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doc-src/Tutorial/basics.tex

author | wenzelm |

Sat, 01 Jul 2000 19:49:20 +0200 | |

changeset 9226 | cbe6144f0f15 |

parent 6691 | 8a1b5f9d8420 |

child 9255 | 2ceb11a2e190 |

permissions | -rw-r--r-- |

tuned;

\chapter{Basic Concepts} \section{Introduction} This is a tutorial on how to use Isabelle/HOL as a specification and verification system. Isabelle is a generic system for implementing logical formalisms, and Isabelle/HOL is the specialization of Isabelle for HOL, which abbreviates Higher-Order Logic. We introduce HOL step by step following the equation \[ \mbox{HOL} = \mbox{Functional Programming} + \mbox{Logic}. \] We assume that the reader is familiar with the basic concepts of both fields. For excellent introductions to functional programming consult the textbooks by Bird and Wadler~\cite{Bird-Wadler} or Paulson~\cite{paulson-ml2}. Although this tutorial initially concentrates on functional programming, do not be misled: HOL can express most mathematical concepts, and functional programming is just one particularly simple and ubiquitous instance. A tutorial is by definition incomplete. To fully exploit the power of the system you need to consult the Isabelle Reference Manual~\cite{isabelle-ref} for details about Isabelle and the Isabelle/HOL manual~\cite{isabelle-HOL} for details relating to HOL. Both manuals have a comprehensive index. \section{Theories, proofs and interaction} \label{sec:Basic:Theories} Working with Isabelle means creating two different kinds of documents: theories and proof scripts. Roughly speaking, a \bfindex{theory} is a named collection of types and functions, much like a module in a programming language or a specification in a specification language. In fact, theories in HOL can be either. Theories must reside in files with the suffix \texttt{.thy}. The general format of a theory file \texttt{T.thy} is \begin{ttbox} T = B\(@1\) + \(\cdots\) + B\(@n\) + \({\langle}declarations{\rangle}\) end \end{ttbox} where \texttt{B}$@1$, \dots, \texttt{B}$@n$ are the names of existing theories that \texttt{T} is based on and ${\langle}declarations{\rangle}$ stands for the newly introduced concepts (types, functions etc). The \texttt{B}$@i$ are the direct \textbf{parent theories}\indexbold{parent theory} of \texttt{T}. Everything defined in the parent theories (and their parents \dots) is automatically visible. To avoid name clashes, identifiers can be qualified by theory names as in \texttt{T.f} and \texttt{B.f}. HOL's theory library is available online at \begin{center}\small \begin{tabular}{l} \url{http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/Research/HVG/Isabelle/library/} \\ \url{http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/} \\ \end{tabular} \end{center} and is recommended browsing. \begin{warn} HOL contains a theory \ttindexbold{Main}, the union of all the basic predefined theories like arithmetic, lists, sets, etc.\ (see the online library). Unless you know what you are doing, always include \texttt{Main} as a direct or indirect parent theory of all your theories. \end{warn} This tutorial is concerned with introducing you to the different linguistic constructs that can fill ${\langle}declarations{\rangle}$ in the above theory template. A complete grammar of the basic constructs is found in Appendix~A of~\cite{isabelle-ref}, for reference in times of doubt. The tutorial is also concerned with showing you how to prove theorems about the concepts in a theory. This involves invoking predefined theorem proving commands. Because Isabelle is written in the programming language ML,\footnote{Many concepts in HOL and ML are similar. Make sure you do not confuse the two levels.} interacting with Isabelle means calling ML functions. Hence \bfindex{proof scripts} are sequences of calls to ML functions that perform specific theorem proving tasks. Nevertheless, familiarity with ML is absolutely not required. All proof scripts for theory \texttt{T} (defined in file \texttt{T.thy}) should be contained in file \texttt{T.ML}. Theory and proof scripts are loaded (and checked!) by calling the ML function \ttindexbold{use_thy}: \begin{ttbox} use_thy "T"; \end{ttbox} There are more advanced interfaces for Isabelle that hide the ML level from you and replace function calls by menu selection. There is even a special font with mathematical symbols. For details see the Isabelle home page. This tutorial concentrates on the bare essentials and ignores such niceties. \section{Types, terms and formulae} \label{sec:TypesTermsForms} Embedded in the declarations of a theory are the types, terms and formulae of HOL. HOL is a typed logic whose type system resembles that of functional programming languages like ML or Haskell. Thus there are \begin{description} \item[base types,] in particular \ttindex{bool}, the type of truth values, and \ttindex{nat}, the type of natural numbers. \item[type constructors,] in particular \ttindex{list}, the type of lists, and \ttindex{set}, the type of sets. Type constructors are written postfix, e.g.\ \texttt{(nat)list} is the type of lists whose elements are natural numbers. Parentheses around single arguments can be dropped (as in \texttt{nat list}), multiple arguments are separated by commas (as in \texttt{(bool,nat)foo}). \item[function types,] denoted by \ttindexbold{=>}. In HOL \texttt{=>} represents {\em total} functions only. As is customary, \texttt{$\tau@1$ => $\tau@2$ => $\tau@3$} means \texttt{$\tau@1$ => ($\tau@2$ => $\tau@3$)}. Isabelle also supports the notation \texttt{[$\tau@1,\dots,\tau@n$] => $\tau$} which abbreviates \texttt{$\tau@1$ => $\cdots$ => $\tau@n$ => $\tau$}. \item[type variables,] denoted by \texttt{'a}, \texttt{'b} etc, just like in ML. They give rise to polymorphic types like \texttt{'a => 'a}, the type of the identity function. \end{description} \begin{warn} Types are extremely important because they prevent us from writing nonsense. Isabelle insists that all terms and formulae must be well-typed and will print an error message if a type mismatch is encountered. To reduce the amount of explicit type information that needs to be provided by the user, Isabelle infers the type of all variables automatically (this is called \bfindex{type inference}) and keeps quiet about it. Occasionally this may lead to misunderstandings between you and the system. If anything strange happens, we recommend to set the flag \ttindexbold{show_types} that tells Isabelle to display type information that is usually suppressed: simply type \begin{ttbox} set show_types; \end{ttbox} \noindent at the ML-level. This can be reversed by \texttt{reset show_types;}. \end{warn} \textbf{Terms}\indexbold{term} are formed as in functional programming by applying functions to arguments. If \texttt{f} is a function of type \texttt{$\tau@1$ => $\tau@2$} and \texttt{t} is a term of type $\tau@1$ then \texttt{f~t} is a term of type $\tau@2$. HOL also supports infix functions like \texttt{+} and some basic constructs from functional programming: \begin{description} \item[\texttt{if $b$ then $t@1$ else $t@2$}]\indexbold{*if} means what you think it means and requires that $b$ is of type \texttt{bool} and $t@1$ and $t@2$ are of the same type. \item[\texttt{let $x$ = $t$ in $u$}]\indexbold{*let} is equivalent to $u$ where all occurrences of $x$ have been replaced by $t$. For example, \texttt{let x = 0 in x+x} means \texttt{0+0}. Multiple bindings are separated by semicolons: \texttt{let $x@1$ = $t@1$; \dots; $x@n$ = $t@n$ in $u$}. \item[\texttt{case $e$ of $c@1$ => $e@1$ | \dots | $c@n$ => $e@n$}] \indexbold{*case} evaluates to $e@i$ if $e$ is of the form $c@i$. See~\S\ref{sec:case-expressions} for details. \end{description} Terms may also contain $\lambda$-abstractions. For example, $\lambda x. x+1$ is the function that takes an argument $x$ and returns $x+1$. In Isabelle we write \texttt{\%x.~x+1}.\index{==>@{\tt\%}|bold} Instead of \texttt{\%x.~\%y.~\%z.~t} we can write \texttt{\%x~y~z.~t}. \textbf{Formulae}\indexbold{formula} are terms of type \texttt{bool}. There are the basic constants \ttindexbold{True} and \ttindexbold{False} and the usual logical connectives (in decreasing order of priority): \verb$~$\index{$HOL1@{\ttnot}|bold} (`not'), \texttt{\&}\index{$HOL2@{\tt\&}|bold} (`and'), \texttt{|}\index{$HOL2@{\ttor}|bold} (`or') and \texttt{-->}\index{$HOL2@{\tt-->}|bold} (`implies'), all of which (except the unary \verb$~$) associate to the right. In particular \texttt{A --> B --> C} means \texttt{A --> (B --> C)} and is thus logically equivalent with \texttt{A \& B --> C} (which is \texttt{(A \& B) --> C}). Equality is available in the form of the infix function \texttt{=} of type \texttt{'a => 'a => bool}. Thus \texttt{$t@1$ = $t@2$} is a formula provided $t@1$ and $t@2$ are terms of the same type. In case $t@1$ and $t@2$ are of type \texttt{bool}, \texttt{=} acts as if-and-only-if. The syntax for quantifiers is \texttt{!~$x$.$\,P$}\index{$HOLQ@{\ttall}|bold} (`for all $x$') and \texttt{?~$x$.$\,P$}\index{$HOLQ@{\tt?}|bold} (`exists $x$'). There is even \texttt{?!~$x$.$\,P$}\index{$HOLQ@{\ttuniquex}|bold}, which means that there exists exactly one $x$ that satisfies $P$. Instead of \texttt{!} and \texttt{?} you may also write \texttt{ALL} and \texttt{EX}. Nested quantifications can be abbreviated: \texttt{!$x~y~z$.$\,P$} means \texttt{!$x$.~!$y$.~!$z$.$\,P$}. Despite type inference, it is sometimes necessary to attach explicit \bfindex{type constraints} to a term. The syntax is \texttt{$t$::$\tau$} as in \texttt{x < (y::nat)}. Note that \texttt{::} binds weakly and should therefore be enclosed in parentheses: \texttt{x < y::nat} is ill-typed because it is interpreted as \texttt{(x < y)::nat}. The main reason for type constraints are overloaded functions like \texttt{+}, \texttt{*} and \texttt{<}. (See \S\ref{sec:TypeClasses} for a full discussion of overloading.) \begin{warn} In general, HOL's concrete syntax tries to follow the conventions of functional programming and mathematics. Below we list the main rules that you should be familiar with to avoid certain syntactic traps. A particular problem for novices can be the priority of operators. If you are unsure, use more rather than fewer parentheses. In those cases where Isabelle echoes your input, you can see which parentheses are dropped---they were superfluous. If you are unsure how to interpret Isabelle's output because you don't know where the (dropped) parentheses go, set (and possibly reset) the flag \ttindexbold{show_brackets}: \begin{ttbox} set show_brackets; \(\dots\); reset show_brackets; \end{ttbox} \end{warn} \begin{itemize} \item Remember that \texttt{f t u} means \texttt{(f t) u} and not \texttt{f(t u)}! \item Isabelle allows infix functions like \texttt{+}. The prefix form of function application binds more strongly than anything else and hence \texttt{f~x + y} means \texttt{(f~x)~+~y} and not \texttt{f(x+y)}. \item Remember that in HOL if-and-only-if is expressed using equality. But equality has a high priority, as befitting a relation, while if-and-only-if typically has the lowest priority. Thus, \verb$~ ~ P = P$ means \verb$~ ~(P = P)$ and not \verb$(~ ~P) = P$. When using \texttt{=} to mean logical equivalence, enclose both operands in parentheses, as in \texttt{(A \& B) = (B \& A)}. \item Constructs with an opening but without a closing delimiter bind very weakly and should therefore be enclosed in parentheses if they appear in subterms, as in \texttt{f = (\%x.~x)}. This includes \ttindex{if}, \ttindex{let}, \ttindex{case}, \verb$%$ and quantifiers. \item Never write \texttt{\%x.x} or \texttt{!x.x=x} because \texttt{x.x} is always read as a single qualified identifier that refers to an item \texttt{x} in theory \texttt{x}. Write \texttt{\%x.~x} and \texttt{!x.~x=x} instead. \end{itemize} \section{Variables} \label{sec:variables} Isabelle distinguishes free and bound variables just as is customary. Bound variables are automatically renamed to avoid clashes with free variables. In addition, Isabelle has a third kind of variable, called a \bfindex{schematic variable} or \bfindex{unknown}, which starts with a \texttt{?}. Logically, an unknown is a free variable. But it may be instantiated by another term during the proof process. For example, the mathematical theorem $x = x$ is represented in Isabelle as \texttt{?x = ?x}, which means that Isabelle can instantiate it arbitrarily. This is in contrast to ordinary variables, which remain fixed. The programming language Prolog calls unknowns {\em logical\/} variables. Most of the time you can and should ignore unknowns and work with ordinary variables. Just don't be surprised that after you have finished the proof of a theorem, Isabelle (i.e.\ \ttindex{qed} at the end of a proof) will turn your free variables into unknowns: it merely indicates that Isabelle will automatically instantiate those unknowns suitably when the theorem is used in some other proof. \begin{warn} The existential quantifier \texttt{?}\index{$HOLQ@{\tt?}} needs to be followed by a space. Otherwise \texttt{?x} is interpreted as a schematic variable. \end{warn} \section{Getting started} Assuming you have installed Isabelle, you start it by typing \texttt{isabelle HOL} in a shell window.\footnote{Simply executing \texttt{isabelle} without an argument starts the default logic, which usually is already \texttt{HOL}. This is controlled by the \texttt{ISABELLE_LOGIC} setting, see \emph{The Isabelle System Manual} for more details.} This presents you with Isabelle's most basic ASCII interface. In addition you need to open an editor window to create theories (\texttt{.thy} files) and proof scripts (\texttt{.ML} files). While you are developing a proof, we recommend to type each proof command into the ML-file first and then enter it into Isabelle by copy-and-paste, thus ensuring that you have a complete record of your proof.