NEWS
author wenzelm
Tue Dec 29 23:04:53 2015 +0100 (2015-12-29)
changeset 61969 e01015e49041
parent 61964 37a0cbee00c2
child 61970 6226261144d7
permissions -rw-r--r--
more symbols;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history of user-relevant changes
     2 =================================================
     3 
     4 (Note: Isabelle/jEdit shows a tree-view of this file in Sidekick.)
     5 
     6 
     7 New in this Isabelle version
     8 ----------------------------
     9 
    10 *** General ***
    11 
    12 * Toplevel theorem statements have been simplified as follows:
    13 
    14   theorems             ~>  lemmas
    15   schematic_lemma      ~>  schematic_goal
    16   schematic_theorem    ~>  schematic_goal
    17   schematic_corollary  ~>  schematic_goal
    18 
    19 Command-line tool "isabelle update_theorems" updates theory sources
    20 accordingly.
    21 
    22 * Toplevel theorem statement 'proposition' is another alias for
    23 'theorem'.
    24 
    25 * Syntax for formal comments "-- text" now also supports the symbolic
    26 form "\<comment> text". Command-line tool "isabelle update_cartouches -c" helps
    27 to update old sources.
    28 
    29 * Former "xsymbols" syntax with Isabelle symbols is used by default,
    30 without any special print mode. Important ASCII replacement syntax
    31 remains available under print mode "ASCII", but less important syntax
    32 has been removed (see below).
    33 
    34 * Support for more arrow symbols, with rendering in LaTeX and
    35 Isabelle fonts: \<Lleftarrow> \<Rrightarrow> \<longlongleftarrow> \<longlongrightarrow> \<longlonglongleftarrow> \<longlonglongrightarrow>
    36 
    37 
    38 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    39 
    40 * Completion of symbols via prefix of \<name> or \<^name> or \name is
    41 always possible, independently of the language context. It is never
    42 implicit: a popup will show up unconditionally.
    43 
    44 * Additional abbreviations for syntactic completion may be specified in
    45 $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/abbrevs and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs.
    46 
    47 * Improved scheduling for urgent print tasks (e.g. command state output,
    48 interactive queries) wrt. long-running background tasks.
    49 
    50 * IDE support for the source-level debugger of Poly/ML, to work with
    51 Isabelle/ML and official Standard ML. Configuration option "ML_debugger"
    52 and commands 'ML_file_debug', 'ML_file_no_debug', 'SML_file_debug',
    53 'SML_file_no_debug' control compilation of sources with debugging
    54 information. The Debugger panel allows to set breakpoints (via context
    55 menu), step through stopped threads, evaluate local ML expressions etc.
    56 At least one Debugger view needs to be active to have any effect on the
    57 running ML program.
    58 
    59 * The main Isabelle executable is managed as single-instance Desktop
    60 application uniformly on all platforms: Linux, Windows, Mac OS X.
    61 
    62 * The State panel manages explicit proof state output, with dynamic
    63 auto-update according to cursor movement. Alternatively, the jEdit
    64 action "isabelle.update-state" (shortcut S+ENTER) triggers manual
    65 update.
    66 
    67 * The Output panel no longer shows proof state output by default, to
    68 avoid GUI overcrowding. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the State panel instead or
    69 enable option "editor_output_state".
    70 
    71 * The text overview column (status of errors, warnings etc.) is updated
    72 asynchronously, leading to much better editor reactivity. Moreover, the
    73 full document node content is taken into account. The width of the
    74 column is scaled according to the main text area font, for improved
    75 visibility.
    76 
    77 * The main text area no longer changes its color hue in outdated
    78 situations. The text overview column takes over the role to indicate
    79 unfinished edits in the PIDE pipeline. This avoids flashing text display
    80 due to ad-hoc updates by auxiliary GUI components, such as the State
    81 panel.
    82 
    83 * Action "isabelle-emph" (with keyboard shortcut C+e LEFT) controls
    84 emphasized text style; the effect is visible in document output, not in
    85 the editor.
    86 
    87 * Action "isabelle-reset" now uses keyboard shortcut C+e BACK_SPACE,
    88 instead of former C+e LEFT.
    89 
    90 * New command-line tool "isabelle jedit_client" allows to connect to
    91 already running Isabelle/jEdit process. This achieves the effect of
    92 single-instance applications seen on common GUI desktops.
    93 
    94 * The command-line tool "isabelle jedit" and the isabelle.Main
    95 application wrapper threat the default $USER_HOME/Scratch.thy more
    96 uniformly, and allow the dummy file argument ":" to open an empty buffer
    97 instead.
    98 
    99 * The default look-and-feel for Linux is the traditional "Metal", which
   100 works better with GUI scaling for very high-resolution displays (e.g.
   101 4K). Moreover, it is generally more robust than "Nimbus".
   102 
   103 
   104 *** Document preparation ***
   105 
   106 * There is a new short form for antiquotations with a single argument
   107 that is a cartouche: \<^name>\<open>...\<close> is equivalent to @{name \<open>...\<close>} and
   108 \<open>...\<close> without control symbol is equivalent to @{cartouche \<open>...\<close>}.
   109 \<^name> without following cartouche is equivalent to @{name}. The
   110 standard Isabelle fonts provide glyphs to render important control
   111 symbols, e.g. "\<^verbatim>", "\<^emph>", "\<^bold>".
   112 
   113 * Antiquotation @{theory_text} prints uninterpreted theory source text
   114 (outer syntax with command keywords etc.). This may be used in the short
   115 form \<^theory_text>\<open>...\<close>.   @{theory_text [display]} supports option "indent".
   116 
   117 * @{verbatim [display]} supports option "indent".
   118 
   119 * Antiquotation @{doc ENTRY} provides a reference to the given
   120 documentation, with a hyperlink in the Prover IDE.
   121 
   122 * Antiquotations @{command}, @{method}, @{attribute} print checked
   123 entities of the Isar language.
   124 
   125 * Antiquotations @{noindent}, @{smallskip}, @{medskip}, @{bigskip} with
   126 corresponding control symbols \<^noindent>, \<^smallskip>, \<^medskip>, \<^bigskip> specify spacing formally, using
   127 standard LaTeX macros of the same names.
   128 
   129 * Antiquotation @{cartouche} in Isabelle/Pure is the same as @{text}.
   130 Consequently, \<open>...\<close> without any decoration prints literal quasi-formal
   131 text. Command-line tool "isabelle update_cartouches -t" helps to update
   132 old sources, by approximative patching of the content of string and
   133 cartouche tokens seen in theory sources.
   134 
   135 * The @{text} antiquotation now ignores the antiquotation option
   136 "source". The given text content is output unconditionally, without any
   137 surrounding quotes etc. Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, put quotes into the
   138 argument where they are really intended, e.g. @{text \<open>"foo"\<close>}. Initial
   139 or terminal spaces are ignored.
   140 
   141 * HTML presentation uses the standard IsabelleText font and Unicode
   142 rendering of Isabelle symbols like Isabelle/Scala/jEdit.  The former
   143 print mode "HTML" loses its special meaning.
   144 
   145 * Commands 'paragraph' and 'subparagraph' provide additional section
   146 headings. Thus there are 6 levels of standard headings, as in HTML.
   147 
   148 * Text is structured in paragraphs and nested lists, using notation that
   149 is similar to Markdown. The control symbols for list items are as
   150 follows:
   151 
   152   \<^item>  itemize
   153   \<^enum>  enumerate
   154   \<^descr>  description
   155 
   156 * Command 'text_raw' has been clarified: input text is processed as in
   157 'text' (with antiquotations and control symbols). The key difference is
   158 the lack of the surrounding isabelle markup environment in output.
   159 
   160 * Document antiquotations @{emph} and @{bold} output LaTeX source
   161 recursively, adding appropriate text style markup. These may be used in
   162 the short form \<^emph>\<open>...\<close> and \<^bold>\<open>...\<close>.
   163 
   164 * Document antiquotation @{footnote} outputs LaTeX source recursively,
   165 marked as \footnote{}. This may be used in the short form \<^footnote>\<open>...\<close>.
   166 
   167 
   168 *** Isar ***
   169 
   170 * Command 'obtain' binds term abbreviations (via 'is' patterns) in the
   171 proof body as well, abstracted over relevant parameters.
   172 
   173 * Improved type-inference for theorem statement 'obtains': separate
   174 parameter scope for of each clause.
   175 
   176 * Term abbreviations via 'is' patterns also work for schematic
   177 statements: result is abstracted over unknowns.
   178 
   179 * Local goals ('have', 'show', 'hence', 'thus') allow structured
   180 rule statements like fixes/assumes/shows in theorem specifications, but
   181 the notation is postfix with keywords 'if' (or 'when') and 'for'. For
   182 example:
   183 
   184   have result: "C x y"
   185     if "A x" and "B y"
   186     for x :: 'a and y :: 'a
   187     <proof>
   188 
   189 The local assumptions are bound to the name "that". The result is
   190 exported from context of the statement as usual. The above roughly
   191 corresponds to a raw proof block like this:
   192 
   193   {
   194     fix x :: 'a and y :: 'a
   195     assume that: "A x" "B y"
   196     have "C x y" <proof>
   197   }
   198   note result = this
   199 
   200 The keyword 'when' may be used instead of 'if', to indicate 'presume'
   201 instead of 'assume' above.
   202 
   203 * Assumptions ('assume', 'presume') allow structured rule statements
   204 using 'if' and 'for', similar to 'have' etc. above. For example:
   205 
   206   assume result: "C x y"
   207     if "A x" and "B y"
   208     for x :: 'a and y :: 'a
   209 
   210 This assumes "\<And>x y::'a. A x \<Longrightarrow> B y \<Longrightarrow> C x y" and produces a general
   211 result as usual: "A ?x \<Longrightarrow> B ?y \<Longrightarrow> C ?x ?y".
   212 
   213 Vacuous quantification in assumptions is omitted, i.e. a for-context
   214 only effects propositions according to actual use of variables. For
   215 example:
   216 
   217   assume "A x" and "B y" for x and y
   218 
   219 is equivalent to:
   220 
   221   assume "\<And>x. A x" and "\<And>y. B y"
   222 
   223 * The meaning of 'show' with Pure rule statements has changed: premises
   224 are treated in the sense of 'assume', instead of 'presume'. This means,
   225 a goal like "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x" can be solved completely as follows:
   226 
   227   show "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
   228 
   229 or:
   230 
   231   show "C x" if "A x" "B x" for x
   232 
   233 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, the old behaviour may be recovered as follows:
   234 
   235   show "C x" when "A x" "B x" for x
   236 
   237 * New command 'supply' supports fact definitions during goal refinement
   238 ('apply' scripts).
   239 
   240 * New command 'consider' states rules for generalized elimination and
   241 case splitting. This is like a toplevel statement "theorem obtains" used
   242 within a proof body; or like a multi-branch 'obtain' without activation
   243 of the local context elements yet.
   244 
   245 * Proof method "cases" allows to specify the rule as first entry of
   246 chained facts.  This is particularly useful with 'consider':
   247 
   248   consider (a) A | (b) B | (c) C <proof>
   249   then have something
   250   proof cases
   251     case a
   252     then show ?thesis <proof>
   253   next
   254     case b
   255     then show ?thesis <proof>
   256   next
   257     case c
   258     then show ?thesis <proof>
   259   qed
   260 
   261 * Command 'case' allows fact name and attribute specification like this:
   262 
   263   case a: (c xs)
   264   case a [attributes]: (c xs)
   265 
   266 Facts that are introduced by invoking the case context are uniformly
   267 qualified by "a"; the same name is used for the cumulative fact. The old
   268 form "case (c xs) [attributes]" is no longer supported. Rare
   269 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt uses of case facts in exotic situations,
   270 and always put attributes in front.
   271 
   272 * The standard proof method of commands 'proof' and '..' is now called
   273 "standard" to make semantically clear what it is; the old name "default"
   274 is still available as legacy for some time. Documentation now explains
   275 '..' more accurately as "by standard" instead of "by rule".
   276 
   277 * Command 'subgoal' allows to impose some structure on backward
   278 refinements, to avoid proof scripts degenerating into long of 'apply'
   279 sequences. Further explanations and examples are given in the isar-ref
   280 manual.
   281 
   282 * Proof method "goal_cases" turns the current subgoals into cases within
   283 the context; the conclusion is bound to variable ?case in each case. For
   284 example:
   285 
   286 lemma "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
   287   and "\<And>y z. U y \<Longrightarrow> V z \<Longrightarrow> W y z"
   288 proof goal_cases
   289   case (1 x)
   290   then show ?case using \<open>A x\<close> \<open>B x\<close> sorry
   291 next
   292   case (2 y z)
   293   then show ?case using \<open>U y\<close> \<open>V z\<close> sorry
   294 qed
   295 
   296 lemma "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
   297   and "\<And>y z. U y \<Longrightarrow> V z \<Longrightarrow> W y z"
   298 proof goal_cases
   299   case prems: 1
   300   then show ?case using prems sorry
   301 next
   302   case prems: 2
   303   then show ?case using prems sorry
   304 qed
   305 
   306 * The undocumented feature of implicit cases goal1, goal2, goal3, etc.
   307 is marked as legacy, and will be removed eventually. The proof method
   308 "goals" achieves a similar effect within regular Isar; often it can be
   309 done more adequately by other means (e.g. 'consider').
   310 
   311 * Nesting of Isar goal structure has been clarified: the context after
   312 the initial backwards refinement is retained for the whole proof, within
   313 all its context sections (as indicated via 'next'). This is e.g.
   314 relevant for 'using', 'including', 'supply':
   315 
   316   have "A \<and> A" if a: A for A
   317     supply [simp] = a
   318   proof
   319     show A by simp
   320   next
   321     show A by simp
   322   qed
   323 
   324 * Method "sleep" succeeds after a real-time delay (in seconds). This is
   325 occasionally useful for demonstration and testing purposes.
   326 
   327 
   328 *** Pure ***
   329 
   330 * Qualifiers in locale expressions default to mandatory ('!') regardless
   331 of the command. Previously, for 'locale' and 'sublocale' the default was
   332 optional ('?'). The old synatx '!' has been discontinued.
   333 INCOMPATIBILITY, remove '!' and add '?' as required.
   334 
   335 * Keyword 'rewrites' identifies rewrite morphisms in interpretation
   336 commands.  Previously, the keyword was 'where'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   337 
   338 * More gentle suppression of syntax along locale morphisms while
   339 printing terms.  Previously 'abbreviation' and 'notation' declarations
   340 would be suppressed for morphisms except term identity.  Now
   341 'abbreviation' is also kept for morphims that only change the involved
   342 parameters, and only 'notation' is suppressed.  This can be of great
   343 help when working with complex locale hierarchies, because proof
   344 states are displayed much more succinctly.  It also means that only
   345 notation needs to be redeclared if desired, as illustrated by this
   346 example:
   347 
   348   locale struct = fixes composition :: "'a => 'a => 'a" (infixl "\<cdot>" 65)
   349   begin
   350     definition derived (infixl "\<odot>" 65) where ...
   351   end
   352 
   353   locale morphism =
   354     left: struct composition + right: struct composition'
   355     for composition (infix "\<cdot>" 65) and composition' (infix "\<cdot>''" 65)
   356   begin
   357     notation right.derived ("\<odot>''")
   358   end
   359 
   360 * Command 'global_interpretation' issues interpretations into global
   361 theories, with optional rewrite definitions following keyword 'defines'.
   362 
   363 * Command 'sublocale' accepts optional rewrite definitions after keyword
   364 'defines'.
   365 
   366 * Command 'permanent_interpretation' has been discontinued. Use
   367 'global_interpretation' or 'sublocale' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   368 
   369 * Command 'print_definitions' prints dependencies of definitional
   370 specifications. This functionality used to be part of 'print_theory'.
   371 
   372 * The vacuous fact "TERM x" may be established "by fact" or as `TERM x`
   373 as well, not just "by this" or "." as before.
   374 
   375 * Configuration option rule_insts_schematic has been discontinued
   376 (intermediate legacy feature in Isabelle2015).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   377 
   378 * Abbreviations in type classes now carry proper sort constraint.
   379 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY in situations where the previous misbehaviour
   380 has been exploited.
   381 
   382 * Refinement of user-space type system in type classes: pseudo-local
   383 operations behave more similar to abbreviations.  Potential
   384 INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
   385 
   386 
   387 *** HOL ***
   388 
   389 * Combinator to represent case distinction on products is named "case_prod",
   390 uniformly, discontinuing any input aliasses.  Very popular theorem aliasses
   391 have been retained.
   392 Consolidated facts:
   393   PairE ~> prod.exhaust
   394   Pair_eq ~> prod.inject
   395   pair_collapse ~> prod.collapse
   396   Pair_fst_snd_eq ~> prod_eq_iff
   397   split_twice ~> prod.case_distrib
   398   split_weak_cong ~> prod.case_cong_weak
   399   split_split ~> prod.split
   400   split_split_asm ~> prod.split_asm
   401   splitI ~> case_prodI
   402   splitD ~> case_prodD
   403   splitI2 ~> case_prodI2
   404   splitI2' ~> case_prodI2'
   405   splitE ~> case_prodE
   406   splitE' ~> case_prodE'
   407   split_pair ~> case_prod_Pair
   408   split_eta ~> case_prod_eta
   409   split_comp ~> case_prod_comp
   410   mem_splitI ~> mem_case_prodI
   411   mem_splitI2 ~> mem_case_prodI2
   412   mem_splitE ~> mem_case_prodE
   413   The_split ~> The_case_prod
   414   cond_split_eta ~> cond_case_prod_eta
   415   Collect_split_in_rel_leE ~> Collect_case_prod_in_rel_leE
   416   Collect_split_in_rel_leI ~> Collect_case_prod_in_rel_leI
   417   in_rel_Collect_split_eq ~> in_rel_Collect_case_prod_eq
   418   Collect_split_Grp_eqD ~> Collect_case_prod_Grp_eqD
   419   Collect_split_Grp_inD ~> Collect_case_prod_Grp_in
   420   Domain_Collect_split ~> Domain_Collect_case_prod
   421   Image_Collect_split ~> Image_Collect_case_prod
   422   Range_Collect_split ~> Range_Collect_case_prod
   423   Eps_split ~> Eps_case_prod
   424   Eps_split_eq ~> Eps_case_prod_eq
   425   split_rsp ~> case_prod_rsp
   426   curry_split ~> curry_case_prod
   427   split_curry ~> case_prod_curry
   428 Changes in structure HOLogic:
   429   split_const ~> case_prod_const
   430   mk_split ~> mk_case_prod
   431   mk_psplits ~> mk_ptupleabs
   432   strip_psplits ~> strip_ptupleabs
   433 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   434 
   435 * Commands 'inductive' and 'inductive_set' work better when names for
   436 intro rules are omitted: the "cases" and "induct" rules no longer
   437 declare empty case_names, but no case_names at all. This allows to use
   438 numbered cases in proofs, without requiring method "goal_cases".
   439 
   440 * The 'typedef' command has been upgraded from a partially checked
   441 "axiomatization", to a full definitional specification that takes the
   442 global collection of overloaded constant / type definitions into
   443 account. Type definitions with open dependencies on overloaded
   444 definitions need to be specified as "typedef (overloaded)". This
   445 provides extra robustness in theory construction. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   446 
   447 * Qualification of various formal entities in the libraries is done more
   448 uniformly via "context begin qualified definition ... end" instead of
   449 old-style "hide_const (open) ...". Consequently, both the defined
   450 constant and its defining fact become qualified, e.g. Option.is_none and
   451 Option.is_none_def. Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY in applications.
   452 
   453 * The coercions to type 'real' have been reorganised. The function 'real'
   454 is no longer overloaded, but has type 'nat => real' and abbreviates
   455 of_nat for that type. Also 'real_of_int :: int => real' abbreviates
   456 of_int for that type. Other overloaded instances of 'real' have been
   457 replaced by 'real_of_ereal' and 'real_of_float'.
   458 Consolidated facts (among others):
   459   real_of_nat_le_iff -> of_nat_le_iff
   460   real_of_nat_numeral of_nat_numeral
   461   real_of_int_zero of_int_0
   462   real_of_nat_zero of_nat_0
   463   real_of_one of_int_1
   464   real_of_int_add of_int_add
   465   real_of_nat_add of_nat_add
   466   real_of_int_diff of_int_diff
   467   real_of_nat_diff of_nat_diff
   468   floor_subtract floor_diff_of_int
   469   real_of_int_inject of_int_eq_iff
   470   real_of_int_gt_zero_cancel_iff of_int_0_less_iff
   471   real_of_int_ge_zero_cancel_iff of_int_0_le_iff
   472   real_of_nat_ge_zero of_nat_0_le_iff
   473   real_of_int_ceiling_ge le_of_int_ceiling
   474   ceiling_less_eq ceiling_less_iff
   475   ceiling_le_eq ceiling_le_iff
   476   less_floor_eq less_floor_iff
   477   floor_less_eq floor_less_iff
   478   floor_divide_eq_div floor_divide_of_int_eq
   479   real_of_int_zero_cancel of_nat_eq_0_iff
   480   ceiling_real_of_int ceiling_of_int
   481 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   482 
   483 * Some old and rarely used ASCII replacement syntax has been removed.
   484 INCOMPATIBILITY, standard syntax with symbols should be used instead.
   485 The subsequent commands help to reproduce the old forms, e.g. to
   486 simplify porting old theories:
   487 
   488   notation iff  (infixr "<->" 25)
   489 
   490   notation Times  (infixr "<*>" 80)
   491 
   492   type_notation Map.map  (infixr "~=>" 0)
   493   notation Map.map_comp  (infixl "o'_m" 55)
   494 
   495   type_notation FinFun.finfun ("(_ =>f /_)" [22, 21] 21)
   496 
   497   notation FuncSet.funcset  (infixr "->" 60)
   498   notation FuncSet.extensional_funcset  (infixr "->\<^sub>E" 60)
   499 
   500   notation Omega_Words_Fun.conc (infixr "conc" 65)
   501 
   502   notation Preorder.equiv ("op ~~")
   503     and Preorder.equiv ("(_/ ~~ _)" [51, 51] 50)
   504 
   505   notation (in topological_space) LIMSEQ ("((_)/ ----> (_))" [60, 60] 60)
   506 
   507 * The alternative notation "\<Colon>" for type and sort constraints has been
   508 removed: in LaTeX document output it looks the same as "::".
   509 INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain "::" instead.
   510 
   511 * Theory Map: lemma map_of_is_SomeD was a clone of map_of_SomeD and has
   512 been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   513 
   514 * Quickcheck setup for finite sets.
   515 
   516 * Discontinued simp_legacy_precond. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   517 
   518 * Sledgehammer:
   519   - The MaSh relevance filter has been sped up.
   520   - Proof reconstruction has been improved, to minimize the incidence of
   521     cases where Sledgehammer gives a proof that does not work.
   522   - Auto Sledgehammer now minimizes and preplays the results.
   523   - Handle Vampire 4.0 proof output without raising exception.
   524   - Eliminated "MASH" environment variable. Use the "MaSh" option in
   525     Isabelle/jEdit instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   526   - Eliminated obsolete "blocking" option and related subcommands.
   527 
   528 * Nitpick:
   529   - Fixed soundness bug in translation of "finite" predicate.
   530   - Fixed soundness bug in "destroy_constrs" optimization.
   531   - Removed "check_potential" and "check_genuine" options.
   532   - Eliminated obsolete "blocking" option.
   533 
   534 * New (co)datatype package:
   535   - New commands "lift_bnf" and "copy_bnf" for lifting (copying) a BNF
   536     structure on the raw type to an abstract type defined using typedef.
   537   - Always generate "case_transfer" theorem.
   538   - Allow discriminators and selectors with the same name as the type
   539     being defined.
   540   - Avoid various internal name clashes (e.g., 'datatype f = f').
   541 
   542 * Transfer:
   543   - new methods for interactive debugging of 'transfer' and
   544     'transfer_prover': 'transfer_start', 'transfer_step', 'transfer_end',
   545     'transfer_prover_start' and 'transfer_prover_end'.
   546 
   547 * Division on integers is bootstrapped directly from division on
   548 naturals and uses generic numeral algorithm for computations.
   549 Slight INCOMPATIBILITY, simproc numeral_divmod replaces and generalizes
   550 former simprocs binary_int_div and binary_int_mod
   551 
   552 * Tightened specification of class semiring_no_zero_divisors.  Slight
   553 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   554 
   555 * Class algebraic_semidom introduces common algebraic notions of
   556 integral (semi)domains, particularly units.  Although
   557 logically subsumed by fields, is is not a super class of these
   558 in order not to burden fields with notions that are trivial there.
   559 
   560 * Class normalization_semidom specifies canonical representants
   561 for equivalence classes of associated elements in an integral
   562 (semi)domain.  This formalizes associated elements as well.
   563 
   564 * Abstract specification of gcd/lcm operations in classes semiring_gcd,
   565 semiring_Gcd, semiring_Lcd.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: facts gcd_nat.commute
   566 and gcd_int.commute are subsumed by gcd.commute, as well as gcd_nat.assoc
   567 and gcd_int.assoc by gcd.assoc.
   568 
   569 * Former constants Fields.divide (_ / _) and Divides.div (_ div _)
   570 are logically unified to Rings.divide in syntactic type class
   571 Rings.divide, with infix syntax (_ div _).  Infix syntax (_ / _)
   572 for field division is added later as abbreviation in class Fields.inverse.
   573 INCOMPATIBILITY,  instantiations must refer to Rings.divide rather
   574 than the former separate constants, hence infix syntax (_ / _) is usually
   575 not available during instantiation.
   576 
   577 * New cancellation simprocs for boolean algebras to cancel
   578 complementary terms for sup and inf. For example, "sup x (sup y (- x))"
   579 simplifies to "top". INCOMPATIBILITY.
   580 
   581 * Library/Multiset:
   582   - Renamed multiset inclusion operators:
   583       < ~> <#
   584       \<subset> ~> \<subset>#
   585       <= ~> <=#
   586       \<le> ~> \<le>#
   587       \<subseteq> ~> \<subseteq>#
   588     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   589   - "'a multiset" is no longer an instance of the "order",
   590     "ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le", "ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_diff",
   591     "semilattice_inf", and "semilattice_sup" type classes. The theorems
   592     previously provided by these type classes (directly or indirectly)
   593     are now available through the "subset_mset" interpretation
   594     (e.g. add_mono ~> subset_mset.add_mono).
   595     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   596   - Renamed conversions:
   597       multiset_of ~> mset
   598       multiset_of_set ~> mset_set
   599       set_of ~> set_mset
   600     INCOMPATIBILITY
   601   - Renamed lemmas:
   602       mset_le_def ~> subseteq_mset_def
   603       mset_less_def ~> subset_mset_def
   604       less_eq_multiset.rep_eq ~> subseteq_mset_def
   605     INCOMPATIBILITY
   606   - Removed lemmas generated by lift_definition:
   607     less_eq_multiset.abs_eq, less_eq_multiset.rsp less_eq_multiset.transfer
   608     less_eq_multiset_def
   609     INCOMPATIBILITY
   610 
   611 * Library/Bourbaki_Witt_Fixpoint: Added formalisation of the Bourbaki-Witt
   612 fixpoint theorem for increasing functions in chain-complete partial
   613 orders.
   614 
   615 * Multivariate_Analysis/Cauchy_Integral_Thm: Contour integrals (= complex path integrals),
   616 Cauchy's integral theorem, winding numbers and Cauchy's integral formula, Liouville theorem,
   617 Fundamental Theorem of Algebra. Ported from HOL Light
   618 
   619 * Multivariate_Analysis: Added topological concepts such as connected components,
   620 homotopic paths and the inside or outside of a set.
   621 
   622 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: discontinued obsolete 'defer_recdef'
   623 command. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'function' instead.
   624 
   625 * Inductive definitions ('inductive', 'coinductive', etc.) expose
   626 low-level facts of the internal construction only if the option
   627 "inductive_defs" is enabled. This refers to the internal predicate
   628 definition and its monotonicity result. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   629 
   630 * Recursive function definitions ('fun', 'function', 'partial_function')
   631 expose low-level facts of the internal construction only if the option
   632 "function_defs" is enabled. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   633 
   634 * Data_Structures: new and growing session of standard data structures.
   635 
   636 * Imperative_HOL: obsolete theory Legacy_Mrec has been removed.
   637 
   638 * Library/Omega_Words_Fun: Infinite words modeled as functions nat =>
   639 'a.
   640 
   641 * HOL-Statespace: command 'statespace' uses mandatory qualifier for
   642 import of parent, as for general 'locale' expressions. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   643 remove '!' and add '?' as required.
   644 
   645 
   646 *** ML ***
   647 
   648 * Pretty printing of Poly/ML compiler output in Isabelle has been
   649 improved: proper treatment of break offsets and blocks with consistent
   650 breaks.
   651 
   652 * Isar proof methods are based on a slightly more general type
   653 context_tactic, which allows to change the proof context dynamically
   654 (e.g. to update cases) and indicate explicit Seq.Error results. Former
   655 METHOD_CASES is superseded by CONTEXT_METHOD; further combinators are
   656 provided in src/Pure/Isar/method.ML for convenience. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   657 
   658 * Antiquotation @{undefined} or \<^undefined> inlines (raise Match).
   659 
   660 * The auxiliary module Pure/display.ML has been eliminated. Its
   661 elementary thm print operations are now in Pure/more_thm.ML and thus
   662 called Thm.pretty_thm, Thm.string_of_thm etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   663 
   664 * Simproc programming interfaces have been simplified:
   665 Simplifier.make_simproc and Simplifier.define_simproc supersede various
   666 forms of Simplifier.mk_simproc, Simplifier.simproc_global etc. Note that
   667 term patterns for the left-hand sides are specified with implicitly
   668 fixed variables, like top-level theorem statements. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   669 
   670 * Instantiation rules have been re-organized as follows:
   671 
   672   Thm.instantiate  (*low-level instantiation with named arguments*)
   673   Thm.instantiate' (*version with positional arguments*)
   674 
   675   Drule.infer_instantiate  (*instantiation with type inference*)
   676   Drule.infer_instantiate'  (*version with positional arguments*)
   677 
   678 The LHS only requires variable specifications, instead of full terms.
   679 Old cterm_instantiate is superseded by infer_instantiate.
   680 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to re-adjust some ML names and types accordingly.
   681 
   682 * Old tactic shorthands atac, rtac, etac, dtac, ftac have been
   683 discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular assume_tac, resolve_tac etc.
   684 instead (with proper context).
   685 
   686 * Thm.instantiate (and derivatives) no longer require the LHS of the
   687 instantiation to be certified: plain variables are given directly.
   688 
   689 * Subgoal.SUBPROOF and Subgoal.FOCUS combinators use anonymous
   690 quasi-bound variables (like the Simplifier), instead of accidentally
   691 named local fixes. This has the potential to improve stability of proof
   692 tools, but can also cause INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that don't observe
   693 the proof context discipline.
   694 
   695 * The following combinators for low-level profiling of the ML runtime
   696 system are available:
   697 
   698   profile_time          (*CPU time*)
   699   profile_time_thread   (*CPU time on this thread*)
   700   profile_allocations   (*overall heap allocations*)
   701 
   702 
   703 *** System ***
   704 
   705 * Command-line tool "isabelle console" enables print mode "ASCII".
   706 
   707 * Global session timeout is multiplied by timeout_scale factor. This
   708 allows to adjust large-scale tests (e.g. AFP) to overall hardware
   709 performance.
   710 
   711 * Property values in etc/symbols may contain spaces, if written with the
   712 replacement character "␣" (Unicode point 0x2324).  For example:
   713 
   714     \<star>  code: 0x0022c6  group: operator  font: Deja␣Vu␣Sans␣Mono
   715 
   716 * Command-line tool "isabelle update_then" expands old Isar command
   717 conflations:
   718 
   719     hence  ~>  then have
   720     thus   ~>  then show
   721 
   722 This syntax is more orthogonal and improves readability and
   723 maintainability of proofs.
   724 
   725 * Poly/ML default platform architecture may be changed from 32bit to
   726 64bit via system option ML_system_64. A system restart (and rebuild)
   727 is required after change.
   728 
   729 * Poly/ML 5.6 runs natively on x86-windows and x86_64-windows, which
   730 both allow larger heap space than former x86-cygwin.
   731 
   732 * Java runtime environment for x86_64-windows allows to use larger heap
   733 space.
   734 
   735 * Java runtime options are determined separately for 32bit vs. 64bit
   736 platforms as follows.
   737 
   738   - Isabelle desktop application: platform-specific files that are
   739     associated with the main app bundle
   740 
   741   - isabelle jedit: settings
   742     JEDIT_JAVA_SYSTEM_OPTIONS
   743     JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS32 vs. JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS64
   744 
   745   - isabelle build: settings
   746     ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS32 vs. ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS64
   747 
   748 * Bash shell function "jvmpath" has been renamed to "platform_path": it
   749 is relevant both for Poly/ML and JVM processes.
   750 
   751 * Heap images are 10-15% smaller due to less wasteful persistent theory
   752 content (using ML type theory_id instead of theory);
   753 
   754 
   755 
   756 New in Isabelle2015 (May 2015)
   757 ------------------------------
   758 
   759 *** General ***
   760 
   761 * Local theory specification commands may have a 'private' or
   762 'qualified' modifier to restrict name space accesses to the local scope,
   763 as provided by some "context begin ... end" block. For example:
   764 
   765   context
   766   begin
   767 
   768   private definition ...
   769   private lemma ...
   770 
   771   qualified definition ...
   772   qualified lemma ...
   773 
   774   lemma ...
   775   theorem ...
   776 
   777   end
   778 
   779 * Command 'experiment' opens an anonymous locale context with private
   780 naming policy.
   781 
   782 * Command 'notepad' requires proper nesting of begin/end and its proof
   783 structure in the body: 'oops' is no longer supported here. Minor
   784 INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'sorry' instead.
   785 
   786 * Command 'named_theorems' declares a dynamic fact within the context,
   787 together with an attribute to maintain the content incrementally. This
   788 supersedes functor Named_Thms in Isabelle/ML, but with a subtle change
   789 of semantics due to external visual order vs. internal reverse order.
   790 
   791 * 'find_theorems': search patterns which are abstractions are
   792 schematically expanded before search. Search results match the naive
   793 expectation more closely, particularly wrt. abbreviations.
   794 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   795 
   796 * Commands 'method_setup' and 'attribute_setup' now work within a local
   797 theory context.
   798 
   799 * Outer syntax commands are managed authentically within the theory
   800 context, without implicit global state. Potential for accidental
   801 INCOMPATIBILITY, make sure that required theories are really imported.
   802 
   803 * Historical command-line terminator ";" is no longer accepted (and
   804 already used differently in Isar). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle
   805 update_semicolons" to remove obsolete semicolons from old theory
   806 sources.
   807 
   808 * Structural composition of proof methods (meth1; meth2) in Isar
   809 corresponds to (tac1 THEN_ALL_NEW tac2) in ML.
   810 
   811 * The Eisbach proof method language allows to define new proof methods
   812 by combining existing ones with their usual syntax. The "match" proof
   813 method provides basic fact/term matching in addition to
   814 premise/conclusion matching through Subgoal.focus, and binds fact names
   815 from matches as well as term patterns within matches. The Isabelle
   816 documentation provides an entry "eisbach" for the Eisbach User Manual.
   817 Sources and various examples are in ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/.
   818 
   819 
   820 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   821 
   822 * Improved folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax. Alternatively,
   823 the "sidekick" mode may be used for document structure.
   824 
   825 * Extended bracket matching based on Isar language structure. System
   826 option jedit_structure_limit determines maximum number of lines to scan
   827 in the buffer.
   828 
   829 * Support for BibTeX files: context menu, context-sensitive token
   830 marker, SideKick parser.
   831 
   832 * Document antiquotation @{cite} provides formal markup, which is
   833 interpreted semi-formally based on .bib files that happen to be open in
   834 the editor (hyperlinks, completion etc.).
   835 
   836 * Less waste of vertical space via negative line spacing (see Global
   837 Options / Text Area).
   838 
   839 * Improved graphview panel with optional output of PNG or PDF, for
   840 display of 'thy_deps', 'class_deps' etc.
   841 
   842 * The commands 'thy_deps' and 'class_deps' allow optional bounds to
   843 restrict the visualized hierarchy.
   844 
   845 * Improved scheduling for asynchronous print commands (e.g. provers
   846 managed by the Sledgehammer panel) wrt. ongoing document processing.
   847 
   848 
   849 *** Document preparation ***
   850 
   851 * Document markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection',
   852 'subsubsection', 'text', 'txt', 'text_raw' work uniformly in any
   853 context, even before the initial 'theory' command. Obsolete proof
   854 commands 'sect', 'subsect', 'subsubsect', 'txt_raw' have been
   855 discontinued, use 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection', 'text_raw'
   856 instead. The old 'header' command is still retained for some time, but
   857 should be replaced by 'chapter', 'section' etc. (using "isabelle
   858 update_header"). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   859 
   860 * Official support for "tt" style variants, via \isatt{...} or
   861 \begin{isabellett}...\end{isabellett}. The somewhat fragile \verb or
   862 verbatim environment of LaTeX is no longer used. This allows @{ML} etc.
   863 as argument to other macros (such as footnotes).
   864 
   865 * Document antiquotation @{verbatim} prints ASCII text literally in "tt"
   866 style.
   867 
   868 * Discontinued obsolete option "document_graph": session_graph.pdf is
   869 produced unconditionally for HTML browser_info and PDF-LaTeX document.
   870 
   871 * Diagnostic commands and document markup commands within a proof do not
   872 affect the command tag for output. Thus commands like 'thm' are subject
   873 to proof document structure, and no longer "stick out" accidentally.
   874 Commands 'text' and 'txt' merely differ in the LaTeX style, not their
   875 tags. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
   876 
   877 * System option "pretty_margin" is superseded by "thy_output_margin",
   878 which is also accessible via document antiquotation option "margin".
   879 Only the margin for document output may be changed, but not the global
   880 pretty printing: that is 76 for plain console output, and adapted
   881 dynamically in GUI front-ends. Implementations of document
   882 antiquotations need to observe the margin explicitly according to
   883 Thy_Output.string_of_margin. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   884 
   885 * Specification of 'document_files' in the session ROOT file is
   886 mandatory for document preparation. The legacy mode with implicit
   887 copying of the document/ directory is no longer supported. Minor
   888 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   889 
   890 
   891 *** Pure ***
   892 
   893 * Proof methods with explicit instantiation ("rule_tac", "subgoal_tac"
   894 etc.) allow an optional context of local variables ('for' declaration):
   895 these variables become schematic in the instantiated theorem; this
   896 behaviour is analogous to 'for' in attributes "where" and "of".
   897 Configuration option rule_insts_schematic (default false) controls use
   898 of schematic variables outside the context. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY,
   899 declare rule_insts_schematic = true temporarily and update to use local
   900 variable declarations or dummy patterns instead.
   901 
   902 * Explicit instantiation via attributes "where", "of", and proof methods
   903 "rule_tac" with derivatives like "subgoal_tac" etc. admit dummy patterns
   904 ("_") that stand for anonymous local variables.
   905 
   906 * Generated schematic variables in standard format of exported facts are
   907 incremented to avoid material in the proof context. Rare
   908 INCOMPATIBILITY, explicit instantiation sometimes needs to refer to
   909 different index.
   910 
   911 * Lexical separation of signed and unsigned numerals: categories "num"
   912 and "float" are unsigned. INCOMPATIBILITY: subtle change in precedence
   913 of numeral signs, particularly in expressions involving infix syntax
   914 like "(- 1) ^ n".
   915 
   916 * Old inner token category "xnum" has been discontinued.  Potential
   917 INCOMPATIBILITY for exotic syntax: may use mixfix grammar with "num"
   918 token category instead.
   919 
   920 
   921 *** HOL ***
   922 
   923 * New (co)datatype package:
   924   - The 'datatype_new' command has been renamed 'datatype'. The old
   925     command of that name is now called 'old_datatype' and is provided
   926     by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
   927     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
   928     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   929   - Renamed theorems:
   930       disc_corec ~> corec_disc
   931       disc_corec_iff ~> corec_disc_iff
   932       disc_exclude ~> distinct_disc
   933       disc_exhaust ~> exhaust_disc
   934       disc_map_iff ~> map_disc_iff
   935       sel_corec ~> corec_sel
   936       sel_exhaust ~> exhaust_sel
   937       sel_map ~> map_sel
   938       sel_set ~> set_sel
   939       sel_split ~> split_sel
   940       sel_split_asm ~> split_sel_asm
   941       strong_coinduct ~> coinduct_strong
   942       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
   943     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   944   - The "no_code" option to "free_constructors", "datatype_new", and
   945     "codatatype" has been renamed "plugins del: code".
   946     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   947   - The rules "set_empty" have been removed. They are easy
   948     consequences of other set rules "by auto".
   949     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   950   - The rule "set_cases" is now registered with the "[cases set]"
   951     attribute. This can influence the behavior of the "cases" proof
   952     method when more than one case rule is applicable (e.g., an
   953     assumption is of the form "w : set ws" and the method "cases w"
   954     is invoked). The solution is to specify the case rule explicitly
   955     (e.g. "cases w rule: widget.exhaust").
   956     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   957   - Renamed theories:
   958       BNF_Comp ~> BNF_Composition
   959       BNF_FP_Base ~> BNF_Fixpoint_Base
   960       BNF_GFP ~> BNF_Greatest_Fixpoint
   961       BNF_LFP ~> BNF_Least_Fixpoint
   962       BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> BNF_Wellorder_Constructions
   963       Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> Cardinals/Wellorder_Constructions
   964     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   965   - Lifting and Transfer setup for basic HOL types sum and prod (also
   966     option) is now performed by the BNF package. Theories Lifting_Sum,
   967     Lifting_Product and Lifting_Option from Main became obsolete and
   968     were removed. Changed definitions of the relators rel_prod and
   969     rel_sum (using inductive).
   970     INCOMPATIBILITY: use rel_prod.simps and rel_sum.simps instead
   971     of rel_prod_def and rel_sum_def.
   972     Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: (rarely used by name) transfer theorem names
   973     changed (e.g. map_prod_transfer ~> prod.map_transfer).
   974   - Parametricity theorems for map functions, relators, set functions,
   975     constructors, case combinators, discriminators, selectors and
   976     (co)recursors are automatically proved and registered as transfer
   977     rules.
   978 
   979 * Old datatype package:
   980   - The old 'datatype' command has been renamed 'old_datatype', and
   981     'rep_datatype' has been renamed 'old_rep_datatype'. They are
   982     provided by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
   983     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
   984     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   985   - Renamed theorems:
   986       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
   987     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   988   - Renamed theory:
   989       ~~/src/HOL/Datatype.thy ~> ~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy
   990     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   991 
   992 * Nitpick:
   993   - Fixed soundness bug related to the strict and non-strict subset
   994     operations.
   995 
   996 * Sledgehammer:
   997   - CVC4 is now included with Isabelle instead of CVC3 and run by
   998     default.
   999   - Z3 is now always enabled by default, now that it is fully open
  1000     source. The "z3_non_commercial" option is discontinued.
  1001   - Minimization is now always enabled by default.
  1002     Removed sub-command:
  1003       min
  1004   - Proof reconstruction, both one-liners and Isar, has been
  1005     dramatically improved.
  1006   - Improved support for CVC4 and veriT.
  1007 
  1008 * Old and new SMT modules:
  1009   - The old 'smt' method has been renamed 'old_smt' and moved to
  1010     'src/HOL/Library/Old_SMT.thy'. It is provided for compatibility,
  1011     until applications have been ported to use the new 'smt' method. For
  1012     the method to work, an older version of Z3 (e.g. Z3 3.2 or 4.0) must
  1013     be installed, and the environment variable "OLD_Z3_SOLVER" must
  1014     point to it.
  1015     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1016   - The 'smt2' method has been renamed 'smt'.
  1017     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1018   - New option 'smt_reconstruction_step_timeout' to limit the
  1019     reconstruction time of Z3 proof steps in the new 'smt' method.
  1020   - New option 'smt_statistics' to display statistics of the new 'smt'
  1021     method, especially runtime statistics of Z3 proof reconstruction.
  1022 
  1023 * Lifting: command 'lift_definition' allows to execute lifted constants
  1024 that have as a return type a datatype containing a subtype. This
  1025 overcomes long-time limitations in the area of code generation and
  1026 lifting, and avoids tedious workarounds.
  1027 
  1028 * Command and antiquotation "value" provide different evaluation slots
  1029 (again), where the previous strategy (NBE after ML) serves as default.
  1030 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1031 
  1032 * Add NO_MATCH-simproc, allows to check for syntactic non-equality.
  1033 
  1034 * field_simps: Use NO_MATCH-simproc for distribution rules, to avoid
  1035 non-termination in case of distributing a division. With this change
  1036 field_simps is in some cases slightly less powerful, if it fails try to
  1037 add algebra_simps, or use divide_simps. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1038 
  1039 * Separate class no_zero_divisors has been given up in favour of fully
  1040 algebraic semiring_no_zero_divisors. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1041 
  1042 * Class linordered_semidom really requires no zero divisors.
  1043 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1044 
  1045 * Classes division_ring, field and linordered_field always demand
  1046 "inverse 0 = 0". Given up separate classes division_ring_inverse_zero,
  1047 field_inverse_zero and linordered_field_inverse_zero. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1048 
  1049 * Classes cancel_ab_semigroup_add / cancel_monoid_add specify explicit
  1050 additive inverse operation. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1051 
  1052 * Complex powers and square roots. The functions "ln" and "powr" are now
  1053 overloaded for types real and complex, and 0 powr y = 0 by definition.
  1054 INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be necessary.
  1055 
  1056 * The functions "sin" and "cos" are now defined for any type of sort
  1057 "{real_normed_algebra_1,banach}" type, so in particular on "real" and
  1058 "complex" uniformly. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be
  1059 needed.
  1060 
  1061 * New library of properties of the complex transcendental functions sin,
  1062 cos, tan, exp, Ln, Arctan, Arcsin, Arccos. Ported from HOL Light.
  1063 
  1064 * The factorial function, "fact", now has type "nat => 'a" (of a sort
  1065 that admits numeric types including nat, int, real and complex.
  1066 INCOMPATIBILITY: an expression such as "fact 3 = 6" may require a type
  1067 constraint, and the combination "real (fact k)" is likely to be
  1068 unsatisfactory. If a type conversion is still necessary, then use
  1069 "of_nat (fact k)" or "real_of_nat (fact k)".
  1070 
  1071 * Removed functions "natfloor" and "natceiling", use "nat o floor" and
  1072 "nat o ceiling" instead. A few of the lemmas have been retained and
  1073 adapted: in their names "natfloor"/"natceiling" has been replaced by
  1074 "nat_floor"/"nat_ceiling".
  1075 
  1076 * Qualified some duplicated fact names required for boostrapping the
  1077 type class hierarchy:
  1078   ab_add_uminus_conv_diff ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  1079   field_inverse_zero ~> inverse_zero
  1080   field_divide_inverse ~> divide_inverse
  1081   field_inverse ~> left_inverse
  1082 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1083 
  1084 * Eliminated fact duplicates:
  1085   mult_less_imp_less_right ~> mult_right_less_imp_less
  1086   mult_less_imp_less_left ~> mult_left_less_imp_less
  1087 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1088 
  1089 * Fact consolidation: even_less_0_iff is subsumed by
  1090 double_add_less_zero_iff_single_add_less_zero (simp by default anyway).
  1091 
  1092 * Generalized and consolidated some theorems concerning divsibility:
  1093   dvd_reduce ~> dvd_add_triv_right_iff
  1094   dvd_plus_eq_right ~> dvd_add_right_iff
  1095   dvd_plus_eq_left ~> dvd_add_left_iff
  1096 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1097 
  1098 * "even" and "odd" are mere abbreviations for "2 dvd _" and "~ 2 dvd _"
  1099 and part of theory Main.
  1100   even_def ~> even_iff_mod_2_eq_zero
  1101 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1102 
  1103 * Lemma name consolidation: divide_Numeral1 ~> divide_numeral_1. Minor
  1104 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1105 
  1106 * Bootstrap of listsum as special case of abstract product over lists.
  1107 Fact rename:
  1108     listsum_def ~> listsum.eq_foldr
  1109 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1110 
  1111 * Product over lists via constant "listprod".
  1112 
  1113 * Theory List: renamed drop_Suc_conv_tl and nth_drop' to
  1114 Cons_nth_drop_Suc.
  1115 
  1116 * New infrastructure for compiling, running, evaluating and testing
  1117 generated code in target languages in HOL/Library/Code_Test. See
  1118 HOL/Codegenerator_Test/Code_Test* for examples.
  1119 
  1120 * Library/Multiset:
  1121   - Introduced "replicate_mset" operation.
  1122   - Introduced alternative characterizations of the multiset ordering in
  1123     "Library/Multiset_Order".
  1124   - Renamed multiset ordering:
  1125       <# ~> #<#
  1126       <=# ~> #<=#
  1127       \<subset># ~> #\<subset>#
  1128       \<subseteq># ~> #\<subseteq>#
  1129     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1130   - Introduced abbreviations for ill-named multiset operations:
  1131       <#, \<subset># abbreviate < (strict subset)
  1132       <=#, \<le>#, \<subseteq># abbreviate <= (subset or equal)
  1133     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1134   - Renamed
  1135       in_multiset_of ~> in_multiset_in_set
  1136       Multiset.fold ~> fold_mset
  1137       Multiset.filter ~> filter_mset
  1138     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1139   - Removed mcard, is equal to size.
  1140   - Added attributes:
  1141       image_mset.id [simp]
  1142       image_mset_id [simp]
  1143       elem_multiset_of_set [simp, intro]
  1144       comp_fun_commute_plus_mset [simp]
  1145       comp_fun_commute.fold_mset_insert [OF comp_fun_commute_plus_mset, simp]
  1146       in_mset_fold_plus_iff [iff]
  1147       set_of_Union_mset [simp]
  1148       in_Union_mset_iff [iff]
  1149     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1150 
  1151 * Library/Sum_of_Squares: simplified and improved "sos" method. Always
  1152 use local CSDP executable, which is much faster than the NEOS server.
  1153 The "sos_cert" functionality is invoked as "sos" with additional
  1154 argument. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1155 
  1156 * HOL-Decision_Procs: New counterexample generator quickcheck
  1157 [approximation] for inequalities of transcendental functions. Uses
  1158 hardware floating point arithmetic to randomly discover potential
  1159 counterexamples. Counterexamples are certified with the "approximation"
  1160 method. See HOL/Decision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Quickcheck_Ex.thy for
  1161 examples.
  1162 
  1163 * HOL-Probability: Reworked measurability prover
  1164   - applies destructor rules repeatedly
  1165   - removed application splitting (replaced by destructor rule)
  1166   - added congruence rules to rewrite measure spaces under the sets
  1167     projection
  1168 
  1169 * New proof method "rewrite" (in theory ~~/src/HOL/Library/Rewrite) for
  1170 single-step rewriting with subterm selection based on patterns.
  1171 
  1172 
  1173 *** ML ***
  1174 
  1175 * Subtle change of name space policy: undeclared entries are now
  1176 considered inaccessible, instead of accessible via the fully-qualified
  1177 internal name. This mainly affects Name_Space.intern (and derivatives),
  1178 which may produce an unexpected Long_Name.hidden prefix. Note that
  1179 contemporary applications use the strict Name_Space.check (and
  1180 derivatives) instead, which is not affected by the change. Potential
  1181 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare applications of Name_Space.intern.
  1182 
  1183 * Subtle change of error semantics of Toplevel.proof_of: regular user
  1184 ERROR instead of internal Toplevel.UNDEF.
  1185 
  1186 * Basic combinators map, fold, fold_map, split_list, apply are available
  1187 as parameterized antiquotations, e.g. @{map 4} for lists of quadruples.
  1188 
  1189 * Renamed "pairself" to "apply2", in accordance to @{apply 2}.
  1190 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1191 
  1192 * Former combinators NAMED_CRITICAL and CRITICAL for central critical
  1193 sections have been discontinued, in favour of the more elementary
  1194 Multithreading.synchronized and its high-level derivative
  1195 Synchronized.var (which is usually sufficient in applications). Subtle
  1196 INCOMPATIBILITY: synchronized access needs to be atomic and cannot be
  1197 nested.
  1198 
  1199 * Synchronized.value (ML) is actually synchronized (as in Scala): subtle
  1200 change of semantics with minimal potential for INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1201 
  1202 * The main operations to certify logical entities are Thm.ctyp_of and
  1203 Thm.cterm_of with a local context; old-style global theory variants are
  1204 available as Thm.global_ctyp_of and Thm.global_cterm_of.
  1205 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1206 
  1207 * Elementary operations in module Thm are no longer pervasive.
  1208 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use qualified Thm.prop_of, Thm.cterm_of,
  1209 Thm.term_of etc.
  1210 
  1211 * Proper context for various elementary tactics: assume_tac,
  1212 resolve_tac, eresolve_tac, dresolve_tac, forward_tac, match_tac,
  1213 compose_tac, Splitter.split_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1214 
  1215 * Tactical PARALLEL_ALLGOALS is the most common way to refer to
  1216 PARALLEL_GOALS.
  1217 
  1218 * Goal.prove_multi is superseded by the fully general Goal.prove_common,
  1219 which also allows to specify a fork priority.
  1220 
  1221 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "COMMAND"} is superseded by
  1222 @{command_keyword COMMAND} (usually without quotes and with PIDE
  1223 markup). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1224 
  1225 * Cartouches within ML sources are turned into values of type
  1226 Input.source (with formal position information).
  1227 
  1228 
  1229 *** System ***
  1230 
  1231 * The Isabelle tool "update_cartouches" changes theory files to use
  1232 cartouches instead of old-style {* verbatim *} or `alt_string` tokens.
  1233 
  1234 * The Isabelle tool "build" provides new options -X, -k, -x.
  1235 
  1236 * Discontinued old-fashioned "codegen" tool. Code generation can always
  1237 be externally triggered using an appropriate ROOT file plus a
  1238 corresponding theory. Parametrization is possible using environment
  1239 variables, or ML snippets in the most extreme cases. Minor
  1240 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1241 
  1242 * JVM system property "isabelle.threads" determines size of Scala thread
  1243 pool, like Isabelle system option "threads" for ML.
  1244 
  1245 * JVM system property "isabelle.laf" determines the default Swing
  1246 look-and-feel, via internal class name or symbolic name as in the jEdit
  1247 menu Global Options / Appearance.
  1248 
  1249 * Support for Proof General and Isar TTY loop has been discontinued.
  1250 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use standard PIDE infrastructure instead.
  1251 
  1252 
  1253 
  1254 New in Isabelle2014 (August 2014)
  1255 ---------------------------------
  1256 
  1257 *** General ***
  1258 
  1259 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
  1260 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
  1261 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
  1262 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
  1263 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
  1264 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
  1265 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
  1266 some examples.
  1267 
  1268 * Standard tactics and proof methods such as "clarsimp", "auto" and
  1269 "safe" now preserve equality hypotheses "x = expr" where x is a free
  1270 variable.  Locale assumptions and chained facts containing "x"
  1271 continue to be useful.  The new method "hypsubst_thin" and the
  1272 configuration option "hypsubst_thin" (within the attribute name space)
  1273 restore the previous behavior.  INCOMPATIBILITY, especially where
  1274 induction is done after these methods or when the names of free and
  1275 bound variables clash.  As first approximation, old proofs may be
  1276 repaired by "using [[hypsubst_thin = true]]" in the critical spot.
  1277 
  1278 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
  1279 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
  1280 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
  1281 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
  1282 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
  1283 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
  1284 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
  1285 proof tools.
  1286 
  1287 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
  1288 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
  1289 supports input via ` (backquote).
  1290 
  1291 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
  1292 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
  1293 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
  1294 
  1295 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
  1296 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
  1297 string token.  General renovation of its syntax using text cartouches.
  1298 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1299 
  1300 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary workaround for
  1301 Isabelle/ML in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
  1302 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.  Potential
  1303 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1304 
  1305 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
  1306 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
  1307 
  1308 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
  1309 not check existence within the file-system.
  1310 
  1311 * Updated and extended manuals: codegen, datatypes, implementation,
  1312 isar-ref, jedit, system.
  1313 
  1314 
  1315 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1316 
  1317 * Improved Document panel: simplified interaction where every single
  1318 mouse click (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit
  1319 buffer.
  1320 
  1321 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons), with connection
  1322 to PIDE hyperlinks.
  1323 
  1324 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
  1325 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
  1326 
  1327 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
  1328 auxiliary ML files.
  1329 
  1330 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism, with simple
  1331 templates, completion language context, name-space completion,
  1332 file-name completion, spell-checker completion.
  1333 
  1334 * Refined GUI popup for completion: more robust key/mouse event
  1335 handling and propagation to enclosing text area -- avoid loosing
  1336 keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
  1337 
  1338 * Completion popup supports both ENTER and TAB (default) to select an
  1339 item, depending on Isabelle options.
  1340 
  1341 * Refined insertion of completion items wrt. jEdit text: multiple
  1342 selections, rectangular selections, rectangular selection as "tall
  1343 caret".
  1344 
  1345 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
  1346 completion popup and context-menu.
  1347 
  1348 * More general "Query" panel supersedes "Find" panel, with GUI access
  1349 to commands 'find_theorems' and 'find_consts', as well as print
  1350 operations for the context.  Minor incompatibility in keyboard
  1351 shortcuts etc.: replace action isabelle-find by isabelle-query.
  1352 
  1353 * Search field for all output panels ("Output", "Query", "Info" etc.)
  1354 to highlight text via regular expression.
  1355 
  1356 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
  1357 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
  1358 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
  1359 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
  1360 
  1361 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
  1362 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
  1363 
  1364 * Empty editors buffers that are no longer required (e.g.\ via theory
  1365 imports) are automatically removed from the document model.
  1366 
  1367 * Improved monitor panel.
  1368 
  1369 * Improved Console/Scala plugin: more uniform scala.Console output,
  1370 more robust treatment of threads and interrupts.
  1371 
  1372 * Improved management of dockable windows: clarified keyboard focus
  1373 and window placement wrt. main editor view; optional menu item to
  1374 "Detach" a copy where this makes sense.
  1375 
  1376 * New Simplifier Trace panel provides an interactive view of the
  1377 simplification process, enabled by the "simp_trace_new" attribute
  1378 within the context.
  1379 
  1380 
  1381 *** Pure ***
  1382 
  1383 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
  1384 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
  1385 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
  1386 'instance' command with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem
  1387 might be postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof
  1388 finished trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous
  1389 (without any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
  1390 Axclass.class_axiomatization, Axclass.classrel_axiomatization,
  1391 Axclass.arity_axiomatization.
  1392 
  1393 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
  1394 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
  1395 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
  1396 renaming needs to be applied:
  1397 
  1398   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
  1399   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
  1400   all            ~>  Pure.all
  1401   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
  1402   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
  1403 
  1404 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
  1405 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
  1406 old constants:
  1407 
  1408 setup {*
  1409   fn thy => thy
  1410     |> Sign.root_path
  1411     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
  1412     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
  1413     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
  1414     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
  1415 *}
  1416 
  1417 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
  1418 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
  1419 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
  1420 
  1421 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
  1422 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
  1423 instantiated theorem.
  1424 
  1425 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
  1426 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
  1427 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
  1428 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
  1429 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
  1430 
  1431   attribute_setup standard =
  1432     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
  1433 
  1434 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
  1435 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
  1436 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
  1437 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
  1438 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
  1439 
  1440 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
  1441 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
  1442 differently, e.g. via cartouches).
  1443 
  1444 * Command 'print_term_bindings' supersedes 'print_binds' for clarity,
  1445 but the latter is retained some time as Proof General legacy.
  1446 
  1447 * Code generator preprocessor: explicit control of simp tracing on a
  1448 per-constant basis.  See attribute "code_preproc".
  1449 
  1450 
  1451 *** HOL ***
  1452 
  1453 * Code generator: enforce case of identifiers only for strict target
  1454 language requirements.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1455 
  1456 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
  1457 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1458 
  1459 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.  Minor
  1460 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1461 
  1462 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures"
  1463 option.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1464 
  1465 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
  1466 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1467 
  1468 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
  1469 with the given constants.
  1470 
  1471 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
  1472 operations on records.
  1473 
  1474 * Command and antiquotation "value" are now hardcoded against nbe and
  1475 ML.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1476 
  1477 * Renamed command 'enriched_type' to 'functor'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1478 
  1479 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
  1480 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
  1481 
  1482 * Qualified String.implode and String.explode.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1483 
  1484 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules can
  1485 now deal with conjunctions.  For help with converting proofs, the old
  1486 behaviour of the simplifier can be restored like this: declare/using
  1487 [[simp_legacy_precond]].  This configuration option will disappear
  1488 again in the future.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1489 
  1490 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
  1491 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1492 
  1493 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from session
  1494   "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".  The commands 'bnf', 'wrap_free_constructors',
  1495   'datatype_new', 'codatatype', 'primcorec', 'primcorecursive' are now
  1496   part of theory "Main".
  1497 
  1498   Theory renamings:
  1499     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
  1500     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
  1501     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
  1502     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
  1503     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
  1504     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
  1505     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
  1506     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
  1507     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
  1508     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
  1509     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
  1510     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
  1511     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
  1512     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
  1513     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
  1514     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
  1515     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
  1516     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
  1517     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
  1518     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
  1519     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
  1520     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
  1521 
  1522   New theories:
  1523     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
  1524     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
  1525     Library/BNF_Axomatization.thy
  1526     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
  1527     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
  1528 
  1529   Discontinued theories:
  1530     BNF/BNF.thy
  1531     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
  1532 
  1533 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1534 
  1535 * New (co)datatype package:
  1536   - Command 'primcorec' is fully implemented.
  1537   - Command 'datatype_new' generates size functions ("size_xxx" and
  1538     "size") as required by 'fun'.
  1539   - BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style
  1540     (co)datatypes with Transfer.
  1541   - Renamed commands:
  1542       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
  1543       primrec_new ~> primrec
  1544       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
  1545     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1546   - The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
  1547     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
  1548     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1549   - The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer
  1550     generated.  Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually
  1551     using "prim(co)rec".
  1552     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1553   - No discriminators are generated for nullary constructors by
  1554     default, eliminating the need for the odd "=:" syntax.
  1555     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1556   - No discriminators or selectors are generated by default by
  1557     "datatype_new", unless custom names are specified or the new
  1558     "discs_sels" option is passed.
  1559     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1560 
  1561 * Old datatype package:
  1562   - The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been
  1563     renamed "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" ->
  1564     "sum.case").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1565   - The generated constants "xxx_case", "xxx_rec", and "xxx_size" have
  1566     been renamed "case_xxx", "rec_xxx", and "size_xxx" (e.g.,
  1567     "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1568 
  1569 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions,
  1570   their relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new
  1571   BNF-based datatype package.
  1572 
  1573   Renamed constants:
  1574     Option.set ~> set_option
  1575     Option.map ~> map_option
  1576     option_rel ~> rel_option
  1577 
  1578   Renamed theorems:
  1579     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
  1580     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
  1581     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
  1582     option.recs ~> option.rec
  1583     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
  1584     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
  1585     map.simps ~> list.map
  1586     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
  1587     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
  1588     the.simps ~> option.sel
  1589 
  1590 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1591 
  1592 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
  1593     sum_map ~> map_sum
  1594     map_pair ~> map_prod
  1595     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
  1596     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
  1597     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
  1598     set_rel ~> rel_set
  1599     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
  1600     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "src/HOL/Library/FSet.thy")
  1601     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "src/HOL/Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
  1602     vset ~> rel_vset (in "src/HOL/Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
  1603 
  1604 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1605 
  1606 * Lifting and Transfer:
  1607   - a type variable as a raw type is supported
  1608   - stronger reflexivity prover
  1609   - rep_eq is always generated by lift_definition
  1610   - setup for Lifting/Transfer is now automated for BNFs
  1611     + holds for BNFs that do not contain a dead variable
  1612     + relator_eq, relator_mono, relator_distr, relator_domain,
  1613       relator_eq_onp, quot_map, transfer rules for bi_unique, bi_total,
  1614       right_unique, right_total, left_unique, left_total are proved
  1615       automatically
  1616     + definition of a predicator is generated automatically
  1617     + simplification rules for a predicator definition are proved
  1618       automatically for datatypes
  1619   - consolidation of the setup of Lifting/Transfer
  1620     + property that a relator preservers reflexivity is not needed any
  1621       more
  1622       Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1623     + left_total and left_unique rules are now transfer rules
  1624       (reflexivity_rule attribute not needed anymore)
  1625       INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1626     + Domainp does not have to be a separate assumption in
  1627       relator_domain theorems (=> more natural statement)
  1628       INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1629   - registration of code equations is more robust
  1630     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1631   - respectfulness proof obligation is preprocessed to a more readable
  1632     form
  1633     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1634   - eq_onp is always unfolded in respectfulness proof obligation
  1635     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1636   - unregister lifting setup for Code_Numeral.integer and
  1637     Code_Numeral.natural
  1638     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1639   - Lifting.invariant -> eq_onp
  1640     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1641 
  1642 * New internal SAT solver "cdclite" that produces models and proof
  1643 traces.  This solver replaces the internal SAT solvers "enumerate" and
  1644 "dpll".  Applications that explicitly used one of these two SAT
  1645 solvers should use "cdclite" instead. In addition, "cdclite" is now
  1646 the default SAT solver for the "sat" and "satx" proof methods and
  1647 corresponding tactics; the old default can be restored using "declare
  1648 [[sat_solver = zchaff_with_proofs]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1649 
  1650 * SMT module: A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called
  1651 "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2 and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g.,
  1652 4.3). The new proof method is called "smt2". CVC3 and CVC4 are also
  1653 supported as oracles. Yices is no longer supported, because no version
  1654 of the solver can handle both SMT-LIB 2 and quantifiers.
  1655 
  1656 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
  1657 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
  1658 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
  1659 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
  1660 
  1661 * Sledgehammer:
  1662   - Z3 can now produce Isar proofs.
  1663   - MaSh overhaul:
  1664     . New SML-based learning algorithms eliminate the dependency on
  1665       Python and increase performance and reliability.
  1666     . MaSh and MeSh are now used by default together with the
  1667       traditional MePo (Meng-Paulson) relevance filter. To disable
  1668       MaSh, set the "MaSh" system option in Isabelle/jEdit Plugin
  1669       Options / Isabelle / General to "none".
  1670   - New option:
  1671       smt_proofs
  1672   - Renamed options:
  1673       isar_compress ~> compress
  1674       isar_try0 ~> try0
  1675 
  1676 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1677 
  1678 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
  1679 
  1680 * Nitpick:
  1681   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could
  1682     take infinite values.
  1683   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as
  1684     "Abs_Integ" and "Rep_Integ".
  1685   - Removed "std" option.
  1686   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
  1687     "hide_types".
  1688 
  1689 * Metis: Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis
  1690 (full_types)' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1691 
  1692 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
  1693 
  1694 * Adjustion of INF and SUP operations:
  1695   - Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
  1696   - Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF and
  1697     SUP instead uniformly.
  1698   - More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
  1699     or SUP and Sup.
  1700   - INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
  1701   - Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.
  1702   - Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong, with
  1703     simplifier implication in premises.  Generalize and replace former
  1704     INT_cong, SUP_cong
  1705 
  1706 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1707 
  1708 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice.
  1709 
  1710 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
  1711 
  1712   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
  1713   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
  1714   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
  1715   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
  1716 
  1717 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1718 
  1719 * Theory reorganization: split of Big_Operators.thy into
  1720 Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy.
  1721 
  1722 * Consolidated some facts about big group operators:
  1723 
  1724     setsum_0' ~> setsum.neutral
  1725     setsum_0 ~> setsum.neutral_const
  1726     setsum_addf ~> setsum.distrib
  1727     setsum_cartesian_product ~> setsum.cartesian_product
  1728     setsum_cases ~> setsum.If_cases
  1729     setsum_commute ~> setsum.commute
  1730     setsum_cong ~> setsum.cong
  1731     setsum_delta ~> setsum.delta
  1732     setsum_delta' ~> setsum.delta'
  1733     setsum_diff1' ~> setsum.remove
  1734     setsum_empty ~> setsum.empty
  1735     setsum_infinite ~> setsum.infinite
  1736     setsum_insert ~> setsum.insert
  1737     setsum_inter_restrict'' ~> setsum.inter_filter
  1738     setsum_mono_zero_cong_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_left
  1739     setsum_mono_zero_cong_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_right
  1740     setsum_mono_zero_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_left
  1741     setsum_mono_zero_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_right
  1742     setsum_reindex ~> setsum.reindex
  1743     setsum_reindex_cong ~> setsum.reindex_cong
  1744     setsum_reindex_nonzero ~> setsum.reindex_nontrivial
  1745     setsum_restrict_set ~> setsum.inter_restrict
  1746     setsum_Plus ~> setsum.Plus
  1747     setsum_setsum_restrict ~> setsum.commute_restrict
  1748     setsum_Sigma ~> setsum.Sigma
  1749     setsum_subset_diff ~> setsum.subset_diff
  1750     setsum_Un_disjoint ~> setsum.union_disjoint
  1751     setsum_UN_disjoint ~> setsum.UNION_disjoint
  1752     setsum_Un_Int ~> setsum.union_inter
  1753     setsum_Union_disjoint ~> setsum.Union_disjoint
  1754     setsum_UNION_zero ~> setsum.Union_comp
  1755     setsum_Un_zero ~> setsum.union_inter_neutral
  1756     strong_setprod_cong ~> setprod.strong_cong
  1757     strong_setsum_cong ~> setsum.strong_cong
  1758     setprod_1' ~> setprod.neutral
  1759     setprod_1 ~> setprod.neutral_const
  1760     setprod_cartesian_product ~> setprod.cartesian_product
  1761     setprod_cong ~> setprod.cong
  1762     setprod_delta ~> setprod.delta
  1763     setprod_delta' ~> setprod.delta'
  1764     setprod_empty ~> setprod.empty
  1765     setprod_infinite ~> setprod.infinite
  1766     setprod_insert ~> setprod.insert
  1767     setprod_mono_one_cong_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_left
  1768     setprod_mono_one_cong_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_right
  1769     setprod_mono_one_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_left
  1770     setprod_mono_one_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_right
  1771     setprod_reindex ~> setprod.reindex
  1772     setprod_reindex_cong ~> setprod.reindex_cong
  1773     setprod_reindex_nonzero ~> setprod.reindex_nontrivial
  1774     setprod_Sigma ~> setprod.Sigma
  1775     setprod_subset_diff ~> setprod.subset_diff
  1776     setprod_timesf ~> setprod.distrib
  1777     setprod_Un2 ~> setprod.union_diff2
  1778     setprod_Un_disjoint ~> setprod.union_disjoint
  1779     setprod_UN_disjoint ~> setprod.UNION_disjoint
  1780     setprod_Un_Int ~> setprod.union_inter
  1781     setprod_Union_disjoint ~> setprod.Union_disjoint
  1782     setprod_Un_one ~> setprod.union_inter_neutral
  1783 
  1784   Dropped setsum_cong2 (simple variant of setsum.cong).
  1785   Dropped setsum_inter_restrict' (simple variant of setsum.inter_restrict)
  1786   Dropped setsum_reindex_id, setprod_reindex_id
  1787     (simple variants of setsum.reindex [symmetric], setprod.reindex [symmetric]).
  1788 
  1789 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1790 
  1791 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
  1792 
  1793   Fact consolidations:
  1794     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
  1795     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
  1796     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
  1797     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
  1798     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
  1799     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
  1800     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
  1801     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
  1802     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
  1803     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
  1804     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
  1805     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
  1806     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
  1807     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
  1808     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
  1809     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
  1810     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
  1811     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
  1812     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
  1813     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
  1814     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
  1815     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
  1816     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
  1817     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
  1818     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
  1819     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
  1820     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
  1821     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
  1822     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
  1823     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
  1824     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
  1825     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
  1826     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
  1827     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
  1828     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
  1829     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
  1830     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
  1831     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
  1832     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
  1833     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
  1834 
  1835 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
  1836 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
  1837 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
  1838 
  1839 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1,
  1840 min.cobounded2, max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
  1841 
  1842 For min_ac or max_ac, prefer more general collection ac_simps.
  1843 
  1844 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1845 
  1846 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~>
  1847 Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1848 
  1849 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
  1850 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1851 
  1852 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
  1853     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
  1854 
  1855 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1856 
  1857 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and
  1858   consolidation:
  1859     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
  1860     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
  1861 
  1862 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1863 
  1864 * Abolished neg_numeral.
  1865   - Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
  1866   - Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
  1867   - When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
  1868     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
  1869   - HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
  1870     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
  1871   - Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
  1872 
  1873 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1874 
  1875 * Reduced name variants for rules on associativity and commutativity:
  1876 
  1877     add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  1878     add_commute ~> add.commute
  1879     add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  1880     mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  1881     mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  1882     mult_left_commute ~> mult.left_commute
  1883     nat_add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  1884     nat_add_commute ~> add.commute
  1885     nat_add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  1886     nat_mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  1887     nat_mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  1888     eq_assoc ~> iff_assoc
  1889     eq_left_commute ~> iff_left_commute
  1890 
  1891 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1892 
  1893 * Fact collections add_ac and mult_ac are considered old-fashioned.
  1894 Prefer ac_simps instead, or specify rules
  1895 (add|mult).(assoc|commute|left_commute) individually.
  1896 
  1897 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
  1898     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
  1899     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
  1900     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
  1901     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
  1902 
  1903 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1904 
  1905 * Fact name consolidation:
  1906     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  1907     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
  1908     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
  1909     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
  1910     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
  1911 
  1912 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1913 
  1914 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
  1915 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
  1916 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
  1917 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
  1918 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
  1919 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly have
  1920 been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and field_simps.
  1921 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1922 
  1923 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
  1924 
  1925 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
  1926 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
  1927 
  1928 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
  1929 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
  1930 
  1931 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
  1932 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
  1933 or the brute way with
  1934 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
  1935 
  1936 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in theory
  1937 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them instead of explicitly
  1938 stating boundedness of sets.
  1939 
  1940 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow more
  1941 syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain shows up as
  1942 additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1943 
  1944 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
  1945   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
  1946   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
  1947   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
  1948   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
  1949   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
  1950   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
  1951   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
  1952   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
  1953   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
  1954   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
  1955   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
  1956 
  1957   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
  1958 
  1959   removed auxiliary lemmas:
  1960 
  1961     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
  1962     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr,
  1963     real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded, summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2,
  1964     sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom, sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero,
  1965     summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
  1966 
  1967 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1968 
  1969 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
  1970   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
  1971 
  1972   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
  1973 
  1974   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
  1975 
  1976   - removed constant isDiff
  1977 
  1978   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as
  1979     input syntax.
  1980 
  1981   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed.
  1982 
  1983   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
  1984 
  1985   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
  1986 
  1987   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
  1988 
  1989   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which
  1990     includes now rules for DERIV, has_derivative and
  1991     has_vector_derivative.
  1992 
  1993   - Other renamings:
  1994     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
  1995     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
  1996     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
  1997     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
  1998     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
  1999     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
  2000     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
  2001 
  2002 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2003 
  2004 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the
  2005 continuous_on_intros, isCont_intros collections, these facts are now
  2006 in continuous_intros.
  2007 
  2008 * Theorems about complex numbers are now stated only using Re and Im,
  2009 the Complex constructor is not used anymore. It is possible to use
  2010 primcorec to defined the behaviour of a complex-valued function.
  2011 
  2012 Removed theorems about the Complex constructor from the simpset, they
  2013 are available as the lemma collection legacy_Complex_simps. This
  2014 especially removes
  2015 
  2016     i_complex_of_real: "ii * complex_of_real r = Complex 0 r".
  2017 
  2018 Instead the reverse direction is supported with
  2019     Complex_eq: "Complex a b = a + \<i> * b"
  2020 
  2021 Moved csqrt from Fundamental_Algebra_Theorem to Complex.
  2022 
  2023   Renamings:
  2024     Re/Im                  ~>  complex.sel
  2025     complex_Re/Im_zero     ~>  zero_complex.sel
  2026     complex_Re/Im_add      ~>  plus_complex.sel
  2027     complex_Re/Im_minus    ~>  uminus_complex.sel
  2028     complex_Re/Im_diff     ~>  minus_complex.sel
  2029     complex_Re/Im_one      ~>  one_complex.sel
  2030     complex_Re/Im_mult     ~>  times_complex.sel
  2031     complex_Re/Im_inverse  ~>  inverse_complex.sel
  2032     complex_Re/Im_scaleR   ~>  scaleR_complex.sel
  2033     complex_Re/Im_i        ~>  ii.sel
  2034     complex_Re/Im_cnj      ~>  cnj.sel
  2035     Re/Im_cis              ~>  cis.sel
  2036 
  2037     complex_divide_def   ~>  divide_complex_def
  2038     complex_norm_def     ~>  norm_complex_def
  2039     cmod_def             ~>  norm_complex_de
  2040 
  2041   Removed theorems:
  2042     complex_zero_def
  2043     complex_add_def
  2044     complex_minus_def
  2045     complex_diff_def
  2046     complex_one_def
  2047     complex_mult_def
  2048     complex_inverse_def
  2049     complex_scaleR_def
  2050 
  2051 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2052 
  2053 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
  2054 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2055 
  2056 * HOL-Library: new theory src/HOL/Library/Tree.thy.
  2057 
  2058 * HOL-Library: removed theory src/HOL/Library/Kleene_Algebra.thy; it
  2059 is subsumed by session Kleene_Algebra in AFP.
  2060 
  2061 * HOL-Library / theory RBT: various constants and facts are hidden;
  2062 lifting setup is unregistered.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2063 
  2064 * HOL-Cardinals: new theory src/HOL/Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy.
  2065 
  2066 * HOL-Word: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
  2067 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2068 
  2069 * HOL-Word:
  2070   - Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a duplicate
  2071     of "word_arith_wis".
  2072   - Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
  2073     "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
  2074     "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
  2075 
  2076 * HOL-Number_Theory:
  2077   - consolidated the proofs of the binomial theorem
  2078   - the function fib is again of type nat => nat and not overloaded
  2079   - no more references to Old_Number_Theory in the HOL libraries
  2080     (except the AFP)
  2081 
  2082 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2083 
  2084 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
  2085   - Type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces.
  2086   - New theory Complex_Basic_Analysis defining complex derivatives,
  2087     holomorphic functions, etc., ported from HOL Light's canal.ml.
  2088   - Changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
  2089     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
  2090     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
  2091     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
  2092     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-)open
  2093     intervals.
  2094   - removed dependencies on type class ordered_euclidean_space with
  2095     introduction of "cbox" on euclidean_space
  2096     - renamed theorems:
  2097         interval ~> box
  2098         mem_interval ~> mem_box
  2099         interval_eq_empty ~> box_eq_empty
  2100         interval_ne_empty ~> box_ne_empty
  2101         interval_sing(1) ~> cbox_sing
  2102         interval_sing(2) ~> box_sing
  2103         subset_interval_imp ~> subset_box_imp
  2104         subset_interval ~> subset_box
  2105         open_interval ~> open_box
  2106         closed_interval ~> closed_cbox
  2107         interior_closed_interval ~> interior_cbox
  2108         bounded_closed_interval ~> bounded_cbox
  2109         compact_interval ~> compact_cbox
  2110         bounded_subset_closed_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_cbox_symmetric
  2111         bounded_subset_closed_interval ~> bounded_subset_cbox
  2112         mem_interval_componentwiseI ~> mem_box_componentwiseI
  2113         convex_box ~> convex_prod
  2114         rel_interior_real_interval ~> rel_interior_real_box
  2115         convex_interval ~> convex_box
  2116         convex_hull_eq_real_interval ~> convex_hull_eq_real_cbox
  2117         frechet_derivative_within_closed_interval ~> frechet_derivative_within_cbox
  2118         content_closed_interval' ~> content_cbox'
  2119         elementary_subset_interval ~> elementary_subset_box
  2120         diameter_closed_interval ~> diameter_cbox
  2121         frontier_closed_interval ~> frontier_cbox
  2122         frontier_open_interval ~> frontier_box
  2123         bounded_subset_open_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_box_symmetric
  2124         closure_open_interval ~> closure_box
  2125         open_closed_interval_convex ~> open_cbox_convex
  2126         open_interval_midpoint ~> box_midpoint
  2127         content_image_affinity_interval ~> content_image_affinity_cbox
  2128         is_interval_interval ~> is_interval_cbox + is_interval_box + is_interval_closed_interval
  2129         bounded_interval ~> bounded_closed_interval + bounded_boxes
  2130 
  2131     - respective theorems for intervals over the reals:
  2132         content_closed_interval + content_cbox
  2133         has_integral + has_integral_real
  2134         fine_division_exists + fine_division_exists_real
  2135         has_integral_null + has_integral_null_real
  2136         tagged_division_union_interval + tagged_division_union_interval_real
  2137         has_integral_const + has_integral_const_real
  2138         integral_const + integral_const_real
  2139         has_integral_bound + has_integral_bound_real
  2140         integrable_continuous + integrable_continuous_real
  2141         integrable_subinterval + integrable_subinterval_real
  2142         has_integral_reflect_lemma + has_integral_reflect_lemma_real
  2143         integrable_reflect + integrable_reflect_real
  2144         integral_reflect + integral_reflect_real
  2145         image_affinity_interval + image_affinity_cbox
  2146         image_smult_interval + image_smult_cbox
  2147         integrable_const + integrable_const_ivl
  2148         integrable_on_subinterval + integrable_on_subcbox
  2149 
  2150   - renamed theorems:
  2151     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
  2152     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
  2153     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
  2154 
  2155 * HOL-Probability:
  2156   - Renamed positive_integral to nn_integral:
  2157 
  2158     . Renamed all lemmas "*positive_integral*" to *nn_integral*"
  2159       positive_integral_positive ~> nn_integral_nonneg
  2160 
  2161     . Renamed abbreviation integral\<^sup>P to integral\<^sup>N.
  2162 
  2163   - replaced the Lebesgue integral on real numbers by the more general
  2164     Bochner integral for functions into a real-normed vector space.
  2165 
  2166     integral_zero               ~>  integral_zero / integrable_zero
  2167     integral_minus              ~>  integral_minus / integrable_minus
  2168     integral_add                ~>  integral_add / integrable_add
  2169     integral_diff               ~>  integral_diff / integrable_diff
  2170     integral_setsum             ~>  integral_setsum / integrable_setsum
  2171     integral_multc              ~>  integral_mult_left / integrable_mult_left
  2172     integral_cmult              ~>  integral_mult_right / integrable_mult_right
  2173     integral_triangle_inequality~>  integral_norm_bound
  2174     integrable_nonneg           ~>  integrableI_nonneg
  2175     integral_positive           ~>  integral_nonneg_AE
  2176     integrable_abs_iff          ~>  integrable_abs_cancel
  2177     positive_integral_lim_INF   ~>  nn_integral_liminf
  2178     lebesgue_real_affine        ~>  lborel_real_affine
  2179     borel_integral_has_integral ~>  has_integral_lebesgue_integral
  2180     integral_indicator          ~>
  2181          integral_real_indicator / integrable_real_indicator
  2182     positive_integral_fst       ~>  nn_integral_fst'
  2183     positive_integral_fst_measurable ~> nn_integral_fst
  2184     positive_integral_snd_measurable ~> nn_integral_snd
  2185 
  2186     integrable_fst_measurable   ~>
  2187          integral_fst / integrable_fst / AE_integrable_fst
  2188 
  2189     integrable_snd_measurable   ~>
  2190          integral_snd / integrable_snd / AE_integrable_snd
  2191 
  2192     integral_monotone_convergence  ~>
  2193          integral_monotone_convergence / integrable_monotone_convergence
  2194 
  2195     integral_monotone_convergence_at_top  ~>
  2196          integral_monotone_convergence_at_top /
  2197          integrable_monotone_convergence_at_top
  2198 
  2199     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lebesgue  ~>
  2200          has_integral_iff_has_bochner_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  2201 
  2202     lebesgue_integral_has_integral  ~>
  2203          has_integral_integrable_lebesgue_nonneg
  2204 
  2205     positive_integral_lebesgue_has_integral  ~>
  2206          integral_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg /
  2207          integrable_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  2208 
  2209     lebesgue_integral_real_affine  ~>
  2210          nn_integral_real_affine
  2211 
  2212     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lborel  ~>
  2213          integral_has_integral_nonneg / integrable_has_integral_nonneg
  2214 
  2215     The following theorems where removed:
  2216 
  2217     lebesgue_integral_nonneg
  2218     lebesgue_integral_uminus
  2219     lebesgue_integral_cmult
  2220     lebesgue_integral_multc
  2221     lebesgue_integral_cmult_nonneg
  2222     integral_cmul_indicator
  2223     integral_real
  2224 
  2225   - Formalized properties about exponentially, Erlang, and normal
  2226     distributed random variables.
  2227 
  2228 * HOL-Decision_Procs: Separate command 'approximate' for approximative
  2229 computation in src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation.  Minor
  2230 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2231 
  2232 
  2233 *** Scala ***
  2234 
  2235 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
  2236 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
  2237 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
  2238 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
  2239 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2240 
  2241 * Substantial reworking of internal PIDE protocol communication
  2242 channels.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2243 
  2244 
  2245 *** ML ***
  2246 
  2247 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
  2248 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
  2249 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
  2250 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
  2251 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
  2252 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
  2253 
  2254 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
  2255 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
  2256 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
  2257 actually belongs to it).
  2258 
  2259 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
  2260 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
  2261 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
  2262 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
  2263 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
  2264 of schematic variables.
  2265 
  2266 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
  2267 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2268 
  2269 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
  2270 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context
  2271 via "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2272 
  2273 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
  2274 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2275 
  2276 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
  2277 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
  2278 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
  2279 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2280 
  2281 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
  2282 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2283 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
  2284 formal context.
  2285 
  2286 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
  2287 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2288 
  2289 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
  2290 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
  2291 
  2292 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
  2293 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
  2294 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
  2295 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
  2296 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
  2297 
  2298 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
  2299 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
  2300 purposes.
  2301 
  2302 
  2303 *** System ***
  2304 
  2305 * Proof General with its traditional helper scripts is now an optional
  2306 Isabelle component, e.g. see ProofGeneral-4.2-2 from the Isabelle
  2307 component repository http://isabelle.in.tum.de/components/.  Note that
  2308 the "system" manual provides general explanations about add-on
  2309 components, especially those that are not bundled with the release.
  2310 
  2311 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
  2312 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
  2313 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
  2314 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
  2315 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the ISABELLE_PROCESS
  2316 settings variable.
  2317 
  2318 * Former "isabelle tty" has been superseded by "isabelle console",
  2319 with implicit build like "isabelle jedit", and without the mostly
  2320 obsolete Isar TTY loop.
  2321 
  2322 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
  2323 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
  2324 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
  2325 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
  2326 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
  2327 
  2328 * Removed obsolete "isabelle unsymbolize".  Note that the usual format
  2329 for email communication is the Unicode rendering of Isabelle symbols,
  2330 as produced by Isabelle/jEdit, for example.
  2331 
  2332 * Removed obsolete tool "wwwfind". Similar functionality may be
  2333 integrated into Isabelle/jEdit eventually.
  2334 
  2335 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
  2336 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
  2337 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
  2338 
  2339 * Session ROOT specifications require explicit 'document_files' for
  2340 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
  2341 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
  2342 processing is started.
  2343 
  2344 * Windows: support for regular TeX installation (e.g. MiKTeX) instead
  2345 of TeX Live from Cygwin.
  2346 
  2347 
  2348 
  2349 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
  2350 -------------------------------------
  2351 
  2352 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  2353 
  2354 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
  2355 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
  2356 
  2357 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
  2358 after edits surrounding the command location.
  2359 
  2360 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
  2361 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
  2362 e.g. out-of-memory).
  2363 
  2364 
  2365 *** System ***
  2366 
  2367 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
  2368 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
  2369 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
  2370 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
  2371 
  2372 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
  2373 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
  2374 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
  2375 
  2376 
  2377 
  2378 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
  2379 -------------------------------------
  2380 
  2381 *** General ***
  2382 
  2383 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
  2384 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
  2385 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2386 
  2387 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
  2388 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2389 
  2390 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
  2391 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
  2392 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
  2393 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
  2394 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
  2395 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
  2396 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
  2397 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
  2398 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
  2399 syntax.
  2400 
  2401 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
  2402 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2403 
  2404 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
  2405 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
  2406 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
  2407 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
  2408 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
  2409 
  2410 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
  2411 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2412 
  2413 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
  2414 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
  2415 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
  2416 
  2417 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
  2418 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
  2419 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
  2420 
  2421 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
  2422 eliminated old "ref" manual.
  2423 
  2424 
  2425 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  2426 
  2427 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
  2428 Documentation panel.
  2429 
  2430 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
  2431 documentation.
  2432 
  2433 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
  2434 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
  2435 
  2436 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
  2437 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
  2438 normal editing and checking process.
  2439 
  2440 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
  2441 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
  2442 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
  2443 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
  2444 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
  2445 
  2446 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
  2447 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
  2448 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
  2449 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
  2450 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
  2451 
  2452 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
  2453 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
  2454 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
  2455 
  2456 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
  2457 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
  2458 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
  2459 to resolve conflict.
  2460 
  2461 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
  2462 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
  2463 
  2464 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
  2465 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
  2466 such command executions while editing.
  2467 
  2468 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
  2469 document content.
  2470 
  2471 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
  2472 toplevel theorem statements.
  2473 
  2474 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
  2475 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
  2476 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
  2477 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
  2478 
  2479 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
  2480 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
  2481 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
  2482 
  2483 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
  2484 / Global Options / Appearance".
  2485 
  2486 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
  2487 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
  2488 
  2489 
  2490 *** Pure ***
  2491 
  2492 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
  2493 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
  2494 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
  2495 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
  2496 details.
  2497 
  2498 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
  2499 
  2500 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
  2501 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
  2502 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
  2503 
  2504 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
  2505 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2506 
  2507 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
  2508 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
  2509 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
  2510 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2511 
  2512 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
  2513 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
  2514 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2515 
  2516 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
  2517 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
  2518 
  2519 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
  2520 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
  2521 situations.
  2522 
  2523 
  2524 *** HOL ***
  2525 
  2526 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
  2527 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
  2528 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2529 
  2530 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
  2531 
  2532 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
  2533 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
  2534 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
  2535 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
  2536 
  2537   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
  2538 
  2539 * Code generator:
  2540   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
  2541     'code_instance'.
  2542   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
  2543     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
  2544 
  2545 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
  2546 examples.
  2547 
  2548 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
  2549 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
  2550 to distinguish both when desired.
  2551 
  2552 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
  2553 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
  2554 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
  2555 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2556 
  2557 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
  2558 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
  2559 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
  2560 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
  2561 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
  2562 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2563 
  2564 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
  2565 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
  2566 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2567 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
  2568 
  2569 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
  2570 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
  2571 
  2572 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
  2573 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
  2574 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
  2575 
  2576 * Lifting:
  2577   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
  2578     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
  2579       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
  2580       transfer rules
  2581     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
  2582       correspondence relation can be generated
  2583     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
  2584       parametricity
  2585     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
  2586   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
  2587   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
  2588     copies
  2589   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
  2590     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
  2591     anonymous context)
  2592   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
  2593     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  2594   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
  2595     lifting_forget, lifting_update
  2596   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
  2597     INCOMPATIBILITY
  2598 
  2599 * Transfer:
  2600   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
  2601     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
  2602   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
  2603   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
  2604     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
  2605   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
  2606 
  2607 * Reification and reflection:
  2608   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
  2609     "Reification".
  2610   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
  2611   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
  2612 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2613 
  2614 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
  2615   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
  2616     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  2617     This is now identity on infinite sets.
  2618   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
  2619     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
  2620   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
  2621     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
  2622     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
  2623     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
  2624     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
  2625     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
  2626     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
  2627     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
  2628   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
  2629     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
  2630   - Fact renames:
  2631       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
  2632       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
  2633 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2634 
  2635 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
  2636 
  2637 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
  2638 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
  2639 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
  2640 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2641 
  2642 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
  2643 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
  2644 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
  2645 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
  2646 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
  2647 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
  2648 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
  2649 lemmas.
  2650 
  2651 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
  2652 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
  2653 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2654 
  2655 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
  2656 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  2657 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  2658 
  2659 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  2660 top and bottom elements.
  2661 
  2662 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  2663 
  2664 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  2665 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  2666 
  2667  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  2668    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  2669    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  2670 
  2671  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  2672    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  2673    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  2674 
  2675    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  2676    arbitrary filter.
  2677 
  2678  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  2679    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  2680    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  2681    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  2682    on a compact set.
  2683 
  2684  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  2685    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  2686    linear_continuum_topology).
  2687 
  2688  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  2689    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  2690    on all sequences converging to x.
  2691 
  2692  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  2693    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  2694    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  2695    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  2696    left or right.
  2697 
  2698  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  2699 
  2700      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  2701 
  2702  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  2703    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  2704 
  2705  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  2706    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  2707    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  2708    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  2709    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  2710    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  2711 
  2712  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  2713 
  2714    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  2715 
  2716    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  2717      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  2718 
  2719    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  2720 
  2721    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  2722      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  2723 
  2724    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  2725 
  2726    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  2727 
  2728  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  2729 
  2730 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2731 
  2732 * Nitpick:
  2733   - Added option "spy".
  2734   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  2735 
  2736 * Sledgehammer:
  2737   - Renamed option:
  2738       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  2739     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2740   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  2741   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  2742   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  2743 
  2744 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  2745 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  2746 
  2747 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  2748   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  2749   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  2750     generated code.
  2751   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  2752   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  2753   - Fact renames:
  2754     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  2755     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  2756     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  2757 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  2758 
  2759 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  2760 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  2761 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  2762 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  2763 
  2764 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  2765 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  2766 
  2767 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2768 
  2769 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  2770 
  2771     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  2772     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  2773 
  2774 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2775 
  2776 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  2777 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  2778 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  2779 
  2780 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  2781 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  2782 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  2783 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2784 
  2785 * HOL-BNF:
  2786   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  2787     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  2788     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  2789     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  2790   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  2791     coinduct).
  2792   - Renamed keywords:
  2793     data ~> datatype_new
  2794     codata ~> codatatype
  2795     bnf_def ~> bnf
  2796   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  2797     discs ~> disc
  2798     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  2799     map_id' ~> map_id
  2800     sels ~> sel
  2801     set_map' ~> set_map
  2802     sets ~> set
  2803 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  2804 
  2805 
  2806 *** ML ***
  2807 
  2808 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  2809 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  2810 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  2811 Examples.thy in particular.
  2812 
  2813 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  2814 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  2815 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  2816 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  2817 
  2818 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  2819 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  2820 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  2821 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  2822 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2823 
  2824 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  2825 
  2826     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  2827     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  2828 
  2829 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2830 
  2831 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  2832 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  2833 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  2834 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  2835 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  2836 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  2837 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  2838 
  2839 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  2840 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  2841 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  2842 clasets separately from the context.
  2843 
  2844 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  2845 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  2846 
  2847 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  2848 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  2849 
  2850 
  2851 *** System ***
  2852 
  2853 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  2854 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2855 
  2856 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  2857 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2858 
  2859 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  2860 settings variable.
  2861 
  2862 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  2863 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  2864 always pdf.
  2865 
  2866 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  2867 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  2868 
  2869 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  2870 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  2871 
  2872 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  2873 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  2874 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  2875 
  2876 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  2877 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  2878 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  2879 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  2880 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  2881 for HTML presentation of theories.
  2882 
  2883 
  2884 
  2885 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  2886 -----------------------------------
  2887 
  2888 *** General ***
  2889 
  2890 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  2891 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  2892 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  2893 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  2894 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  2895 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  2896 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  2897 
  2898 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  2899 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  2900 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  2901 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  2902 
  2903 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  2904 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  2905 
  2906 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  2907 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  2908 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  2909 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  2910 dependencies properly.
  2911 
  2912 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  2913 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  2914 
  2915 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  2916 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  2917 
  2918 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  2919 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  2920 and "class ... context ...".
  2921 
  2922 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  2923 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  2924 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  2925 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  2926 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  2927 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  2928 
  2929 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  2930 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  2931 
  2932 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  2933 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  2934 
  2935 
  2936 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  2937 
  2938 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  2939 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  2940 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  2941 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  2942 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  2943 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  2944 
  2945 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  2946 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  2947 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  2948 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  2949 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  2950 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  2951 
  2952 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  2953 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  2954 browser on demand.
  2955 
  2956 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  2957 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  2958 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  2959 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  2960 
  2961 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  2962 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  2963 
  2964 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  2965 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  2966 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  2967 potentially infinite message streams.
  2968 
  2969 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  2970 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  2971 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  2972 schemes.
  2973 
  2974 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  2975 symbols.
  2976 
  2977 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  2978 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  2979 
  2980 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  2981 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  2982 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  2983 
  2984 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  2985 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  2986 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  2987 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  2988 
  2989 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  2990 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  2991 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  2992 
  2993 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  2994 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  2995 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  2996 Isabelle distribution.
  2997 
  2998 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  2999 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  3000 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  3001 
  3002 
  3003 *** Pure ***
  3004 
  3005 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  3006 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  3007 
  3008 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  3009 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  3010 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3011 
  3012 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3013 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  3014 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  3015 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  3016 with some care where this is really required.
  3017 
  3018 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  3019 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  3020 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  3021 
  3022   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  3023 
  3024 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  3025 a Hasse diagram.
  3026 
  3027 
  3028 *** HOL ***
  3029 
  3030 * Sledgehammer:
  3031 
  3032   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  3033     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  3034   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  3035   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  3036   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  3037   - Renamed options:
  3038       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  3039       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  3040       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  3041       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  3042 
  3043 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  3044 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  3045 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  3046 
  3047 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  3048 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3049 
  3050 * Lifting:
  3051   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  3052   - quot_del attribute
  3053   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  3054 
  3055 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  3056 expressions.
  3057 
  3058 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  3059 pointfree expressions.
  3060 
  3061 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  3062 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  3063 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  3064 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  3065 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3066 
  3067 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  3068 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  3069 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  3070 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  3071 accordingly.
  3072 
  3073 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  3074 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3075 
  3076 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  3077 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3078 
  3079 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3080 
  3081 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  3082 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  3083 
  3084 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  3085 
  3086 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  3087 
  3088   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  3089   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  3090 
  3091 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3092 
  3093 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  3094 
  3095   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  3096   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  3097 
  3098 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3099 
  3100 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  3101 
  3102   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  3103     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  3104     output f x converges to G.
  3105 
  3106   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  3107     infinity (at_bot).
  3108 
  3109   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  3110     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  3111 
  3112   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  3113     at_top".
  3114 
  3115 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3116 
  3117 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  3118 lattice type classes.
  3119 
  3120 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  3121 
  3122     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  3123     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  3124 
  3125 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3126 
  3127 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  3128 changes as follows.
  3129 
  3130   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  3131 
  3132       prefix ~> prefixeq
  3133       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  3134 
  3135   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  3136     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  3137     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  3138     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  3139 
  3140   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  3141     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  3142     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  3143 
  3144   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  3145     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  3146     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  3147     Library/Prefix_Order.
  3148 
  3149   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  3150     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  3151 
  3152       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  3153       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  3154       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  3155       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  3156       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  3157       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  3158       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  3159       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  3160       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  3161       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  3162       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  3163       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  3164       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  3165       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  3166       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  3167       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  3168 
  3169 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3170 
  3171 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  3172 
  3173 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  3174 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  3175 
  3176 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  3177 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  3178 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  3179 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  3180 
  3181   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  3182   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  3183   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  3184   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  3185   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  3186   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  3187   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  3188   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  3189   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  3190   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  3191 
  3192 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3193 
  3194 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  3195 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  3196 Data").
  3197 
  3198 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  3199 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  3200 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  3201 code.
  3202 
  3203 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  3204 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  3205 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  3206 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3207 
  3208 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  3209 
  3210 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  3211 
  3212 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  3213 
  3214   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  3215   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  3216 
  3217 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  3218 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  3219 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  3220 
  3221   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  3222 
  3223     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  3224     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  3225     cart_base i  removed
  3226     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  3227 
  3228   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  3229 
  3230   Renamed lemmas:
  3231 
  3232     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  3233     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  3234     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  3235     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  3236     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  3237     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  3238     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  3239     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  3240     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  3241     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  3242 
  3243 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3244 
  3245 * HOL/Probability:
  3246 
  3247   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  3248 
  3249   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  3250     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  3251     (borel_measurable_induct).
  3252 
  3253   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  3254     projective family).
  3255 
  3256 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  3257 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  3258 
  3259 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  3260 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  3261 datatypes.
  3262 
  3263 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  3264 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  3265 
  3266 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  3267 trees for the code generator.
  3268 
  3269 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  3270 Lifting/Transfer.
  3271 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3272 
  3273 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  3274 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3275 
  3276 
  3277 *** Document preparation ***
  3278 
  3279 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  3280 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  3281 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  3282 
  3283 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  3284 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  3285 
  3286 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  3287 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  3288 document/root.tex.
  3289 
  3290 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  3291 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3292 
  3293 
  3294 *** ML ***
  3295 
  3296 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  3297 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  3298 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  3299 
  3300 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  3301 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  3302 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  3303 
  3304 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  3305 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  3306 necessarily printing visible text.
  3307 
  3308 
  3309 *** System ***
  3310 
  3311 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  3312 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  3313 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  3314 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  3315 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  3316 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  3317 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  3318 
  3319 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  3320 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  3321 
  3322   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  3323 
  3324 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  3325 
  3326 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  3327 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  3328 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  3329 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  3330 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  3331 
  3332 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  3333 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  3334 
  3335 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  3336 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  3337 
  3338 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  3339 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3340 
  3341 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  3342 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  3343 version of Isabelle.
  3344 
  3345 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  3346 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  3347 
  3348 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  3349 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  3350 for home-made settings.
  3351 
  3352 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  3353 
  3354 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  3355 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  3356 configuration.
  3357 
  3358 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  3359 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  3360 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  3361 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  3362 bundled as Isabelle component.
  3363 
  3364 
  3365 
  3366 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  3367 ------------------------------
  3368 
  3369 *** General ***
  3370 
  3371 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  3372 
  3373   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  3374     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  3375   - markup for bound variables
  3376   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  3377   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  3378   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  3379     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  3380 
  3381 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  3382 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  3383 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  3384 
  3385 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  3386 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  3387 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  3388 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  3389 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  3390 
  3391   context
  3392     fixes x y z :: 'a
  3393     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  3394   begin
  3395 
  3396   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  3397 
  3398   end
  3399 
  3400   thm my_trans
  3401 
  3402 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  3403 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  3404 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  3405 
  3406 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  3407 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  3408 
  3409 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  3410 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  3411 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  3412 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  3413 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  3414 
  3415 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  3416 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  3417 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  3418 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  3419 indices of schematic variables.
  3420 
  3421 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  3422 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  3423 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  3424 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  3425 etc. was exploited.
  3426 
  3427 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  3428 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  3429 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  3430 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  3431 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  3432 of the material of that old tutorial.
  3433 
  3434 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  3435 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  3436 manual.
  3437 
  3438 
  3439 *** Pure ***
  3440 
  3441 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  3442 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  3443 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  3444 
  3445 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  3446 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  3447 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  3448 undocumented feature.)
  3449 
  3450 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  3451 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  3452 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  3453 
  3454   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  3455 
  3456   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  3457     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  3458 
  3459 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  3460 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  3461 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  3462 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  3463 
  3464 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  3465 
  3466     num ~> num_token
  3467     xnum ~> xnum_token
  3468     xstr ~> str_token
  3469 
  3470 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  3471 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  3472 position information via constraints).
  3473 
  3474 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  3475 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  3476 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3477 
  3478 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  3479 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  3480 
  3481 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  3482 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  3483 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3484 
  3485 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  3486 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3487 
  3488 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  3489 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  3490 
  3491   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  3492 
  3493 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3494 
  3495 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  3496 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3497 
  3498 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  3499 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  3500 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  3501 
  3502 
  3503 *** HOL ***
  3504 
  3505 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  3506 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  3507 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  3508 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  3509 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  3510 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  3511 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  3512 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  3513 possible.
  3514 
  3515 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  3516 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  3517 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  3518 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  3519 
  3520 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  3521 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3522 
  3523 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  3524 
  3525 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  3526 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  3527 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  3528 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  3529 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  3530 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  3531 
  3532   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  3533     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  3534 
  3535   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  3536     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  3537     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  3538 
  3539   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  3540     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  3541 
  3542   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  3543     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  3544     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  3545 
  3546   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  3547     Redefine using other integer operations.
  3548 
  3549 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  3550 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  3551 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  3552 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  3553 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  3554 
  3555   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  3556     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  3557     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  3558     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  3559     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  3560 
  3561     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  3562     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  3563 
  3564   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  3565     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  3566     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  3567     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  3568     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  3569     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  3570     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  3571     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  3572 
  3573   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  3574     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  3575     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  3576     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  3577 
  3578   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  3579     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  3580     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  3581     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  3582 
  3583   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  3584     from type nat to type int.
  3585 
  3586 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  3587 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  3588 
  3589   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  3590     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  3591     type.  Example syntax:
  3592 
  3593     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  3594       is List.insert
  3595 
  3596     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  3597     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  3598     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  3599     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  3600     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  3601     by the package.
  3602 
  3603   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  3604     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  3605     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  3606     code generation for each constant.
  3607 
  3608   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  3609     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  3610     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  3611     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  3612     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  3613 
  3614   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  3615     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  3616     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  3617 
  3618 * Quotient package:
  3619 
  3620   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  3621     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  3622 
  3623   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  3624     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  3625 
  3626   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  3627     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  3628     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3629 
  3630   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  3631     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3632 
  3633 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  3634 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  3635 
  3636 * Quickcheck:
  3637 
  3638   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  3639     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  3640     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  3641     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  3642     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  3643 
  3644     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  3645     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  3646     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  3647 
  3648     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  3649     continues searching for genuine ones.
  3650 
  3651     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  3652     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  3653     show genuine counterexamples.
  3654 
  3655   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  3656     value generators for a given type and operations.
  3657 
  3658     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  3659     constructors of that type.
  3660 
  3661   - Support for multisets.
  3662 
  3663   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  3664 
  3665   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  3666     conjectures in a locale context.
  3667 
  3668 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  3669 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  3670 
  3671 * Sledgehammer:
  3672   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  3673     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  3674   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  3675   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  3676     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  3677   - Sped up the minimizer.
  3678   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  3679   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  3680   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  3681 
  3682 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  3683 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  3684 
  3685 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  3686 
  3687 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3688 
  3689 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  3690 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  3691 
  3692   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  3693 
  3694 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  3695 a list and a nat.
  3696 
  3697 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  3698 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  3699 
  3700 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  3701 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  3702 default.
  3703 
  3704 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  3705 
  3706   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  3707 
  3708 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  3709 
  3710 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  3711 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  3712 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  3713 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  3714 one_case.
  3715 
  3716 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  3717 the result of the fact expression.
  3718 
  3719 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  3720 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  3721 of some relation theorems:
  3722 
  3723   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  3724   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  3725   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  3726   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  3727   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  3728   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  3729 
  3730 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  3731 
  3732 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  3733 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  3734 
  3735 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3736 
  3737 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  3738 to match the constant's name:
  3739 
  3740   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  3741   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  3742   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  3743   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  3744   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  3745   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  3746   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  3747   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  3748   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  3749   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  3750   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  3751   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  3752   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  3753   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  3754   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  3755   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  3756   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  3757   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  3758   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  3759   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  3760   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  3761   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  3762   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  3763   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  3764 
  3765 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3766 
  3767 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  3768 and corresponding theorem names:
  3769 
  3770   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  3771 
  3772   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  3773 
  3774   - Renamed theorems:
  3775 
  3776     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  3777     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  3778     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  3779     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  3780     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  3781     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  3782     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  3783     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  3784     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  3785     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  3786     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  3787     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  3788     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  3789     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  3790     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  3791     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  3792     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  3793     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  3794     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  3795     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  3796     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  3797     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  3798     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  3799 
  3800     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  3801 
  3802     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  3803 
  3804 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3805 
  3806 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  3807 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  3808 
  3809   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  3810   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  3811   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  3812   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  3813   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  3814   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  3815   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  3816   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  3817   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  3818   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  3819   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  3820   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  3821   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  3822   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  3823   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  3824   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  3825   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  3826   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  3827   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  3828   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  3829   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  3830 
  3831 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  3832 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3833 
  3834 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3835 
  3836 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  3837 
  3838   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  3839   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  3840   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  3841   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  3842   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  3843   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  3844   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  3845   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  3846   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  3847   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  3848   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  3849   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  3850   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  3851   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  3852   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  3853   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  3854   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  3855   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  3856 
  3857 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3858 
  3859 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  3860 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  3861 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  3862 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  3863 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  3864 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  3865 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  3866 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  3867 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  3868 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  3869 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  3870 
  3871 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  3872 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  3873 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  3874 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  3875 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  3876 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  3877 
  3878 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  3879 through option types.
  3880 
  3881 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  3882 relations.
  3883 
  3884 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3885 
  3886 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  3887 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  3888 
  3889   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  3890   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  3891   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  3892   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  3893   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  3894   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  3895   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  3896   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  3897   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  3898   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  3899   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  3900   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  3901   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  3902   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  3903   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  3904   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  3905   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  3906   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  3907   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  3908   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  3909   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  3910   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  3911   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  3912   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  3913   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  3914   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  3915   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  3916   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  3917   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  3918   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  3919   zless_le ~> less_le
  3920   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  3921   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  3922   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  3923 
  3924 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  3925 
  3926   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  3927 
  3928 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  3929 
  3930 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  3931 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  3932 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  3933 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  3934 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3935 
  3936 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3937 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  3938 
  3939 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  3940 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  3941 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  3942 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  3943 follows:
  3944 
  3945   Operations:
  3946   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  3947   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  3948   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  3949   del -> rbt_del
  3950   delete -> rbt_delete
  3951   ins -> rbt_ins
  3952   insert -> rbt_insert
  3953   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  3954   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  3955   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  3956   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  3957   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  3958   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  3959   tree_less -> rbt_less
  3960   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  3961   union -> rbt_union
  3962   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  3963   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  3964 
  3965   Lemmas:
  3966   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  3967   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  3968   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  3969   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  3970   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  3971   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  3972   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  3973   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  3974   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  3975   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  3976   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  3977   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  3978   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  3979   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  3980   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  3981   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  3982   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  3983   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  3984   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  3985   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  3986   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  3987   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  3988   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  3989   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  3990   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  3991   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  3992   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  3993   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  3994   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  3995   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  3996   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  3997   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  3998   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  3999   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  4000   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  4001   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  4002   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  4003   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  4004   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  4005   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  4006   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  4007   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  4008   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  4009   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  4010   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  4011   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  4012   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  4013   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  4014   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  4015   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  4016   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  4017   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  4018   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  4019   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  4020   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  4021   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  4022   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  4023   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  4024   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  4025   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  4026   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  4027   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  4028   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  4029   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  4030   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  4031   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  4032   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  4033   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  4034   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  4035   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  4036   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  4037   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  4038   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  4039   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  4040   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  4041   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  4042   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  4043   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  4044   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  4045   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  4046   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  4047   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  4048   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  4049 
  4050 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  4051 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  4052 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4053 
  4054   Changed Operations:
  4055   float_abs -> abs
  4056   float_nprt -> nprt
  4057   float_pprt -> pprt
  4058   pow2 -> use powr
  4059   round_down -> float_round_down
  4060   round_up -> float_round_up
  4061   scale -> exponent
  4062 
  4063   Removed Operations:
  4064   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  4065 
  4066   Renamed Lemmas:
  4067   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  4068   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  4069   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  4070   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  4071   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  4072   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  4073   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  4074   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  4075   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  4076   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  4077   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  4078   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  4079   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  4080   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  4081   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  4082   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  4083   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  4084   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  4085   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  4086   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  4087   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  4088   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  4089   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  4090   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  4091   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  4092   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  4093   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  4094   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  4095   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  4096   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  4097   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  4098   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  4099   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  4100   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  4101   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  4102   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  4103 
  4104   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  4105   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  4106   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  4107   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  4108   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  4109   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  4110   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  4111   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  4112   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  4113   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  4114 
  4115 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  4116 association lists with distinct keys.
  4117 
  4118 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  4119 annotated commands.
  4120 
  4121 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  4122 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  4123 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  4124 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4125 
  4126 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  4127 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  4128 instead.
  4129 
  4130   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  4131   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  4132   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  4133   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  4134   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  4135   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  4136   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  4137   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  4138   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  4139   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  4140   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  4141   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  4142   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  4143   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  4144   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  4145   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  4146   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  4147   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  4148   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  4149   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  4150   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  4151   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  4152   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  4153   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  4154   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  4155   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  4156   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  4157   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  4158   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  4159   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  4160   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  4161   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  4162   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  4163   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  4164   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  4165   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  4166   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  4167   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  4168   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  4169   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  4170   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  4171 
  4172 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  4173 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  4174 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  4175 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  4176 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  4177 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  4178 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  4179 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  4180 
  4181 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  4182 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  4183 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  4184 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  4185 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  4186 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  4187 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  4188 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  4189 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  4190 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  4191 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  4192 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4193 
  4194   Renamed constants:
  4195   measure -> emeasure
  4196   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  4197   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  4198   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  4199   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  4200 
  4201   Removed locales:
  4202   completeable_measure_space
  4203   finite_measure_space
  4204   finite_prob_space
  4205   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  4206   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  4207   finite_sigma_algebra
  4208   measure_space
  4209   pair_finite_prob_space
  4210   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  4211   pair_finite_space
  4212   pair_sigma_algebra
  4213   product_sigma_algebra
  4214 
  4215   Removed constants:
  4216   conditional_space
  4217   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  4218   image_space
  4219   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  4220   pair_measure_generator
  4221   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  4222   subvimage
  4223 
  4224   Replacement theorems:
  4225   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  4226   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  4227   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  4228   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  4229   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  4230   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  4231   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  4232   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  4233   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  4234   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  4235   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  4236   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  4237   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  4238   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  4239   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  4240   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  4241   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  4242   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  4243   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  4244   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  4245   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  4246   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  4247   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  4248   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  4249   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  4250   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  4251   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  4252   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  4253   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  4254   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  4255   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  4256   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  4257   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  4258   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  4259   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  4260   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  4261   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  4262   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  4263   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  4264   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  4265   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  4266   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  4267   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  4268   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  4269   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  4270   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  4271   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  4272   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  4273   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  4274   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  4275   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  4276   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  4277   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  4278   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  4279   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  4280   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  4281   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  4282   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  4283   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  4284   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  4285   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  4286   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  4287   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  4288   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  4289   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  4290   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  4291   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  4292   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  4293   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  4294   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  4295   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  4296   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  4297   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  4298   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  4299   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  4300   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  4301   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  4302   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  4303   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  4304   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  4305   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  4306   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  4307   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  4308   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  4309   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  4310   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  4311   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  4312   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  4313   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  4314   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  4315   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  4316   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  4317   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  4318   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  4319   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  4320   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  4321   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  4322   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  4323   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  4324   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  4325   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  4326   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  4327   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  4328   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  4329   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  4330   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  4331   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  4332   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  4333   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  4334   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  4335   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  4336   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  4337   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  4338   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  4339   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  4340   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  4341   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  4342   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  4343   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  4344   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  4345   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  4346   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  4347   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  4348   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  4349   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  4350   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  4351   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  4352   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  4353 
  4354 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  4355 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  4356 
  4357 
  4358 *** FOL ***
  4359 
  4360 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  4361 
  4362 
  4363 *** ZF ***
  4364 
  4365 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  4366 analysis.
  4367 
  4368 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  4369 
  4370 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4371 
  4372 
  4373 *** ML ***
  4374 
  4375 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  4376 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  4377 
  4378 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  4379 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  4380 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  4381 
  4382 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  4383 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  4384 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  4385 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  4386 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  4387 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  4388 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  4389 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  4390 
  4391 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  4392 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  4393 
  4394 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  4395 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  4396 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  4397 
  4398 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  4399 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4400 
  4401 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  4402 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  4403 context as well.
  4404 
  4405 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  4406 
  4407   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  4408   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  4409   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  4410   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  4411   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  4412   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  4413   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  4414   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  4415   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  4416   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  4417   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  4418   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  4419 
  4420 
  4421 *** System ***
  4422 
  4423 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  4424 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  4425 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  4426 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  4427 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  4428 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  4429 the generic user home was intended.
  4430 
  4431 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  4432 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  4433 
  4434 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  4435 (not just JRE).
  4436 
  4437 
  4438 
  4439 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  4440 ------------------------------------
  4441 
  4442 *** General ***
  4443 
  4444 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  4445 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  4446 
  4447   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  4448     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  4449     files for checking).
  4450 
  4451   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  4452     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  4453     positions.
  4454 
  4455   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  4456     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  4457     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  4458 
  4459   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  4460     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  4461     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  4462 
  4463   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  4464     cores.
  4465 
  4466   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  4467     versions (garbage collection).
  4468 
  4469 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  4470 including some remaining limitations.
  4471 
  4472 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  4473 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  4474 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  4475 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  4476 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  4477 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4478 
  4479 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  4480 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  4481 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  4482 
  4483 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  4484 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  4485 usedir option -Q.
  4486 
  4487 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  4488 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  4489 
  4490   long_names   ~> names_long
  4491   short_names  ~> names_short
  4492   unique_names ~> names_unique
  4493 
  4494 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  4495 
  4496   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  4497 
  4498 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  4499 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  4500 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  4501 
  4502 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  4503 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  4504 
  4505 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  4506   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  4507   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  4508   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  4509     "Classical Reasoner".
  4510 
  4511 
  4512 *** HOL ***
  4513 
  4514 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  4515 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4516 
  4517 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  4518 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  4519 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  4520 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  4521 class complete_linorder.
  4522 
  4523 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  4524 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  4525 
  4526 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  4527 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  4528 
  4529   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  4530   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  4531   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  4532   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  4533   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  4534   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  4535   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  4536   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  4537   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  4538   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  4539   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  4540 
  4541 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  4542 
  4543   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  4544   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  4545   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  4546   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  4547   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  4548   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  4549   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  4550   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  4551   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  4552   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  4553   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  4554   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  4555   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  4556   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  4557   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  4558   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  4559 
  4560 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4561 
  4562 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  4563 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4564 
  4565 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  4566 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  4567 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  4568 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4569 
  4570 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  4571 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  4572 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  4573 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4574 
  4575 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  4576 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  4577 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  4578 
  4579 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  4580 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  4581 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4582 
  4583 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  4584 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  4585 
  4586 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  4587 
  4588     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  4589     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  4590 
  4591 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  4592 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4593 
  4594 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  4595 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4596 
  4597 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  4598 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  4599 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  4600 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4601 
  4602   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  4603   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  4604   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  4605   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  4606   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  4607   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  4608   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  4609 
  4610 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  4611 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4612 
  4613   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  4614   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  4615   real_less_def ~> less_le
  4616   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  4617   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  4618   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  4619   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  4620   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  4621   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  4622   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  4623   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  4624   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  4625   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  4626   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  4627   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  4628   real_le_linear ~> linear
  4629   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  4630   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  4631   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  4632   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  4633   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  4634   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  4635   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  4636   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  4637   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  4638   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  4639   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  4640   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  4641   expi_add ~> exp_add
  4642   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  4643   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  4644   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  4645   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  4646   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  4647   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  4648   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  4649   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  4650   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  4651   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  4652   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  4653   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  4654   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  4655   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  4656   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  4657   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  4658   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  4659   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  4660   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  4661   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  4662   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  4663   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  4664   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  4665   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  4666   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  4667   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  4668   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  4669   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  4670   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  4671   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  4672   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  4673   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  4674   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  4675   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  4676   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  4677   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  4678   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  4679   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  4680   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  4681   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  4682   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  4683   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  4684   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  4685   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  4686   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  4687   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  4688   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  4689   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  4690   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  4691   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  4692   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  4693   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  4694   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  4695 
  4696 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  4697 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  4698 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  4699 
  4700 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  4701 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  4702 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  4703 
  4704 * Code generation:
  4705 
  4706   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  4707     characters in the target language.
  4708 
  4709   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  4710     instead.
  4711 
  4712   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  4713 
  4714   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  4715     reactivated by the following theory command:
  4716 
  4717       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  4718 
  4719 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4720 
  4721 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  4722 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  4723 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  4724 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  4725 syntax.
  4726 
  4727 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  4728 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  4729 
  4730 * Nitpick:
  4731   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  4732   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  4733   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  4734     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4735 
  4736 * Sledgehammer:
  4737   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  4738   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  4739     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  4740   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  4741     this can be done within reasonable time.
  4742   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  4743     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4744   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  4745     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  4746   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  4747     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4748 
  4749 * Metis:
  4750   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4751   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  4752     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4753 
  4754 * Command 'try':
  4755   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  4756     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4757   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  4758     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  4759 
  4760 * Quickcheck:
  4761   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  4762     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  4763   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  4764     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  4765   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  4766     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  4767     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  4768     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  4769   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  4770     (formly in HOL/Library).
  4771 
  4772 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4773 use 'partial_function' instead.
  4774 
  4775 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  4776 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  4777 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  4778 
  4779 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  4780 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  4781 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4782 
  4783 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  4784 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4785 
  4786 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  4787 arithmetic.
  4788 
  4789 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  4790 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  4791 and lattice type classes.
  4792 
  4793 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  4794 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  4795 
  4796 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  4797 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  4798 
  4799 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  4800 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  4801 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4802 
  4803   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  4804   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  4805   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  4806   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  4807 
  4808 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  4809 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  4810 constants:
  4811 
  4812   type inat   ~> type enat
  4813   Fin         ~> enat
  4814   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  4815   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  4816   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  4817 
  4818 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  4819 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4820 
  4821 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  4822 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  4823 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  4824 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  4825 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  4826 
  4827 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  4828 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  4829 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  4830 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  4831 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  4832 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  4833 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4834 
  4835   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  4836   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  4837   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  4838   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  4839 
  4840 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  4841 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  4842 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4843 
  4844   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  4845   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  4846   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  4847   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  4848   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  4849   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  4850   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  4851   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  4852   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  4853   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  4854   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  4855   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  4856   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  4857   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  4858   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  4859   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  4860   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  4861   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  4862   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  4863   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  4864   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  4865   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  4866   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  4867   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  4868   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  4869   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  4870   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  4871   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  4872   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  4873   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  4874   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  4875   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  4876   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  4877   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  4878   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  4879   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  4880   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  4881   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  4882   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  4883   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  4884   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  4885   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  4886   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  4887   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  4888   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  4889   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  4890   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  4891   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  4892   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  4893   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  4894   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  4895 
  4896 * Session HOL-Probability:
  4897   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  4898   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  4899   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  4900   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  4901     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4902 
  4903 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4904 
  4905   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  4906   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  4907   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  4908   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  4909   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  4910   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  4911   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  4912   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  4913   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  4914   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  4915   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  4916   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  4917   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  4918   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  4919   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  4920   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  4921   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  4922   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  4923   UU_I ~> bottomI
  4924   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  4925   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  4926   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  4927   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  4928   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  4929   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  4930 
  4931 
  4932 *** Document preparation ***
  4933 
  4934 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  4935 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  4936 same.
  4937 
  4938 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  4939 result.
  4940 
  4941 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  4942 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  4943 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  4944 
  4945 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  4946 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  4947 
  4948 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  4949 like this:
  4950 
  4951   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  4952   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  4953 
  4954 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  4955 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  4956 layouts.
  4957 
  4958 
  4959 *** ML ***
  4960 
  4961 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  4962 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  4963 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  4964 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  4965 under external program control.
  4966 
  4967 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  4968 data, which requires explicit setup.
  4969 
  4970 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  4971 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  4972 (better known as Proof General).
  4973 
  4974 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  4975 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  4976 
  4977 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  4978 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  4979 
  4980 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  4981 (including quotes etc.).
  4982 
  4983 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  4984 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  4985 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  4986 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  4987 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  4988 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  4989 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  4990 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  4991 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  4992 
  4993 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  4994 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  4995 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4996 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  4997 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  4998 
  4999 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  5000 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  5001 
  5002 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  5003 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  5004 
  5005 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  5006 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  5007 
  5008 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  5009 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  5010 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  5011 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  5012 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  5013 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  5014 proper Proof.context.
  5015 
  5016 
  5017 *** System ***
  5018 
  5019 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  5020 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  5021 
  5022 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  5023 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  5024 
  5025 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  5026 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  5027 
  5028   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  5029   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  5030   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  5031   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  5032   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  5033 
  5034 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  5035 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5036 
  5037 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  5038 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  5039 example:
  5040 
  5041   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  5042 
  5043 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  5044 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  5045 
  5046 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  5047 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  5048 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  5049 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  5050 
  5051 
  5052 
  5053 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  5054 ----------------------------------
  5055 
  5056 *** General ***
  5057 
  5058 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  5059 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  5060 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  5061 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  5062 like this:
  5063 
  5064   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  5065 
  5066 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  5067 
  5068 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  5069 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  5070 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  5071 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  5072 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  5073 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  5074 
  5075 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  5076 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  5077 the following package declarations:
  5078 
  5079   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  5080   \usepackage{textcomp}
  5081 
  5082 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  5083 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  5084 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  5085 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  5086 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  5087 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  5088 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  5089 
  5090 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  5091 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  5092 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  5093 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  5094 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  5095 
  5096 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  5097 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  5098 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  5099 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5100 
  5101 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  5102 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  5103 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  5104 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  5105 
  5106   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  5107 
  5108   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  5109   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  5110   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  5111   show_types                    show_types
  5112   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  5113   show_consts                   show_consts
  5114   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  5115 
  5116   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  5117   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  5118   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  5119 
  5120   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  5121   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  5122 
  5123   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  5124 
  5125   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  5126   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  5127   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  5128   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  5129   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  5130 
  5131 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  5132 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  5133 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  5134 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  5135 
  5136 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  5137 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5138 
  5139   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  5140   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  5141 
  5142 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  5143 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  5144 float_token.
  5145 
  5146 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  5147 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  5148 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5149 
  5150 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  5151 DejaVu Sans.
  5152 
  5153 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  5154 
  5155 
  5156 *** Pure ***
  5157 
  5158 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  5159 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  5160 time.
  5161 
  5162 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  5163 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5164 
  5165 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  5166 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5167 
  5168 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  5169 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  5170 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  5171 command already provided this functionality.
  5172 
  5173 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  5174 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  5175 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  5176 without interpretations.
  5177 
  5178 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  5179 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  5180 
  5181 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  5182 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  5183 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  5184 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  5185 
  5186 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5187 'definition' instead.
  5188 
  5189 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  5190 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  5191 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  5192 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  5193 
  5194 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  5195 constructors.
  5196 
  5197 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  5198 the local file system.
  5199 
  5200 
  5201 *** HOL ***
  5202 
  5203 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  5204 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  5205 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  5206 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  5207 
  5208   declare [[coercion f]]
  5209 
  5210 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  5211 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  5212 
  5213   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  5214 
  5215 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  5216 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  5217 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  5218 other theories like this:
  5219 
  5220   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  5221 
  5222 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  5223 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  5224 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  5225 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  5226 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  5227 for examples.
  5228 
  5229 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  5230 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5231 
  5232 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  5233 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  5234 
  5235 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  5236 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  5237 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  5238 
  5239 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  5240 functorial structure of types.
  5241 
  5242 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  5243 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  5244 
  5245 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  5246 languages.
  5247 
  5248 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  5249 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  5250 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5251 
  5252 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  5253 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5254 
  5255 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  5256 combinators any longer.
  5257 
  5258 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  5259 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  5260 
  5261 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  5262 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  5263 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  5264 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  5265 
  5266   record 'a foo = ...
  5267   ...
  5268   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  5269 
  5270 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  5271 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  5272 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5273 
  5274 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  5275 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  5276 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  5277 
  5278 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  5279 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  5280 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  5281 
  5282 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  5283 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5284 
  5285 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  5286 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  5287 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  5288 independently.
  5289 
  5290 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  5291 counter example search.
  5292 
  5293 * Sledgehammer:
  5294   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  5295     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  5296     sledgehammer").
  5297   - Renamed commands:
  5298     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  5299     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  5300     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  5301     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5302   - Renamed options:
  5303     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  5304     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  5305     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  5306     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  5307     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5308 
  5309 * Nitpick:
  5310   - Renamed options:
  5311     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  5312     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  5313     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5314   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  5315   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  5316   - Added "whack" option.
  5317   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  5318   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  5319   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  5320   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  5321     higher cardinalities.
  5322   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  5323 
  5324 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  5325 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  5326 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  5327 
  5328     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  5329 
  5330 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  5331 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  5332 
  5333 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  5334 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  5335 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  5336 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  5337 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  5338 "smt_solver".
  5339 
  5340 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  5341 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  5342 
  5343 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  5344 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  5345 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  5346 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5347 
  5348 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  5349   - Renamed:
  5350     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  5351     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  5352     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5353   - Added:
  5354     smt_verbose
  5355     smt_random_seed
  5356     smt_datatypes
  5357     smt_infer_triggers
  5358     smt_monomorph_limit
  5359     cvc3_options
  5360     remote_cvc3_options
  5361     remote_z3_options
  5362     yices_options
  5363 
  5364 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  5365 header.
  5366 
  5367 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  5368 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  5369 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  5370 
  5371   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  5372 
  5373 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5374 
  5375 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  5376 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5377 
  5378 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5379 
  5380 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  5381 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5382 
  5383 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  5384 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  5385 
  5386 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  5387 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5388 
  5389 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  5390 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  5391 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5392 
  5393 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5394 
  5395 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  5396 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5397 
  5398 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  5399 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5400 
  5401 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  5402 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  5403 for congruent(2)).
  5404 
  5405 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  5406 
  5407   types
  5408     bool ~> HOL.bool
  5409     nat ~> Nat.nat
  5410 
  5411   constants
  5412     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  5413     True ~> HOL.True
  5414     False ~> HOL.False
  5415     op & ~> HOL.conj
  5416     op | ~> HOL.disj
  5417     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  5418     op = ~> HOL.eq
  5419     Not ~> HOL.Not
  5420     The ~> HOL.The
  5421     All ~> HOL.All
  5422     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  5423     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  5424     Let ~> HOL.Let
  5425     If ~> HOL.If
  5426     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  5427     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  5428     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  5429     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  5430     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  5431     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  5432     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  5433     op : ~> Set.member
  5434     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  5435 
  5436 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5437 
  5438 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  5439 
  5440     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  5441     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  5442     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  5443     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  5444     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  5445     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  5446     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  5447     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  5448 
  5449 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5450 
  5451 * More stylized fact names:
  5452 
  5453   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  5454   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  5455   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  5456   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  5457 
  5458 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5459 
  5460 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  5461 
  5462   constants
  5463     null ~> List.null
  5464 
  5465   facts
  5466     mem_iff ~> member_def
  5467     null_empty ~> null_def
  5468 
  5469 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  5470 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  5471 generation.
  5472 
  5473 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  5474 Haskell code.
  5475 
  5476 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  5477 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  5478 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5479 
  5480 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  5481 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5482 
  5483 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  5484 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  5485 
  5486 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  5487 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  5488 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5489 
  5490 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  5491 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5492 
  5493 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  5494 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5495 
  5496 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  5497 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  5498 referred to by its qualified name.
  5499 
  5500   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  5501   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  5502   product ~>  Enum.product
  5503 
  5504 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  5505 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  5506 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5507 
  5508 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  5509 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  5510 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  5511 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5512 
  5513 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  5514 sort_key.
  5515 
  5516 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  5517 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5518 
  5519 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  5520 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  5521 instead of finite cartesian products.
  5522 
  5523   types
  5524     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  5525               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  5526               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  5527         (depends on your needs)
  5528 
  5529   constants
  5530      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  5531      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  5532      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  5533 
  5534 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  5535 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  5536 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  5537 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5538 
  5539 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  5540 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  5541 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  5542 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  5543 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5544 
  5545 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  5546 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5547 
  5548 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  5549 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  5550 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  5551 
  5552 
  5553 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5554 
  5555 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  5556 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  5557 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  5558 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  5559 compatibility.
  5560 
  5561 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  5562 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  5563 
  5564 
  5565 *** HOLCF ***
  5566 
  5567 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  5568 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  5569 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  5570 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5571 
  5572 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  5573 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  5574 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5575 
  5576   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  5577   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  5578   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  5579 
  5580 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  5581 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  5582 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5583 
  5584 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  5585 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  5586 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  5587 domain definition now works:
  5588 
  5589   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  5590 
  5591 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  5592 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  5593 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  5594 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  5595 
  5596   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  5597     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  5598 
  5599   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  5600 
  5601 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  5602 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  5603 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5604 
  5605 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  5606 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5607 
  5608 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  5609 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  5610 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  5611 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  5612 
  5613 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  5614 
  5615 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5616 
  5617 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5618 
  5619 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  5620 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5621 
  5622 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  5623 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  5624 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  5625 
  5626 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  5627 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  5628 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5629 
  5630 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  5631 still supported as an input translation.
  5632 
  5633 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  5634 
  5635   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  5636   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  5637   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  5638   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  5639   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  5640   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  5641   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  5642 
  5643 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  5644 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5645 
  5646   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  5647   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  5648   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  5649   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  5650   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  5651   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  5652 
  5653 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  5654 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5655 
  5656 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  5657 
  5658   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  5659   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  5660   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  5661   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  5662 
  5663 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5664 
  5665 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  5666 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5667 
  5668 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  5669 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5670 
  5671   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  5672   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  5673   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  5674   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  5675   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  5676   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  5677   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  5678   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  5679   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  5680   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  5681   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  5682   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  5683   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  5684   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  5685   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  5686   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  5687   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  5688   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  5689   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  5690   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  5691 
  5692 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5693 
  5694   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  5695   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  5696   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  5697   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  5698   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  5699   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  5700   box_less             ~> box_below
  5701   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  5702   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  5703   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  5704   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  5705   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  5706   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  5707   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  5708   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  5709   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  5710   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  5711   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  5712   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  5713   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  5714   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  5715   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  5716   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  5717   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  5718   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  5719   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  5720   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  5721   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  5722   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  5723   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  5724   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  5725   up_less              ~> up_below
  5726   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  5727   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  5728   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  5729   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  5730   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  5731   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  5732   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  5733   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  5734   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  5735   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  5736   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  5737   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  5738   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  5739 
  5740 
  5741 *** FOL and ZF ***
  5742 
  5743 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  5744 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5745 
  5746 
  5747 *** ML ***
  5748 
  5749 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  5750 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  5751 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  5752 
  5753 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  5754 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  5755 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  5756 
  5757 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  5758 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  5759 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  5760 
  5761 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  5762 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  5763 
  5764 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  5765 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  5766 
  5767 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  5768 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  5769 
  5770 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  5771 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  5772 
  5773 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  5774 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  5775 almost all situations.
  5776 
  5777 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  5778 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  5779 Isabelle/ML.
  5780 
  5781 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  5782 meaning.
  5783 
  5784 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  5785 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  5786 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  5787 
  5788 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  5789 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  5790 
  5791 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  5792 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  5793 
  5794 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  5795 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  5796 @{thms} for most purposes.
  5797 
  5798 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  5799 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  5800 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  5801 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  5802 configuration options.
  5803 
  5804 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  5805 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  5806 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  5807 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  5808 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  5809 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  5810 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  5811 
  5812 
  5813 
  5814 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  5815 ---------------------------------
  5816 
  5817 *** General ***
  5818 
  5819 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  5820 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  5821 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  5822 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  5823 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  5824 their full internal name.
  5825 
  5826 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  5827 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  5828 Some hints on upgrading:
  5829 
  5830   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  5831     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  5832     which are independent of this issue.
  5833 
  5834   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  5835     provides the following special forms:
  5836 
  5837       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  5838       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  5839       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  5840 
  5841     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  5842     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  5843     extra variables".
  5844 
  5845     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  5846     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  5847     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  5848     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  5849     "logic".
  5850 
  5851   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  5852     antiquotations:
  5853 
  5854       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  5855       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  5856       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  5857       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  5858 
  5859   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  5860     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  5861     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  5862     antiquotations.
  5863 
  5864 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  5865 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  5866 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  5867 diagnose syntax problems.
  5868 
  5869 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  5870 
  5871 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  5872 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  5873 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  5874 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  5875 
  5876 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  5877 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  5878 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  5879 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5880 
  5881 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  5882 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  5883 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  5884 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  5885 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5886 
  5887 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  5888 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  5889 
  5890 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  5891 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  5892 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  5893 
  5894   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  5895 
  5896 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  5897 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  5898 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  5899 
  5900 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  5901 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  5902 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5903 
  5904 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  5905 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  5906 
  5907 
  5908 *** Pure ***
  5909 
  5910 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  5911 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  5912 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  5913 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  5914 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  5915 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  5916 inspect proof terms.
  5917 
  5918 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  5919 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  5920 are added internally.  For example:
  5921 
  5922   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  5923 
  5924 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  5925 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5926 
  5927 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5928 
  5929 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5930 'class' instead.
  5931 
  5932 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  5933 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  5934 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5935 
  5936 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  5937 invariants.
  5938 
  5939 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  5940 user space functionality any longer.
  5941 
  5942 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  5943 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  5944 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5945 
  5946 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  5947 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  5948 
  5949 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  5950 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  5951 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  5952 
  5953 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  5954 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  5955 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  5956 
  5957 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  5958 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5959 
  5960 
  5961 *** HOL ***
  5962 
  5963 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  5964 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  5965 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  5966 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  5967 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  5968 
  5969 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  5970 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  5971 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  5972 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  5973 
  5974   fun
  5975     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  5976   where
  5977     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  5978 
  5979   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  5980     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  5981 
  5982   quotient_definition
  5983     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  5984 
  5985 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  5986 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  5987 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  5988 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  5989 
  5990 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  5991 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  5992 
  5993 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  5994 separate HOL-SMT session.
  5995 
  5996 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  5997 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5998 
  5999 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  6000 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  6001 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  6002 
  6003 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  6004 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6005 
  6006 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  6007 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6008 
  6009 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  6010 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6011 
  6012 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  6013 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6014 
  6015 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  6016 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  6017 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6018 
  6019   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  6020   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  6021   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  6022   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  6023   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  6024   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  6025   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  6026   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  6027   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  6028   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  6029   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  6030   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  6031   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  6032   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  6033   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  6034   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  6035   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  6036   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  6037   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  6038   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  6039   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  6040   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  6041   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  6042   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  6043   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  6044   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  6045   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  6046   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  6047   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  6048   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  6049 
  6050 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  6051 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  6052 
  6053 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  6054 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  6055 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6056 
  6057 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  6058 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  6059 
  6060 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  6061 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6062 
  6063 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  6064 
  6065 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  6066 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6067 
  6068 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  6069 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6070 
  6071 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6072 
  6073 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  6074 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  6075 
  6076 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  6077 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  6078 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  6079 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6080 
  6081 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  6082   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  6083   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  6084   - inverse, divide: Rings
  6085 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6086 
  6087 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  6088 lattices):
  6089 
  6090     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  6091     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  6092 
  6093     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  6094 
  6095     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  6096     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  6097     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  6098     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  6099     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  6100     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  6101     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  6102     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  6103     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  6104     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  6105     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  6106     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  6107     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  6108 
  6109     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  6110     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  6111     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  6112     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  6113     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  6114     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  6115     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  6116     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  6117     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  6118     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  6119     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  6120     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  6121     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  6122     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  6123     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  6124     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  6125     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  6126     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  6127 
  6128   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  6129   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  6130 
  6131     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  6132     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  6133     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  6134     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  6135     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  6136 
  6137 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6138 
  6139 * Refined field classes:
  6140   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  6141     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  6142     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  6143   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  6144 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6145 
  6146 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  6147   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  6148   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  6149   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  6150     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  6151   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  6152     equal_neg_zero.
  6153 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6154 
  6155 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  6156 sets to lattices:
  6157 
  6158   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  6159   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  6160   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  6161   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  6162   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  6163   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  6164   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  6165   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  6166   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  6167   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  6168 
  6169 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  6170 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  6171 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  6172 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  6173 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  6174 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6175 
  6176 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  6177 multiset order:
  6178 
  6179   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  6180     <= and <;
  6181   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  6182     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  6183     multiset_order;
  6184   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  6185     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  6186     generation;
  6187   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  6188     if needed.
  6189 
  6190 Renamed:
  6191 
  6192   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  6193   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  6194   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  6195 
  6196 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6197 
  6198 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  6199 
  6200 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  6201 
  6202 * Theory List: added transpose.
  6203 
  6204 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  6205 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  6206 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6207 
  6208   Constants:
  6209   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  6210   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  6211   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  6212   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  6213   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  6214   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  6215   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  6216   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  6217   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  6218   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  6219   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  6220   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  6221   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  6222 
  6223   Lemmas:
  6224   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  6225   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  6226   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  6227   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  6228   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  6229   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  6230   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  6231   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  6232   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  6233   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  6234   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  6235   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  6236   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  6237 
  6238 * Sledgehammer:
  6239   - Renamed ATP commands:
  6240     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  6241     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  6242     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  6243     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  6244     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  6245     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6246   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  6247   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  6248     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  6249   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  6250     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  6251     is still experimental.)
  6252   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  6253     full-typed mode.
  6254   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  6255 
  6256 * Nitpick:
  6257   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  6258   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  6259   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  6260     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  6261   - Added support for quotient types.
  6262   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  6263     constructs.
  6264   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  6265     "termination" proofs).
  6266   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  6267   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  6268   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  6269   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  6270     record getters.
  6271   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  6272   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  6273   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  6274   - Added "atoms" option.