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NEWS

author | huffman |

Tue Aug 02 07:36:58 2011 -0700 (2011-08-02) | |

changeset 44018 | d34f0cd62164 |

parent 44015 | a1507f567de6 |

child 44019 | ee784502aed5 |

permissions | -rw-r--r-- |

NEWS: fix typo

1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes

2 ==============================================

4 New in this Isabelle version

5 ----------------------------

7 *** General ***

9 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1

10 digests. Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional

11 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.

13 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to

14 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100). See also isabelle

15 usedir option -Q.

17 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version

18 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.

20 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been

21 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.

23 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master

24 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).

25 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.

26 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the

27 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".

28 INCOMPATIBILITY.

30 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and

31 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:

33 ISABELLE_CSDP (formerly CSDP_EXE)

34 ISABELLE_GHC (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)

35 ISABELLE_OCAML (formerly EXEC_OCAML)

36 ISABELLE_SWIPL (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)

37 ISABELLE_YAP (formerly EXEC_YAP)

39 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has

40 been discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY.

42 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper

43 configuration options, with more conventional names:

45 long_names ~> names_long

46 short_names ~> names_short

47 unique_names ~> names_unique

49 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:

51 declare [[names_unique = false]]

53 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`. Note

54 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications

55 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.

57 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual provides more formal references in

58 syntax diagrams.

61 *** HOL ***

63 * Classes bot and top require underlying partial order rather than preorder:

64 uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

66 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;

67 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong. New type classes for complete

68 boolean algebras and complete linear orderes. Lemmas Inf_less_iff,

69 less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in class complete_linorder.

70 More consistent and less misunderstandable names:

71 INFI_def ~> INF_def

72 SUPR_def ~> SUP_def

73 le_SUPI ~> le_SUP_I

74 le_SUPI2 ~> le_SUP_I2

75 le_INFI ~> le_INF_I

76 INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq

77 SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq

78 INFI_apply ~> INF_apply

79 SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply

80 INCOMPATIBILITY.

82 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems referring

83 to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection UN_ball_bex_simps.

84 INCOMPATIBILITY.

86 * Archimedian_Field.thy:

87 floor now is defined as parameter of a separate type class floor_ceiling.

89 * Finite_Set.thy: more coherent development of fold_set locales:

91 locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute

92 locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem

94 Both use point-free characterisation; interpretation proofs may need adjustment.

95 INCOMPATIBILITY.

97 * Code generation:

98 - theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of characters

99 in the target language.

100 - commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code instead.

101 - evaluator "SML" and method evaluation are legacy, use evaluator "code"

102 and method eval instead.

104 * Declare ext [intro] by default. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.

106 * Nitpick:

107 - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.

108 - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.

109 - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.

110 INCOMPATIBILITY.

112 * Sledgehammer:

113 - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.

114 INCOMPATIBILITY.

115 - Added support for SNARK and ToFoF-E on SystemOnTPTP and for simply typed

116 TPTP problems (TFF).

117 - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound", "max_mono_iters",

118 and "max_new_mono_instances" options.

119 - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full Types"

120 Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.

122 * Metis:

123 - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

124 - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

126 * "try":

127 - Renamed "try_methods" and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and "elim:"

128 options. INCOMPATIBILITY.

129 - Introduced "try" that not only runs "try_methods" but also "solve_direct",

130 "sledgehammer", "quickcheck", and "nitpick".

132 * Quickcheck:

133 - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample

134 (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester)

135 - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples

136 (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester)

137 - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables

138 narrowing-based testing.

139 It requires that the Glasgow Haskell compiler is installed and

140 its location is known to Isabelle with the environment variable

141 ISABELLE_GHC.

142 - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator

143 from HOL-Library

145 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".

146 INCOMPATIBILITY. Use partial_function instead.

148 * HOL-Probability:

149 - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.

150 - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.

151 - Use extended reals instead of positive extended reals.

152 INCOMPATIBILITY.

154 * Old recdef package has been moved to Library/Old_Recdef.thy, where it

155 must be loaded explicitly. INCOMPATIBILITY.

157 * Well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has been moved to

158 Library/Wfrec.thy. INCOMPATIBILITY.

161 *** Document preparation ***

163 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators, which are better

164 avoided in the first place. Implicit tab-width is 1.

166 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also

167 isar-ref manual.

169 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its result.

171 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups

172 like this:

174 \isabellestyle{it} %preferred default

175 {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}

177 * New term style "isub" as ad-hoc conversion of variables x1, y23 into

178 subscripted form x\<^isub>1, y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.

180 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>

181 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).

184 *** ML ***

186 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML

187 representations within quoted string tokens. By encoding logical

188 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be

189 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text

190 under external program control.

192 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory

193 data, which requires explicit setup.

195 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official

196 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop

197 (better known as Proof General).

199 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme. Old

200 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.

202 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes

203 former start_timing/end_timing etc.

205 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users

206 (including quotes etc.).

208 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories

209 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as

210 type constraints). Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant

211 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints. Positions can

212 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /

213 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant

214 "_strip_positions" within parse trees. As last resort, positions can

215 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is

216 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.

218 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute

219 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less

220 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY,

221 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,

222 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.

224 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is

225 already available via context of "advanced" translation.

227 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic

228 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.

230 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving

231 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).

233 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types

234 claset/clasimpset. Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs

235 operate directly on Proof.context. Raw type claset retains its use as

236 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via

237 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc. Type clasimpset has been discontinued.

238 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require

239 proper Proof.context.

241 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static

242 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.

243 For example:

245 Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"

249 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)

250 ----------------------------------

252 *** General ***

254 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see

255 src/Tools/jEdit). This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with

256 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis. The

257 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run

258 like this:

260 Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit

262 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.

264 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER

265 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),

266 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra

267 suffix. This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each

268 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.

269 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.

271 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned

272 ISO-Latin-1. INCOMPATIBILITY. Isabelle LaTeX documents might require

273 the following package declarations:

275 \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}

276 \usepackage{textcomp}

278 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that

279 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of

280 non-ASCII bytes as before. Since Isabelle/ML string literals may

281 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be

282 used here as well. Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a

283 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)

284 merely give a byte-oriented representation.

286 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master

287 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).

288 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.

289 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use

290 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.

292 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.

293 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --

294 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies. Recall that Isabelle/ML

295 files exclusively use the .ML extension. Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.

297 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly

298 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of

299 unsynchronized references or print modes. There are both ML Config.T

300 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.

302 ML (Config.T) Isar (attribute)

304 eta_contract eta_contract

305 show_brackets show_brackets

306 show_sorts show_sorts

307 show_types show_types

308 show_question_marks show_question_marks

309 show_consts show_consts

310 show_abbrevs show_abbrevs

312 Syntax.ast_trace syntax_ast_trace

313 Syntax.ast_stat syntax_ast_stat

314 Syntax.ambiguity_level syntax_ambiguity_level

316 Goal_Display.goals_limit goals_limit

317 Goal_Display.show_main_goal show_main_goal

319 Method.rule_trace rule_trace

321 Thy_Output.display thy_output_display

322 Thy_Output.quotes thy_output_quotes

323 Thy_Output.indent thy_output_indent

324 Thy_Output.source thy_output_source

325 Thy_Output.break thy_output_break

327 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be

328 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.

329 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode

330 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.

332 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.

333 INCOMPATIBILITY.

335 trace_simp ~> simp_trace

336 debug_simp ~> simp_debug

338 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic

339 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for

340 float_token.

342 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):

343 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.

344 INCOMPATIBILITY.

346 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from

347 DejaVu Sans.

349 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.

352 *** Pure ***

354 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat

355 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some

356 time.

358 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)

359 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

361 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for

362 experimentation in Isar without any result. INCOMPATIBILITY.

364 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept

365 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate

366 entities in the context of the interpretation. The 'interpretation'

367 command already provided this functionality.

369 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances

370 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in

371 the current context. Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context

372 without interpretations.

374 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs

375 in addition to interpretations in theories.

377 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate

378 the theory name space. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY. The ML functions

379 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this

380 feature is still required for historical reasons.

382 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

383 'definition' instead.

385 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of

386 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as

387 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon. Consider using "assms"

388 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.

390 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type

391 constructors.

393 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within

394 the local file system.

397 *** HOL ***

399 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type

400 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term. Theory

401 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as

402 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:

404 declare [[coercion f]]

406 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to

407 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.

409 declare [[coercion_map map]]

411 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including

412 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main. This is controlled by

413 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in

414 other theories like this:

416 declare [[coercion_enabled]]

418 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive

419 function definitions over complete partial orders. Concrete instances

420 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary

421 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL. See

422 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy

423 for examples.

425 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared

426 as [simp]. INCOMPATIBILITY.

428 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class

429 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.

431 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to

432 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for

433 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.

435 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the

436 functorial structure of types.

438 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator

439 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.

441 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target

442 languages.

444 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"

445 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".

446 INCOMPATIBILITY.

448 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints

449 to standard output. INCOMPATIBILITY.

451 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case

452 combinators any longer.

454 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with

455 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".

457 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record

458 types. Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code

459 generation any longer. INCOMPATIBILITY. In cases of need, a suitable

460 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:

462 record 'a foo = ...

463 ...

464 rep_datatype foo_ext ...

466 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a

467 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).

468 INCOMPATIBILITY.

470 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random

471 testing. Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",

472 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".

474 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite

475 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to

476 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.

478 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to

479 "random". INCOMPATIBILITY.

481 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30

482 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the

483 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set

484 independently.

486 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for

487 counter example search.

489 * Sledgehammer:

490 - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof

491 method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc

492 sledgehammer").

493 - Renamed commands:

494 sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers

495 sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers

496 sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers

497 INCOMPATIBILITY.

498 - Renamed options:

499 sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]

500 sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]

501 sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]

502 (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)

503 INCOMPATIBILITY.

505 * Nitpick:

506 - Renamed options:

507 nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]

508 nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]

509 INCOMPATIBILITY.

510 - Added support for partial quotient types.

511 - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.

512 - Added "whack" option.

513 - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.

514 - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.

515 - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.

516 - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach

517 higher cardinalities.

518 - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.

520 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options

521 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled

522 to diagnose these tools. E.g.

524 using [[metis_trace = true]]

526 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct". The tool is now available

527 manually as command 'solve_direct'.

529 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to

530 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable

531 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example. For

532 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;

533 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option

534 "smt_solver".

536 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,

537 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".

539 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using

540 the oracle mode (no proofs). Direct support of pairs has been dropped

541 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT

542 support for a similar behavior). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

544 * Changed SMT configuration options:

545 - Renamed:

546 z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)

547 z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts

548 INCOMPATIBILITY.

549 - Added:

550 smt_verbose

551 smt_random_seed

552 smt_datatypes

553 smt_infer_triggers

554 smt_monomorph_limit

555 cvc3_options

556 remote_cvc3_options

557 remote_z3_options

558 yices_options

560 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory

561 header.

563 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list

564 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions. Occasional

565 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:

567 declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]

569 * Removed old version of primrec package. INCOMPATIBILITY.

571 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long

572 been the case with "split". INCOMPATIBILITY.

574 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype. INCOMPATIBILITY.

576 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of

577 [split_format]. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

579 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction

580 rules. INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.

582 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name

583 contents for other uses. INCOMPATIBILITY.

585 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class

586 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various

587 tuning. INCOMPATIBILITY.

589 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1. INCOMPATIBILITY.

591 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".

592 INCOMPATIBILITY.

594 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to

595 avoid confusion with finite sets. INCOMPATIBILITY.

597 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence

598 relations. INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same

599 for congruent(2)).

601 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:

603 types

604 bool ~> HOL.bool

605 nat ~> Nat.nat

607 constants

608 Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop

609 True ~> HOL.True

610 False ~> HOL.False

611 op & ~> HOL.conj

612 op | ~> HOL.disj

613 op --> ~> HOL.implies

614 op = ~> HOL.eq

615 Not ~> HOL.Not

616 The ~> HOL.The

617 All ~> HOL.All

618 Ex ~> HOL.Ex

619 Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1

620 Let ~> HOL.Let

621 If ~> HOL.If

622 Ball ~> Set.Ball

623 Bex ~> Set.Bex

624 Suc ~> Nat.Suc

625 Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair

626 fst ~> Product_Type.fst

627 snd ~> Product_Type.snd

628 curry ~> Product_Type.curry

629 op : ~> Set.member

630 Collect ~> Set.Collect

632 INCOMPATIBILITY.

634 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:

636 bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def

637 top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def

638 inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def

639 sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def

640 bot_fun_eq ~> bot_fun_def

641 top_fun_eq ~> top_fun_def

642 inf_fun_eq ~> inf_fun_def

643 sup_fun_eq ~> sup_fun_def

645 INCOMPATIBILITY.

647 * More stylized fact names:

649 expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff

650 expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff

651 set_ext ~> set_eqI

652 nat_number ~> eval_nat_numeral

654 INCOMPATIBILITY.

656 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:

658 constants

659 null ~> List.null

661 facts

662 mem_iff ~> member_def

663 null_empty ~> null_def

665 INCOMPATIBILITY. Note that these were not supposed to be used

666 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code

667 generation.

669 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating

670 Haskell code.

672 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV". Term

673 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV". The theorems

674 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged. INCOMPATIBILITY.

676 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace

677 "*" and "+" respectively. INCOMPATIBILITY.

679 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden. Write

680 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.

682 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of

683 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,

684 though. INCOMPATIBILITY.

686 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"

687 instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

689 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".

690 INCOMPATIBILITY.

692 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.

693 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be

694 referred to by its qualified name.

696 enum ~> Enum.enum

697 nlists ~> Enum.nlists

698 product ~> Enum.product

700 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.

701 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.

702 INCOMPATIBILITY.

704 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into

705 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names

706 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.

707 INCOMPATIBILITY.

709 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of

710 sort_key.

712 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.

713 INCOMPATIBILITY.

715 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean

716 space. Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces

717 instead of finite cartesian products.

719 types

720 real ^ 'n ~> 'a::real_vector

721 ~> 'a::euclidean_space

722 ~> 'a::ordered_euclidean_space

723 (depends on your needs)

725 constants

726 _ $ _ ~> _ $$ _

727 \<chi> x. _ ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _

728 CARD('n) ~> DIM('a)

730 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some

731 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products

732 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to

733 be euclidean_spaces. INCOMPATIBILITY.

735 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real

736 numbers. Use pextreal as value for measures. Introduce the

737 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for

738 arbitrary sigma finite measures. Introduces Lebesgue measure based on

739 the integral in Multivariate Analysis. INCOMPATIBILITY.

741 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.

742 INCOMPATIBILITY.

744 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and

745 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program

746 verifier. See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.

749 *** HOL-Algebra ***

751 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and

752 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative

753 counterparts. Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory

754 qualifier 'add'. Previous theorem names are redeclared for

755 compatibility.

757 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a

758 definition). This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.

761 *** HOLCF ***

763 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The

764 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'. To use the domain

765 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.

766 INCOMPATIBILITY.

768 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort. Class "predomain"

769 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by

770 replacing sort annotations as shown below. INCOMPATIBILITY.

772 'a::type ~> 'a::countable

773 'a::cpo ~> 'a::predomain

774 'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain

776 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".

777 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any

778 "default_sort rep" declarations. INCOMPATIBILITY.

780 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed

781 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict

782 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following

783 domain definition now works:

785 domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")

787 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class

788 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,

789 'a option, and 'a list. Additionally, it configures fixrec and the

790 domain package to work with these types. For example:

792 fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"

793 where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"

795 domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")

797 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a

798 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See

799 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.

801 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class

802 now just asserts that such a function exists. INCOMPATIBILITY.

804 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl". HOLCF no longer

805 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances

806 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in

807 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.

809 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".

811 * The predicate "directed" has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

813 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

815 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".

816 INCOMPATIBILITY.

818 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax

819 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents

820 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".

822 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed

823 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set

824 syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY.

826 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom". The syntax "UU" is

827 still supported as an input translation.

829 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).

831 expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff

832 below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI

833 expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff

834 ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI

835 expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff

836 below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI

837 cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP

839 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.

840 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.

842 Rep_CFun ~> Rep_cfun

843 Abs_CFun ~> Abs_cfun

844 Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod

845 Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod

846 Rep_Ssum ~> Rep_ssum

847 Abs_Ssum ~> Abs_ssum

849 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have

850 been renamed to *_bottom_iff. INCOMPATIBILITY.

852 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:

854 - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.

855 - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.

856 - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.

857 - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.

859 INCOMPATIBILITY.

861 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are

862 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when". INCOMPATIBILITY.

864 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the

865 names of constants and types involved. INCOMPATIBILITY.

867 thelub_const ~> lub_const

868 lub_const ~> is_lub_const

869 thelubI ~> lub_eqI

870 is_lub_lub ~> is_lubD2

871 lubI ~> is_lub_lub

872 unique_lub ~> is_lub_unique

873 is_ub_lub ~> is_lub_rangeD1

874 lub_bin_chain ~> is_lub_bin_chain

875 lub_fun ~> is_lub_fun

876 thelub_fun ~> lub_fun

877 thelub_cfun ~> lub_cfun

878 thelub_Pair ~> lub_Pair

879 lub_cprod ~> is_lub_prod

880 thelub_cprod ~> lub_prod

881 minimal_cprod ~> minimal_prod

882 inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo

883 UU_I ~> bottomI

884 compact_UU ~> compact_bottom

885 deflation_UU ~> deflation_bottom

886 finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom

888 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY.

890 sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans

891 sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans

892 refl_less ~> below_refl

893 trans_less ~> below_trans

894 antisym_less ~> below_antisym

895 antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]

896 box_less ~> box_below

897 rev_trans_less ~> rev_below_trans

898 not_less2not_eq ~> not_below2not_eq

899 less_UU_iff ~> below_UU_iff

900 flat_less_iff ~> flat_below_iff

901 adm_less ~> adm_below

902 adm_not_less ~> adm_not_below

903 adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below

904 less_fun_def ~> below_fun_def

905 expand_fun_less ~> fun_below_iff

906 less_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI

907 less_discr_def ~> below_discr_def

908 discr_less_eq ~> discr_below_eq

909 less_unit_def ~> below_unit_def

910 less_cprod_def ~> below_prod_def

911 prod_lessI ~> prod_belowI

912 Pair_less_iff ~> Pair_below_iff

913 fst_less_iff ~> fst_below_iff

914 snd_less_iff ~> snd_below_iff

915 expand_cfun_less ~> cfun_below_iff

916 less_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI

917 injection_less ~> injection_below

918 less_up_def ~> below_up_def

919 not_Iup_less ~> not_Iup_below

920 Iup_less ~> Iup_below

921 up_less ~> up_below

922 Def_inject_less_eq ~> Def_below_Def

923 Def_less_is_eq ~> Def_below_iff

924 spair_less_iff ~> spair_below_iff

925 less_sprod ~> below_sprod

926 spair_less ~> spair_below

927 sfst_less_iff ~> sfst_below_iff

928 ssnd_less_iff ~> ssnd_below_iff

929 fix_least_less ~> fix_least_below

930 dist_less_one ~> dist_below_one

931 less_ONE ~> below_ONE

932 ONE_less_iff ~> ONE_below_iff

933 less_sinlD ~> below_sinlD

934 less_sinrD ~> below_sinrD

937 *** FOL and ZF ***

939 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper

940 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =". INCOMPATIBILITY.

943 *** ML ***

945 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises

946 Fail if the argument is false. Due to inlining the source position of

947 failed assertions is included in the error output.

949 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML

950 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.

951 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.

953 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of

954 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.

955 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.

957 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority

958 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.

960 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax

961 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.

963 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with

964 ListPair.UnequalLengths.

966 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier. Note that the

967 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.

969 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its

970 meaning. Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in

971 almost all situations.

973 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.

974 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in

975 Isabelle/ML.

977 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its

978 meaning.

980 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its

981 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is

982 rarely-used global-only stuff.

984 * Discontinued Output.debug. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln

985 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).

987 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty

988 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.

990 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive. Rare

991 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and

992 @{thms} for most purposes.

994 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar

995 interaction mode as before. Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been

996 discontinued -- use plain := instead. This should be *rare* anyway,

997 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably

998 configuration options.

1000 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning

1001 interrupts. Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that

1002 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt. User code must not absorb

1003 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be

1004 followed by re-raising of the original exception. Another common

1005 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of

1006 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.

1010 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)

1011 ---------------------------------

1013 *** General ***

1015 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type

1016 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust

1017 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax. Within

1018 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by

1019 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with

1020 their full internal name.

1022 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations

1023 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).

1024 Some hints on upgrading:

1026 - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced

1027 by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',

1028 which are independent of this issue.

1030 - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax

1031 provides the following special forms:

1033 CONST c -- produces syntax version of constant c from context

1034 XCONST c -- literally c, checked as constant from context

1035 c -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'

1037 Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the

1038 system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains

1039 extra variables".

1041 Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their

1042 concrete syntax. Some old translations rules need to be written

1043 for the "type" category, using type constructor application

1044 instead of pseudo-term application of the default category

1045 "logic".

1047 - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following

1048 antiquotations:

1050 @{class_syntax c} -- type class c within parse tree / AST

1051 @{term_syntax c} -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST

1052 @{const_syntax c} -- ML version of "CONST c" above

1053 @{syntax_const c} -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)

1055 - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*

1056 represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim. Use @{class

1057 c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax

1058 antiquotations.

1060 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base

1061 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide. Recall

1062 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to

1063 diagnose syntax problems.

1065 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.

1067 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof

1068 body, too. This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',

1069 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is

1070 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.

1072 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --

1073 need to specify constant name and syntax separately. Internal ML

1074 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.

1075 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

1077 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,

1078 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',

1079 'schematic_corollary'. Thus the relevance of the proof is made

1080 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or

1081 asynchronous interactive environment. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

1083 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been

1084 discontinued (old legacy feature).

1086 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by

1087 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the

1088 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via

1090 using [[trace_simp = true]]

1092 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in

1093 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or

1094 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.

1096 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',

1097 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command. Minor

1098 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1100 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is

1101 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.

1104 *** Pure ***

1106 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the

1107 "unconstrain" operation internally. This eliminates all sort

1108 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit

1109 OFCLASS-premises. On the proof term level, this operation is

1110 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs

1111 are always free of sort constraints. INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that

1112 inspect proof terms.

1114 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that

1115 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself

1116 are added internally. For example:

1118 definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"

1120 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory

1121 "class" prefix. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1123 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1125 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

1126 'class' instead.

1128 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into

1129 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.

1130 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1132 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying

1133 invariants.

1135 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the

1136 user space functionality any longer.

1138 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale

1139 subgoals. This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.

1140 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1142 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body. This allows to

1143 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.

1145 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax

1146 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the

1147 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).

1149 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory

1150 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or

1151 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.

1153 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works

1154 within a local theory context. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

1157 *** HOL ***

1159 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without

1160 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not

1161 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL. Note that the logical environment may

1162 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different

1163 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.

1165 * New package for quotient types. Commands 'quotient_type' and

1166 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by

1167 quotient constructions. An example is the type of integers created by

1168 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:

1170 fun

1171 intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"

1172 where

1173 "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"

1175 quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel

1176 by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)

1178 quotient_definition

1179 "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"

1181 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the

1182 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type. The example

1183 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient

1184 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.

1186 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid

1187 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.

1189 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating

1190 separate HOL-SMT session.

1192 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.

1193 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1195 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed. Use library Word/Word.thy

1196 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in

1197 the AFP entry RSAPPS.

1199 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no

1200 longer shadowed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1202 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.

1203 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1205 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.

1206 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1208 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes

1209 instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1211 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and

1212 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"

1213 instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1215 floor_number_of_eq ~> floor_number_of

1216 le_floor_eq_number_of ~> number_of_le_floor

1217 le_floor_eq_zero ~> zero_le_floor

1218 le_floor_eq_one ~> one_le_floor

1219 floor_less_eq_number_of ~> floor_less_number_of

1220 floor_less_eq_zero ~> floor_less_zero

1221 floor_less_eq_one ~> floor_less_one

1222 less_floor_eq_number_of ~> number_of_less_floor

1223 less_floor_eq_zero ~> zero_less_floor

1224 less_floor_eq_one ~> one_less_floor

1225 floor_le_eq_number_of ~> floor_le_number_of

1226 floor_le_eq_zero ~> floor_le_zero

1227 floor_le_eq_one ~> floor_le_one

1228 floor_subtract_number_of ~> floor_diff_number_of

1229 floor_subtract_one ~> floor_diff_one

1230 ceiling_number_of_eq ~> ceiling_number_of

1231 ceiling_le_eq_number_of ~> ceiling_le_number_of

1232 ceiling_le_zero_eq ~> ceiling_le_zero

1233 ceiling_le_eq_one ~> ceiling_le_one

1234 less_ceiling_eq_number_of ~> number_of_less_ceiling

1235 less_ceiling_eq_zero ~> zero_less_ceiling

1236 less_ceiling_eq_one ~> one_less_ceiling

1237 ceiling_less_eq_number_of ~> ceiling_less_number_of

1238 ceiling_less_eq_zero ~> ceiling_less_zero

1239 ceiling_less_eq_one ~> ceiling_less_one

1240 le_ceiling_eq_number_of ~> number_of_le_ceiling

1241 le_ceiling_eq_zero ~> zero_le_ceiling

1242 le_ceiling_eq_one ~> one_le_ceiling

1243 ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of

1244 ceiling_subtract_one ~> ceiling_diff_one

1246 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the

1247 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.

1249 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"

1250 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as

1251 implementation. INCOMPATIBILTY.

1253 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by

1254 AFP/thys/Coinductive.

1256 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has

1257 been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1259 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.

1261 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,

1262 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1264 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",

1265 "Int" etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1267 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1269 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute

1270 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.

1272 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory

1273 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more

1274 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes

1275 within the HOL theories. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1277 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:

1278 - less_eq, less: Orderings

1279 - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups

1280 - inverse, divide: Rings

1281 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1283 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and

1284 lattices):

1286 lower_semilattice ~> semilattice_inf

1287 upper_semilattice ~> semilattice_sup

1289 dense_linear_order ~> dense_linorder

1291 pordered_ab_group_add ~> ordered_ab_group_add

1292 pordered_ab_group_add_abs ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs

1293 pordered_ab_semigroup_add ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add

1294 pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le

1295 pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add

1296 pordered_cancel_comm_semiring ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring

1297 pordered_cancel_semiring ~> ordered_cancel_semiring

1298 pordered_comm_monoid_add ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add

1299 pordered_comm_ring ~> ordered_comm_ring

1300 pordered_comm_semiring ~> ordered_comm_semiring

1301 pordered_ring ~> ordered_ring

1302 pordered_ring_abs ~> ordered_ring_abs

1303 pordered_semiring ~> ordered_semiring

1305 ordered_ab_group_add ~> linordered_ab_group_add

1306 ordered_ab_semigroup_add ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add

1307 ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add

1308 ordered_comm_semiring_strict ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict

1309 ordered_field ~> linordered_field

1310 ordered_field_no_lb ~> linordered_field_no_lb

1311 ordered_field_no_ub ~> linordered_field_no_ub

1312 ordered_field_dense_linear_order ~> dense_linordered_field

1313 ordered_idom ~> linordered_idom

1314 ordered_ring ~> linordered_ring

1315 ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor

1316 ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor

1317 ordered_ring_strict ~> linordered_ring_strict

1318 ordered_semidom ~> linordered_semidom

1319 ordered_semiring ~> linordered_semiring

1320 ordered_semiring_1 ~> linordered_semiring_1

1321 ordered_semiring_1_strict ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict

1322 ordered_semiring_strict ~> linordered_semiring_strict

1324 The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a

1325 separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:

1327 lordered_ab_group_add ~> lattice_ab_group_add

1328 lordered_ab_group_add_abs ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs

1329 lordered_ab_group_add_meet ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add

1330 lordered_ab_group_add_join ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add

1331 lordered_ring ~> lattice_ring

1333 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1335 * Refined field classes:

1336 - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,

1337 linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --

1338 subsumes former division_by_zero class;

1339 - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.

1340 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1342 * Refined algebra theorem collections:

1343 - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;

1344 - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;

1345 - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem

1346 groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;

1347 - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for

1348 equal_neg_zero.

1349 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1351 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from

1352 sets to lattices:

1354 fun_left_comm_idem_inter ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf

1355 fun_left_comm_idem_union ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup

1356 inter_Inter_fold_inter ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf

1357 union_Union_fold_union ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup

1358 Inter_fold_inter ~> Inf_fold_inf

1359 Union_fold_union ~> Sup_fold_sup

1360 inter_INTER_fold_inter ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf

1361 union_UNION_fold_union ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup

1362 INTER_fold_inter ~> INFI_fold_inf

1363 UNION_fold_union ~> SUPR_fold_sup

1365 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been

1366 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.

1367 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed

1368 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert. Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace

1369 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ. Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right

1370 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1372 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and

1373 multiset order:

1375 - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax

1376 <= and <;

1377 - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties

1378 are provided by means of interpretation with prefix

1379 multiset_order;

1380 - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,

1381 conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code

1382 generation;

1383 - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,

1384 if needed.

1386 Renamed:

1388 multiset_eq_conv_count_eq ~> multiset_ext_iff

1389 multi_count_ext ~> multiset_ext

1390 diff_union_inverse2 ~> diff_union_cancelR

1392 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1394 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.

1396 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.

1398 * Theory List: added transpose.

1400 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions

1401 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries

1402 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1404 Constants:

1405 Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat ~> prod_encode

1406 Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2 ~> prod_decode

1407 Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij ~> int_encode

1408 Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij ~> int_decode

1409 Countable.pair_encode ~> prod_encode

1410 NatIso.prod2nat ~> prod_encode

1411 NatIso.nat2prod ~> prod_decode

1412 NatIso.sum2nat ~> sum_encode

1413 NatIso.nat2sum ~> sum_decode

1414 NatIso.list2nat ~> list_encode

1415 NatIso.nat2list ~> list_decode

1416 NatIso.set2nat ~> set_encode

1417 NatIso.nat2set ~> set_decode

1419 Lemmas:

1420 Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij ~> bij_int_decode

1421 Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj ~> inj_prod_encode

1422 Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj ~> surj_prod_encode

1423 Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj ~> inj_prod_decode

1424 Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj ~> surj_prod_decode

1425 Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id ~> int_encode_inverse

1426 Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id ~> int_decode_inverse

1427 Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode

1428 Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode

1429 Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij ~> inj_int_encode

1430 Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij ~> inj_int_decode

1431 Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij ~> bij_int_encode

1432 Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij ~> bij_int_decode

1434 * Sledgehammer:

1435 - Renamed ATP commands:

1436 atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_atps

1437 atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_atps

1438 atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages

1439 atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize

1440 print_atps ~> sledgehammer available_atps

1441 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1442 - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").

1443 - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize

1444 Sledgehammer's behavior. See the manual for details.

1445 - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces

1446 direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction. (This feature

1447 is still experimental.)

1448 - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in

1449 full-typed mode.

1450 - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.

1452 * Nitpick:

1453 - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.

1454 - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.

1455 - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision

1456 of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.

1457 - Added support for quotient types.

1458 - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"

1459 constructs.

1460 - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and

1461 "termination" proofs).

1462 - Added support for term postprocessors.

1463 - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".

1464 - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.

1465 - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and

1466 record getters.

1467 - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.

1468 - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.

1469 - Improved precision of set constructs.

1470 - Added "atoms" option.

1471 - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same

1472 problems.

1473 - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and

1474 "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and

1475 "SAT4J_Light". INCOMPATIBILITY.

1476 - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",

1477 "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1478 - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1480 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not

1481 a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.

1482 If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.

1483 By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations

1484 are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases

1485 to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.

1486 Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old

1487 behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"

1488 and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.

1489 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1492 *** HOLCF ***

1494 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have

1495 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype

1496 package. Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.

1498 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for

1499 recursive domain "foo". The reach lemma is now stated directly in

1500 terms of "foo_take". Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must

1501 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.

1503 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously

1504 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form

1505 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.

1506 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,

1507 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

1509 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now

1510 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each

1511 constructor). INCOMPATIBILITY.

1513 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"

1514 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.

1516 foo_bar.reach ~> foo.reach bar.reach

1517 foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma bar.take_lemma

1519 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for

1520 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.

1522 foo.ind ~> foo.induct

1523 foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct

1524 foo.coind ~> foo.coinduct

1525 foo.casedist ~> foo.exhaust

1526 foo.exhaust ~> foo.nchotomy

1528 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package

1529 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.

1531 foo_simps ~> foo.simps

1532 foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold

1533 foo_induct ~> foo.induct

1535 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed. The "fixrec_simp"

1536 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.

1537 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1539 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed. Proof scripts should use

1540 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.

1542 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.

1544 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of

1545 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.

1548 *** ML ***

1550 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:

1552 @{class NAME} -- type class

1553 @{class_syntax NAME} -- syntax representation of the above

1555 @{type_name NAME} -- logical type

1556 @{type_abbrev NAME} -- type abbreviation

1557 @{nonterminal NAME} -- type of concrete syntactic category

1558 @{type_syntax NAME} -- syntax representation of any of the above

1560 @{const_name NAME} -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)

1561 @{const_abbrev NAME} -- abbreviated constant

1562 @{const_syntax NAME} -- syntax representation of any of the above

1564 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw

1565 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).

1567 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary

1568 values similar to the ML toplevel. The result is compiler dependent

1569 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.

1571 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to

1572 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}. This replaces impure

1573 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do

1574 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.

1576 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on

1577 the context or even global references.

1579 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174). It

1580 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).

1582 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names

1583 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:

1585 OuterKeyword ~> Keyword

1586 OuterLex ~> Token

1587 OuterParse ~> Parse

1588 OuterSyntax ~> Outer_Syntax

1589 PrintMode ~> Print_Mode

1590 SpecParse ~> Parse_Spec

1591 ThyInfo ~> Thy_Info

1592 ThyLoad ~> Thy_Load

1593 ThyOutput ~> Thy_Output

1594 TypeInfer ~> Type_Infer

1596 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting

1597 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.

1599 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named

1600 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or

1601 ProofContext.init_global. There are some situations where a global

1602 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to

1603 pass the proper local context through the code!

1605 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data

1606 needs to be pure. Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional

1607 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard

1608 Theory_Data version.

1610 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms

1611 no longer minimize sorts. Thus certification at the boundary of the

1612 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,

1613 which is an important monotonicity principle. Sorts are now minimized

1614 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the

1615 system. Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort

1616 explicitly in rare situations.

1618 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to

1619 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.

1620 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1622 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as

1623 usual for resolution. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.

1625 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global

1626 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is

1627 quite rare).

1629 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted

1630 as infinity (as in chop). Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.

1632 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical

1633 order of type variables. INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof

1634 terms.

1636 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs

1637 may no longer carry premises. User-level specifications are

1638 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.

1641 *** System ***

1643 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;

1644 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions. Note that

1645 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.

1647 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy

1648 feature since Isabelle2009). Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,

1649 respectively.

1651 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the

1652 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit

1653 variant, even on a 64 bit machine. The following example setting

1654 prefers 64 bit if available:

1656 ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"

1658 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging

1659 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.

1660 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built

1661 component.

1663 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono

1664 and Bluesky TeX fonts. It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,

1665 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system

1666 (cf. isabellesym.sty). The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System

1667 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking

1668 the user for manual installation.

1672 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)

1673 -------------------------------------

1675 *** General ***

1677 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>. Only

1678 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.

1681 *** Pure ***

1683 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.

1684 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map

1685 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.

1687 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'. Use "print_interps

1688 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.

1689 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.

1691 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial. New section on conditional

1692 interpretation.

1694 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters

1695 are formally declared. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1698 *** Document preparation ***

1700 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}

1701 instead of @{foo_style style ...} (old form is still retained for

1702 backward compatibility). Styles can be also applied for

1703 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.

1706 *** HOL ***

1708 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with

1709 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and

1710 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order

1711 features (esp. lambda abstractions). It is an incomplete decision

1712 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;

1713 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing. Certificates

1714 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for

1715 re-checking proofs. Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for

1716 installing SMT solvers locally. See src/HOL/SMT.

1718 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by

1719 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C

1720 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#). See src/HOL/Boogie.

1722 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod

1723 relational model finder. See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and

1724 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.

1726 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate

1727 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.

1729 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.

1731 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;

1732 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records

1733 and datatypes. Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory

1734 Library/SML_Quickcheck.

1736 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools. Applies

1737 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to

1738 every proof step in a theory. To be used in batch mode via the

1739 "mirabelle" utility.

1741 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real

1742 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory

1743 Library/Sum_Of_Squares. It is not a complete decision procedure but

1744 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,

1745 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and

1746 inequalities between polynomials. It makes use of external

1747 semidefinite programming solvers. Method "sos" generates a

1748 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need

1749 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked. See

1750 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.

1752 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision

1753 procedure only.

1755 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.

1757 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.

1758 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs. This slows

1759 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"

1760 that fail later.

1762 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type

1763 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.

1765 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using

1766 the same method as the approximation method.

1768 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as

1769 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor

1770 series expansion.

1772 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype

1773 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.

1775 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of

1776 reals.

1778 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure

1779 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.

1781 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's

1782 fixpoint theorem.

1784 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:

1785 - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides

1786 and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory

1787 - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int

1788 accordingly

1789 - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including

1790 theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)

1791 - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to

1792 src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory

1794 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and

1795 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete

1796 lattice.

1798 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of

1799 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,

1800 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been

1801 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems

1802 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and

1803 zdiv_zmult_zmult2. div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.

1804 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1806 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:

1807 - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default

1808 intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity

1809 - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with

1810 le_inf_iff

1811 - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and

1812 sup_aci)

1813 - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci

1814 - new class "boolean_algebra"

1815 - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory

1816 "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)

1817 renamed and with authentic syntax:

1818 Set.Inf ~> Complete_Lattice.Inf

1819 Set.Sup ~> Complete_Lattice.Sup

1820 Set.INFI ~> Complete_Lattice.INFI

1821 Set.SUPR ~> Complete_Lattice.SUPR

1822 Set.Inter ~> Complete_Lattice.Inter

1823 Set.Union ~> Complete_Lattice.Union

1824 Set.INTER ~> Complete_Lattice.INTER

1825 Set.UNION ~> Complete_Lattice.UNION

1826 - authentic syntax for

1827 Set.Pow

1828 Set.image

1829 - mere abbreviations:

1830 Set.empty (for bot)

1831 Set.UNIV (for top)

1832 Set.inter (for inf, formerly Set.Int)

1833 Set.union (for sup, formerly Set.Un)

1834 Complete_Lattice.Inter (for Inf)

1835 Complete_Lattice.Union (for Sup)

1836 Complete_Lattice.INTER (for INFI)

1837 Complete_Lattice.UNION (for SUPR)

1838 - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate

1840 INCOMPATIBILITY. Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or

1841 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also

1842 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be

1843 deleted to achieve the desired effect.

1845 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp

1846 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1

1847 etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1849 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as

1850 pred_set_conv by default. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1852 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated

1853 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^". Power operation on

1854 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic

1855 in class power. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1857 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:

1858 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}". INCOMPATIBILITY,

1859 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally

1860 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this. Fix using

1861 O_assoc[symmetric]. The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".

1863 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an

1864 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV". Lemmas are renamed accordingly.

1865 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1867 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory

1868 prefixes. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1870 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by

1871 the attribute of the same name. Each of the theorems in the list

1872 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and

1873 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the

1874 Simplifier. Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative

1875 of most elementary terms. Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and

1876 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).

1877 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1879 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:

1880 code_unfold replaces code unfold

1881 code_post replaces code post

1882 etc.

1883 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1885 * Renamed methods:

1886 sizechange -> size_change

1887 induct_scheme -> induction_schema

1888 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1890 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".

1891 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.

1893 * Renamed theorems:

1894 Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1

1895 Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left

1896 Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1

1897 *anti_sym -> *antisym*

1898 vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def

1899 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1901 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp]. Removed List.map_compose.

1902 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1904 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).

1905 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1908 *** HOLCF ***

1910 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are

1911 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".

1912 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.

1914 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the

1915 domain package, for representable domains. Syntax is identical to the

1916 old domain package. The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect

1917 recursion using previously-defined type constructors. See

1918 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.

1920 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant

1921 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs

1922 simplification. Rewriting is done using rules declared with the

1923 "fixrec_simp" attribute. The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a

1924 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.

1926 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors

1927 with HOL function types. Pattern-match combinators for the Pair

1928 constructor are pre-configured.

1930 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules

1931 for mutually-recursive definitions: Induction rules have conclusions

1932 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".

1934 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has

1935 been renamed to "below". The name "below" now replaces "less" in many

1936 theorem names. (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported

1937 as well.)

1939 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns". Bottom

1940 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make

1941 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the

1942 Glasgow Haskell Compiler). See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for

1943 examples.

1946 *** ML ***

1948 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler

1949 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.

1951 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely

1952 identified entries, with some additional information such as source

1953 position, logical grouping etc.

1955 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and

1956 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data. Data needs

1957 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit

1958 copy operation) is still available for some time.

1960 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)

1961 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state

1962 variables with atomic update. This works via pure function

1963 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as

1964 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,

1965 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!

1967 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)

1968 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe

1969 behaviour. The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to

1970 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive

1971 experiments with references.

1973 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for

1974 parallel tactical reasoning.

1976 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS

1977 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the

1978 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the

1979 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.

1981 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has

1982 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion. Use SUBPROOF

1983 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.

1985 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph. (Since

1986 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them

1987 separately.) Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

1989 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1991 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar. Occasional,

1992 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1994 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty

1995 mode, which avoids critical setmp.

1997 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related

1998 combinators for "args". INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified

1999 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.

2001 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of. May fall

2002 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as

2003 last resort. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2005 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former

2006 ProofContext.pretty_thm). May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global

2007 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.

2008 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2010 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

2011 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context

2012 instead of global theory.

2015 *** System ***

2017 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores

2018 (max. speedup factor 5.0). See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and

2019 usedir option -q.

2021 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see

2022 also the system manual.

2024 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with

2025 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".

2027 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;

2028 this is always enabled.

2030 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.

2032 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'

2033 on a given logic image. This requires the lighttpd webserver and is

2034 currently supported on Linux only.

2038 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)

2039 --------------------------------

2041 *** General ***

2043 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on

2044 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).

2046 - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of

2047 "isatool."

2049 - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been

2050 removed (should rarely occur to regular users).

2052 - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been

2053 removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).

2055 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables

2056 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,

2057 respectively. (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)

2059 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if

2060 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise. Individual

2061 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the

2062 Isabelle system manual. In particular, Proof General is now available

2063 via "isabelle emacs".

2065 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts. Users may need to

2066 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle

2067 install -p ...", or use symlinks.

2069 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the

2070 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause

2071 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).

2073 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,

2074 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place. Special

2075 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle. Note that

2076 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any

2077 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.

2079 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on

2080 multi-core systems. A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on

2081 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably

2082 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H). (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)

2084 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and

2085 "system") have been updated and extended. Formally checked references

2086 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.

2089 *** Pure ***

2091 * Complete re-implementation of locales. INCOMPATIBILITY in several

2092 respects. The most important changes are listed below. See the

2093 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.

2095 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming. Parameters

2096 must be declared in a for clause. To aid compatibility with previous

2097 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not

2098 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added

2099 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.

2101 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in

2102 locale expressions and context elements. The latter is particularly

2103 useful in locale declarations.

2105 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale

2106 expressions. Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale

2107 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or

2108 optional (syntax "name?:"). The default depends for plain "name:"

2109 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in

2110 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in

2111 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory. The old

2112 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are

2113 no longer generated.

2115 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e". The

2116 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square

2117 brackets) is no longer available. Use locale expressions.

2119 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in

2120 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even

2121 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior. In the

2122 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones. Qualifiers

2123 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.

2125 - Dropped locale element "includes". This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.

2126 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the

2127 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those

2128 that are already present in the theorem specification. Multiple

2129 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one

2130 involving the locale predicate. In the proof body, declarations (most

2131 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective

2132 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").

2134 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the

2135 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,

2136 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on

2137 the parameters (context element "constrains").

2139 - Discontinued "locale (open)". INCOMPATIBILITY.

2141 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.

2142 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs. Use

2143 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.

2145 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation

2146 attributes. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2148 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import

2149 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification. Particularly

2150 in HOL, write

2152 class foo = ...

2154 instead of

2156 class foo = type + ...

2158 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a

2159 parameter prefix any longer. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2161 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.

2162 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.

2164 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in

2165 Isabelle2007. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really

2166 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.

2168 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in

2169 isar-ref manual. Removed locales meta_term_syntax and

2170 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,

2171 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations. Note that &&& should not be used

2172 directly in regular applications.

2174 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal

2175 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).

2177 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command. INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML

2178 interface with 'setup' command instead.

2180 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local

2181 theory context.

2183 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory

2184 context. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2186 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort

2187 hypotheses. Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be

2188 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the

2189 type instance information of the background theory. Non-trivial sort

2190 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via

2191 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c). For example:

2193 lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...

2195 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --

2196 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule

2197 normalization.

2199 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state

2200 addressing etc.

2202 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:

2204 unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)

2205 unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)

2207 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):

2209 a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular

2210 constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other

2211 parts of the code generator framework).

2213 b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code

2214 attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming

2215 from definition, primrec, fun etc.

2217 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2219 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators. Thus [code

2220 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2222 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name

2223 patterns, e.g.

2225 find_consts "_ => bool"

2227 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to

2228 the whole type. Searching by name is possible. Multiple queries are

2229 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a

2230 hyphen:

2232 find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"

2234 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that

2235 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).

2237 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal

2238 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could

2239 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.

2240 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,

2241 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of

2242 higher-order unification.

2245 *** Document preparation ***

2247 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,

2248 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression

2249 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.

2252 *** HOL ***

2254 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL. Entry

2255 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.

2257 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important

2258 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...). This facilitates

2259 experimentation and tool development. Note that user applications

2260 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory

2261 Main, as before.

2263 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates

2264 experimentation due to shorter build times.

2266 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which

2267 were previously part of former HOL-Complex. Entry point Hyperreal

2268 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use

2269 new entry point Hypercomplex.

2271 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of

2272 Posix processes. Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML

2273 process. New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix

2274 platforms (Cygwin). Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined

2275 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions. Basic Sledgehammer

2276 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.

2278 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use

2279 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other

2280 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also

2281 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.

2283 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings

2284 menu.

2286 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial

2287 (contains the empty clause).

2289 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising

2290 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.

2292 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also

2293 src/Tools/coherent.ML).

2295 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary". Usually

2296 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though

2297 logically there is no difference. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2299 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms. The

2300 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed. In

2301 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be

2302 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]). See further

2303 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.

2305 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.

2306 Declare with attribute [code nbe].

2308 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules

2309 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the

2310 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes. Mutual induction rules

2311 are now presented as a list of individual projections

2312 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with

2313 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported. INCOMPATIBILITY, in

2314 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple

2315 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t

2316 rule: prod.exhaust) here.

2318 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.

2320 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".

2322 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option. Renamed

2323 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.

2325 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial

2326 orders. With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about

2327 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",

2328 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".

2330 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with

2331 authentic syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY:

2333 op Int ~> Set.Int

2334 op Un ~> Set.Un

2335 INTER ~> Set.INTER

2336 UNION ~> Set.UNION

2337 Inter ~> Set.Inter

2338 Union ~> Set.Union

2339 {} ~> Set.empty

2340 UNIV ~> Set.UNIV

2342 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in

2343 theory Set.

2345 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any

2346 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.

2348 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.

2350 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,

2351 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.

2353 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof

2354 method "approximation". It proves formulas on real values by using

2355 interval arithmetic. In the formulas are also the transcendental

2356 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are

2357 allowed. For examples see

2358 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.

2360 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.

2362 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".

2363 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2365 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution

2366 structure:

2368 src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy

2369 src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/

2370 src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/

2371 src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/

2372 src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/

2373 src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/

2374 src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/

2375 src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/

2376 src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/

2377 src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/

2378 src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/

2379 src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/

2380 src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/

2381 src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/

2382 src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/

2383 src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/

2384 src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/

2385 src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/

2386 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/

2387 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/

2388 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/

2389 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/

2390 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/

2391 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/

2392 src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/

2393 src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/

2394 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/

2395 src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/

2396 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/

2397 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/

2398 src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/

2399 src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach

2400 src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/

2402 src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

2403 src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

2404 src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

2405 src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML

2406 src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

2407 src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

2408 src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

2409 src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

2410 src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

2411 src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

2413 src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

2414 src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

2415 src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

2416 src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

2417 src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

2418 src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

2420 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof

2421 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if

2422 possible), avoiding strange error messages.

2424 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a

2425 modification of) the size-change principle. Requires SAT solver. See

2426 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.

2428 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound

2429 variable occurs at most once in let expression body. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2431 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when

2432 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.

2434 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used

2435 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in

2436 proofs, e.g.

2438 assumes [arith]: "x > 0"

2440 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.

2442 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and

2443 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"

2444 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot". INCOMPATIBILITY.

2446 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an

2447 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.

2448 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2450 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit

2451 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption. For instantiation of

2452 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.

2453 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2455 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".

2456 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder

2457 etc. slightly changed. Some theorems named order_class.* now named

2458 preorder_class.*.

2460 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,

2461 "diag" to "Id_on".

2463 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type

2465 ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b

2467 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator

2468 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to

2469 fold_image.

2471 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"

2472 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be

2473 extended with further lemmas!). At the moment both still exist but

2474 the former will disappear at some point.

2476 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in

2477 class recpower. Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types

2478 have been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:

2480 rat_power_0 -> power_0

2481 rat_power_Suc -> power_Suc

2482 realpow_0 -> power_0

2483 realpow_Suc -> power_Suc

2484 complexpow_0 -> power_0

2485 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc

2486 power_poly_0 -> power_0

2487 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc

2489 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been

2490 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on

2491 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1. Likewise a bunch

2492 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class

2493 semiring_div. INCOMPATIBILITY. This involves the following theorem

2494 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:

2496 dvd_def_mod ~> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0

2497 zero_dvd_iff ~> dvd_0_left_iff

2498 dvd_0 ~> dvd_0_right

2499 DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0

2500 DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0

2501 mult_div ~> div_mult_self2_is_id

2502 mult_mod ~> mod_mult_self2_is_0

2504 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based

2505 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field). INCOMPATIBILITY,

2506 rename old lemmas as follows:

2508 dvd_diff -> nat_dvd_diff

2509 dvd_zminus_iff -> dvd_minus_iff

2510 mod_add1_eq -> mod_add_eq

2511 mod_mult1_eq -> mod_mult_right_eq

2512 mod_mult1_eq' -> mod_mult_left_eq

2513 mod_mult_distrib_mod -> mod_mult_eq

2514 nat_mod_add_left_eq -> mod_add_left_eq

2515 nat_mod_add_right_eq -> mod_add_right_eq

2516 nat_mod_div_trivial -> mod_div_trivial

2517 nat_mod_mod_trivial -> mod_mod_trivial

2518 zdiv_zadd_self1 -> div_add_self1

2519 zdiv_zadd_self2 -> div_add_self2

2520 zdiv_zmult_self1 -> div_mult_self2_is_id

2521 zdiv_zmult_self2 -> div_mult_self1_is_id

2522 zdvd_triv_left -> dvd_triv_left

2523 zdvd_triv_right -> dvd_triv_right

2524 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left

2525 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]

2526 zmod_zadd_left_eq -> mod_add_left_eq

2527 zmod_zadd_right_eq -> mod_add_right_eq

2528 zmod_zadd_self1 -> mod_add_self1

2529 zmod_zadd_self2 -> mod_add_self2

2530 zmod_zadd1_eq -> mod_add_eq

2531 zmod_zdiff1_eq -> mod_diff_eq

2532 zmod_zdvd_zmod -> mod_mod_cancel

2533 zmod_zmod_cancel -> mod_mod_cancel

2534 zmod_zmult_self1 -> mod_mult_self2_is_0

2535 zmod_zmult_self2 -> mod_mult_self1_is_0

2536 zmod_1 -> mod_by_1

2537 zdiv_1 -> div_by_1

2538 zdvd_abs1 -> abs_dvd_iff

2539 zdvd_abs2 -> dvd_abs_iff

2540 zdvd_refl -> dvd_refl

2541 zdvd_trans -> dvd_trans

2542 zdvd_zadd -> dvd_add

2543 zdvd_zdiff -> dvd_diff

2544 zdvd_zminus_iff -> dvd_minus_iff

2545 zdvd_zminus2_iff -> minus_dvd_iff

2546 zdvd_zmultD -> dvd_mult_right

2547 zdvd_zmultD2 -> dvd_mult_left

2548 zdvd_zmult_mono -> mult_dvd_mono

2549 zdvd_0_right -> dvd_0_right

2550 zdvd_0_left -> dvd_0_left_iff

2551 zdvd_1_left -> one_dvd

2552 zminus_dvd_iff -> minus_dvd_iff

2554 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2556 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated

2557 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.

2559 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of

2560 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a. In addition to

2561 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod. Code

2562 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.

2564 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real

2565 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a

2566 => real. Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from

2567 theory RealVector.

2569 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product

2570 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.

2571 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,

2572 and inner products are included.

2574 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2. In

2575 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also

2576 supported.

2578 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's

2579 first diagonalization argument.

2581 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,

2582 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in

2583 the HOL Distribution. Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and

2584 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY,

2585 may recover tupled syntax as follows:

2587 hide (open) const gcd

2588 abbreviation gcd where

2589 "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"

2590 notation (output)

2591 GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")

2593 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.

2595 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more

2596 instantiations for algebraic structures. Removed some duplicate

2597 theorems. Changes in simp rules. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2599 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates

2600 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding

2601 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.

2602 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated

2603 simultaneously. Provides a generic and safe interface for

2604 instrumentalizing code generation. See

2605 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.

2606 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML

2607 code on the ML toplevel. Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}

2608 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are

2609 set. Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that

2610 cases.

2612 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now

2613 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be

2614 represented as datatype. The characteristic theorems have to be

2615 proven. INCOMPATIBILITY. Also observe that the following theorems

2616 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:

2618 unit_induct ~> unit.induct

2619 prod_induct ~> prod.induct

2620 sum_induct ~> sum.induct

2621 Suc_Suc_eq ~> nat.inject

2622 Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc ~> nat.distinct

2625 *** HOL-Algebra ***

2627 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation

2628 is not restricted to equality. INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice

2629 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.

2631 * New theory of factorial domains.

2633 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.

2634 INCOMPATIBILITY. Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv

2635 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.

2637 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:

2639 UpperD ~> Upper_memD

2640 LowerD ~> Lower_memD

2641 least_carrier ~> least_closed

2642 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed

2643 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below

2644 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero

2645 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero (collision with assumption)

2648 *** HOL-Nominal ***

2650 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.

2652 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local

2653 theory targets.

2655 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its

2656 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in

2657 'inductive' etc.

2659 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes

2660 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.

2662 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the

2663 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.

2665 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction

2666 principles for inductive definitions. In contrast to

2667 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of

2668 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of

2669 atoms to be avoided. The only inductive definition we have at the

2670 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in

2671 the algorithm W:

2673 Gamma |- t1 : T1 (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2 x#Gamma

2674 -----------------------------------------------------------------

2675 Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2

2677 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by

2678 "close Gamma T1". We are looking for other examples where this

2679 feature might be useful. Please let us know.

2682 *** HOLCF ***

2684 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity

2685 subgoals. The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional

2686 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].

2688 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for

2689 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions. In

2690 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the

2691 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.

2692 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

2694 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general

2695 format as seen in 'inductive' etc. See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for

2696 examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2699 *** ZF ***

2701 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.

2704 *** ML ***

2706 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for

2707 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later. Important note: the TimeLimit facility

2708 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML

2709 5.2.1!

2711 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see

2712 src/Pure/Cuncurrent. The data-oriented model of "future values" is

2713 particularly convenient to organize independent functional

2714 computations. The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a

2715 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the

2716 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables. (Requires

2717 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)

2719 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar

2720 context (theory or proof). Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'

2721 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning

2722 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).

2723 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the

2724 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a

2725 theory. (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)

2727 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof

2728 context. Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in

2729 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.

2730 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the

2731 proof. (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)

2733 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup

2734 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and

2735 'method_setup'. INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify

2736 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old

2737 Method.add_method.

2739 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm

2740 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle

2741 name. The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type

2742 is specified. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code

2743 accordingly. Note that extra performance may be gained by producing

2744 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.

2746 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via

2747 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally

2748 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user

2749 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common

2750 examples.

2752 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and

2753 name space operations. Basic operations on qualified names have been

2754 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,

2755 Long_Name.append. Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by

2756 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise

2757 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper

2758 tracking of source positions. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old

2759 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract

2760 bindings everywhere. See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,

2761 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML

2763 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,

2764 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the

2765 bstring as before. INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!

2767 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,

2768 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,

2769 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.). INCOMPATIBILITY, should

2770 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,

2771 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last

2772 resort for legacy applications.

2774 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to

2775 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,

2776 Simp_tac, SIMPSET). INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in

2777 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as

2778 explicit runtime argument.

2780 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,

2781 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof

2782 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking. Moreover,

2783 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings

2784 thereof. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2786 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of

2787 transactions. E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML

2788 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new

2789 theory state.

2791 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by

2792 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:

2794 @{binding name} - basic name binding

2795 @{let ?pat = term} - term abbreviation (HO matching)

2796 @{note name = fact} - fact abbreviation

2797 @{thm fact} - singleton fact (with attributes)

2798 @{thms fact} - general fact (with attributes)

2799 @{lemma prop by method} - singleton goal

2800 @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2} - singleton goal

2801 @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method} - general goal

2802 @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal

2803 @{lemma (open) ...} - open derivation

2806 *** System ***

2808 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke

2809 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not

2810 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on

2811 isabelle-process). The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the

2812 installation location of the Proof General distribution.

2814 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate

2815 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application. See

2816 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example. (The obsolete Java

2817 process wrapper has been discontinued.)

2819 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.

2821 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are

2822 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled. This allows

2823 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal

2824 prover operations.

2828 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)

2829 -------------------------------

2831 *** General ***

2833 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized

2834 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.

2836 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the

2837 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in

2838 conflict with concurrency. INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which

2839 provides a proper context already.

2841 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy

2842 file are no longer supported. INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and

2843 'use' within a theory file will do the job.

2845 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space

2846 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first

2847 space take precedence. INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to

2848 swap theory imports.

2850 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter. Potential

2851 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.

2853 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,

2854 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

2855 white space without escapes.

2857 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes

2858 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML). E.g. "foo\095bar" for

2859 "foo_bar".

2862 *** Pure ***

2864 * Context-dependent token translations. Default setup reverts locally

2865 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.

2867 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.

2868 There are three ways of invoking it:

2870 (1) unused_thms

2871 Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.

2873 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -

2874 Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,

2875 excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.

2877 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m

2878 Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of

2879 their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of

2880 their ancestors.

2882 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by

2883 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance

2884 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered

2885 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in

2886 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer

2887 reported as unused. Moreover, if all theorems in the group are

2888 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.

2890 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for

2891 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is

2892 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).

2894 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous

2895 theorems within the same name space. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove

2896 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications. Note

2897 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using

2898 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.

2900 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.

2902 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and

2903 clasimpset. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear

2904 update of theories within ML code.

2906 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.

2907 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require

2908 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics

2909 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.

2911 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on

2912 theory/local_theory. Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'

2913 instead. Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.

2914 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2916 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.

2918 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class

2919 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.

2920 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.

2921 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and

2922 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.

2924 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only

2925 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the

2926 background context (locale etc.). Affects `prop` notation and method

2927 "fact". INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare

2928 situations.

2930 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented

2931 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the

2932 proof text.

2934 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".

2935 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.

2937 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';

2938 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale

2939 predicates.

2942 *** Document preparation ***

2944 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for

2945 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed

2946 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the

2947 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default

2948 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets

2949 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).

2951 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given

2952 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method

2953 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.

2956 *** HOL ***

2958 * New primrec package. Specification syntax conforms in style to

2959 definition/function/.... No separate induction rule is provided. The

2960 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications

2961 by syntax. The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.

2962 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style

2963 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.

2965 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works

2966 with multithreading.

2968 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a

2969 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses. Theorems that

2970 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.

2972 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To

2973 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]]. Attributes

2974 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed

2975 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2977 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules

2978 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors

2979 out some operations that are done internally by the function package

2980 and makes them available separately. See

2981 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.

2983 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination

2984 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the

2985 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.

2986 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and

2987 just guides the heuristic. To find suitable measure functions, the

2988 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate

2989 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using

2990 the declared rules.

2992 This setup also deals with rules like

2994 "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"

2996 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.

2997 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.

2999 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"

3001 INCOMPATIBILITIES:

3003 - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by

3004 definitions on => and bool.

3006 - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved

3007 using the definitions of the operators on => and bool. Therefore,

3008 the following theorems have been renamed:

3010 subset_def -> subset_eq

3011 psubset_def -> psubset_eq

3012 set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq

3013 Compl_def -> Compl_eq

3014 Sup_set_def -> Sup_set_eq

3015 Inf_set_def -> Inf_set_eq

3016 sup_set_def -> sup_set_eq

3017 inf_set_def -> inf_set_eq

3019 - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some

3020 rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of

3021 the unknowns in the rule is a set.

3023 - Higher order unification and forward proofs:

3024 The proof pattern

3026 have "P (S::'a set)" <...>

3027 then have "EX S. P S" ..

3029 no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification

3030 algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern

3032 have "EX S. P S"

3033 proof

3034 show "P S" <...>

3035 qed

3037 - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):

3038 The proof pattern

3040 have "P (S::'a set)" <...>

3041 also have "S = T" <...>

3042 finally have "P T" .

3044 no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and

3045 must be replaced by something like

3047 have "P (S::'a set)" <...>

3048 moreover have "S = T" <...>

3049 ultimately have "P T" by simp

3051 - Tactics or packages written in ML code:

3052 Code performing pattern matching on types via

3054 Type ("set", [T]) => ...

3056 must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or

3057 binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a

3058 type of the form

3060 T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool

3062 rather than

3064 T1 => ... => Tn => U set

3066 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and

3067 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.

3069 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3071 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter. Use class

3072 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.

3073 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3075 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"

3076 and "Cons". INCOMPATIBILITY.

3078 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.

3079 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

3081 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and

3082 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.

3083 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3085 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of

3086 the same name in theory Orderings:

3088 less_trans

3089 less_linear

3090 le_imp_less_or_eq

3091 le_less_trans

3092 less_le_trans

3093 less_not_sym

3094 less_asym

3096 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to

3097 less_irrefl_nat. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types

3098 and different variable names.

3100 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.

3102 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of

3103 finite maps.

3105 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.

3107 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed. The infix

3108 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have

3109 disappeared. INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in

3110 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively. Theorems

3111 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"

3112 accordingly.

3114 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer

3115 depend on well-founded relations. INCOMPATIBILITY. Definitions

3116 le_def and less_def have disappeared. Consider lemmas not_less

3117 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.

3119 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin

3120 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been

3121 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes

3122 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,

3123 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.

3124 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3126 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper

3127 case_names ("base" and "step"). INCOMPATIBILITY.

3129 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete

3130 lattices. The form set-specific version is available as

3131 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.

3133 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".

3134 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3136 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings

3137 with division and modulo operations. Subsumes former class dvd_mod.

3139 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory

3140 Int. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3142 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural

3143 numbers rather than integers. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3145 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class

3146 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).

3147 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3149 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic

3150 syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3152 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,

3153 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,

3154 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,

3155 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,

3156 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object

3157 equality. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3159 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term

3160 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.

3161 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.

3163 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.

3165 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.

3167 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of

3168 pairs. Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and

3169 well-orders on sets and on types.

3172 *** ZF ***

3174 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the

3175 same session:

3177 Datatype -> Datatype_ZF

3178 Inductive -> Inductive_ZF

3179 Int -> Int_ZF

3180 IntDiv -> IntDiv_ZF

3181 Nat -> Nat_ZF

3182 List -> List_ZF

3183 Main -> Main_ZF

3185 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below

3186 Main might need to be adapted. Regular theory Main is still

3187 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.

3190 *** ML ***

3192 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const

3193 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.

3195 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact

3196 (of the same name). Removed obsolete print command.

3198 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.

3200 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global

3201 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes

3202 non-critical. The global print_mode reference is for session

3203 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,

3204 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3206 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external

3207 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML

3208 5.2.1). Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!

3211 *** System ***

3213 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---

3214 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.

3216 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;

3217 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR

3218 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".

3220 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general

3221 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.

3223 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to

3224 standard XML transfer syntax. See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and

3225 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.

3227 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)

3228 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust

3229 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.

3231 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),

3232 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).

3234 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature. NB: the documented

3235 way of changing the user's settings is via

3236 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash

3237 script.

3239 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU

3240 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for

3241 optimal performance tuning. The corresponding usedir option -M allows

3242 "max" as an alias for "0". WARNING: does not work on certain versions

3243 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).

3245 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the

3246 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably

3247 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).

3251 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)

3252 -----------------------------------

3254 *** General ***

3256 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a

3257 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the

3258 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:

3259 legacy features will disappear eventually.

3261 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been

3262 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''. Use isatool

3263 fixheaders to convert existing theory files. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3265 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been

3266 discontinued altogether. Note that ML proof scripts may still be used

3267 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML

3268 function use_legacy_bindings. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3270 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',

3271 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords. INCOMPATIBILITY, use double

3272 quotes.

3274 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory

3275 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the

3276 accidental file locations of previously successful loads. The strict

3277 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by

3278 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several

3279 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header

3280 specification, but without merging the results. Potential

3281 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands

3282 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.

3284 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file

3285 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical

3286 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting

3287 (cf. the system manual). The new scheme allows to work with

3288 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source

3289 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.

3291 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy

3292 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy

3293 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader

3294 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.

3296 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is

3297 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous

3298 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the

3299 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and

3300 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit

3301 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.

3303 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',

3304 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in

3305 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations

3306 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space

3307 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse

3308 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax

3309 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and

3310 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.

3312 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required

3313 to keep existing proof scripts running. Most other user-level

3314 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open

3315 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).

3316 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because

3317 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being

3318 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().

3320 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"

3321 criterion; "with_dups" option. Certain ProofGeneral versions might

3322 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).

3324 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1

3325 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are

3326 suppressed from proof state output. Note that the ProofGeneral

3327 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but

3328 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems

3329 limit is imposed.

3331 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of

3332 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''. The body may

3333 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism

3334 that has been implemented on top of these primitives. This concept

3335 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility

3336 and scalability.

3338 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;

3339 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).

3342 *** Document preparation ***

3344 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,

3345 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the

3346 current context.

3348 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which

3349 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.

3351 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation

3352 "c args == rhs" given in the current context. (Any number of

3353 arguments may be given on the LHS.)

3356 *** Pure ***

3358 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to

3359 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle. Definitions and

3360 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with

3361 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic

3362 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class

3363 context). Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate

3364 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting

3365 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.

3366 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).

3367 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.

3369 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable

3370 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes). A short usage

3371 sketch:

3373 internal compilation:

3374 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML

3375 writing SML code to a file:

3376 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>

3377 writing OCaml code to a file:

3378 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>

3379 writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:

3380 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>

3382 evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:

3383 method ``eval''

3385 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.

3387 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:

3389 [code fun]: select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant

3390 [code fun del]: deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant

3391 [code inline]: select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place

3392 [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place

3394 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):

3396 code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>

3397 {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+

3399 code_type <and-list of type constructors>

3400 {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+

3402 code_instance <and-list of instances>

3403 {(target)}+

3404 where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>

3406 code_class <and_list of classes>

3407 {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+

3408 where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?

3410 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.

3412 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and

3413 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy. A separate tutorial on code

3414 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc

3415 codegen".

3417 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now

3418 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type

3419 annotations).

3421 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory

3422 syntax.

3424 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic

3425 dependencies. The overloading scheme is slightly more general than

3426 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact

3427 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.

3428 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more

3429 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!

3431 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the

3432 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general

3433 declaration given in the signature. For example, with the declaration

3434 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented

3435 as c(nat). Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural

3436 recursion over such type arguments. Incomplete specification patterns

3437 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the

3438 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.

3439 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive

3440 equations, see section "definitions".

3442 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof

3443 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple

3444 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data. Tools may

3445 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to

3446 these values using Config.get etc. Users may change options via an

3447 associated attribute of the same name. This form of context

3448 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or

3449 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''. Thus it has become

3450 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar

3451 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.

3453 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into

3454 configuration options:

3456 Unify.search_bound unify_search_bound

3457 Unify.trace_bound unify_trace_bound

3458 Unify.trace_simp unify_trace_simp

3459 Unify.trace_types unify_trace_types

3460 Simplifier.simp_depth_limit simp_depth_limit

3461 Blast.depth_limit blast_depth_limit

3462 DatatypeProp.dtK datatype_distinctness_limit

3463 fast_arith_neq_limit fast_arith_neq_limit

3464 fast_arith_split_limit fast_arith_split_limit

3466 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context

3467 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also

3468 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML). The user may add or delete facts via

3469 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command. This facility is

3470 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way

3471 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical

3472 order.

3474 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic

3475 declaration functions written in ML. This enables arbitrary content

3476 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the

3477 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application

3478 context encountered later on.

3480 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures. Command

3481 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body

3482 text in ML). Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current

3483 context. ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.

3485 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations

3486 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,

3487 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on

3488 the background context will persist. This form of in-place

3489 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and

3490 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.

3492 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now

3493 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying

3494 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic

3495 assumption steps. This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'

3496 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",

3497 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the

3498 Isar proof context. POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is

3499 more permissive.

3501 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is

3502 considered a legacy feature. Common applications like ``have A .''

3503 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''. In general,

3504 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and

3505 maintainability of proof texts.

3507 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives

3508 the obtained context from the course of reasoning! For example:

3510 assume "EX x y. A x & B y" -- "any previous fact"

3511 then guess x and y by clarify

3513 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and

3514 proof tools being involved here.

3516 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal

3517 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax. This works wherever

3518 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof

3519 methods, attributes etc. Literal facts are retrieved from the context

3520 according to unification of type and term parameters. For example,

3521 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known

3522 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:

3523 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.

3525 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition

3526 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with

3527 certain special cases of literal facts:

3529 have "A" by fact == note `A`

3530 have "A ==> B" by fact == note `A ==> B`

3531 have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact == note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`

3532 have "P a ==> Q a" by fact == note `P a ==> Q a`

3534 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in

3535 outer syntax. Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without

3536 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.

3538 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,

3539 both named and unnamed ones.

3541 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:

3543 def x == "t" and y == "u"

3545 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to

3546 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given

3547 rewrite rules. Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or

3548 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.

3550 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',

3551 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities

3552 (potentially conditional). The underlying notion of rewrite rule is

3553 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the

3554 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).

3556 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the

3557 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.

3559 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a

3560 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N

3561 sub-goals, which need to exist. For example, ``simp_all [3]''

3562 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]

3563 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the

3564 originally first one.

3566 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order

3567 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as

3568 expected.

3570 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either

3571 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'

3572 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and

3573 assumptions). The latter allows to express general elimination rules

3574 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:

3576 lemma exE: -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

3577 assumes "EX x. P x"

3578 obtains x where "P x"

3580 lemma conjE: -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

3581 assumes "A & B"

3582 obtains A and B

3584 lemma disjE: -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

3585 assumes "A | B"

3586 obtains

3587 A

3588 | B

3590 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"

3591 explicitly:

3593 lemma classical: -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

3594 obtains "~ thesis"

3596 lemma Peirce's_Law: -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

3597 obtains "thesis ==> something"

3599 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the

3600 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.

3601 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be

3602 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the

3603 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute

3604 case_names).

3606 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as

3607 "assms" fact in the proof context. This is more appropriate than the

3608 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current

3609 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.

3611 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or

3612 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a

3613 top-level lemma.

3615 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context

3616 introduction rule (default "that").

3618 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

3619 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens

3620 to occur.

3622 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant

3623 according to the current context. This is particularly useful for

3624 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant

3625 representations independently of name spaces.

3627 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"

3628 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist

3629 in the same context. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3631 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'

3632 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and

3633 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation

3634 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the

3635 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the

3636 current context.

3638 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',

3639 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit

3640 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence). See also the

3641 isar-ref manual. Examples:

3643 axiomatization

3644 eq (infix "===" 50) where

3645 eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"

3647 definition "f x y = x + y + 1"

3648 definition g where "g x = f x x"

3650 abbreviation

3651 neq (infix "=!=" 50) where

3652 "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"

3654 These specifications may be also used in a locale context. Then the

3655 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the

3656 constant name is qualified by the locale base name. An internal

3657 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the

3658 parameters implicit and using the original short name. See also

3659 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic

3660 entities from a monomorphic theory.

3662 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but

3663 not inherited by general import expressions. Also note that

3664 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +

3665 'translations' in common applications. The "no_abbrevs" print mode

3666 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.

3668 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,

3669 independently of name spaces. The parse tree representation is

3670 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and

3671 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.

3673 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms

3674 (e.g. 'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits

3675 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_"). For example:

3677 definition "K x _ = x"

3679 inductive conj for A B

3680 where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"

3682 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of

3683 the current context. Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of

3684 abbreviations on output.

3686 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and

3687 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer

3688 required to be injective. For example, this allows to define

3689 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.

3691 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.

3692 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is

3693 now an interpretation. INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of

3694 locale expressions. In particular, in interpretations of locales with

3695 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not

3696 removed automatically. Use methods `intro_locales' and

3697 `unfold_locales'; see below.

3699 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'

3700 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates. The methods are

3701 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.

3702 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not

3703 unfold predicates to assumptions.

3705 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated

3706 has changed. This enables to override declarations from fragments due

3707 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.

3709 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been

3710 extended. One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are

3711 unfolded in interpreted theorems. This is useful for replacing

3712 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by

3713 concepts already existing in the target context. Example:

3715 interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]

3716 where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"

3718 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a

3719 definition specification element in the context of locale

3720 partial_order.

3722 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support

3723 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level

3724 connectives !! and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals

3725 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long

3726 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in

3727 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also

3728 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic

3729 examples.

3731 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of

3732 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into

3733 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested

3734 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,

3735 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.

3737 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list

3738 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide

3739 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive

3740 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify

3741 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:

3743 (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)

3744 (induct set: foo bar)

3745 (induct pred: foo bar)

3746 (induct type: foo bar)

3748 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the

3749 new format.

3751 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see

3752 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.

3754 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is

3755 considered a legacy feature.

3757 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic

3758 variables (index 0). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

3760 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level

3761 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by

3762 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The

3763 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.

3765 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format

3766 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when

3767 manipulating the claset.

3769 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,

3770 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at

3771 least one premise.

3773 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional

3774 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions). Weights are

3775 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single

3776 rule steps.

3778 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",

3779 where the body does not mention the bound variable. Note that dummy

3780 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes

3781 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected. Potential

3782 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic

3783 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.

3785 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated

3786 parse translation. INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,

3787 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".

3789 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using

3790 the graph browser tool.

3792 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by

3793 default; use '!' option for full details.

3796 *** HOL ***

3798 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose

3799 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).

3800 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples. WARNING: the

3801 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with

3802 multi-threading.

3804 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as

3805 background processes. It generates calls to the "metis" method if

3806 successful. These can be pasted into the proof. Users do not have to

3807 wait for the automatic provers to return. WARNING: does not really

3808 work with multi-threading.

3810 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for

3811 potential counter-examples. Controlled by ML references

3812 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default

3813 5000 milliseconds). Fails silently if statements is outside of

3814 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.

3816 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".

3818 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic

3819 equality.

3821 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in

3822 the new 'class' package:

3824 HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs

3825 HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide

3826 0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero

3827 1 ~> HOL.one_class.one

3828 op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus

3829 op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus

3830 uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus

3831 op * ~> HOL.times_class.times

3832 op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less

3833 op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq

3834 Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power

3835 Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size

3836 Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of

3837 FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf

3838 FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup

3839 Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min

3840 Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max

3841 Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div

3842 Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod

3843 Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd

3845 INCOMPATIBILITY. Adaptions may be required in the following cases:

3847 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",

3848 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for

3849 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong. INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific

3850 names.

3852 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"

3853 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.

3855 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")

3856 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative

3857 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows

3858 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle

3859 distribution). INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs

3861 d) ML code directly refering to constant names

3862 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and

3863 so on. INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.

3864 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.

3866 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".

3868 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex

3869 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn". Two possible defs of

3870 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and

3871 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.

3872 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3874 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory

3875 Orderings), added parameter "less". INCOMPATIBILITY.

3877 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and

3878 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid

3879 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans". INCOMPATIBILITY.

3881 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to

3882 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.

3884 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up

3885 for classes "order" and "linorder". Instances of the reasoner are available

3886 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.

3887 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner

3888 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver. Diagnostic

3889 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner

3890 in the current context.

3892 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated

3893 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.

3894 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3896 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration

3897 with new class dense_linear_order.

3899 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.

3901 constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"

3902 constant "Meet" now named "Inf"

3904 classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named

3905 "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"

3906 class "lorder" now named "lattice"

3907 class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"

3909 Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions

3910 for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).

3912 INCOMPATIBILITY. Theorem renames:

3914 meet_left_le ~> inf_le1

3915 meet_right_le ~> inf_le2

3916 join_left_le ~> sup_ge1

3917 join_right_le ~> sup_ge2

3918 meet_join_le ~> inf_sup_ord

3919 le_meetI ~> le_infI

3920 join_leI ~> le_supI

3921 le_meet ~> le_inf_iff

3922 le_join ~> ge_sup_conv

3923 meet_idempotent ~> inf_idem

3924 join_idempotent ~> sup_idem

3925 meet_comm ~> inf_commute

3926 join_comm ~> sup_commute

3927 meet_leI1 ~> le_infI1

3928 meet_leI2 ~> le_infI2

3929 le_joinI1 ~> le_supI1

3930 le_joinI2 ~> le_supI2

3931 meet_assoc ~> inf_assoc

3932 join_assoc ~> sup_assoc

3933 meet_left_comm ~> inf_left_commute

3934 meet_left_idempotent ~> inf_left_idem

3935 join_left_comm ~> sup_left_commute

3936 join_left_idempotent ~> sup_left_idem

3937 meet_aci ~> inf_aci

3938 join_aci ~> sup_aci

3939 le_def_meet ~> le_iff_inf

3940 le_def_join ~> le_iff_sup

3941 join_absorp2 ~> sup_absorb2

3942 join_absorp1 ~> sup_absorb1

3943 meet_absorp1 ~> inf_absorb1

3944 meet_absorp2 ~> inf_absorb2

3945 meet_join_absorp ~> inf_sup_absorb

3946 join_meet_absorp ~> sup_inf_absorb

3947 distrib_join_le ~> distrib_sup_le

3948 distrib_meet_le ~> distrib_inf_le

3950 add_meet_distrib_left ~> add_inf_distrib_left

3951 add_join_distrib_left ~> add_sup_distrib_left

3952 is_join_neg_meet ~> is_join_neg_inf

3953 is_meet_neg_join ~> is_meet_neg_sup

3954 add_meet_distrib_right ~> add_inf_distrib_right

3955 add_join_distrib_right ~> add_sup_distrib_right

3956 add_meet_join_distribs ~> add_sup_inf_distribs

3957 join_eq_neg_meet ~> sup_eq_neg_inf

3958 meet_eq_neg_join ~> inf_eq_neg_sup

3959 add_eq_meet_join ~> add_eq_inf_sup

3960 meet_0_imp_0 ~> inf_0_imp_0

3961 join_0_imp_0 ~> sup_0_imp_0

3962 meet_0_eq_0 ~> inf_0_eq_0

3963 join_0_eq_0 ~> sup_0_eq_0

3964 neg_meet_eq_join ~> neg_inf_eq_sup

3965 neg_join_eq_meet ~> neg_sup_eq_inf

3966 join_eq_if ~> sup_eq_if

3968 mono_meet ~> mono_inf

3969 mono_join ~> mono_sup

3970 meet_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_eq

3971 join_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_eq

3972 meet_fun_eq ~> inf_fun_eq

3973 join_fun_eq ~> sup_fun_eq

3974 meet_set_eq ~> inf_set_eq

3975 join_set_eq ~> sup_set_eq

3976 meet1_iff ~> inf1_iff

3977 meet2_iff ~> inf2_iff

3978 meet1I ~> inf1I

3979 meet2I ~> inf2I

3980 meet1D1 ~> inf1D1

3981 meet2D1 ~> inf2D1

3982 meet1D2 ~> inf1D2

3983 meet2D2 ~> inf2D2

3984 meet1E ~> inf1E

3985 meet2E ~> inf2E

3986 join1_iff ~> sup1_iff

3987 join2_iff ~> sup2_iff

3988 join1I1 ~> sup1I1

3989 join2I1 ~> sup2I1

3990 join1I1 ~> sup1I1

3991 join2I2 ~> sup1I2

3992 join1CI ~> sup1CI

3993 join2CI ~> sup2CI

3994 join1E ~> sup1E

3995 join2E ~> sup2E

3997 is_meet_Meet ~> is_meet_Inf

3998 Meet_bool_def ~> Inf_bool_def

3999 Meet_fun_def ~> Inf_fun_def

4000 Meet_greatest ~> Inf_greatest

4001 Meet_lower ~> Inf_lower

4002 Meet_set_def ~> Inf_set_def

4004 Sup_def ~> Sup_Inf

4005 Sup_bool_eq ~> Sup_bool_def

4006 Sup_fun_eq ~> Sup_fun_def

4007 Sup_set_eq ~> Sup_set_def

4009 listsp_meetI ~> listsp_infI

4010 listsp_meet_eq ~> listsp_inf_eq

4012 meet_min ~> inf_min

4013 join_max ~> sup_max

4015 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has

4016 type "'a::size ==> bool"

4018 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems

4019 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still

4020 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named

4021 "*.size".

4023 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".

4024 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4026 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,

4027 Linorder etc. have disappeared; operations defined in terms of

4028 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4030 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4032 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size

4033 machine words, with arithemtic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating

4034 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for

4035 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including

4036 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity. Instantiated to all appropriate

4037 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of

4038 numerals on all operations.

4040 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.

4042 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).

4044 * Code generator library theories:

4045 - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target

4046 languages.

4047 - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target

4048 languages.

4049 - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character

4050 codes; includes Code_Integer.

4051 - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.

4052 - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,

4053 denominator).

4054 - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those

4055 representable by rational numbers.

4056 - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will

4057 result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;

4058 includes Code_Integer.

4059 - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to

4060 target-language built-in integers.

4061 - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to

4062 strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.

4064 * New package for inductive predicates

4066 An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via

4068 inductive

4069 p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

4070 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

4071 where

4072 rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"

4073 | ...

4075 with full support for type-inference, rather than

4077 consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

4079 abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

4080 where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

4082 inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"

4083 intros

4084 rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

4085 ...

4087 For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive

4088 sets to be defined with the new package via

4090 inductive_set

4091 s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

4092 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

4093 where

4094 rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

4095 | ...

4097 or

4099 inductive_set

4100 s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

4101 and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

4102 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

4103 where

4104 "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

4105 | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"

4106 | ...

4108 if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.

4110 Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,

4111 src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.

4113 INCOMPATIBILITIES:

4115 - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates

4116 is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly

4117 introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the

4118 introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather

4119 than before the actual inductive definition.

4121 - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now

4122 quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction

4123 rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break

4124 some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by

4125 reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'

4126 statements of the form

4128 case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})

4130 or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding

4131 meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.

4133 | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"

4135 - The format of the elimination rules is now

4137 p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>

4138 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)

4139 ==> ... ==> P

4141 for predicates and

4143 (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>

4144 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)

4145 ==> ... ==> P

4147 for sets rather than

4149 x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>

4150 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)

4151 ==> ... ==> P

4153 This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples

4154 (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all

4155 rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.

4157 - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive

4158 sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The

4159 list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.

4161 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,

4162 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,

4163 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy

4164 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function

4165 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but

4166 users are encouraged to use the new package.

4168 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination

4169 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures.

4171 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including

4172 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional

4173 programming. Internally, this is translated into nested

4174 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined

4175 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show

4176 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow

4177 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an

4178 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new

4179 variable.

4181 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"

4182 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification

4183 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did

4184 previously. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:

4185 - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"

4186 - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules

4188 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using

4189 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the

4190 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for

4191 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding

4192 declarations for computation on the coefficients. The method is

4193 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class

4194 of idoms with numerals. See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at

4195 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this

4196 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.

4198 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over

4199 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to

4200 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class

4201 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,

4202 rat, etc.

4204 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append". Use ML

4205 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to

4206 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.

4208 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".

4210 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.

4211 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)

4213 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.

4214 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.

4216 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :

4217 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list

4218 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4220 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders. It used to be

4221 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]

4222 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4224 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD" to "set_takeWhileD".

4226 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.

4228 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for

4229 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all

4230 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or

4231 positive/negative (in inequations).

4233 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib

4234 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and

4235 ring_distribs. Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field

4236 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4238 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function

4239 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried. Infix syntax for

4240 algebraic operations.

4242 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.

4243 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4245 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.

4246 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4248 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the

4249 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update

4250 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.

4251 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be

4252 adapted.

4254 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0

4255 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring. Richer structures do not

4256 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem

4257 there, not an axiom. INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,

4258 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.

4260 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just

4261 commutative semirings. INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate

4262 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.

4264 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.

4265 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,

4266 better use 'abbreviation'.

4268 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member". INCOMPATIBILITY.

4270 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has

4271 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'. INCOMPATIBILITY --

4272 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:

4273 - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead

4274 of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.

4275 - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.

4276 - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.

4277 - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.

4279 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.

4281 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may

4282 contain free variables. For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''

4283 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof). This command is suitable for

4284 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML

4285 first. Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided. See

4286 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.

4288 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority

4289 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is

4290 "A = B" (with priority 50).

4292 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.

4293 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,

4294 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z". Potential

4295 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4297 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).

4299 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds

4300 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4302 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been

4303 removed. Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.

4305 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites

4306 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq"). INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using

4307 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.

4309 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to

4310 True/False.

4312 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".

4314 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.

4316 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the

4317 ``rule'' method.

4319 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:

4320 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences

4321 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form

4322 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.

4324 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.

4325 zChaff is still supported as well.

4327 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,

4328 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;

4330 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to

4331 Library.

4333 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.

4335 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists

4336 as greatest fixed-point.

4338 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as

4339 association lists.

4341 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)

4342 efficiently by compiling it to ML. The goal is "proved" (via an

4343 oracle) if it evaluates to True.

4345 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)

4346 also when invoked by the simplifier. This results in the Simplifier

4347 being more powerful on arithmetic goals. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4348 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old

4349 behavior.

4351 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.

4353 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an

4354 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional

4355 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the

4356 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The

4357 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs

4358 s. If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.

4360 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)

4361 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,

4362 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code

4363 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then

4364 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =

4365 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the

4366 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.

4368 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is

4369 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy

4371 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a

4372 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an

4373 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of

4374 HOL types. This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,

4375 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.

4378 *** HOL-Complex ***

4380 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real

4381 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.

4382 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so

4383 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential

4384 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4386 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and

4387 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a

4388 and norm :: 'a => real.

4390 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from

4391 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now

4392 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

4394 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.

4395 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.

4397 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the

4398 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector

4399 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential

4400 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4402 Infinitesimal :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

4403 HFinite :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

4404 HInfinite :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

4405 approx :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool

4406 monad :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set

4407 galaxy :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set

4408 (NS)LIMSEQ :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool

4409 (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

4410 (NS)Bseq :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

4411 (NS)Cauchy :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

4412 (NS)LIM :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool

4413 is(NS)Cont :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool

4414 deriv :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool

4415 sgn :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a

4416 exp :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a

4418 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for

4419 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =

4420 hnorm. Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the

4421 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):

4423 approx <-- capprox

4424 HFinite <-- CFinite

4425 HInfinite <-- CInfinite

4426 Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal

4427 monad <-- cmonad

4428 galaxy <-- cgalaxy

4429 (NS)LIM <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM

4430 is(NS)Cont <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR

4431 (ns)deriv <-- (ns)cderiv

4434 *** HOL-Algebra ***

4436 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.

4438 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.

4439 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4441 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->

4442 greatest_closed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4444 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute. For examples see

4445 Ring.thy. INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations

4446 of algebraic structures.

4448 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.

4451 *** HOL-Nominal ***

4453 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding

4454 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic. See src/HOL/Nominal and

4455 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples. Prospective users should consult

4456 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/

4459 *** ML ***

4461 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int

4462 (even on SML/NJ).

4464 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked

4465 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at

4466 compile-time. For example:

4468 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}

4469 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}

4470 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}

4471 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}

4472 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}

4473 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}

4474 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}

4475 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}

4476 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}

4477 ML {* @{type_name c} *}

4478 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}

4479 ML {* @{const_name c} *}

4480 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}

4481 ML {* @{context} *}

4482 ML {* @{theory} *}

4483 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}

4484 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}

4485 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}

4486 ML {* @{simpset} *}

4487 ML {* @{claset} *}

4488 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}

4490 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.

4492 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with

4493 ML_Context.trace enabled.

4495 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions

4496 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and

4497 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.

4499 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now

4500 use Context.generic instead of just theory.

4502 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and

4503 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of

4504 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.

4506 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always

4507 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.

4508 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while

4509 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and

4510 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure

4511 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably

4512 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type

4513 declarations and definitions.

4515 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed

4516 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,

4517 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need

4518 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)

4520 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in

4521 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the

4522 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,

4523 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

4525 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with

4526 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed

4527 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --

4528 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and

4529 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede

4530 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.

4532 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --

4533 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been

4534 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted

4535 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for

4536 attributes, methods, etc.

4538 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."

4539 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to

4540 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and

4541 fold_map combinators.

4543 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional

4544 comments (tags) are now strictly separate. Name hints -- which are

4545 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the

4546 derivation.

4548 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an

4549 actual goal state (thm). Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to

4550 achieve the old behaviour.

4552 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a

4553 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule

4554 statements.

4556 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now

4557 enforced instead of silently assumed. INCOMPATIBILITY, may use

4558 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.

4560 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating

4561 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc. This replaces

4562 some popular functions from term.ML:

4564 Term.variant -> Name.variant

4565 Term.variantlist -> Name.variant_list

4566 Term.invent_names -> Name.invent_list

4568 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations

4569 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).

4571 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper

4572 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context. For example,

4573 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and

4574 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces

4575 various freeze_thaw operations.

4577 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for

4578 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former

4579 Tactic.prove). Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results

4580 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for

4581 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard. Note that

4582 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is

4583 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or

4584 in a locale context).

4586 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)

4587 and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations

4588 (Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.

4589 which are considered legacy and await removal.

4591 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking

4592 (Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),

4593 with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term

4594 etc.). Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still

4595 available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using

4596 a mere theory instead of a full context.

4598 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception

4599 ERROR of string uniformly. Function error now merely raises ERROR,

4600 without any side effect on output channels. The Isar toplevel takes

4601 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions. ML code may use plain

4602 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:

4604 ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."

4606 Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be

4607 embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like

4608 this:

4610 Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)

4612 INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed

4613 obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,

4614 Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)

4615 -- use plain ERROR instead.

4617 * Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a

4618 list. INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.

4620 * Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to

4621 ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.

4623 * Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the

4624 theory before entering a proof state. Transactions now always see a

4625 quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and

4626 batch mode.

4628 * Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax. Renamed

4629 OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords. Removed

4630 OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in

4631 OuterSyntax.command etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4633 * Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now

4634 contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the

4635 very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by

4636 simpset_of/local_simpset_of). Consequently, all plug-in components

4637 (solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.

4639 * Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the

4640 local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc

4641 etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this! Removed

4642 former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --

4643 INCOMPATIBILITY. Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to

4644 specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.

4646 * Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces

4647 change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a

4648 theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --

4649 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4651 * Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired

4652 "Trueprop" etc.

4655 *** System ***

4657 * settings: the default heap location within ISABELLE_HOME_USER now

4658 includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER. This simplifies use of multiple

4659 Isabelle installations.

4661 * isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical

4662 operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source

4663 code.

4665 * Basic Isabelle mode for jEdit, see Isabelle/lib/jedit/.

4667 * Support for parallel execution, using native multicore support of

4668 Poly/ML 5.1. The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing

4669 independent theories, according to the given theory header

4670 specifications. The maximum number of worker threads is specified via

4671 usedir option -M or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. A

4672 speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected on a 4-core machine, and up

4673 to 6 on a 8-core machine. User-code needs to observe certain

4674 guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A in the Isar

4675 Implementation manual.

4679 New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)

4680 ----------------------------------

4682 *** General ***

4684 * Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is

4686 theory <name>

4687 imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>

4688 uses <file1> ... <fileM>

4689 begin

4691 where the 'uses' part is optional. The previous syntax

4693 theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:

4695 will disappear in the next release. Use isatool fixheaders to convert

4696 existing theory files. Note that there is no change in ancient

4697 non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.

4699 * Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via

4700 relative and absolute paths.

4702 * Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a

4703 list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,

4704 simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select

4705 theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that

4706 match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified

4707 name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose

4708 lhs match term. Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects

4709 all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under

4710 'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f. Example:

4712 C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."

4714 prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",

4715 matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."

4716 in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).

4718 * Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of

4719 'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.

4721 * Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that

4722 Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both

4723 formal and informal parts). Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof

4724 General interface. Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):

4726 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html

4727 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html

4729 * Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the

4730 Classical Reasoner. Typical big applications run around 2 times

4731 faster.

4734 *** Document preparation ***

4736 * Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output

4737 of raw sources. Only those symbols that do not require additional

4738 LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are

4739 displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim. isatool display

4740 and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the

4741 DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).

4743 * Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,

4744 notably folding and hiding. Predefined tags include "theory" (for

4745 theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for

4746 commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and

4747 "invisible" are unused by default. Users may give explicit tag

4748 specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''. The

4749 interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document

4750 preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of

4751 isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,

4752 \isadroptag.

4754 Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool

4755 usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them). Typical

4756 specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present

4757 theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold

4758 proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit

4759 these parts without any formal replacement text. The Isabelle site

4760 default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as

4761 specified above.

4763 * Several new antiquotations:

4765 @{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;

4767 @{typeof term} prints the type of a term;

4769 @{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the

4770 argument is a known logical constant;

4772 @{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or

4773 theorem applying a "style" to it

4775 @{ML text}

4777 Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of

4778 definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the

4779 conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem19'

4780 to print the specified premise. TermStyle.add_style provides an ML

4781 interface for introducing further styles. See also the "LaTeX Sugar"

4782 document practical applications. The ML antiquotation prints

4783 type-checked ML expressions verbatim.

4785 * Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',

4786 and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which

4787 specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations. For

4788 example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.

4790 * Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative

4791 context interpreting the subsequent argument. For example: @{thm

4792 [locale=lattice] inf_assoc}.

4794 * Proper output of proof terms (@{prf ...} and @{full_prf ...}) within

4795 a proof context.

4797 * Proper output of antiquotations for theory commands involving a

4798 proof context (such as 'locale' or 'theorem (in loc) ...').

4800 * Delimiters of outer tokens (string etc.) now produce separate LaTeX

4801 macros (\isachardoublequoteopen, isachardoublequoteclose etc.).

4803 * isatool usedir: new option -C (default true) controls whether option

4804 -D should include a copy of the original document directory; -C false

4805 prevents unwanted effects such as copying of administrative CVS data.

4808 *** Pure ***

4810 * Considerably improved version of 'constdefs' command. Now performs

4811 automatic type-inference of declared constants; additional support for

4812 local structure declarations (cf. locales and HOL records), see also

4813 isar-ref manual. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to observe strictly

4814 sequential dependencies of definitions within a single 'constdefs'

4815 section; moreover, the declared name needs to be an identifier. If

4816 all fails, consider to fall back on 'consts' and 'defs' separately.

4818 * Improved indexed syntax and implicit structures. First of all,

4819 indexed syntax provides a notational device for subscripted

4820 application, using the new syntax \<^bsub>term\<^esub> for arbitrary

4821 expressions. Secondly, in a local context with structure

4822 declarations, number indexes \<^sub>n or the empty index (default

4823 number 1) refer to a certain fixed variable implicitly; option

4824 show_structs controls printing of implicit structures. Typical

4825 applications of these concepts involve record types and locales.

4827 * New command 'no_syntax' removes grammar declarations (and

4828 translations) resulting from the given syntax specification, which is

4829 interpreted in the same manner as for the 'syntax' command.

4831 * 'Advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) may depend

4832 on the signature of the theory context being presently used for

4833 parsing/printing, see also isar-ref manual.

4835 * Improved 'oracle' command provides a type-safe interface to turn an

4836 ML expression of type theory -> T -> term into a primitive rule of

4837 type theory -> T -> thm (i.e. the functionality of Thm.invoke_oracle

4838 is already included here); see also FOL/ex/IffExample.thy;

4839 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4841 * axclass: name space prefix for class "c" is now "c_class" (was "c"

4842 before); "cI" is no longer bound, use "c.intro" instead.

4843 INCOMPATIBILITY. This change avoids clashes of fact bindings for

4844 axclasses vs. locales.

4846 * Improved internal renaming of symbolic identifiers -- attach primes

4847 instead of base 26 numbers.

4849 * New flag show_question_marks controls printing of leading question

4850 marks in schematic variable names.

4852 * In schematic variable names, *any* symbol following \<^isub> or

4853 \<^isup> is now treated as part of the base name. For example, the

4854 following works without printing of awkward ".0" indexes:

4856 lemma "x\<^isub>1 = x\<^isub>2 ==> x\<^isub>2 = x\<^isub>1"

4857 by simp

4859 * Inner syntax includes (*(*nested*) comments*).

4861 * Pretty printer now supports unbreakable blocks, specified in mixfix

4862 annotations as "(00...)".

4864 * Clear separation of logical types and nonterminals, where the latter

4865 may only occur in 'syntax' specifications or type abbreviations.

4866 Before that distinction was only partially implemented via type class

4867 "logic" vs. "{}". Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare cases of improper

4868 use of 'types'/'consts' instead of 'nonterminals'/'syntax'. Some very

4869 exotic syntax specifications may require further adaption

4870 (e.g. Cube/Cube.thy).

4872 * Removed obsolete type class "logic", use the top sort {} instead.

4873 Note that non-logical types should be declared as 'nonterminals'

4874 rather than 'types'. INCOMPATIBILITY for new object-logic

4875 specifications.

4877 * Attributes 'induct' and 'cases': type or set names may now be

4878 locally fixed variables as well.

4880 * Simplifier: can now control the depth to which conditional rewriting

4881 is traced via the PG menu Isabelle -> Settings -> Trace Simp Depth

4882 Limit.

4884 * Simplifier: simplification procedures may now take the current

4885 simpset into account (cf. Simplifier.simproc(_i) / mk_simproc

4886 interface), which is very useful for calling the Simplifier

4887 recursively. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: the 'prems' argument of simprocs

4888 is gone -- use prems_of_ss on the simpset instead. Moreover, the

4889 low-level mk_simproc no longer applies Logic.varify internally, to

4890 allow for use in a context of fixed variables.

4892 * thin_tac now works even if the assumption being deleted contains !!

4893 or ==>. More generally, erule now works even if the major premise of

4894 the elimination rule contains !! or ==>.

4896 * Method 'rules' has been renamed to 'iprover'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4898 * Reorganized bootstrapping of the Pure theories; CPure is now derived

4899 from Pure, which contains all common declarations already. Both

4900 theories are defined via plain Isabelle/Isar .thy files.

4901 INCOMPATIBILITY: elements of CPure (such as the CPure.intro /

4902 CPure.elim / CPure.dest attributes) now appear in the Pure name space;

4903 use isatool fixcpure to adapt your theory and ML sources.

4905 * New syntax 'name(i-j, i-, i, ...)' for referring to specific

4906 selections of theorems in named facts via index ranges.

4908 * 'print_theorems': in theory mode, really print the difference

4909 wrt. the last state (works for interactive theory development only),

4910 in proof mode print all local facts (cf. 'print_facts');

4912 * 'hide': option '(open)' hides only base names.

4914 * More efficient treatment of intermediate checkpoints in interactive

4915 theory development.

4917 * Code generator is now invoked via code_module (incremental code

4918 generation) and code_library (modular code generation, ML structures

4919 for each theory). INCOMPATIBILITY: new keywords 'file' and 'contains'

4920 must be quoted when used as identifiers.

4922 * New 'value' command for reading, evaluating and printing terms using

4923 the code generator. INCOMPATIBILITY: command keyword 'value' must be

4924 quoted when used as identifier.

4927 *** Locales ***

4929 * New commands for the interpretation of locale expressions in

4930 theories (1), locales (2) and proof contexts (3). These generate

4931 proof obligations from the expression specification. After the

4932 obligations have been discharged, theorems of the expression are added

4933 to the theory, target locale or proof context. The synopsis of the

4934 commands is a follows:

4936 (1) interpretation expr inst

4937 (2) interpretation target < expr

4938 (3) interpret expr inst

4940 Interpretation in theories and proof contexts require a parameter

4941 instantiation of terms from the current context. This is applied to

4942 specifications and theorems of the interpreted expression.

4943 Interpretation in locales only permits parameter renaming through the

4944 locale expression. Interpretation is smart in that interpretations

4945 that are active already do not occur in proof obligations, neither are

4946 instantiated theorems stored in duplicate. Use 'print_interps' to

4947 inspect active interpretations of a particular locale. For details,

4948 see the Isar Reference manual. Examples can be found in

4949 HOL/Finite_Set.thy and HOL/Algebra/UnivPoly.thy.

4951 INCOMPATIBILITY: former 'instantiate' has been withdrawn, use

4952 'interpret' instead.

4954 * New context element 'constrains' for adding type constraints to

4955 parameters.

4957 * Context expressions: renaming of parameters with syntax

4958 redeclaration.

4960 * Locale declaration: 'includes' disallowed.

4962 * Proper static binding of attribute syntax -- i.e. types / terms /

4963 facts mentioned as arguments are always those of the locale definition

4964 context, independently of the context of later invocations. Moreover,

4965 locale operations (renaming and type / term instantiation) are applied

4966 to attribute arguments as expected.

4968 INCOMPATIBILITY of the ML interface: always pass Attrib.src instead of

4969 actual attributes; rare situations may require Attrib.attribute to

4970 embed those attributes into Attrib.src that lack concrete syntax.

4971 Attribute implementations need to cooperate properly with the static

4972 binding mechanism. Basic parsers Args.XXX_typ/term/prop and

4973 Attrib.XXX_thm etc. already do the right thing without further

4974 intervention. Only unusual applications -- such as "where" or "of"

4975 (cf. src/Pure/Isar/attrib.ML), which process arguments depending both

4976 on the context and the facts involved -- may have to assign parsed

4977 values to argument tokens explicitly.

4979 * Changed parameter management in theorem generation for long goal

4980 statements with 'includes'. INCOMPATIBILITY: produces a different

4981 theorem statement in rare situations.

4983 * Locale inspection command 'print_locale' omits notes elements. Use

4984 'print_locale!' to have them included in the output.

4987 *** Provers ***

4989 * Provers/hypsubst.ML: improved version of the subst method, for

4990 single-step rewriting: it now works in bound variable contexts. New is

4991 'subst (asm)', for rewriting an assumption. INCOMPATIBILITY: may

4992 rewrite a different subterm than the original subst method, which is

4993 still available as 'simplesubst'.

4995 * Provers/quasi.ML: new transitivity reasoners for transitivity only

4996 and quasi orders.

4998 * Provers/trancl.ML: new transitivity reasoner for transitive and

4999 reflexive-transitive closure of relations.

5001 * Provers/blast.ML: new reference depth_limit to make blast's depth

5002 limit (previously hard-coded with a value of 20) user-definable.

5004 * Provers/simplifier.ML has been moved to Pure, where Simplifier.setup

5005 is peformed already. Object-logics merely need to finish their

5006 initial simpset configuration as before. INCOMPATIBILITY.

5009 *** HOL ***

5011 * Symbolic syntax of Hilbert Choice Operator is now as follows:

5013 syntax (epsilon)

5014 "_Eps" :: "[pttrn, bool] => 'a" ("(3\<some>_./ _)" [0, 10] 10)

5016 The symbol \<some> is displayed as the alternative epsilon of LaTeX

5017 and x-symbol; use option '-m epsilon' to get it actually printed.

5018 Moreover, the mathematically important symbolic identifier \<epsilon>

5019 becomes available as variable, constant etc. INCOMPATIBILITY,

5021 * "x > y" abbreviates "y < x" and "x >= y" abbreviates "y <= x".

5022 Similarly for all quantifiers: "ALL x > y" etc. The x-symbol for >=

5023 is \<ge>. New transitivity rules have been added to HOL/Orderings.thy to

5024 support corresponding Isar calculations.

5026 * "{x:A. P}" abbreviates "{x. x:A & P}", and similarly for "\<in>"

5027 instead of ":".

5029 * theory SetInterval: changed the syntax for open intervals:

5031 Old New

5032 {..n(} {..<n}

5033 {)n..} {n<..}

5034 {m..n(} {m..<n}

5035 {)m..n} {m<..n}

5036 {)m..n(} {m<..<n}

5038 The old syntax is still supported but will disappear in the next

5039 release. For conversion use the following Emacs search and replace

5040 patterns (these are not perfect but work quite well):

5042 {)\([^\.]*\)\.\. -> {\1<\.\.}

5043 \.\.\([^(}]*\)(} -> \.\.<\1}

5045 * Theory Commutative_Ring (in Library): method comm_ring for proving

5046 equalities in commutative rings; method 'algebra' provides a generic

5047 interface.

5049 * Theory Finite_Set: changed the syntax for 'setsum', summation over

5050 finite sets: "setsum (%x. e) A", which used to be "\<Sum>x:A. e", is

5051 now either "SUM x:A. e" or "\<Sum>x \<in> A. e". The bound variable can

5052 be a tuple pattern.

5054 Some new syntax forms are available:

5056 "\<Sum>x | P. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {x. P}"

5057 "\<Sum>x = a..b. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {a..b}"

5058 "\<Sum>x = a..<b. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {a..<b}"

5059 "\<Sum>x < k. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {..<k}"

5061 The latter form "\<Sum>x < k. e" used to be based on a separate

5062 function "Summation", which has been discontinued.

5064 * theory Finite_Set: in structured induction proofs, the insert case

5065 is now 'case (insert x F)' instead of the old counterintuitive 'case

5066 (insert F x)'.

5068 * The 'refute' command has been extended to support a much larger

5069 fragment of HOL, including axiomatic type classes, constdefs and

5070 typedefs, inductive datatypes and recursion.

5072 * New tactics 'sat' and 'satx' to prove propositional tautologies.

5073 Requires zChaff with proof generation to be installed. See

5074 HOL/ex/SAT_Examples.thy for examples.

5076 * Datatype induction via method 'induct' now preserves the name of the

5077 induction variable. For example, when proving P(xs::'a list) by

5078 induction on xs, the induction step is now P(xs) ==> P(a#xs) rather

5079 than P(list) ==> P(a#list) as previously. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY

5080 in unstructured proof scripts.

5082 * Reworked implementation of records. Improved scalability for

5083 records with many fields, avoiding performance problems for type

5084 inference. Records are no longer composed of nested field types, but

5085 of nested extension types. Therefore the record type only grows linear

5086 in the number of extensions and not in the number of fields. The

5087 top-level (users) view on records is preserved. Potential

5088 INCOMPATIBILITY only in strange cases, where the theory depends on the

5089 old record representation. The type generated for a record is called

5090 <record_name>_ext_type.

5092 Flag record_quick_and_dirty_sensitive can be enabled to skip the

5093 proofs triggered by a record definition or a simproc (if

5094 quick_and_dirty is enabled). Definitions of large records can take

5095 quite long.

5097 New simproc record_upd_simproc for simplification of multiple record

5098 updates enabled by default. Moreover, trivial updates are also

5099 removed: r(|x := x r|) = r. INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break

5100 occasionally, since simplification is more powerful by default.

5102 * typedef: proper support for polymorphic sets, which contain extra

5103 type-variables in the term.

5105 * Simplifier: automatically reasons about transitivity chains

5106 involving "trancl" (r^+) and "rtrancl" (r^*) by setting up tactics

5107 provided by Provers/trancl.ML as additional solvers. INCOMPATIBILITY:

5108 old proofs break occasionally as simplification may now solve more

5109 goals than previously.

5111 * Simplifier: converts x <= y into x = y if assumption y <= x is

5112 present. Works for all partial orders (class "order"), in particular

5113 numbers and sets. For linear orders (e.g. numbers) it treats ~ x < y

5114 just like y <= x.

5116 * Simplifier: new simproc for "let x = a in f x". If a is a free or

5117 bound variable or a constant then the let is unfolded. Otherwise

5118 first a is simplified to b, and then f b is simplified to g. If

5119 possible we abstract b from g arriving at "let x = b in h x",

5120 otherwise we unfold the let and arrive at g. The simproc can be

5121 enabled/disabled by the reference use_let_simproc. Potential

5122 INCOMPATIBILITY since simplification is more powerful by default.

5124 * Classical reasoning: the meson method now accepts theorems as arguments.

5126 * Prover support: pre-release of the Isabelle-ATP linkup, which runs background

5127 jobs to provide advice on the provability of subgoals.

5129 * Theory OrderedGroup and Ring_and_Field: various additions and

5130 improvements to faciliate calculations involving equalities and

5131 inequalities.

5133 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

5134 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

5136 abs_eq now named abs_of_nonneg

5137 abs_of_ge_0 now named abs_of_nonneg

5138 abs_minus_eq now named abs_of_nonpos

5139 imp_abs_id now named abs_of_nonneg

5140 imp_abs_neg_id now named abs_of_nonpos

5141 mult_pos now named mult_pos_pos

5142 mult_pos_le now named mult_nonneg_nonneg

5143 mult_pos_neg_le now named mult_nonneg_nonpos

5144 mult_pos_neg2_le now named mult_nonneg_nonpos2

5145 mult_neg now named mult_neg_neg

5146 mult_neg_le now named mult_nonpos_nonpos

5148 * The following lemmas in Ring_and_Field have been added to the simplifier:

5150 zero_le_square

5151 not_square_less_zero

5153 The following lemmas have been deleted from Real/RealPow:

5155 realpow_zero_zero

5156 realpow_two

5157 realpow_less

5158 zero_le_power

5159 realpow_two_le

5160 abs_realpow_two

5161 realpow_two_abs

5163 * Theory Parity: added rules for simplifying exponents.

5165 * Theory List:

5167 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

5168 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

5170 list_all_Nil now named list_all.simps(1)

5171 list_all_Cons now named list_all.simps(2)

5172 list_all_conv now named list_all_iff

5173 set_mem_eq now named mem_iff

5175 * Theories SetsAndFunctions and BigO (see HOL/Library) support

5176 asymptotic "big O" calculations. See the notes in BigO.thy.

5179 *** HOL-Complex ***

5181 * Theory RealDef: better support for embedding natural numbers and

5182 integers in the reals.

5184 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

5185 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

5187 exp_ge_add_one_self now requires no hypotheses

5188 real_of_int_add reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

5189 real_of_int_minus reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

5190 real_of_int_diff reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

5191 real_of_int_mult reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

5193 * Theory RComplete: expanded support for floor and ceiling functions.

5195 * Theory Ln is new, with properties of the natural logarithm

5197 * Hyperreal: There is a new type constructor "star" for making

5198 nonstandard types. The old type names are now type synonyms:

5200 hypreal = real star

5201 hypnat = nat star

5202 hcomplex = complex star

5204 * Hyperreal: Many groups of similarly-defined constants have been

5205 replaced by polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):

5207 star_of <-- hypreal_of_real, hypnat_of_nat, hcomplex_of_complex

5209 starset <-- starsetNat, starsetC

5210 *s* <-- *sNat*, *sc*

5211 starset_n <-- starsetNat_n, starsetC_n

5212 *sn* <-- *sNatn*, *scn*

5213 InternalSets <-- InternalNatSets, InternalCSets

5215 starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

5216 *f* <-- *fNat*, *fNat2*, *fc*, *fRc*, *fcR*

5217 starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n

5218 *fn* <-- *fNatn*, *fNat2n*, *fcn*, *fRcn*, *fcRn*

5219 InternalFuns <-- InternalNatFuns, InternalNatFuns2, Internal{C,RC,CR}Funs

5221 * Hyperreal: Many type-specific theorems have been removed in favor of

5222 theorems specific to various axiomatic type classes (INCOMPATIBILITY):

5224 add_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_commute

5225 add_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_assocs

5226 OrderedGroup.add_0 <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_zero_left

5227 OrderedGroup.add_0_right <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_zero_right

5228 right_minus <-- hypreal_add_minus

5229 left_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_minus_left

5230 mult_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_commute

5231 mult_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_assoc

5232 mult_1_left <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_1, hcomplex_mult_one_left

5233 mult_1_right <-- hcomplex_mult_one_right

5234 mult_zero_left <-- hcomplex_mult_zero_left

5235 left_distrib <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_mult_distrib

5236 right_distrib <-- hypnat_add_mult_distrib2

5237 zero_neq_one <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_not_eq_one

5238 right_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse

5239 left_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse_left, hcomplex_mult_inv_left

5240 order_refl <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_refl

5241 order_trans <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_trans

5242 order_antisym <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_anti_sym

5243 order_less_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less_le

5244 linorder_linear <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_linear

5245 add_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_add_left_mono

5246 mult_strict_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_less_mono2

5247 add_nonneg_nonneg <-- hypreal_le_add_order

5249 * Hyperreal: Separate theorems having to do with type-specific

5250 versions of constants have been merged into theorems that apply to the

5251 new polymorphic constants (INCOMPATIBILITY):

5253 STAR_UNIV_set <-- {STAR_real,NatStar_real,STARC_complex}_set

5254 STAR_empty_set <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_empty_set

5255 STAR_Un <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Un

5256 STAR_Int <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Int

5257 STAR_Compl <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Compl

5258 STAR_subset <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_subset

5259 STAR_mem <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_mem

5260 STAR_mem_Compl <-- {STAR,STARC}_mem_Compl

5261 STAR_diff <-- {STAR,STARC}_diff

5262 STAR_star_of_image_subset <-- {STAR_hypreal_of_real, NatStar_hypreal_of_real,

5263 STARC_hcomplex_of_complex}_image_subset

5264 starset_n_Un <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Un

5265 starset_n_Int <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Int

5266 starset_n_Compl <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Compl

5267 starset_n_diff <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_diff

5268 InternalSets_Un <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Un

5269 InternalSets_Int <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Int

5270 InternalSets_Compl <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Compl

5271 InternalSets_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_diff

5272 InternalSets_UNIV_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_UNIV_diff

5273 InternalSets_starset_n <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_starset{Nat,C}_n

5274 starset_starset_n_eq <-- starset{Nat,C}_starset{Nat,C}_n_eq

5275 starset_n_starset <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_starset{Nat,C}

5276 starfun_n_starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n_starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

5277 starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

5278 starfun_mult <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_mult

5279 starfun_add <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_add

5280 starfun_minus <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_minus

5281 starfun_diff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_diff

5282 starfun_o <-- starfun{NatNat2,Nat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o

5283 starfun_o2 <-- starfun{NatNat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o2

5284 starfun_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_const_fun

5285 starfun_inverse <-- starfun{Nat,C,RC,CR}_inverse

5286 starfun_eq <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_eq

5287 starfun_eq_iff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_eq_iff

5288 starfun_Id <-- starfunC_Id

5289 starfun_approx <-- starfun{Nat,CR}_approx

5290 starfun_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_capprox

5291 starfun_abs <-- starfunNat_rabs

5292 starfun_lambda_cancel <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel

5293 starfun_lambda_cancel2 <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel2

5294 starfun_mult_HFinite_approx <-- starfunCR_mult_HFinite_capprox

5295 starfun_mult_CFinite_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_mult_CFinite_capprox

5296 starfun_add_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_add_capprox

5297 starfun_add_approx <-- starfunCR_add_approx

5298 starfun_inverse_inverse <-- starfunC_inverse_inverse

5299 starfun_divide <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_divide

5300 starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n

5301 starfun_n_mult <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_mult

5302 starfun_n_add <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_add

5303 starfun_n_add_minus <-- starfunNat_n_add_minus

5304 starfun_n_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_const_fun

5305 starfun_n_minus <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_minus

5306 starfun_n_eq <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_eq

5308 star_n_add <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add

5309 star_n_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_minus

5310 star_n_diff <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_diff

5311 star_n_mult <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_mult

5312 star_n_inverse <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_inverse

5313 star_n_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le

5314 star_n_less <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less

5315 star_n_zero_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_num

5316 star_n_one_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_one_num

5317 star_n_abs <-- hypreal_hrabs

5318 star_n_divide <-- hcomplex_divide

5320 star_of_add <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_add

5321 star_of_minus <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_minus

5322 star_of_diff <-- hypreal_of_real_diff

5323 star_of_mult <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_mult

5324 star_of_one <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_one

5325 star_of_zero <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_zero

5326 star_of_le <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_le_iff

5327 star_of_less <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_less_iff

5328 star_of_eq <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_eq_iff

5329 star_of_inverse <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_inverse

5330 star_of_divide <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_divide

5331 star_of_of_nat <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_nat

5332 star_of_of_int <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_int

5333 star_of_number_of <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_number_of

5334 star_of_number_less <-- number_of_less_hypreal_of_real_iff

5335 star_of_number_le <-- number_of_le_hypreal_of_real_iff

5336 star_of_eq_number <-- hypreal_of_real_eq_number_of_iff

5337 star_of_less_number <-- hypreal_of_real_less_number_of_iff

5338 star_of_le_number <-- hypreal_of_real_le_number_of_iff

5339 star_of_power <-- hypreal_of_real_power

5340 star_of_eq_0 <-- hcomplex_of_complex_zero_iff

5342 * Hyperreal: new method "transfer" that implements the transfer

5343 principle of nonstandard analysis. With a subgoal that mentions

5344 nonstandard types like "'a star", the command "apply transfer"

5345 replaces it with an equivalent one that mentions only standard types.

5346 To be successful, all free variables must have standard types; non-

5347 standard variables must have explicit universal quantifiers.

5349 * Hyperreal: A theory of Taylor series.

5352 *** HOLCF ***

5354 * Discontinued special version of 'constdefs' (which used to support

5355 continuous functions) in favor of the general Pure one with full

5356 type-inference.

5358 * New simplification procedure for solving continuity conditions; it

5359 is much faster on terms with many nested lambda abstractions (cubic

5360 instead of exponential time).

5362 * New syntax for domain package: selector names are now optional.

5363 Parentheses should be omitted unless argument is lazy, for example:

5365 domain 'a stream = cons "'a" (lazy "'a stream")

5367 * New command 'fixrec' for defining recursive functions with pattern

5368 matching; defining multiple functions with mutual recursion is also

5369 supported. Patterns may include the constants cpair, spair, up, sinl,

5370 sinr, or any data constructor defined by the domain package. The given

5371 equations are proven as rewrite rules. See HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for

5372 syntax and examples.

5374 * New commands 'cpodef' and 'pcpodef' for defining predicate subtypes

5375 of cpo and pcpo types. Syntax is exactly like the 'typedef' command,

5376 but the proof obligation additionally includes an admissibility

5377 requirement. The packages generate instances of class cpo or pcpo,

5378 with continuity and strictness theorems for Rep and Abs.

5380 * HOLCF: Many theorems have been renamed according to a more standard naming

5381 scheme (INCOMPATIBILITY):

5383 foo_inject: "foo$x = foo$y ==> x = y"

5384 foo_eq: "(foo$x = foo$y) = (x = y)"

5385 foo_less: "(foo$x << foo$y) = (x << y)"

5386 foo_strict: "foo$UU = UU"

5387 foo_defined: "... ==> foo$x ~= UU"

5388 foo_defined_iff: "(foo$x = UU) = (x = UU)"

5391 *** ZF ***

5393 * ZF/ex: theories Group and Ring provide examples in abstract algebra,

5394 including the First Isomorphism Theorem (on quotienting by the kernel

5395 of a homomorphism).

5397 * ZF/Simplifier: install second copy of type solver that actually

5398 makes use of TC rules declared to Isar proof contexts (or locales);

5399 the old version is still required for ML proof scripts.

5402 *** Cube ***

5404 * Converted to Isar theory format; use locales instead of axiomatic

5405 theories.

5408 *** ML ***

5410 * Pure/library.ML: added ##>, ##>>, #>> -- higher-order counterparts

5411 for ||>, ||>>, |>>,

5413 * Pure/library.ML no longer defines its own option datatype, but uses

5414 that of the SML basis, which has constructors NONE and SOME instead of

5415 None and Some, as well as exception Option.Option instead of OPTION.

5416 The functions the, if_none, is_some, is_none have been adapted

5417 accordingly, while Option.map replaces apsome.

5419 * Pure/library.ML: the exception LIST has been given up in favour of

5420 the standard exceptions Empty and Subscript, as well as

5421 Library.UnequalLengths. Function like Library.hd and Library.tl are

5422 superceded by the standard hd and tl functions etc.

5424 A number of basic list functions are no longer exported to the ML

5425 toplevel, as they are variants of predefined functions. The following

5426 suggests how one can translate existing code:

5428 rev_append xs ys = List.revAppend (xs, ys)

5429 nth_elem (i, xs) = List.nth (xs, i)

5430 last_elem xs = List.last xs

5431 flat xss = List.concat xss

5432 seq fs = List.app fs

5433 partition P xs = List.partition P xs

5434 mapfilter f xs = List.mapPartial f xs

5436 * Pure/library.ML: several combinators for linear functional

5437 transformations, notably reverse application and composition:

5439 x |> f f #> g

5440 (x, y) |-> f f #-> g

5442 * Pure/library.ML: introduced/changed precedence of infix operators:

5444 infix 1 |> |-> ||> ||>> |>> |>>> #> #->;

5445 infix 2 ?;

5446 infix 3 o oo ooo oooo;

5447 infix 4 ~~ upto downto;

5449 Maybe INCOMPATIBILITY when any of those is used in conjunction with other

5450 infix operators.

5452 * Pure/library.ML: natural list combinators fold, fold_rev, and

5453 fold_map support linear functional transformations and nesting. For

5454 example:

5456 fold f [x1, ..., xN] y =

5457 y |> f x1 |> ... |> f xN

5459 (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] y =

5460 y |> fold f xs1 |> ... |> fold f xsN

5462 fold f [x1, ..., xN] =

5463 f x1 #> ... #> f xN

5465 (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] =

5466 fold f xs1 #> ... #> fold f xsN

5468 * Pure/library.ML: the following selectors on type 'a option are

5469 available:

5471 the: 'a option -> 'a (*partial*)

5472 these: 'a option -> 'a where 'a = 'b list

5473 the_default: 'a -> 'a option -> 'a

5474 the_list: 'a option -> 'a list

5476 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides

5477 basic operations for association lists, following natural argument

5478 order; moreover the explicit equality predicate passed here avoids

5479 potentially expensive polymorphic runtime equality checks.

5480 The old functions may be expressed as follows:

5482 assoc = uncurry (AList.lookup (op =))

5483 assocs = these oo AList.lookup (op =)

5484 overwrite = uncurry (AList.update (op =)) o swap

5486 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides

5488 val make: ('a -> 'b) -> 'a list -> ('a * 'b) list

5489 val find: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> ('c * 'b) list -> 'a -> 'c list

5491 replacing make_keylist and keyfilter (occassionally used)

5492 Naive rewrites:

5494 make_keylist = AList.make

5495 keyfilter = AList.find (op =)

5497 * eq_fst and eq_snd now take explicit equality parameter, thus

5498 avoiding eqtypes. Naive rewrites:

5500 eq_fst = eq_fst (op =)

5501 eq_snd = eq_snd (op =)

5503 * Removed deprecated apl and apr (rarely used).

5504 Naive rewrites:

5506 apl (n, op) =>>= curry op n

5507 apr (op, m) =>>= fn n => op (n, m)

5509 * Pure/General: structure OrdList (cf. Pure/General/ord_list.ML)

5510 provides a reasonably efficient light-weight implementation of sets as

5511 lists.

5513 * Pure/General: generic tables (cf. Pure/General/table.ML) provide a

5514 few new operations; existing lookup and update are now curried to

5515 follow natural argument order (for use with fold etc.);

5516 INCOMPATIBILITY, use (uncurry Symtab.lookup) etc. as last resort.

5518 * Pure/General: output via the Isabelle channels of

5519 writeln/warning/error etc. is now passed through Output.output, with a

5520 hook for arbitrary transformations depending on the print_mode

5521 (cf. Output.add_mode -- the first active mode that provides a output

5522 function wins). Already formatted output may be embedded into further

5523 text via Output.raw; the result of Pretty.string_of/str_of and derived

5524 functions (string_of_term/cterm/thm etc.) is already marked raw to

5525 accommodate easy composition of diagnostic messages etc. Programmers

5526 rarely need to care about Output.output or Output.raw at all, with

5527 some notable exceptions: Output.output is required when bypassing the

5528 standard channels (writeln etc.), or in token translations to produce

5529 properly formatted results; Output.raw is required when capturing

5530 already output material that will eventually be presented to the user

5531 a second time. For the default print mode, both Output.output and

5532 Output.raw have no effect.

5534 * Pure/General: Output.time_accumulator NAME creates an operator ('a

5535 -> 'b) -> 'a -> 'b to measure runtime and count invocations; the

5536 cumulative results are displayed at the end of a batch session.

5538 * Pure/General: File.sysify_path and File.quote_sysify path have been

5539 replaced by File.platform_path and File.shell_path (with appropriate

5540 hooks). This provides a clean interface for unusual systems where the

5541 internal and external process view of file names are different.

5543 * Pure: more efficient orders for basic syntactic entities: added

5544 fast_string_ord, fast_indexname_ord, fast_term_ord; changed sort_ord

5545 and typ_ord to use fast_string_ord and fast_indexname_ord (term_ord is

5546 NOT affected); structures Symtab, Vartab, Typtab, Termtab use the fast

5547 orders now -- potential INCOMPATIBILITY for code that depends on a

5548 particular order for Symtab.keys, Symtab.dest, etc. (consider using

5549 Library.sort_strings on result).

5551 * Pure/term.ML: combinators fold_atyps, fold_aterms, fold_term_types,

5552 fold_types traverse types/terms from left to right, observing natural

5553 argument order. Supercedes previous foldl_XXX versions, add_frees,

5554 add_vars etc. have been adapted as well: INCOMPATIBILITY.

5556 * Pure: name spaces have been refined, with significant changes of the

5557 internal interfaces -- INCOMPATIBILITY. Renamed cond_extern(_table)

5558 to extern(_table). The plain name entry path is superceded by a

5559 general 'naming' context, which also includes the 'policy' to produce

5560 a fully qualified name and external accesses of a fully qualified

5561 name; NameSpace.extend is superceded by context dependent

5562 Sign.declare_name. Several theory and proof context operations modify

5563 the naming context. Especially note Theory.restore_naming and

5564 ProofContext.restore_naming to get back to a sane state; note that

5565 Theory.add_path is no longer sufficient to recover from

5566 Theory.absolute_path in particular.

5568 * Pure: new flags short_names (default false) and unique_names

5569 (default true) for controlling output of qualified names. If

5570 short_names is set, names are printed unqualified. If unique_names is

5571 reset, the name prefix is reduced to the minimum required to achieve

5572 the original result when interning again, even if there is an overlap

5573 with earlier declarations.

5575 * Pure/TheoryDataFun: change of the argument structure; 'prep_ext' is

5576 now 'extend', and 'merge' gets an additional Pretty.pp argument

5577 (useful for printing error messages). INCOMPATIBILITY.

5579 * Pure: major reorganization of the theory context. Type Sign.sg and

5580 Theory.theory are now identified, referring to the universal

5581 Context.theory (see Pure/context.ML). Actual signature and theory

5582 content is managed as theory data. The old code and interfaces were

5583 spread over many files and structures; the new arrangement introduces

5584 considerable INCOMPATIBILITY to gain more clarity:

5586 Context -- theory management operations (name, identity, inclusion,

5587 parents, ancestors, merge, etc.), plus generic theory data;

5589 Sign -- logical signature and syntax operations (declaring consts,

5590 types, etc.), plus certify/read for common entities;

5592 Theory -- logical theory operations (stating axioms, definitions,

5593 oracles), plus a copy of logical signature operations (consts,

5594 types, etc.); also a few basic management operations (Theory.copy,

5595 Theory.merge, etc.)

5597 The most basic sign_of operations (Theory.sign_of, Thm.sign_of_thm

5598 etc.) as well as the sign field in Thm.rep_thm etc. have been retained

5599 for convenience -- they merely return the theory.

5601 * Pure: type Type.tsig is superceded by theory in most interfaces.

5603 * Pure: the Isar proof context type is already defined early in Pure

5604 as Context.proof (note that ProofContext.context and Proof.context are

5605 aliases, where the latter is the preferred name). This enables other

5606 Isabelle components to refer to that type even before Isar is present.

5608 * Pure/sign/theory: discontinued named name spaces (i.e. classK,

5609 typeK, constK, axiomK, oracleK), but provide explicit operations for

5610 any of these kinds. For example, Sign.intern typeK is now

5611 Sign.intern_type, Theory.hide_space Sign.typeK is now

5612 Theory.hide_types. Also note that former

5613 Theory.hide_classes/types/consts are now

5614 Theory.hide_classes_i/types_i/consts_i, while the non '_i' versions

5615 internalize their arguments! INCOMPATIBILITY.

5617 * Pure: get_thm interface (of PureThy and ProofContext) expects

5618 datatype thmref (with constructors Name and NameSelection) instead of

5619 plain string -- INCOMPATIBILITY;

5621 * Pure: cases produced by proof methods specify options, where NONE

5622 means to remove case bindings -- INCOMPATIBILITY in

5623 (RAW_)METHOD_CASES.

5625 * Pure: the following operations retrieve axioms or theorems from a

5626 theory node or theory hierarchy, respectively:

5628 Theory.axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list

5629 Theory.all_axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list

5630 PureThy.thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list

5631 PureThy.all_thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list

5633 * Pure: print_tac now outputs the goal through the trace channel.

5635 * Isar toplevel: improved diagnostics, mostly for Poly/ML only.

5636 Reference Toplevel.debug (default false) controls detailed printing

5637 and tracing of low-level exceptions; Toplevel.profiling (default 0)

5638 controls execution profiling -- set to 1 for time and 2 for space

5639 (both increase the runtime).

5641 * Isar session: The initial use of ROOT.ML is now always timed,

5642 i.e. the log will show the actual process times, in contrast to the

5643 elapsed wall-clock time that the outer shell wrapper produces.

5645 * Simplifier: improved handling of bound variables (nameless

5646 representation, avoid allocating new strings). Simprocs that invoke

5647 the Simplifier recursively should use Simplifier.inherit_bounds to

5648 avoid local name clashes. Failure to do so produces warnings

5649 "Simplifier: renamed bound variable ..."; set Simplifier.debug_bounds

5650 for further details.

5652 * ML functions legacy_bindings and use_legacy_bindings produce ML fact

5653 bindings for all theorems stored within a given theory; this may help

5654 in porting non-Isar theories to Isar ones, while keeping ML proof

5655 scripts for the time being.

5657 * ML operator HTML.with_charset specifies the charset begin used for

5658 generated HTML files. For example:

5660 HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Hebrew";

5661 HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Chinese";

5664 *** System ***

5666 * Allow symlinks to all proper Isabelle executables (Isabelle,

5667 isabelle, isatool etc.).

5669 * ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT setting specifies preferred document format (for

5670 isatool doc, isatool mkdir, display_drafts etc.).

5672 * isatool usedir: option -f allows specification of the ML file to be

5673 used by Isabelle; default is ROOT.ML.

5675 * New isatool version outputs the version identifier of the Isabelle

5676 distribution being used.

5678 * HOL: new isatool dimacs2hol converts files in DIMACS CNF format

5679 (containing Boolean satisfiability problems) into Isabelle/HOL

5680 theories.

5684 New in Isabelle2004 (April 2004)

5685 --------------------------------

5687 *** General ***

5689 * Provers/order.ML: new efficient reasoner for partial and linear orders.

5690 Replaces linorder.ML.

5692 * Pure: Greek letters (except small lambda, \<lambda>), as well as Gothic

5693 (\<aa>...\<zz>\<AA>...\<ZZ>), calligraphic (\<A>...\<Z>), and Euler

5694 (\<a>...\<z>), are now considered normal letters, and can therefore

5695 be used anywhere where an ASCII letter (a...zA...Z) has until

5696 now. COMPATIBILITY: This obviously changes the parsing of some

5697 terms, especially where a symbol has been used as a binder, say

5698 '\<Pi>x. ...', which is now a type error since \<Pi>x will be parsed

5699 as an identifier. Fix it by inserting a space around former

5700 symbols. Call 'isatool fixgreek' to try to fix parsing errors in

5701 existing theory and ML files.

5703 * Pure: Macintosh and Windows line-breaks are now allowed in theory files.

5705 * Pure: single letter sub/superscripts (\<^isub> and \<^isup>) are now

5706 allowed in identifiers. Similar to Greek letters \<^isub> is now considered

5707 a normal (but invisible) letter. For multiple letter subscripts repeat

5708 \<^isub> like this: x\<^isub>1\<^isub>2.

5710 * Pure: There are now sub-/superscripts that can span more than one

5711 character. Text between \<^bsub> and \<^esub> is set in subscript in

5712 ProofGeneral and LaTeX, text between \<^bsup> and \<^esup> in

5713 superscript. The new control characters are not identifier parts.

5715 * Pure: Control-symbols of the form \<^raw:...> will literally print the

5716 content of "..." to the latex file instead of \isacntrl... . The "..."

5717 may consist of any printable characters excluding the end bracket >.

5719 * Pure: Using new Isar command "finalconsts" (or the ML functions

5720 Theory.add_finals or Theory.add_finals_i) it is now possible to

5721 declare constants "final", which prevents their being given a definition

5722 later. It is useful for constants whose behaviour is fixed axiomatically

5723 rather than definitionally, such as the meta-logic connectives.

5725 * Pure: 'instance' now handles general arities with general sorts

5726 (i.e. intersections of classes),

5728 * Presentation: generated HTML now uses a CSS style sheet to make layout

5729 (somewhat) independent of content. It is copied from lib/html/isabelle.css.

5730 It can be changed to alter the colors/layout of generated pages.

5733 *** Isar ***

5735 * Tactic emulation methods rule_tac, erule_tac, drule_tac, frule_tac,

5736 cut_tac, subgoal_tac and thin_tac:

5737 - Now understand static (Isar) contexts. As a consequence, users of Isar

5738 locales are no longer forced to write Isar proof scripts.

5739 For details see Isar Reference Manual, paragraph 4.3.2: Further tactic

5740 emulations.

5741 - INCOMPATIBILITY: names of variables to be instantiated may no

5742 longer be enclosed in quotes. Instead, precede variable name with `?'.

5743 This is consistent with the instantiation attribute "where".

5745 * Attributes "where" and "of":

5746 - Now take type variables of instantiated theorem into account when reading

5747 the instantiation string. This fixes a bug that caused instantiated

5748 theorems to have too special types in some circumstances.

5749 - "where" permits explicit instantiations of type variables.

5751 * Calculation commands "moreover" and "also" no longer interfere with

5752 current facts ("this"), admitting arbitrary combinations with "then"

5753 and derived forms.

5755 * Locales:

5756 - Goal statements involving the context element "includes" no longer

5757 generate theorems with internal delta predicates (those ending on

5758 "_axioms") in the premise.

5759 Resolve particular premise with <locale>.intro to obtain old form.

5760 - Fixed bug in type inference ("unify_frozen") that prevented mix of target

5761 specification and "includes" elements in goal statement.

5762 - Rule sets <locale>.intro and <locale>.axioms no longer declared as

5763 [intro?] and [elim?] (respectively) by default.

5764 - Experimental command for instantiation of locales in proof contexts:

5765 instantiate <label>[<attrs>]: <loc>

5766 Instantiates locale <loc> and adds all its theorems to the current context

5767 taking into account their attributes. Label and attrs are optional

5768 modifiers, like in theorem declarations. If present, names of

5769 instantiated theorems are qualified with <label>, and the attributes

5770 <attrs> are applied after any attributes these theorems might have already.

5771 If the locale has assumptions, a chained fact of the form

5772 "<loc> t1 ... tn" is expected from which instantiations of the parameters

5773 are derived. The command does not support old-style locales declared

5774 with "locale (open)".

5775 A few (very simple) examples can be found in FOL/ex/LocaleInst.thy.

5777 * HOL: Tactic emulation methods induct_tac and case_tac understand static

5778 (Isar) contexts.

5781 *** HOL ***

5783 * Proof import: new image HOL4 contains the imported library from

5784 the HOL4 system with about 2500 theorems. It is imported by

5785 replaying proof terms produced by HOL4 in Isabelle. The HOL4 image

5786 can be used like any other Isabelle image. See

5787 HOL/Import/HOL/README for more information.

5789 * Simplifier:

5790 - Much improved handling of linear and partial orders.

5791 Reasoners for linear and partial orders are set up for type classes

5792 "linorder" and "order" respectively, and are added to the default simpset

5793 as solvers. This means that the simplifier can build transitivity chains

5794 to solve goals from the assumptions.

5795 - INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break occasionally. Typically, applications

5796 of blast or auto after simplification become unnecessary because the goal

5797 is solved by simplification already.

5799 * Numerics: new theory Ring_and_Field contains over 250 basic numerical laws,

5800 all proved in axiomatic type classes for semirings, rings and fields.

5802 * Numerics:

5803 - Numeric types (nat, int, and in HOL-Complex rat, real, complex, etc.) are

5804 now formalized using the Ring_and_Field theory mentioned above.

5805 - INCOMPATIBILITY: simplification and arithmetic behaves somewhat differently

5806 than before, because now they are set up once in a generic manner.

5807 - INCOMPATIBILITY: many type-specific arithmetic laws have gone.

5808 Look for the general versions in Ring_and_Field (and Power if they concern

5809 exponentiation).

5811 * Type "rat" of the rational numbers is now available in HOL-Complex.

5813 * Records:

5814 - Record types are now by default printed with their type abbreviation

5815 instead of the list of all field types. This can be configured via

5816 the reference "print_record_type_abbr".

5817 - Simproc "record_upd_simproc" for simplification of multiple updates added

5818 (not enabled by default).

5819 - Simproc "record_ex_sel_eq_simproc" to simplify EX x. sel r = x resp.

5820 EX x. x = sel r to True (not enabled by default).

5821 - Tactic "record_split_simp_tac" to split and simplify records added.

5823 * 'specification' command added, allowing for definition by

5824 specification. There is also an 'ax_specification' command that

5825 introduces the new constants axiomatically.

5827 * arith(_tac) is now able to generate counterexamples for reals as well.

5829 * HOL-Algebra: new locale "ring" for non-commutative rings.

5831 * HOL-ex: InductiveInvariant_examples illustrates advanced recursive function

5832 definitions, thanks to Sava Krsti\'{c} and John Matthews.

5834 * HOL-Matrix: a first theory for matrices in HOL with an application of

5835 matrix theory to linear programming.

5837 * Unions and Intersections:

5838 The latex output syntax of UN and INT has been changed

5839 from "\Union x \in A. B" to "\Union_{x \in A} B"

5840 i.e. the index formulae has become a subscript.

5841 Similarly for "\Union x. B", and for \Inter instead of \Union.

5843 * Unions and Intersections over Intervals:

5844 There is new short syntax "UN i<=n. A" for "UN i:{0..n}. A". There is

5845 also an x-symbol version with subscripts "\<Union>\<^bsub>i <= n\<^esub>. A"

5846 like in normal math, and corresponding versions for < and for intersection.

5848 * HOL/List: Ordering "lexico" is renamed "lenlex" and the standard

5849 lexicographic dictonary ordering has been added as "lexord".

5851 * ML: the legacy theory structures Int and List have been removed. They had

5852 conflicted with ML Basis Library structures having the same names.

5854 * 'refute' command added to search for (finite) countermodels. Only works

5855 for a fragment of HOL. The installation of an external SAT solver is

5856 highly recommended. See "HOL/Refute.thy" for details.

5858 * 'quickcheck' command: Allows to find counterexamples by evaluating

5859 formulae under an assignment of free variables to random values.

5860 In contrast to 'refute', it can deal with inductive datatypes,

5861 but cannot handle quantifiers. See "HOL/ex/Quickcheck_Examples.thy"

5862 for examples.

5865 *** HOLCF ***

5867 * Streams now come with concatenation and are part of the HOLCF image

5871 New in Isabelle2003 (May 2003)

5872 ------------------------------

5874 *** General ***

5876 * Provers/simplifier:

5878 - Completely reimplemented method simp (ML: Asm_full_simp_tac):

5879 Assumptions are now subject to complete mutual simplification,

5880 not just from left to right. The simplifier now preserves

5881 the order of assumptions.

5883 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:

5885 -- simp sometimes diverges where the old version did

5886 not, e.g. invoking simp on the goal

5888 [| P (f x); y = x; f x = f y |] ==> Q

5890 now gives rise to the infinite reduction sequence

5892 P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> P(f y) --(y = x)--> P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> ...

5894 Using "simp (asm_lr)" (ML: Asm_lr_simp_tac) instead often solves this

5895 kind of problem.

5897 -- Tactics combining classical reasoner and simplification (such as auto)

5898 are also affected by this change, because many of them rely on

5899 simp. They may sometimes diverge as well or yield a different numbers

5900 of subgoals. Try to use e.g. force, fastsimp, or safe instead of auto

5901 in case of problems. Sometimes subsequent calls to the classical

5902 reasoner will fail because a preceeding call to the simplifier too

5903 eagerly simplified the goal, e.g. deleted redundant premises.

5905 - The simplifier trace now shows the names of the applied rewrite rules

5907 - You can limit the number of recursive invocations of the simplifier

5908 during conditional rewriting (where the simplifie tries to solve the

5909 conditions before applying the rewrite rule):

5910 ML "simp_depth_limit := n"

5911 where n is an integer. Thus you can force termination where previously

5912 the simplifier would diverge.

5914 - Accepts free variables as head terms in congruence rules. Useful in Isar.

5916 - No longer aborts on failed congruence proof. Instead, the

5917 congruence is ignored.

5919 * Pure: New generic framework for extracting programs from constructive

5920 proofs. See HOL/Extraction.thy for an example instantiation, as well

5921 as HOL/Extraction for some case studies.

5923 * Pure: The main goal of the proof state is no longer shown by default, only

5924 the subgoals. This behaviour is controlled by a new flag.

5925 PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Settings -> Show Main Goal

5926 (ML: Proof.show_main_goal).

5928 * Pure: You can find all matching introduction rules for subgoal 1, i.e. all

5929 rules whose conclusion matches subgoal 1:

5930 PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Show me -> matching rules

5931 The rules are ordered by how closely they match the subgoal.

5932 In particular, rules that solve a subgoal outright are displayed first

5933 (or rather last, the way they are printed).

5934 (ML: ProofGeneral.print_intros())

5936 * Pure: New flag trace_unify_fail causes unification to print

5937 diagnostic information (PG: in trace buffer) when it fails. This is

5938 useful for figuring out why single step proofs like rule, erule or

5939 assumption failed.

5941 * Pure: Locale specifications now produce predicate definitions

5942 according to the body of text (covering assumptions modulo local

5943 definitions); predicate "loc_axioms" covers newly introduced text,

5944 while "loc" is cumulative wrt. all included locale expressions; the

5945 latter view is presented only on export into the global theory

5946 context; potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use "(open)" option to fall back

5947 on the old view without predicates;

5949 * Pure: predefined locales "var" and "struct" are useful for sharing

5950 parameters (as in CASL, for example); just specify something like

5951 ``var x + var y + struct M'' as import;

5953 * Pure: improved thms_containing: proper indexing of facts instead of

5954 raw theorems; check validity of results wrt. current name space;

5955 include local facts of proof configuration (also covers active

5956 locales), cover fixed variables in index; may use "_" in term

5957 specification; an optional limit for the number of printed facts may

5958 be given (the default is 40);

5960 * Pure: disallow duplicate fact bindings within new-style theory files

5961 (batch-mode only);

5963 * Provers: improved induct method: assumptions introduced by case

5964 "foo" are split into "foo.hyps" (from the rule) and "foo.prems" (from

5965 the goal statement); "foo" still refers to all facts collectively;

5967 * Provers: the function blast.overloaded has been removed: all constants

5968 are regarded as potentially overloaded, which improves robustness in exchange

5969 for slight decrease in efficiency;

5971 * Provers/linorder: New generic prover for transitivity reasoning over

5972 linear orders. Note: this prover is not efficient!

5974 * Isar: preview of problems to finish 'show' now produce an error

5975 rather than just a warning (in interactive mode);

5978 *** HOL ***

5980 * arith(_tac)

5982 - Produces a counter example if it cannot prove a goal.

5983 Note that the counter example may be spurious if the goal is not a formula

5984 of quantifier-free linear arithmetic.

5985 In ProofGeneral the counter example appears in the trace buffer.

5987 - Knows about div k and mod k where k is a numeral of type nat or int.

5989 - Calls full Presburger arithmetic (by Amine Chaieb) if quantifier-free

5990 linear arithmetic fails. This takes account of quantifiers and divisibility.

5991 Presburger arithmetic can also be called explicitly via presburger(_tac).

5993 * simp's arithmetic capabilities have been enhanced a bit: it now

5994 takes ~= in premises into account (by performing a case split);

5996 * simp reduces "m*(n div m) + n mod m" to n, even if the two summands

5997 are distributed over a sum of terms;

5999 * New tactic "trans_tac" and method "trans" instantiate

6000 Provers/linorder.ML for axclasses "order" and "linorder" (predicates

6001 "<=", "<" and "=").

6003 * function INCOMPATIBILITIES: Pi-sets have been redefined and moved from main

6004 HOL to Library/FuncSet; constant "Fun.op o" is now called "Fun.comp";

6006 * 'typedef' command has new option "open" to suppress the set

6007 definition;

6009 * functions Min and Max on finite sets have been introduced (theory

6010 Finite_Set);

6012 * attribute [symmetric] now works for relations as well; it turns

6013 (x,y) : R^-1 into (y,x) : R, and vice versa;

6015 * induct over a !!-quantified statement (say !!x1..xn):

6016 each "case" automatically performs "fix x1 .. xn" with exactly those names.

6018 * Map: `empty' is no longer a constant but a syntactic abbreviation for

6019 %x. None. Warning: empty_def now refers to the previously hidden definition

6020 of the empty set.

6022 * Algebra: formalization of classical algebra. Intended as base for

6023 any algebraic development in Isabelle. Currently covers group theory

6024 (up to Sylow's theorem) and ring theory (Universal Property of

6025 Univariate Polynomials). Contributions welcome;

6027 * GroupTheory: deleted, since its material has been moved to Algebra;

6029 * Complex: new directory of the complex numbers with numeric constants,

6030 nonstandard complex numbers, and some complex analysis, standard and

6031 nonstandard (Jacques Fleuriot);

6033 * HOL-Complex: new image for analysis, replacing HOL-Real and HOL-Hyperreal;

6035 * Hyperreal: introduced Gauge integration and hyperreal logarithms (Jacques

6036 Fleuriot);

6038 * Real/HahnBanach: updated and adapted to locales;

6040 * NumberTheory: added Gauss's law of quadratic reciprocity (by Avigad,

6041 Gray and Kramer);

6043 * UNITY: added the Meier-Sanders theory of progress sets;

6045 * MicroJava: bytecode verifier and lightweight bytecode verifier

6046 as abstract algorithms, instantiated to the JVM;

6048 * Bali: Java source language formalization. Type system, operational

6049 semantics, axiomatic semantics. Supported language features:

6050 classes, interfaces, objects,virtual methods, static methods,

6051 static/instance fields, arrays, access modifiers, definite

6052 assignment, exceptions.

6055 *** ZF ***

6057 * ZF/Constructible: consistency proof for AC (Gdel's constructible

6058 universe, etc.);

6060 * Main ZF: virtually all theories converted to new-style format;

6063 *** ML ***

6065 * Pure: Tactic.prove provides sane interface for internal proofs;

6066 omits the infamous "standard" operation, so this is more appropriate

6067 than prove_goalw_cterm in many situations (e.g. in simprocs);

6069 * Pure: improved error reporting of simprocs;

6071 * Provers: Simplifier.simproc(_i) provides sane interface for setting

6072 up simprocs;

6075 *** Document preparation ***

6077 * uses \par instead of \\ for line breaks in theory text. This may

6078 shift some page breaks in large documents. To get the old behaviour

6079 use \renewcommand{\isanewline}{\mbox{}\\\mbox{}} in root.tex.

6081 * minimized dependencies of isabelle.sty and isabellesym.sty on

6082 other packages

6084 * \<euro> now needs package babel/greek instead of marvosym (which

6085 broke \Rightarrow)

6087 * normal size for \<zero>...\<nine> (uses \mathbf instead of

6088 textcomp package)

6092 New in Isabelle2002 (March 2002)

6093 --------------------------------

6095 *** Document preparation ***

6097 * greatly simplified document preparation setup, including more

6098 graceful interpretation of isatool usedir -i/-d/-D options, and more

6099 instructive isatool mkdir; users should basically be able to get

6100 started with "isatool mkdir HOL Test && isatool make"; alternatively,

6101 users may run a separate document processing stage manually like this:

6102 "isatool usedir -D output HOL Test && isatool document Test/output";

6104 * theory dependency graph may now be incorporated into documents;

6105 isatool usedir -g true will produce session_graph.eps/.pdf for use

6106 with \includegraphics of LaTeX;

6108 * proper spacing of consecutive markup elements, especially text

6109 blocks after section headings;

6111 * support bold style (for single symbols only), input syntax is like

6112 this: "\<^bold>\<alpha>" or "\<^bold>A";

6114 * \<bullet> is now output as bold \cdot by default, which looks much

6115 better in printed text;

6117 * added default LaTeX bindings for \<tturnstile> and \<TTurnstile>;

6118 note that these symbols are currently unavailable in Proof General /

6119 X-Symbol; new symbols \<zero>, \<one>, ..., \<nine>, and \<euro>;

6121 * isatool latex no longer depends on changed TEXINPUTS, instead

6122 isatool document copies the Isabelle style files to the target

6123 location;

6126 *** Isar ***

6128 * Pure/Provers: improved proof by cases and induction;

6129 - 'case' command admits impromptu naming of parameters (such as

6130 "case (Suc n)");

6131 - 'induct' method divinates rule instantiation from the inductive

6132 claim; no longer requires excessive ?P bindings for proper

6133 instantiation of cases;

6134 - 'induct' method properly enumerates all possibilities of set/type

6135 rules; as a consequence facts may be also passed through *type*

6136 rules without further ado;

6137 - 'induct' method now derives symbolic cases from the *rulified*

6138 rule (before it used to rulify cases stemming from the internal

6139 atomized version); this means that the context of a non-atomic

6140 statement becomes is included in the hypothesis, avoiding the

6141 slightly cumbersome show "PROP ?case" form;

6142 - 'induct' may now use elim-style induction rules without chaining

6143 facts, using ``missing'' premises from the goal state; this allows

6144 rules stemming from inductive sets to be applied in unstructured

6145 scripts, while still benefitting from proper handling of non-atomic

6146 statements; NB: major inductive premises need to be put first, all

6147 the rest of the goal is passed through the induction;

6148 - 'induct' proper support for mutual induction involving non-atomic

6149 rule statements (uses the new concept of simultaneous goals, see

6150 below);

6151 - append all possible rule selections, but only use the first

6152 success (no backtracking);

6153 - removed obsolete "(simplified)" and "(stripped)" options of methods;

6154 - undeclared rule case names default to numbers 1, 2, 3, ...;

6155 - added 'print_induct_rules' (covered by help item in recent Proof

6156 General versions);

6157 - moved induct/cases attributes to Pure, methods to Provers;

6158 - generic method setup instantiated for FOL and HOL;

6160 * Pure: support multiple simultaneous goal statements, for example

6161 "have a: A and b: B" (same for 'theorem' etc.); being a pure

6162 meta-level mechanism, this acts as if several individual goals had

6163 been stated separately; in particular common proof methods need to be

6164 repeated in order to cover all claims; note that a single elimination

6165 step is *not* sufficient to establish the two conjunctions, so this

6166 fails:

6168 assume "A & B" then have A and B .. (*".." fails*)

6170 better use "obtain" in situations as above; alternative refer to

6171 multi-step methods like 'auto', 'simp_all', 'blast+' etc.;

6173 * Pure: proper integration with ``locales''; unlike the original

6174 version by Florian Kammller, Isar locales package high-level proof

6175 contexts rather than raw logical ones (e.g. we admit to include

6176 attributes everywhere); operations on locales include merge and

6177 rename; support for implicit arguments (``structures''); simultaneous

6178 type-inference over imports and text; see also HOL/ex/Locales.thy for

6179 some examples;

6181 * Pure: the following commands have been ``localized'', supporting a

6182 target locale specification "(in name)": 'lemma', 'theorem',

6183 'corollary', 'lemmas', 'theorems', 'declare'; the results will be

6184 stored both within the locale and at the theory level (exported and

6185 qualified by the locale name);

6187 * Pure: theory goals may now be specified in ``long'' form, with

6188 ad-hoc contexts consisting of arbitrary locale elements. for example

6189 ``lemma foo: fixes x assumes "A x" shows "B x"'' (local syntax and

6190 definitions may be given, too); the result is a meta-level rule with

6191 the context elements being discharged in the obvious way;

6193 * Pure: new proof command 'using' allows to augment currently used

6194 facts after a goal statement ('using' is syntactically analogous to

6195 'apply', but acts on the goal's facts only); this allows chained facts

6196 to be separated into parts given before and after a claim, as in

6197 ``from a and b have C using d and e <proof>'';

6199 * Pure: renamed "antecedent" case to "rule_context";

6201 * Pure: new 'judgment' command records explicit information about the

6202 object-logic embedding (used by several tools internally); no longer

6203 use hard-wired "Trueprop";

6205 * Pure: added 'corollary' command;

6207 * Pure: fixed 'token_translation' command;

6209 * Pure: removed obsolete 'exported' attribute;

6211 * Pure: dummy pattern "_" in is/let is now automatically lifted over

6212 bound variables: "ALL x. P x --> Q x" (is "ALL x. _ --> ?C x")

6213 supersedes more cumbersome ... (is "ALL x. _ x --> ?C x");

6215 * Pure: method 'atomize' presents local goal premises as object-level

6216 statements (atomic meta-level propositions); setup controlled via

6217 rewrite rules declarations of 'atomize' attribute; example

6218 application: 'induct' method with proper rule statements in improper

6219 proof *scripts*;

6221 * Pure: emulation of instantiation tactics (rule_tac, cut_tac, etc.)

6222 now consider the syntactic context of assumptions, giving a better

6223 chance to get type-inference of the arguments right (this is

6224 especially important for locales);

6226 * Pure: "sorry" no longer requires quick_and_dirty in interactive

6227 mode;

6229 * Pure/obtain: the formal conclusion "thesis", being marked as

6230 ``internal'', may no longer be reference directly in the text;