5049 
  5050   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  5051 
  5052 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  5053 
  5054 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  5055 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  5056 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  5057 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  5058 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5059 
  5060 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5061 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  5062 
  5063 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  5064 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  5065 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  5066 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  5067 follows:
  5068 
  5069   Operations:
  5070   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  5071   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  5072   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  5073   del -> rbt_del
  5074   delete -> rbt_delete
  5075   ins -> rbt_ins
  5076   insert -> rbt_insert
  5077   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  5078   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  5079   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  5080   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  5081   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  5082   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  5083   tree_less -> rbt_less
  5084   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  5085   union -> rbt_union
  5086   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  5087   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  5088 
  5089   Lemmas:
  5090   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  5091   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  5092   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  5093   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  5094   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  5095   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  5096   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  5097   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  5098   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  5099   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  5100   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  5101   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  5102   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  5103   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  5104   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  5105   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  5106   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  5107   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  5108   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  5109   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  5110   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  5111   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  5112   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  5113   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  5114   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  5115   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  5116   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  5117   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  5118   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  5119   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  5120   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  5121   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  5122   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  5123   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  5124   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  5125   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  5126   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  5127   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  5128   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  5129   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  5130   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  5131   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  5132   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  5133   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  5134   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  5135   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  5136   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  5137   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  5138   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  5139   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  5140   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  5141   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  5142   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  5143   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  5144   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  5145   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  5146   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  5147   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  5148   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  5149   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  5150   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  5151   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  5152   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  5153   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  5154   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  5155   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  5156   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  5157   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  5158   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  5159   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  5160   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  5161   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  5162   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  5163   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  5164   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  5165   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  5166   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  5167   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  5168   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  5169   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  5170   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  5171   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  5172   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  5173 
  5174 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  5175 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  5176 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5177 
  5178   Changed Operations:
  5179   float_abs -> abs
  5180   float_nprt -> nprt
  5181   float_pprt -> pprt
  5182   pow2 -> use powr
  5183   round_down -> float_round_down
  5184   round_up -> float_round_up
  5185   scale -> exponent
  5186 
  5187   Removed Operations:
  5188   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  5189 
  5190   Renamed Lemmas:
  5191   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  5192   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  5193   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  5194   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  5195   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  5196   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  5197   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  5198   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  5199   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  5200   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  5201   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  5202   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  5203   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  5204   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  5205   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  5206   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  5207   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  5208   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  5209   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  5210   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  5211   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  5212   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  5213   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  5214   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  5215   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  5216   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  5217   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  5218   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  5219   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  5220   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  5221   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  5222   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  5223   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  5224   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  5225   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  5226   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  5227 
  5228   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  5229   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  5230   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  5231   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  5232   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  5233   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  5234   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  5235   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  5236   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  5237   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  5238 
  5239 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  5240 association lists with distinct keys.
  5241 
  5242 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  5243 annotated commands.
  5244 
  5245 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  5246 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  5247 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  5248 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5249 
  5250 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  5251 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  5252 instead.
  5253 
  5254   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  5255   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  5256   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  5257   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  5258   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  5259   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  5260   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  5261   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  5262   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  5263   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  5264   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  5265   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  5266   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  5267   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  5268   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  5269   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  5270   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  5271   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  5272   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  5273   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  5274   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  5275   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  5276   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  5277   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  5278   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  5279   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  5280   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  5281   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  5282   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  5283   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  5284   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  5285   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  5286   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  5287   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  5288   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  5289   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  5290   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  5291   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  5292   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  5293   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  5294   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  5295 
  5296 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  5297 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  5298 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  5299 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  5300 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  5301 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  5302 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  5303 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  5304 
  5305 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  5306 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  5307 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  5308 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  5309 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  5310 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  5311 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  5312 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  5313 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  5314 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  5315 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  5316 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5317 
  5318   Renamed constants:
  5319   measure -> emeasure
  5320   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  5321   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  5322   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  5323   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  5324 
  5325   Removed locales:
  5326   completeable_measure_space
  5327   finite_measure_space
  5328   finite_prob_space
  5329   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  5330   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  5331   finite_sigma_algebra
  5332   measure_space
  5333   pair_finite_prob_space
  5334   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  5335   pair_finite_space
  5336   pair_sigma_algebra
  5337   product_sigma_algebra
  5338 
  5339   Removed constants:
  5340   conditional_space
  5341   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  5342   image_space
  5343   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  5344   pair_measure_generator
  5345   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  5346   subvimage
  5347 
  5348   Replacement theorems:
  5349   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  5350   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  5351   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  5352   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  5353   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  5354   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  5355   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  5356   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  5357   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  5358   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  5359   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  5360   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  5361   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  5362   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  5363   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  5364   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  5365   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  5366   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  5367   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  5368   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  5369   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  5370   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  5371   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  5372   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  5373   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  5374   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  5375   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  5376   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  5377   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  5378   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  5379   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  5380   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  5381   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  5382   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  5383   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  5384   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  5385   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  5386   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  5387   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  5388   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  5389   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  5390   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  5391   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  5392   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  5393   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  5394   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  5395   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  5396   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  5397   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  5398   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  5399   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  5400   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  5401   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  5402   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  5403   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  5404   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  5405   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  5406   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  5407   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  5408   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  5409   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  5410   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  5411   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  5412   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  5413   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  5414   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  5415   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  5416   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  5417   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  5418   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  5419   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  5420   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  5421   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  5422   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  5423   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  5424   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  5425   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  5426   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  5427   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  5428   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  5429   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  5430   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  5431   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  5432   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  5433   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  5434   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  5435   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  5436   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  5437   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  5438   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  5439   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  5440   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  5441   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  5442   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  5443   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  5444   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  5445   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  5446   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  5447   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  5448   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  5449   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  5450   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  5451   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  5452   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  5453   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  5454   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  5455   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  5456   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  5457   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  5458   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  5459   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  5460   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  5461   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  5462   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  5463   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  5464   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  5465   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  5466   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  5467   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  5468   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  5469   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  5470   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  5471   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  5472   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  5473   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  5474   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  5475   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  5476   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  5477 
  5478 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  5479 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  5480 
  5481 
  5482 *** FOL ***
  5483 
  5484 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  5485 
  5486 
  5487 *** ZF ***
  5488 
  5489 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  5490 analysis.
  5491 
  5492 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  5493 
  5494 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5495 
  5496 
  5497 *** ML ***
  5498 
  5499 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  5500 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  5501 
  5502 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  5503 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  5504 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  5505 
  5506 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  5507 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  5508 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  5509 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  5510 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  5511 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  5512 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  5513 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  5514 
  5515 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  5516 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  5517 
  5518 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  5519 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  5520 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  5521 
  5522 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  5523 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5524 
  5525 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  5526 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  5527 context as well.
  5528 
  5529 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  5530 
  5531   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  5532   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  5533   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  5534   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  5535   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  5536   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  5537   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  5538   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  5539   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  5540   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  5541   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  5542   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  5543 
  5544 
  5545 *** System ***
  5546 
  5547 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  5548 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  5549 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  5550 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  5551 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  5552 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  5553 the generic user home was intended.
  5554 
  5555 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  5556 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  5557 
  5558 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  5559 (not just JRE).
  5560 
  5561 
  5562 
  5563 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  5564 ------------------------------------
  5565 
  5566 *** General ***
  5567 
  5568 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  5569 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  5570 
  5571   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  5572     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  5573     files for checking).
  5574 
  5575   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  5576     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  5577     positions.
  5578 
  5579   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  5580     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  5581     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  5582 
  5583   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  5584     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  5585     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  5586 
  5587   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  5588     cores.
  5589 
  5590   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  5591     versions (garbage collection).
  5592 
  5593 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  5594 including some remaining limitations.
  5595 
  5596 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  5597 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  5598 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  5599 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  5600 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  5601 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5602 
  5603 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  5604 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  5605 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  5606 
  5607 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  5608 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  5609 usedir option -Q.
  5610 
  5611 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  5612 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  5613 
  5614   long_names   ~> names_long
  5615   short_names  ~> names_short
  5616   unique_names ~> names_unique
  5617 
  5618 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  5619 
  5620   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  5621 
  5622 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  5623 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  5624 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  5625 
  5626 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  5627 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  5628 
  5629 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  5630   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  5631   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  5632   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  5633     "Classical Reasoner".
  5634 
  5635 
  5636 *** HOL ***
  5637 
  5638 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  5639 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5640 
  5641 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  5642 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  5643 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  5644 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  5645 class complete_linorder.
  5646 
  5647 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  5648 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  5649 
  5650 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  5651 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  5652 
  5653   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  5654   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  5655   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  5656   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  5657   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  5658   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  5659   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  5660   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  5661   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  5662   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  5663   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  5664 
  5665 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  5666 
  5667   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  5668   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  5669   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  5670   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  5671   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  5672   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  5673   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  5674   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  5675   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  5676   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  5677   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  5678   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  5679   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  5680   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  5681   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  5682   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  5683 
  5684 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5685 
  5686 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  5687 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5688 
  5689 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  5690 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  5691 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  5692 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5693 
  5694 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  5695 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  5696 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  5697 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5698 
  5699 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  5700 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  5701 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  5702 
  5703 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  5704 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  5705 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5706 
  5707 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  5708 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  5709 
  5710 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  5711 
  5712     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  5713     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  5714 
  5715 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  5716 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5717 
  5718 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  5719 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5720 
  5721 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  5722 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  5723 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  5724 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5725 
  5726   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  5727   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  5728   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  5729   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  5730   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  5731   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  5732   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  5733 
  5734 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  5735 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5736 
  5737   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  5738   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  5739   real_less_def ~> less_le
  5740   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  5741   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  5742   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  5743   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  5744   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  5745   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  5746   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  5747   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  5748   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  5749   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  5750   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  5751   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  5752   real_le_linear ~> linear
  5753   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  5754   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  5755   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  5756   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  5757   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  5758   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  5759   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  5760   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  5761   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  5762   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  5763   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  5764   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  5765   expi_add ~> exp_add
  5766   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  5767   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  5768   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  5769   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  5770   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  5771   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  5772   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  5773   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  5774   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  5775   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  5776   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  5777   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  5778   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  5779   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  5780   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  5781   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  5782   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  5783   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  5784   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  5785   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  5786   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  5787   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  5788   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  5789   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  5790   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  5791   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  5792   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  5793   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  5794   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  5795   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  5796   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  5797   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  5798   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  5799   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  5800   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  5801   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  5802   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  5803   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  5804   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  5805   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  5806   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  5807   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  5808   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  5809   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  5810   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  5811   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  5812   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  5813   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  5814   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  5815   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  5816   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  5817   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  5818   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  5819 
  5820 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  5821 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  5822 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  5823 
  5824 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  5825 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  5826 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  5827 
  5828 * Code generation:
  5829 
  5830   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  5831     characters in the target language.
  5832 
  5833   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  5834     instead.
  5835 
  5836   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  5837 
  5838   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  5839     reactivated by the following theory command:
  5840 
  5841       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  5842 
  5843 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5844 
  5845 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  5846 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  5847 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  5848 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  5849 syntax.
  5850 
  5851 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  5852 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  5853 
  5854 * Nitpick:
  5855   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  5856   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  5857   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  5858     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5859 
  5860 * Sledgehammer:
  5861   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  5862   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  5863     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  5864   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  5865     this can be done within reasonable time.
  5866   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  5867     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5868   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  5869     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  5870   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  5871     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5872 
  5873 * Metis:
  5874   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5875   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  5876     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5877 
  5878 * Command 'try':
  5879   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  5880     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5881   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  5882     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  5883 
  5884 * Quickcheck:
  5885   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  5886     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  5887   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  5888     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  5889   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  5890     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  5891     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  5892     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  5893   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  5894     (formly in HOL/Library).
  5895 
  5896 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5897 use 'partial_function' instead.
  5898 
  5899 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  5900 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  5901 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  5902 
  5903 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  5904 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  5905 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5906 
  5907 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  5908 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5909 
  5910 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  5911 arithmetic.
  5912 
  5913 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  5914 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  5915 and lattice type classes.
  5916 
  5917 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  5918 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  5919 
  5920 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  5921 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  5922 
  5923 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  5924 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  5925 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5926 
  5927   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  5928   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  5929   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  5930   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  5931 
  5932 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  5933 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  5934 constants:
  5935 
  5936   type inat   ~> type enat
  5937   Fin         ~> enat
  5938   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  5939   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  5940   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  5941 
  5942 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  5943 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5944 
  5945 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  5946 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  5947 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  5948 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  5949 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  5950 
  5951 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  5952 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  5953 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  5954 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  5955 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  5956 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  5957 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5958 
  5959   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  5960   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  5961   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  5962   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  5963 
  5964 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  5965 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  5966 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5967 
  5968   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  5969   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  5970   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  5971   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  5972   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  5973   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  5974   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  5975   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  5976   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  5977   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  5978   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  5979   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  5980   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  5981   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  5982   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  5983   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  5984   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  5985   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  5986   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  5987   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  5988   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  5989   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  5990   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  5991   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  5992   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  5993   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  5994   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  5995   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  5996   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  5997   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  5998   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  5999   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  6000   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  6001   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  6002   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  6003   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  6004   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  6005   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  6006   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  6007   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  6008   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  6009   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  6010   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  6011   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  6012   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  6013   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  6014   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  6015   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  6016   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  6017   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  6018   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  6019 
  6020 * Session HOL-Probability:
  6021   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  6022   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  6023   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  6024   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  6025     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6026 
  6027 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6028 
  6029   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  6030   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  6031   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  6032   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  6033   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  6034   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  6035   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  6036   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  6037   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  6038   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  6039   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  6040   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  6041   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  6042   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  6043   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  6044   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  6045   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  6046   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  6047   UU_I ~> bottomI
  6048   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  6049   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  6050   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  6051   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  6052   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  6053   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  6054 
  6055 
  6056 *** Document preparation ***
  6057 
  6058 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  6059 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  6060 same.
  6061 
  6062 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  6063 result.
  6064 
  6065 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  6066 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  6067 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  6068 
  6069 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  6070 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  6071 
  6072 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  6073 like this:
  6074 
  6075   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  6076   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  6077 
  6078 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  6079 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  6080 layouts.
  6081 
  6082 
  6083 *** ML ***
  6084 
  6085 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  6086 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  6087 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  6088 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  6089 under external program control.
  6090 
  6091 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  6092 data, which requires explicit setup.
  6093 
  6094 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  6095 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  6096 (better known as Proof General).
  6097 
  6098 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  6099 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  6100 
  6101 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  6102 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  6103 
  6104 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  6105 (including quotes etc.).
  6106 
  6107 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  6108 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  6109 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  6110 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  6111 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  6112 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  6113 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  6114 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  6115 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  6116 
  6117 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  6118 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  6119 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  6120 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  6121 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  6122 
  6123 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  6124 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  6125 
  6126 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  6127 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  6128 
  6129 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  6130 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  6131 
  6132 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  6133 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  6134 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  6135 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  6136 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  6137 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  6138 proper Proof.context.
  6139 
  6140 
  6141 *** System ***
  6142 
  6143 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  6144 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  6145 
  6146 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  6147 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  6148 
  6149 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  6150 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  6151 
  6152   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  6153   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  6154   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  6155   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  6156   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  6157 
  6158 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  6159 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6160 
  6161 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  6162 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  6163 example:
  6164 
  6165   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  6166 
  6167 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  6168 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  6169 
  6170 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  6171 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  6172 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  6173 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  6174 
  6175 
  6176 
  6177 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  6178 ----------------------------------
  6179 
  6180 *** General ***
  6181 
  6182 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  6183 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  6184 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  6185 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  6186 like this:
  6187 
  6188   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  6189 
  6190 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  6191 
  6192 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  6193 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  6194 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  6195 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  6196 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  6197 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  6198 
  6199 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  6200 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  6201 the following package declarations:
  6202 
  6203   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  6204   \usepackage{textcomp}
  6205 
  6206 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  6207 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  6208 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  6209 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  6210 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  6211 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  6212 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  6213 
  6214 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  6215 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  6216 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  6217 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  6218 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  6219 
  6220 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  6221 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  6222 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  6223 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6224 
  6225 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  6226 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  6227 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  6228 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  6229 
  6230   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  6231 
  6232   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  6233   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  6234   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  6235   show_types                    show_types
  6236   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  6237   show_consts                   show_consts
  6238   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  6239 
  6240   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  6241   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  6242   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  6243 
  6244   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  6245   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  6246 
  6247   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  6248 
  6249   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  6250   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  6251   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  6252   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  6253   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  6254 
  6255 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  6256 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  6257 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  6258 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  6259 
  6260 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  6261 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6262 
  6263   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace