src/HOL/Isar_examples/Group.thy
author wenzelm
Wed, 14 Jul 1999 13:07:09 +0200
changeset 7005 cc778d613217
parent 6908 1bf0590f4790
child 7133 64c9f2364dae
permissions -rw-r--r--
tuned comments;

(*  Title:      HOL/Isar_examples/Group.thy
    ID:         $Id$
    Author:     Markus Wenzel, TU Muenchen
*)

theory Group = Main:;

title {* Basic group theory *};

section {* Groups *}; 

text {*
 We define an axiomatic type class of general groups over signature
 (op *, one, inv).
*};

consts
  one :: "'a"
  inv :: "'a => 'a";

axclass
  group < times
  group_assoc:         "(x * y) * z = x * (y * z)"
  group_left_unit:     "one * x = x"
  group_left_inverse:  "inv x * x = one";

text {*
 The group axioms only state the properties of left unit and inverse,
 the right versions are derivable as follows.  The calculational proof
 style below closely follows typical presentations given in any basic
 course on algebra.
*};

theorem group_right_inverse: "x * inv x = (one::'a::group)";
proof same;
  have "x * inv x = one * (x * inv x)";
    by (simp only: group_left_unit);
  also; have "... = (one * x) * inv x";
    by (simp only: group_assoc);
  also; have "... = inv (inv x) * inv x * x * inv x";
    by (simp only: group_left_inverse);
  also; have "... = inv (inv x) * (inv x * x) * inv x";
    by (simp only: group_assoc);
  also; have "... = inv (inv x) * one * inv x";
    by (simp only: group_left_inverse);
  also; have "... = inv (inv x) * (one * inv x)";
    by (simp only: group_assoc);
  also; have "... = inv (inv x) * inv x";
    by (simp only: group_left_unit);
  also; have "... = one";
    by (simp only: group_left_inverse);
  finally; show ??thesis; .;
qed;

text {*
 With group_right_inverse already at our disposal, group_right_unit is
 now obtained much easier as follows.
*};

theorem group_right_unit: "x * one = (x::'a::group)";
proof same;
  have "x * one = x * (inv x * x)";
    by (simp only: group_left_inverse);
  also; have "... = x * inv x * x";
    by (simp only: group_assoc);
  also; have "... = one * x";
    by (simp only: group_right_inverse);
  also; have "... = x";
    by (simp only: group_left_unit);
  finally; show ??thesis; .;
qed;

text {*
 There are only two Isar language elements for calculational proofs:
 'also' for initial or intermediate calculational steps, and 'finally'
 for building the result of a calculation.  These constructs are not
 hardwired into Isabelle/Isar, but defined on top of the basic Isar/VM
 interpreter.  Expanding the 'also' or 'finally' derived language
 elements, calculations may be simulated as demonstrated below.

 Note that "..." is just a special term binding that happens to be
 bound automatically to the argument of the last fact established by
 assume or any local goal.  In contrast to ??thesis, "..." is bound
 after the proof is finished.
*};

theorem "x * one = (x::'a::group)";
proof same;
  have "x * one = x * (inv x * x)";
    by (simp only: group_left_inverse);

  note calculation = facts
    -- {* first calculational step: init calculation register *};

  have "... = x * inv x * x";
    by (simp only: group_assoc);

  note calculation = trans [OF calculation facts]
    -- {* general calculational step: compose with transitivity rule *};

  have "... = one * x";
    by (simp only: group_right_inverse);

  note calculation = trans [OF calculation facts]
    -- {* general calculational step: compose with transitivity rule *};

  have "... = x";
    by (simp only: group_left_unit);

  note calculation = trans [OF calculation facts]
    -- {* final calculational step: compose with transitivity rule ... *};
  from calculation
    -- {* ... and pick up final result *};

  show ??thesis; .;
qed;


section {* Groups and monoids *};

text {*
  Monoids are usually defined like this.
*};

axclass monoid < times
  monoid_assoc:       "(x * y) * z = x * (y * z)"
  monoid_left_unit:   "one * x = x"
  monoid_right_unit:  "x * one = x";

text {*
 Groups are *not* yet monoids directly from the definition.  For
 monoids, right_unit had to be included as an axiom, but for groups
 both right_unit and right_inverse are derivable from the other
 axioms.  With group_right_unit derived as a theorem of group theory
 (see above), we may still instantiate group < monoid properly as
 follows.
*};

instance group < monoid;
  by (expand_classes,
       rule group_assoc,
       rule group_left_unit,
       rule group_right_unit);


end;