NEWS
author huffman
Sat Aug 20 06:35:43 2011 -0700 (2011-08-20)
changeset 44343 e5294bcf58a4
parent 44322 43b465f4c480
child 44522 2f7e9d890efe
permissions -rw-r--r--
merged
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
    10 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
    11 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
    12 
    13 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
    14 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
    15 usedir option -Q.
    16 
    17 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
    18 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
    19 
    20 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
    21 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
    22 
    23 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
    24 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
    25 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
    26 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
    27 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
    28 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    29 
    30 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
    31 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
    32 
    33   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
    34   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
    35   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
    36   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
    37   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
    38 
    39 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
    40 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    41 
    42 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
    43 configuration options, with more conventional names:
    44 
    45   long_names   ~> names_long
    46   short_names  ~> names_short
    47   unique_names ~> names_unique
    48 
    49 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
    50 
    51   declare [[names_unique = false]]
    52 
    53 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
    54 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
    55 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
    56 
    57 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual provides more formal references in
    58 syntax diagrams.
    59 
    60 * Attribute case_names has been refined: the assumptions in each case can
    61 be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
    62 
    63 
    64 *** HOL ***
    65 
    66 * Classes bot and top require underlying partial order rather than preorder:
    67 uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    68 
    69 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
    70 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for complete
    71 boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas Inf_less_iff,
    72 less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in class complete_linorder.
    73 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def,
    74 Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
    75 Redundant lemmas Inf_singleton, Sup_singleton, Inf_binary, Sup_binary,
    76 INF_eq, SUP_eq, INF_UNIV_range, SUP_UNIV_range, Int_eq_Inter,
    77 INTER_eq_Inter_image, Inter_def, INT_eq, Un_eq_Union, UNION_eq_Union_image,
    78 Union_def, UN_singleton, UN_eq have been discarded.
    79 More consistent and less misunderstandable names:
    80   INFI_def ~> INF_def
    81   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
    82   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
    83   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
    84   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
    85   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
    86   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
    87   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
    88   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
    89   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
    90   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
    91   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
    92   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
    93   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
    94 
    95 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    96 
    97 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems referring
    98 to UNION any longer;  these have been moved to collection UN_ball_bex_simps.
    99 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   100 
   101 * Archimedean_Field.thy:
   102     floor now is defined as parameter of a separate type class floor_ceiling.
   103  
   104 * Finite_Set.thy: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
   105 
   106     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
   107     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
   108     
   109 Both use point-free characterisation; interpretation proofs may need adjustment.
   110 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   111 
   112 * Code generation:
   113   - theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of characters
   114     in the target language.
   115   - commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code instead. 
   116   - method evaluation is legacy, use method eval instead.
   117   - legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default. To activate it, add the following
   118     line in your theory:
   119       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
   120  
   121 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   122 
   123 * Nitpick:
   124   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
   125   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
   126   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
   127     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   128 
   129 * Sledgehammer:
   130   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
   131     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   132   - Added support for SNARK and ToFoF-E on SystemOnTPTP and for simply typed
   133     TPTP problems (TFF).
   134   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound", "max_mono_iters",
   135     and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
   136   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full Types"
   137     Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   138 
   139 * Metis:
   140   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   141   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   142 
   143 * "try":
   144   - Renamed "try_methods" and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and "elim:"
   145     options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   146   - Introduced "try" that not only runs "try_methods" but also "solve_direct",
   147     "sledgehammer", "quickcheck", and "nitpick".
   148 
   149 * Quickcheck:
   150   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
   151     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester)
   152   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
   153     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester)
   154   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
   155     narrowing-based testing.
   156     It requires that the Glasgow Haskell compiler is installed and
   157     its location is known to Isabelle with the environment variable
   158     ISABELLE_GHC.
   159   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
   160     from HOL-Library
   161 
   162 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".
   163 INCOMPATIBILITY. Use partial_function instead.
   164 
   165 * HOL-Probability:
   166   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
   167   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
   168   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended reals.
   169     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   170 
   171 * Old recdef package has been moved to Library/Old_Recdef.thy, where it
   172 must be loaded explicitly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   173 
   174 * Well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has been moved to
   175 Library/Wfrec.thy. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   176 
   177 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to Library/Extended_Nat.
   178 The names of the following types and constants have changed:
   179   inat (type) ~> enat
   180   Fin         ~> enat
   181   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
   182   iSuc        ~> eSuc
   183   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
   184 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
   185 been renamed accordingly.
   186 
   187 * Limits.thy: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
   188 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   189 
   190 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
   191 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
   192 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
   193 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
   194 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
   195 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
   196 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
   197 
   198   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
   199   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
   200   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
   201   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
   202 
   203 * Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the bounded_linear and
   204 bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in order to reduce the
   205 number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the original names for
   206 distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   207 
   208   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
   209   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
   210   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
   211   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
   212   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
   213   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
   214   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
   215 
   216 
   217 *** Document preparation ***
   218 
   219 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators, which are better
   220 avoided in the first place.  Implicit tab-width is 1.
   221 
   222 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
   223 isar-ref manual.
   224 
   225 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its result.
   226 
   227 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
   228 like this:
   229 
   230   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
   231   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
   232 
   233 * New term style "isub" as ad-hoc conversion of variables x1, y23 into
   234 subscripted form x\<^isub>1, y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
   235 
   236 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
   237 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
   238 
   239 
   240 *** ML ***
   241 
   242 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
   243 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
   244 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
   245 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
   246 under external program control.
   247 
   248 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
   249 data, which requires explicit setup.
   250 
   251 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
   252 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
   253 (better known as Proof General).
   254 
   255 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
   256 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
   257 
   258 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
   259 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
   260 
   261 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
   262 (including quotes etc.).
   263 
   264 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
   265 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
   266 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
   267 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
   268 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
   269 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
   270 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
   271 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
   272 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
   273 
   274 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
   275 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
   276 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
   277 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
   278 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
   279 
   280 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
   281 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
   282 
   283 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
   284 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
   285 
   286 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
   287 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
   288 
   289 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
   290 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
   291 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
   292 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
   293 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
   294 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
   295 proper Proof.context.
   296 
   297 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
   298 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.
   299 For example:
   300 
   301   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
   302 
   303 
   304 
   305 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
   306 ----------------------------------
   307 
   308 *** General ***
   309 
   310 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
   311 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
   312 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
   313 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
   314 like this:
   315 
   316   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
   317 
   318 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
   319 
   320 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
   321 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
   322 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
   323 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
   324 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
   325 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
   326 
   327 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
   328 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
   329 the following package declarations:
   330 
   331   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
   332   \usepackage{textcomp}
   333 
   334 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
   335 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
   336 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
   337 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
   338 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
   339 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
   340 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
   341 
   342 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
   343 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
   344 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
   345 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
   346 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
   347 
   348 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
   349 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
   350 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
   351 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
   352 
   353 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
   354 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
   355 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
   356 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
   357 
   358   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
   359 
   360   eta_contract                  eta_contract
   361   show_brackets                 show_brackets
   362   show_sorts                    show_sorts
   363   show_types                    show_types
   364   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
   365   show_consts                   show_consts
   366   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
   367 
   368   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
   369   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
   370   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
   371 
   372   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
   373   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
   374 
   375   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
   376 
   377   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
   378   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
   379   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
   380   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
   381   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
   382 
   383 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
   384 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
   385 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
   386 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
   387 
   388 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
   389 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   390 
   391   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
   392   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
   393 
   394 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
   395 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
   396 float_token.
   397 
   398 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
   399 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
   400 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   401 
   402 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
   403 DejaVu Sans.
   404 
   405 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
   406 
   407 
   408 *** Pure ***
   409 
   410 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
   411 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
   412 time.
   413 
   414 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
   415 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   416 
   417 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
   418 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   419 
   420 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
   421 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
   422 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
   423 command already provided this functionality.
   424 
   425 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
   426 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
   427 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
   428 without interpretations.
   429 
   430 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
   431 in addition to interpretations in theories.
   432 
   433 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
   434 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
   435 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
   436 feature is still required for historical reasons.
   437 
   438 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
   439 'definition' instead.
   440 
   441 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
   442 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
   443 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
   444 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
   445 
   446 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
   447 constructors.
   448 
   449 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
   450 the local file system.
   451 
   452 
   453 *** HOL ***
   454 
   455 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
   456 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
   457 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
   458 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
   459 
   460   declare [[coercion f]]
   461 
   462 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
   463 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
   464 
   465   declare [[coercion_map map]]
   466 
   467 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
   468 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
   469 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
   470 other theories like this:
   471 
   472   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
   473 
   474 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
   475 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
   476 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
   477 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
   478 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
   479 for examples.
   480 
   481 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
   482 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   483 
   484 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
   485 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
   486 
   487 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
   488 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
   489 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
   490 
   491 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
   492 functorial structure of types.
   493 
   494 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
   495 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
   496 
   497 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
   498 languages.
   499 
   500 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
   501 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
   502 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   503 
   504 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
   505 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   506 
   507 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
   508 combinators any longer.
   509 
   510 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
   511 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
   512 
   513 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
   514 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
   515 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
   516 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
   517 
   518   record 'a foo = ...
   519   ...
   520   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
   521 
   522 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
   523 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
   524 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   525 
   526 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
   527 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
   528 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
   529 
   530 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
   531 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
   532 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
   533 
   534 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
   535 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   536 
   537 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
   538 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
   539 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
   540 independently.
   541 
   542 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
   543 counter example search.
   544 
   545 * Sledgehammer:
   546   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
   547     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
   548     sledgehammer").
   549   - Renamed commands:
   550     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
   551     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
   552     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
   553     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   554   - Renamed options:
   555     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
   556     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
   557     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
   558     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
   559     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   560 
   561 * Nitpick:
   562   - Renamed options:
   563     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
   564     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
   565     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   566   - Added support for partial quotient types.
   567   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
   568   - Added "whack" option.
   569   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
   570   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
   571   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
   572   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
   573     higher cardinalities.
   574   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
   575 
   576 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
   577 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
   578 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
   579 
   580     using [[metis_trace = true]]
   581 
   582 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
   583 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
   584 
   585 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
   586 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
   587 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
   588 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
   589 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
   590 "smt_solver".
   591 
   592 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
   593 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
   594 
   595 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
   596 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
   597 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
   598 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   599 
   600 * Changed SMT configuration options:
   601   - Renamed:
   602     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
   603     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
   604     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   605   - Added:
   606     smt_verbose
   607     smt_random_seed
   608     smt_datatypes
   609     smt_infer_triggers
   610     smt_monomorph_limit
   611     cvc3_options
   612     remote_cvc3_options
   613     remote_z3_options
   614     yices_options
   615 
   616 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
   617 header.
   618 
   619 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
   620 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
   621 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
   622 
   623   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
   624 
   625 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   626 
   627 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
   628 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   629 
   630 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   631 
   632 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
   633 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   634 
   635 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
   636 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
   637 
   638 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
   639 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   640 
   641 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
   642 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
   643 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   644 
   645 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   646 
   647 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
   648 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   649 
   650 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
   651 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   652 
   653 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
   654 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
   655 for congruent(2)).
   656 
   657 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
   658 
   659   types
   660     bool ~> HOL.bool
   661     nat ~> Nat.nat
   662 
   663   constants
   664     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
   665     True ~> HOL.True
   666     False ~> HOL.False
   667     op & ~> HOL.conj
   668     op | ~> HOL.disj
   669     op --> ~> HOL.implies
   670     op = ~> HOL.eq
   671     Not ~> HOL.Not
   672     The ~> HOL.The
   673     All ~> HOL.All
   674     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
   675     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
   676     Let ~> HOL.Let
   677     If ~> HOL.If
   678     Ball ~> Set.Ball
   679     Bex ~> Set.Bex
   680     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
   681     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
   682     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
   683     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
   684     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
   685     op : ~> Set.member
   686     Collect ~> Set.Collect
   687 
   688 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   689 
   690 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
   691 
   692     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
   693     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
   694     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
   695     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
   696     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
   697     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
   698     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
   699     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
   700 
   701 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   702 
   703 * More stylized fact names:
   704 
   705   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
   706   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
   707   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
   708   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
   709 
   710 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   711 
   712 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
   713 
   714   constants
   715     null ~> List.null
   716 
   717   facts
   718     mem_iff ~> member_def
   719     null_empty ~> null_def
   720 
   721 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
   722 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
   723 generation.
   724 
   725 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
   726 Haskell code.
   727 
   728 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
   729 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
   730 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   731 
   732 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
   733 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   734 
   735 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
   736 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
   737 
   738 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
   739 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
   740 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   741 
   742 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
   743 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   744 
   745 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
   746 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   747 
   748 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
   749 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
   750 referred to by its qualified name.
   751 
   752   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
   753   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
   754   product ~>  Enum.product
   755 
   756 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
   757 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
   758 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   759 
   760 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
   761 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
   762 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
   763 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   764 
   765 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
   766 sort_key.
   767 
   768 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
   769 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   770 
   771 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
   772 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
   773 instead of finite cartesian products.
   774 
   775   types
   776     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
   777               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
   778               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
   779         (depends on your needs)
   780 
   781   constants
   782      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
   783      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
   784      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
   785 
   786 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
   787 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
   788 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
   789 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   790 
   791 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
   792 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
   793 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
   794 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
   795 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   796 
   797 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
   798 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   799 
   800 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
   801 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
   802 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
   803 
   804 
   805 *** HOL-Algebra ***
   806 
   807 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
   808 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
   809 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
   810 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
   811 compatibility.
   812 
   813 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
   814 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
   815 
   816 
   817 *** HOLCF ***
   818 
   819 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
   820 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
   821 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
   822 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   823 
   824 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
   825 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
   826 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   827 
   828   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
   829   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
   830   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
   831 
   832 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
   833 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
   834 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   835 
   836 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
   837 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
   838 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
   839 domain definition now works:
   840 
   841   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
   842 
   843 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
   844 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
   845 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
   846 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
   847 
   848   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
   849     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
   850 
   851   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
   852 
   853 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
   854 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
   855 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   856 
   857 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
   858 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   859 
   860 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
   861 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
   862 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
   863 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
   864 
   865 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
   866 
   867 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   868 
   869 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   870 
   871 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
   872 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   873 
   874 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
   875 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
   876 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
   877 
   878 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
   879 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
   880 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   881 
   882 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
   883 still supported as an input translation.
   884 
   885 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
   886 
   887   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
   888   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
   889   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
   890   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
   891   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
   892   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
   893   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
   894 
   895 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
   896 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   897 
   898   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
   899   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
   900   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
   901   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
   902   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
   903   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
   904 
   905 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
   906 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   907 
   908 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
   909 
   910   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
   911   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
   912   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
   913   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
   914 
   915 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   916 
   917 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
   918 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   919 
   920 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
   921 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   922 
   923   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
   924   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
   925   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
   926   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
   927   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
   928   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
   929   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
   930   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
   931   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
   932   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
   933   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
   934   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
   935   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
   936   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
   937   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
   938   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
   939   UU_I            ~> bottomI
   940   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
   941   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
   942   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
   943 
   944 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   945 
   946   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
   947   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
   948   refl_less            ~> below_refl
   949   trans_less           ~> below_trans
   950   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
   951   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
   952   box_less             ~> box_below
   953   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
   954   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
   955   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
   956   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
   957   adm_less             ~> adm_below
   958   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
   959   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
   960   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
   961   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
   962   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
   963   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
   964   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
   965   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
   966   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
   967   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
   968   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
   969   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
   970   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
   971   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
   972   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
   973   injection_less       ~> injection_below
   974   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
   975   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
   976   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
   977   up_less              ~> up_below
   978   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
   979   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
   980   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
   981   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
   982   spair_less           ~> spair_below
   983   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
   984   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
   985   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
   986   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
   987   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
   988   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
   989   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
   990   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
   991 
   992 
   993 *** FOL and ZF ***
   994 
   995 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
   996 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   997 
   998 
   999 *** ML ***
  1000 
  1001 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  1002 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  1003 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  1004 
  1005 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  1006 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  1007 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  1008 
  1009 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  1010 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  1011 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  1012 
  1013 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  1014 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  1015 
  1016 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  1017 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  1018 
  1019 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  1020 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  1021 
  1022 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  1023 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  1024 
  1025 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  1026 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  1027 almost all situations.
  1028 
  1029 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  1030 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  1031 Isabelle/ML.
  1032 
  1033 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  1034 meaning.
  1035 
  1036 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  1037 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  1038 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  1039 
  1040 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  1041 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  1042 
  1043 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  1044 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  1045 
  1046 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  1047 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  1048 @{thms} for most purposes.
  1049 
  1050 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  1051 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  1052 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  1053 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  1054 configuration options.
  1055 
  1056 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  1057 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  1058 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  1059 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  1060 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  1061 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  1062 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  1063 
  1064 
  1065 
  1066 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  1067 ---------------------------------
  1068 
  1069 *** General ***
  1070 
  1071 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  1072 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  1073 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  1074 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  1075 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  1076 their full internal name.
  1077 
  1078 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  1079 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  1080 Some hints on upgrading:
  1081 
  1082   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  1083     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  1084     which are independent of this issue.
  1085 
  1086   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  1087     provides the following special forms:
  1088 
  1089       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  1090       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  1091       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  1092 
  1093     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  1094     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  1095     extra variables".
  1096 
  1097     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  1098     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  1099     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  1100     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  1101     "logic".
  1102 
  1103   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  1104     antiquotations:
  1105 
  1106       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  1107       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  1108       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  1109       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  1110 
  1111   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  1112     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  1113     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  1114     antiquotations.
  1115 
  1116 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  1117 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  1118 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  1119 diagnose syntax problems.
  1120 
  1121 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  1122 
  1123 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  1124 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  1125 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  1126 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  1127 
  1128 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  1129 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  1130 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  1131 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1132 
  1133 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  1134 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  1135 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  1136 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  1137 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1138 
  1139 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  1140 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  1141 
  1142 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  1143 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  1144 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  1145 
  1146   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  1147 
  1148 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  1149 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  1150 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  1151 
  1152 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  1153 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  1154 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1155 
  1156 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  1157 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  1158 
  1159 
  1160 *** Pure ***
  1161 
  1162 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  1163 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  1164 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  1165 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  1166 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  1167 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  1168 inspect proof terms.
  1169 
  1170 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  1171 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  1172 are added internally.  For example:
  1173 
  1174   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  1175 
  1176 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  1177 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1178 
  1179 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1180 
  1181 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  1182 'class' instead.
  1183 
  1184 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  1185 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  1186 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1187 
  1188 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  1189 invariants.
  1190 
  1191 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  1192 user space functionality any longer.
  1193 
  1194 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  1195 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  1196 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1197 
  1198 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  1199 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  1200 
  1201 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  1202 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  1203 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  1204 
  1205 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  1206 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  1207 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  1208 
  1209 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  1210 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1211 
  1212 
  1213 *** HOL ***
  1214 
  1215 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  1216 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  1217 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  1218 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  1219 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  1220 
  1221 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  1222 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  1223 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  1224 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  1225 
  1226   fun
  1227     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  1228   where
  1229     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  1230 
  1231   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  1232     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  1233 
  1234   quotient_definition
  1235     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  1236 
  1237 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  1238 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  1239 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  1240 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  1241 
  1242 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  1243 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  1244 
  1245 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  1246 separate HOL-SMT session.
  1247 
  1248 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  1249 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1250 
  1251 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  1252 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  1253 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  1254 
  1255 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  1256 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1257 
  1258 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  1259 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1260 
  1261 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  1262 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1263 
  1264 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  1265 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1266 
  1267 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  1268 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  1269 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1270 
  1271   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  1272   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  1273   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  1274   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  1275   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  1276   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  1277   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  1278   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  1279   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  1280   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  1281   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  1282   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  1283   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  1284   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  1285   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  1286   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  1287   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  1288   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  1289   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  1290   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  1291   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  1292   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  1293   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  1294   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  1295   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  1296   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  1297   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  1298   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  1299   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  1300   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  1301 
  1302 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  1303 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  1304 
  1305 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  1306 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  1307 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  1308 
  1309 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  1310 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  1311 
  1312 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  1313 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1314 
  1315 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  1316 
  1317 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  1318 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1319 
  1320 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  1321 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1322 
  1323 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1324 
  1325 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  1326 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  1327 
  1328 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  1329 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  1330 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  1331 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1332 
  1333 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  1334   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  1335   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  1336   - inverse, divide: Rings
  1337 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1338 
  1339 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  1340 lattices):
  1341 
  1342     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  1343     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  1344 
  1345     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  1346 
  1347     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  1348     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  1349     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  1350     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  1351     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  1352     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  1353     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  1354     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  1355     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  1356     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  1357     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  1358     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  1359     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  1360 
  1361     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  1362     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  1363     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  1364     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  1365     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  1366     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  1367     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  1368     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  1369     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  1370     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  1371     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  1372     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  1373     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  1374     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  1375     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  1376     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  1377     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  1378     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  1379 
  1380   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  1381   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  1382 
  1383     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  1384     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  1385     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  1386     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  1387     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  1388 
  1389 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1390 
  1391 * Refined field classes:
  1392   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  1393     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  1394     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  1395   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  1396 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1397 
  1398 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  1399   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  1400   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  1401   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  1402     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  1403   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  1404     equal_neg_zero.
  1405 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1406 
  1407 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  1408 sets to lattices:
  1409 
  1410   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  1411   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  1412   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  1413   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  1414   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  1415   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  1416   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  1417   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  1418   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  1419   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  1420 
  1421 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  1422 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  1423 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  1424 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  1425 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  1426 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1427 
  1428 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  1429 multiset order:
  1430 
  1431   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  1432     <= and <;
  1433   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  1434     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  1435     multiset_order;
  1436   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  1437     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  1438     generation;
  1439   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  1440     if needed.
  1441 
  1442 Renamed:
  1443 
  1444   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  1445   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  1446   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  1447 
  1448 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1449 
  1450 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  1451 
  1452 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  1453 
  1454 * Theory List: added transpose.
  1455 
  1456 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  1457 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  1458 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1459 
  1460   Constants:
  1461   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  1462   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  1463   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  1464   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  1465   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  1466   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  1467   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  1468   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  1469   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  1470   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  1471   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  1472   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  1473   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  1474 
  1475   Lemmas:
  1476   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  1477   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  1478   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  1479   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  1480   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  1481   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  1482   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  1483   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  1484   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  1485   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  1486   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  1487   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  1488   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  1489 
  1490 * Sledgehammer:
  1491   - Renamed ATP commands:
  1492     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  1493     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  1494     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  1495     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  1496     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  1497     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1498   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  1499   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  1500     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  1501   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  1502     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  1503     is still experimental.)
  1504   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  1505     full-typed mode.
  1506   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  1507 
  1508 * Nitpick:
  1509   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  1510   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  1511   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  1512     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  1513   - Added support for quotient types.
  1514   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  1515     constructs.
  1516   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  1517     "termination" proofs).
  1518   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  1519   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  1520   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  1521   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  1522     record getters.
  1523   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  1524   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  1525   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  1526   - Added "atoms" option.
  1527   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  1528     problems.
  1529   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  1530     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  1531     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1532   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  1533     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1534   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1535 
  1536 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  1537   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  1538   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  1539   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  1540   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  1541   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  1542   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  1543   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  1544   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  1545   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1546 
  1547 
  1548 *** HOLCF ***
  1549 
  1550 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  1551 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  1552 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1553 
  1554 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  1555 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  1556 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  1557 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1558 
  1559 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  1560 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  1561 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  1562 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  1563 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1564 
  1565 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  1566 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  1567 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1568 
  1569 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  1570 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1571 
  1572   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  1573   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  1574 
  1575 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  1576 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1577 
  1578   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  1579   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  1580   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  1581   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  1582   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  1583 
  1584 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  1585 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1586 
  1587   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  1588   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  1589   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  1590 
  1591 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  1592 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  1593 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1594 
  1595 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  1596 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1597 
  1598 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1599 
  1600 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  1601 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1602 
  1603 
  1604 *** ML ***
  1605 
  1606 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  1607 
  1608     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  1609     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  1610 
  1611     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  1612     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  1613     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  1614     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  1615 
  1616     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  1617     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  1618     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  1619 
  1620 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  1621 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  1622 
  1623 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  1624 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  1625 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  1626 
  1627 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  1628 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  1629 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  1630 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  1631 
  1632 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  1633 the context or even global references.
  1634 
  1635 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  1636 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  1637 
  1638 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  1639 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  1640 
  1641   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  1642   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  1643   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  1644   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  1645   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  1646   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  1647   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  1648   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  1649   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  1650   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  1651 
  1652 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  1653 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  1654 
  1655 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  1656 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  1657 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  1658 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  1659 pass the proper local context through the code!
  1660 
  1661 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  1662 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  1663 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  1664 Theory_Data version.
  1665 
  1666 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  1667 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  1668 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  1669 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  1670 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  1671 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  1672 explicitly in rare situations.
  1673 
  1674 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  1675 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  1676 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1677 
  1678 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  1679 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1680 
  1681 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  1682 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  1683 quite rare).
  1684 
  1685 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  1686 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1687 
  1688 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  1689 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  1690 terms.
  1691 
  1692 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  1693 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  1694 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  1695 
  1696 
  1697 *** System ***
  1698 
  1699 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  1700 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  1701 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  1702 
  1703 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  1704 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  1705 respectively.
  1706 
  1707 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  1708 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  1709 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  1710 prefers 64 bit if available:
  1711 
  1712   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  1713 
  1714 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  1715 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  1716 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  1717 component.
  1718 
  1719 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  1720 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  1721 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  1722 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  1723 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  1724 the user for manual installation.
  1725 
  1726 
  1727 
  1728 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  1729 -------------------------------------
  1730 
  1731 *** General ***
  1732 
  1733 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  1734 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  1735 
  1736 
  1737 *** Pure ***
  1738 
  1739 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  1740 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  1741 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  1742 
  1743 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  1744 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  1745 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  1746 
  1747 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  1748 interpretation.
  1749 
  1750 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  1751 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1752 
  1753 
  1754 *** Document preparation ***
  1755 
  1756 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  1757 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  1758 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  1759 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  1760 
  1761 
  1762 *** HOL ***
  1763 
  1764 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  1765 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  1766 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  1767 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  1768 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  1769 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  1770 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  1771 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  1772 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  1773 
  1774 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  1775 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  1776 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  1777 
  1778 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  1779 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  1780 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  1781 
  1782 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  1783 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  1784 
  1785 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  1786 
  1787 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  1788 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  1789 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  1790 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  1791 
  1792 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  1793 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  1794 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  1795 "mirabelle" utility.
  1796 
  1797 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  1798 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  1799 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  1800 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  1801 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  1802 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  1803 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  1804 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  1805 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  1806 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  1807 
  1808 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  1809 procedure only.
  1810 
  1811 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  1812 
  1813 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  1814 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  1815 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  1816 that fail later.
  1817 
  1818 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  1819 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  1820 
  1821 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  1822 the same method as the approximation method.
  1823 
  1824 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  1825 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  1826 series expansion.
  1827 
  1828 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  1829 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  1830 
  1831 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  1832 reals.
  1833 
  1834 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  1835 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  1836 
  1837 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  1838 fixpoint theorem.
  1839 
  1840 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  1841   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  1842     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  1843   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  1844     accordingly
  1845   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  1846     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  1847   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  1848     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  1849 
  1850 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  1851 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  1852 lattice.
  1853 
  1854 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  1855 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  1856 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  1857 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  1858 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  1859 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  1860 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1861 
  1862 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  1863   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  1864     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  1865   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  1866     le_inf_iff
  1867   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  1868     sup_aci)
  1869   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  1870   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  1871   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  1872     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  1873     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  1874     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  1875     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  1876     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  1877     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  1878     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  1879     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  1880     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  1881     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  1882   - authentic syntax for
  1883     Set.Pow
  1884     Set.image
  1885   - mere abbreviations:
  1886     Set.empty               (for bot)
  1887     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  1888     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  1889     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  1890     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  1891     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  1892     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  1893     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  1894   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  1895 
  1896 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  1897 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  1898 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  1899 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  1900 
  1901 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  1902 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  1903 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1904 
  1905 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  1906 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1907 
  1908 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  1909 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  1910 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  1911 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1912 
  1913 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  1914 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1915 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  1916 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  1917 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  1918 
  1919 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  1920 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  1921 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1922 
  1923 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  1924 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1925 
  1926 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  1927 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  1928 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  1929 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  1930 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  1931 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  1932 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  1933 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1934 
  1935 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  1936     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  1937     code_post       replaces    code post
  1938     etc.
  1939   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1940 
  1941 * Renamed methods:
  1942     sizechange -> size_change
  1943     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  1944   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1945 
  1946 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  1947 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  1948 
  1949 * Renamed theorems:
  1950     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  1951     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  1952     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  1953     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  1954     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  1955   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1956 
  1957 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  1958 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1959 
  1960 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  1961 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1962 
  1963 
  1964 *** HOLCF ***
  1965 
  1966 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  1967 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  1968 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  1969 
  1970 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  1971 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  1972 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  1973 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  1974 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  1975 
  1976 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  1977 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  1978 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  1979 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  1980 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  1981 
  1982 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  1983 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  1984 constructor are pre-configured.
  1985 
  1986 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  1987 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  1988 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  1989 
  1990 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  1991 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  1992 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  1993 as well.)
  1994 
  1995 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  1996 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  1997 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  1998 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  1999 examples.
  2000 
  2001 
  2002 *** ML ***
  2003 
  2004 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  2005 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  2006 
  2007 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  2008 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  2009 position, logical grouping etc.
  2010 
  2011 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  2012 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  2013 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  2014 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  2015 
  2016 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  2017 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  2018 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  2019 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  2020 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  2021 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  2022 
  2023 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  2024 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  2025 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  2026 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  2027 experiments with references.
  2028 
  2029 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  2030 parallel tactical reasoning.
  2031 
  2032 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  2033 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  2034 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  2035 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  2036 
  2037 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  2038 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  2039 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  2040 
  2041 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  2042 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  2043 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2044 
  2045 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2046 
  2047 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  2048 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2049 
  2050 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  2051 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  2052 
  2053 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  2054 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  2055 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  2056 
  2057 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  2058 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  2059 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2060 
  2061 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  2062 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  2063 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  2064 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2065 
  2066 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2067 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  2068 instead of global theory.
  2069 
  2070 
  2071 *** System ***
  2072 
  2073 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  2074 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  2075 usedir option -q.
  2076 
  2077 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  2078 also the system manual.
  2079 
  2080 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  2081 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  2082 
  2083 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  2084 this is always enabled.
  2085 
  2086 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  2087 
  2088 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  2089 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  2090 currently supported on Linux only.
  2091 
  2092 
  2093 
  2094 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  2095 --------------------------------
  2096 
  2097 *** General ***
  2098 
  2099 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  2100 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  2101 
  2102   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  2103     "isatool."
  2104 
  2105   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  2106     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  2107 
  2108   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  2109     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  2110 
  2111 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  2112 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  2113 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  2114 
  2115 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  2116 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  2117 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  2118 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  2119 via "isabelle emacs".
  2120 
  2121 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  2122 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  2123 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  2124 
  2125 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  2126 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  2127 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  2128 
  2129 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  2130 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  2131 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  2132 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  2133 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  2134 
  2135 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  2136 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  2137 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  2138 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  2139 
  2140 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  2141 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  2142 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  2143 
  2144 
  2145 *** Pure ***
  2146 
  2147 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  2148 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  2149 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  2150 
  2151 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  2152 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  2153 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  2154 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  2155 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  2156 
  2157 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  2158 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  2159 useful in locale declarations.
  2160 
  2161 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  2162 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  2163 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  2164 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  2165 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  2166 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  2167 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  2168 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  2169 no longer generated.
  2170 
  2171 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  2172 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  2173 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  2174 
  2175 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  2176 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  2177 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  2178 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  2179 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  2180 
  2181 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2182 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  2183 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  2184 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  2185 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  2186 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  2187 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  2188 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  2189 
  2190 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  2191 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  2192 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  2193 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  2194 
  2195 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2196 
  2197 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  2198 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  2199 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  2200 
  2201 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  2202 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2203 
  2204 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  2205 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  2206 in HOL, write
  2207 
  2208     class foo = ...
  2209 
  2210 instead of
  2211 
  2212     class foo = type + ...
  2213 
  2214 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  2215 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2216 
  2217 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  2218 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  2219 
  2220 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  2221 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  2222 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  2223 
  2224 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  2225 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  2226 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  2227 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  2228 directly in regular applications.
  2229 
  2230 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  2231 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  2232 
  2233 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  2234 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  2235 
  2236 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  2237 theory context.
  2238 
  2239 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  2240 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2241 
  2242 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  2243 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  2244 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  2245 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  2246 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  2247 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  2248 
  2249   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  2250 
  2251 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  2252 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  2253 normalization.
  2254 
  2255 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  2256 addressing etc.
  2257 
  2258 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  2259 
  2260   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  2261   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  2262 
  2263 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2264 
  2265   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  2266      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  2267      parts of the code generator framework).
  2268 
  2269   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  2270      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  2271      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  2272 
  2273 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2274 
  2275 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  2276 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2277 
  2278 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  2279 patterns, e.g.
  2280 
  2281     find_consts "_ => bool"
  2282 
  2283 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  2284 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  2285 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  2286 hyphen:
  2287 
  2288     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  2289 
  2290 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  2291 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  2292 
  2293 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  2294 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  2295 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  2296 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  2297 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  2298 higher-order unification.
  2299 
  2300 
  2301 *** Document preparation ***
  2302 
  2303 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  2304 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  2305 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  2306 
  2307 
  2308 *** HOL ***
  2309 
  2310 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  2311 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  2312 
  2313 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  2314 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  2315 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  2316 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  2317 Main, as before.
  2318 
  2319 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  2320 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  2321 
  2322 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  2323 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  2324 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  2325 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  2326 
  2327 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  2328 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  2329 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  2330 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  2331 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  2332 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  2333 
  2334 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  2335 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  2336 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  2337 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  2338 
  2339 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  2340 menu.
  2341 
  2342 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  2343 (contains the empty clause).
  2344 
  2345 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  2346 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  2347 
  2348 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  2349 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  2350 
  2351 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  2352 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  2353 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2354 
  2355 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  2356 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  2357 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  2358 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  2359 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  2360 
  2361 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  2362 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  2363 
  2364 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  2365 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  2366 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  2367 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  2368 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  2369 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  2370 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  2371 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  2372 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  2373 
  2374 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  2375 
  2376 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  2377 
  2378 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  2379 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2380 
  2381 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  2382 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  2383 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  2384 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  2385 
  2386 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  2387 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  2388 
  2389     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  2390     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  2391     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  2392     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  2393     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  2394     Union ~>    Set.Union
  2395     {} ~>       Set.empty
  2396     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  2397 
  2398 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  2399 theory Set.
  2400 
  2401 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  2402 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  2403 
  2404 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  2405 
  2406 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  2407 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  2408 
  2409 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  2410 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  2411 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  2412 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  2413 allowed. For examples see
  2414 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  2415 
  2416 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  2417 
  2418 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  2419 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2420 
  2421 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  2422 structure:
  2423 
  2424     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  2425     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2426     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2427     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2428     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2429     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2430     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  2431     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2432     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2433     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2434     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2435     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2436     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2437     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2438     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2439     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2440     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  2441     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  2442     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2443     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2444     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2445     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2446     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2447     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2448     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2449     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2450     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2451     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2452     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2453     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2454     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  2455     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  2456     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2457 
  2458     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2459     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2460     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2461     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  2462     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2463     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2464     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2465     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2466     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2467     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2468 
  2469     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2470     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2471     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2472     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2473     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2474     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2475 
  2476 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  2477 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  2478 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  2479 
  2480 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  2481 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  2482 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  2483 
  2484 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  2485 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2486 
  2487 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  2488 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  2489 
  2490 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  2491 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  2492 proofs, e.g.
  2493 
  2494   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  2495 
  2496 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  2497 
  2498 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  2499 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  2500 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2501 
  2502 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  2503 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  2504 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2505 
  2506 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  2507 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  2508 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  2509 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2510 
  2511 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  2512 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  2513 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  2514 preorder_class.*.
  2515 
  2516 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  2517 "diag" to "Id_on".
  2518 
  2519 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  2520 
  2521   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  2522 
  2523 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  2524 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  2525 fold_image.
  2526 
  2527 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  2528 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  2529 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  2530 the former will disappear at some point.
  2531 
  2532 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  2533 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  2534 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  2535 
  2536 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  2537 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  2538 realpow_0      -> power_0
  2539 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  2540 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  2541 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  2542 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  2543 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  2544 
  2545 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  2546 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  2547 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  2548 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  2549 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  2550 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  2551 
  2552     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  2553     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  2554     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  2555     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  2556     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  2557     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  2558     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  2559 
  2560 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  2561 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2562 rename old lemmas as follows:
  2563 
  2564 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  2565 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  2566 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  2567 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  2568 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  2569 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  2570 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  2571 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  2572 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  2573 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  2574 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  2575 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  2576 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  2577 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  2578 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  2579 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  2580 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  2581 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  2582 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  2583 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  2584 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  2585 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  2586 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  2587 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  2588 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  2589 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  2590 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  2591 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  2592 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  2593 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  2594 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  2595 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  2596 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  2597 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  2598 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  2599 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  2600 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  2601 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  2602 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  2603 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  2604 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  2605 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  2606 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  2607 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  2608 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  2609 
  2610 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2611 
  2612 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  2613 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  2614 
  2615 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  2616 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  2617 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  2618 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  2619 
  2620 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  2621 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  2622 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  2623 theory RealVector.
  2624 
  2625 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  2626 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  2627 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  2628 and inner products are included.
  2629 
  2630 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  2631 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  2632 supported.
  2633 
  2634 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  2635 first diagonalization argument.
  2636 
  2637 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  2638 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  2639 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  2640 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2641 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  2642 
  2643     hide (open) const gcd
  2644     abbreviation gcd where
  2645       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  2646     notation (output)
  2647       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  2648 
  2649 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  2650 
  2651 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  2652 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  2653 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2654 
  2655 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  2656 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  2657 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  2658 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  2659 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  2660 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  2661 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  2662 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  2663 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  2664 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  2665 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  2666 cases.
  2667 
  2668 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  2669 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  2670 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  2671 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  2672 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  2673 
  2674     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  2675     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  2676     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  2677     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  2678     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  2679 
  2680 
  2681 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2682 
  2683 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  2684 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  2685 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  2686 
  2687 * New theory of factorial domains.
  2688 
  2689 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  2690 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  2691 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  2692 
  2693 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  2694 
  2695 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  2696 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  2697 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  2698 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  2699 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  2700 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  2701 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  2702 
  2703 
  2704 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  2705 
  2706 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  2707 
  2708 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  2709 theory targets.
  2710 
  2711 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  2712 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  2713 'inductive' etc.
  2714 
  2715 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  2716 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  2717 
  2718 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  2719 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  2720 
  2721 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  2722 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  2723 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  2724 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  2725 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  2726 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  2727 the algorithm W:
  2728 
  2729  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  2730  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  2731          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  2732 
  2733 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  2734 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  2735 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  2736 
  2737 
  2738 *** HOLCF ***
  2739 
  2740 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  2741 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  2742 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  2743 
  2744 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  2745 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  2746 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  2747 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  2748 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2749 
  2750 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  2751 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  2752 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2753 
  2754 
  2755 *** ZF ***
  2756 
  2757 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  2758 
  2759 
  2760 *** ML ***
  2761 
  2762 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  2763 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  2764 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  2765 5.2.1!
  2766 
  2767 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  2768 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  2769 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  2770 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  2771 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  2772 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  2773 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  2774 
  2775 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  2776 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  2777 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  2778 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  2779 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  2780 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  2781 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  2782 
  2783 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  2784 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  2785 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  2786 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  2787 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  2788 
  2789 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  2790 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  2791 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  2792 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  2793 Method.add_method.
  2794 
  2795 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  2796 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  2797 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  2798 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  2799 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  2800 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  2801 
  2802 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  2803 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  2804 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  2805 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  2806 examples.
  2807 
  2808 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  2809 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  2810 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  2811 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  2812 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  2813 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  2814 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  2815 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  2816 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  2817 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  2818 
  2819 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  2820 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  2821 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  2822 
  2823 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  2824 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  2825 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  2826 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  2827 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  2828 resort for legacy applications.
  2829 
  2830 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  2831 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  2832 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  2833 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  2834 explicit runtime argument.
  2835 
  2836 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  2837 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  2838 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  2839 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  2840 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2841 
  2842 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  2843 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  2844 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  2845 theory state.
  2846 
  2847 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  2848 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  2849 
  2850   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  2851   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  2852   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  2853   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  2854   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  2855   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  2856   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  2857   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  2858   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  2859   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  2860 
  2861 
  2862 *** System ***
  2863 
  2864 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  2865 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  2866 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  2867 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  2868 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  2869 
  2870 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  2871 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  2872 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  2873 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  2874 
  2875 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  2876 
  2877 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  2878 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  2879 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  2880 prover operations.
  2881 
  2882 
  2883 
  2884 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  2885 -------------------------------
  2886 
  2887 *** General ***
  2888 
  2889 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  2890 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  2891 
  2892 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  2893 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  2894 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  2895 provides a proper context already.
  2896 
  2897 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  2898 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  2899 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  2900 
  2901 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  2902 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  2903 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  2904 swap theory imports.
  2905 
  2906 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  2907 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  2908 
  2909 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  2910 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2911 white space without escapes.
  2912 
  2913 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  2914 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  2915 "foo_bar".
  2916 
  2917 
  2918 *** Pure ***
  2919 
  2920 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  2921 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  2922 
  2923 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  2924 There are three ways of invoking it:
  2925 
  2926 (1) unused_thms
  2927      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  2928 
  2929 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  2930      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  2931      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  2932 
  2933 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  2934      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  2935      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  2936      their ancestors.
  2937 
  2938 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  2939 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  2940 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  2941 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  2942 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  2943 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  2944 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  2945 
  2946 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  2947 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  2948 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  2949 
  2950 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  2951 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  2952 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  2953 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  2954 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  2955 
  2956 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  2957 
  2958 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  2959 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  2960 update of theories within ML code.
  2961 
  2962 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  2963 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  2964 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  2965 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  2966 
  2967 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  2968 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  2969 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  2970 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2971 
  2972 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  2973 
  2974 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  2975 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  2976 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  2977 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  2978 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  2979 
  2980 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  2981 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  2982 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  2983 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  2984 situations.
  2985 
  2986 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  2987 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  2988 proof text.
  2989 
  2990 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  2991 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  2992 
  2993 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  2994 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  2995 predicates.
  2996 
  2997 
  2998 *** Document preparation ***
  2999 
  3000 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  3001 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  3002 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  3003 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  3004 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  3005 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  3006 
  3007 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  3008 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  3009 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  3010 
  3011 
  3012 *** HOL ***
  3013 
  3014 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  3015 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  3016 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  3017 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  3018 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  3019 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  3020 
  3021 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  3022 with multithreading.
  3023 
  3024 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  3025 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  3026 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  3027 
  3028 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  3029 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  3030 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  3031 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3032 
  3033 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  3034 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  3035 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  3036 and makes them available separately.  See
  3037 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  3038 
  3039 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  3040 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  3041 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  3042 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  3043 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  3044 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  3045 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  3046 the declared rules.
  3047 
  3048 This setup also deals with rules like 
  3049 
  3050   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  3051 
  3052 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  3053 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  3054 
  3055 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  3056 
  3057   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  3058 
  3059   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  3060     definitions on => and bool.
  3061 
  3062   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  3063     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  3064     the following theorems have been renamed:
  3065 
  3066       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  3067       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  3068       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  3069       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  3070       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  3071       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  3072       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  3073       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  3074 
  3075   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  3076     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  3077     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  3078 
  3079   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  3080     The proof pattern
  3081 
  3082       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  3083       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  3084 
  3085     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  3086     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  3087 
  3088       have "EX S. P S"
  3089       proof
  3090         show "P S" <...>
  3091       qed
  3092 
  3093   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  3094     The proof pattern
  3095 
  3096       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  3097       also have "S = T" <...>
  3098       finally have "P T" .
  3099 
  3100     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  3101     must be replaced by something like
  3102 
  3103       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  3104       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  3105       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  3106 
  3107   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  3108     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  3109 
  3110       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  3111 
  3112     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  3113     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  3114     type of the form
  3115 
  3116       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  3117 
  3118     rather than
  3119 
  3120       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  3121 
  3122 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  3123 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  3124 
  3125 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3126 
  3127 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  3128 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  3129 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3130 
  3131 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  3132 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3133 
  3134 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  3135 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3136 
  3137 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  3138 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  3139 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3140 
  3141 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  3142 the same name in theory Orderings:
  3143 
  3144   less_trans
  3145   less_linear
  3146   le_imp_less_or_eq
  3147   le_less_trans
  3148   less_le_trans
  3149   less_not_sym
  3150   less_asym
  3151 
  3152 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  3153 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  3154 and different variable names.
  3155 
  3156 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  3157 
  3158 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  3159 finite maps.
  3160 
  3161 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  3162 
  3163 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  3164 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  3165 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  3166 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  3167 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  3168 accordingly.
  3169 
  3170 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  3171 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  3172 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  3173 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  3174 
  3175 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  3176 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  3177 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  3178 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  3179 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  3180 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3181 
  3182 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  3183 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3184 
  3185 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  3186 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  3187 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  3188 
  3189 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  3190 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3191 
  3192 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  3193 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  3194 
  3195 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  3196 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3197 
  3198 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  3199 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3200 
  3201 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  3202 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  3203 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3204 
  3205 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  3206 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3207 
  3208 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  3209 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  3210 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  3211 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  3212 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  3213 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3214 
  3215 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  3216 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  3217 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  3218 
  3219 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  3220 
  3221 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  3222 
  3223 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  3224 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  3225 well-orders on sets and on types.
  3226 
  3227 
  3228 *** ZF ***
  3229 
  3230 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  3231 same session:
  3232 
  3233   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  3234   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  3235   Int       -> Int_ZF
  3236   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  3237   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  3238   List      -> List_ZF
  3239   Main      -> Main_ZF
  3240 
  3241 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  3242 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  3243 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  3244 
  3245 
  3246 *** ML ***
  3247 
  3248 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  3249 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  3250 
  3251 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  3252 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  3253 
  3254 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  3255 
  3256 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  3257 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  3258 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  3259 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  3260 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3261 
  3262 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  3263 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  3264 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  3265 
  3266 
  3267 *** System ***
  3268 
  3269 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  3270 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  3271 
  3272 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  3273 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  3274 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  3275 
  3276 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  3277 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  3278 
  3279 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  3280 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  3281 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  3282 
  3283 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  3284 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  3285 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  3286 
  3287 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  3288 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  3289 
  3290 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  3291 way of changing the user's settings is via
  3292 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  3293 script.
  3294 
  3295 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  3296 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  3297 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  3298 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  3299 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  3300 
  3301 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  3302 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  3303 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  3304 
  3305 
  3306 
  3307 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  3308 -----------------------------------
  3309 
  3310 *** General ***
  3311 
  3312 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  3313 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  3314 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3315 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  3316 
  3317 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  3318 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  3319 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3320 
  3321 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  3322 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  3323 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  3324 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3325 
  3326 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  3327 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  3328 quotes.
  3329 
  3330 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  3331 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  3332 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  3333 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  3334 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  3335 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  3336 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  3337 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  3338 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  3339 
  3340 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  3341 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  3342 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  3343 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  3344 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  3345 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  3346 
  3347 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  3348 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  3349 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  3350 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  3351 
  3352 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  3353 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  3354 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  3355 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  3356 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  3357 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  3358 
  3359 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  3360 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  3361 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  3362 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  3363 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  3364 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  3365 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  3366 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  3367 
  3368 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  3369 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  3370 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  3371 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  3372 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  3373 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  3374 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  3375 
  3376 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  3377 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  3378 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  3379 
  3380 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  3381 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  3382 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  3383 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  3384 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  3385 limit is imposed.
  3386 
  3387 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  3388 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  3389 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  3390 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  3391 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  3392 and scalability.
  3393 
  3394 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  3395 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  3396 
  3397 
  3398 *** Document preparation ***
  3399 
  3400 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  3401 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  3402 current context.
  3403 
  3404 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  3405 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  3406 
  3407 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  3408 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  3409 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  3410 
  3411 
  3412 *** Pure ***
  3413 
  3414 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  3415 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  3416 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  3417 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  3418 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  3419 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  3420 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  3421 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  3422 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  3423 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  3424 
  3425 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  3426 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  3427 sketch:
  3428 
  3429     internal compilation:
  3430         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  3431     writing SML code to a file:
  3432         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  3433     writing OCaml code to a file:
  3434         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  3435     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  3436         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  3437 
  3438     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  3439         method ``eval''
  3440 
  3441 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  3442 
  3443 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  3444 
  3445     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  3446     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  3447     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  3448     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  3449 
  3450 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  3451 
  3452     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  3453       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  3454 
  3455     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  3456       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  3457 
  3458     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  3459       {(target)}+
  3460         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  3461 
  3462     code_class <and_list of classes>
  3463       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  3464         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  3465 
  3466 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  3467 
  3468 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  3469 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  3470 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  3471 codegen".
  3472 
  3473 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  3474 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  3475 annotations).
  3476 
  3477 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  3478 syntax.
  3479 
  3480 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  3481 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  3482 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  3483 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  3484 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  3485 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  3486 
  3487 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  3488 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  3489 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  3490 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  3491 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  3492 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  3493 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  3494 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  3495 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  3496 equations, see section "definitions".
  3497 
  3498 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  3499 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  3500 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  3501 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  3502 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  3503 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  3504 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  3505 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  3506 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  3507 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  3508 
  3509 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  3510 configuration options:
  3511 
  3512   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  3513   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  3514   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  3515   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  3516   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  3517   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  3518   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  3519   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  3520   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  3521 
  3522 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  3523 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  3524 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  3525 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  3526 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  3527 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  3528 order.
  3529 
  3530 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  3531 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  3532 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  3533 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  3534 context encountered later on.
  3535 
  3536 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  3537 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  3538 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  3539 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  3540 
  3541 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  3542 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  3543 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  3544 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  3545 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  3546 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  3547 
  3548 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  3549 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  3550 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  3551 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  3552 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  3553 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  3554 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  3555 more permissive.
  3556 
  3557 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  3558 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  3559 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  3560 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  3561 maintainability of proof texts.
  3562 
  3563 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  3564 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  3565 
  3566   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  3567   then guess x and y by clarify
  3568 
  3569 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  3570 proof tools being involved here.
  3571 
  3572 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  3573 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  3574 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  3575 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  3576 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  3577 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  3578 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  3579 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  3580 
  3581 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  3582 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  3583 certain special cases of literal facts:
  3584 
  3585   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  3586   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  3587   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  3588   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  3589 
  3590 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  3591 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  3592 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  3593 
  3594 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  3595 both named and unnamed ones.
  3596 
  3597 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  3598 
  3599   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  3600 
  3601 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  3602 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  3603 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  3604 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  3605 
  3606 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  3607 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  3608 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  3609 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  3610 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  3611 
  3612 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  3613 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  3614 
  3615 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  3616 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  3617 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  3618 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  3619 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  3620 originally first one.
  3621 
  3622 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  3623 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  3624 expected.
  3625 
  3626 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  3627 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  3628 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  3629 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  3630 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  3631 
  3632   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  3633     assumes "EX x. P x"
  3634     obtains x where "P x"
  3635 
  3636   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  3637     assumes "A & B"
  3638     obtains A and B
  3639 
  3640   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  3641     assumes "A | B"
  3642     obtains
  3643       A
  3644     | B
  3645 
  3646 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  3647 explicitly:
  3648 
  3649   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  3650     obtains "~ thesis"
  3651 
  3652   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  3653     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  3654 
  3655 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  3656 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  3657 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  3658 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  3659 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  3660 case_names).
  3661 
  3662 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  3663 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  3664 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  3665 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  3666 
  3667 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  3668 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  3669 top-level lemma.
  3670 
  3671 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  3672 introduction rule (default "that").
  3673 
  3674 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3675 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  3676 to occur.
  3677 
  3678 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  3679 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  3680 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  3681 representations independently of name spaces.
  3682 
  3683 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  3684 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  3685 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3686 
  3687 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  3688 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  3689 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  3690 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  3691 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  3692 current context.
  3693 
  3694 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  3695 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  3696 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  3697 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  3698 
  3699   axiomatization
  3700     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  3701     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  3702 
  3703   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  3704   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  3705 
  3706   abbreviation
  3707     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  3708     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  3709 
  3710 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  3711 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  3712 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  3713 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  3714 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  3715 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  3716 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  3717 
  3718 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  3719 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  3720 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  3721 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  3722 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  3723 
  3724 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  3725 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  3726 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  3727 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  3728 
  3729 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  3730 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  3731 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  3732 
  3733   definition "K x _ = x"
  3734 
  3735   inductive conj for A B
  3736   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  3737 
  3738 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  3739 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  3740 abbreviations on output.
  3741 
  3742 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  3743 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  3744 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  3745 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  3746 
  3747 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  3748 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  3749 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  3750 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  3751 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  3752 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  3753 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  3754 
  3755 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  3756 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  3757 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  3758 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  3759 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  3760 
  3761 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  3762 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  3763 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  3764 
  3765 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  3766 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  3767 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  3768 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  3769 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  3770 
  3771   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  3772     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  3773 
  3774 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  3775 definition specification element in the context of locale
  3776 partial_order.
  3777 
  3778 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  3779 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  3780 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  3781 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  3782 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  3783 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  3784 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  3785 examples.
  3786 
  3787 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  3788 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  3789 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  3790 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  3791 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  3792 
  3793 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  3794 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  3795 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  3796 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  3797 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  3798 
  3799   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  3800   (induct set: foo bar)
  3801   (induct pred: foo bar)
  3802   (induct type: foo bar)
  3803 
  3804 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  3805 new format.
  3806 
  3807 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  3808 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  3809 
  3810 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  3811 considered a legacy feature.
  3812 
  3813 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  3814 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3815 
  3816 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  3817 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  3818 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  3819 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  3820   
  3821 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  3822 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  3823 manipulating the claset.
  3824 
  3825 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  3826 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  3827 least one premise.
  3828 
  3829 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  3830 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  3831 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  3832 rule steps.
  3833 
  3834 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  3835 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  3836 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  3837 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  3838 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  3839 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  3840 
  3841 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  3842 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  3843 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  3844 
  3845 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  3846 the graph browser tool.
  3847 
  3848 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  3849 default; use '!' option for full details.
  3850 
  3851 
  3852 *** HOL ***
  3853 
  3854 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  3855 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  3856 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  3857 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  3858 multi-threading.
  3859   
  3860 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  3861 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  3862 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  3863 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  3864 work with multi-threading.
  3865 
  3866 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  3867 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  3868 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  3869 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  3870 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  3871 
  3872 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  3873 
  3874 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  3875 equality.
  3876 
  3877 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  3878 the new 'class' package:
  3879 
  3880     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  3881     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  3882     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  3883     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  3884     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  3885     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  3886     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  3887     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  3888     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  3889     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  3890     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  3891     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  3892     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  3893     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  3894     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  3895     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  3896     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  3897     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  3898     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  3899     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  3900 
  3901 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  3902 
  3903 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  3904 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  3905 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  3906 names.
  3907 
  3908 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  3909 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  3910 
  3911 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  3912 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  3913 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  3914 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  3915 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  3916 
  3917 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  3918 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  3919 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  3920 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  3921 
  3922 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  3923 
  3924 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  3925 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  3926 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  3927 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  3928 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3929 
  3930 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  3931 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3932 
  3933 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  3934 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  3935 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3936 
  3937 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  3938 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  3939 
  3940 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  3941 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  3942 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  3943 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  3944 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  3945 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  3946 in the current context.
  3947 
  3948 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  3949 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  3950 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3951 
  3952 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  3953 with new class dense_linear_order.
  3954 
  3955 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  3956 
  3957     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  3958     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  3959 
  3960     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  3961       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  3962     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  3963     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  3964 
  3965     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  3966     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  3967 
  3968   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  3969 
  3970     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  3971     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  3972     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  3973     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  3974     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  3975     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  3976     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  3977     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  3978     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  3979     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  3980     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  3981     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  3982     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  3983     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  3984     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  3985     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  3986     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  3987     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  3988     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  3989     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  3990     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  3991     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  3992     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  3993     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  3994     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  3995     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  3996     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  3997     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  3998     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  3999     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  4000     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  4001     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  4002     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  4003     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  4004     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  4005 
  4006     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  4007     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  4008     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  4009     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  4010     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  4011     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  4012     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  4013     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  4014     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  4015     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  4016     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  4017     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  4018     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  4019     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  4020     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  4021     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  4022     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  4023 
  4024     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  4025     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  4026     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  4027     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  4028     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  4029     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  4030     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  4031     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  4032     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  4033     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  4034     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  4035     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  4036     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  4037     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  4038     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  4039     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  4040     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  4041     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  4042     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  4043     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  4044     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  4045     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  4046     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  4047     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  4048     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  4049     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  4050     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  4051     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  4052 
  4053     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  4054     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  4055     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  4056     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  4057     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  4058     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  4059 
  4060     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  4061     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  4062     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  4063     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  4064 
  4065     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  4066     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  4067 
  4068     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  4069     join_max                ~> sup_max
  4070 
  4071 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  4072 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  4073 
  4074 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  4075 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  4076 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  4077 "*.size".
  4078 
  4079 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  4080 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4081 
  4082 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  4083 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  4084 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4085 
  4086 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4087 
  4088 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  4089 machine words, with arithemtic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  4090 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  4091 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  4092 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  4093 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  4094 numerals on all operations.
  4095 
  4096 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  4097 
  4098 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  4099 
  4100 * Code generator library theories:
  4101   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  4102     languages.
  4103   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  4104     languages.
  4105   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  4106     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  4107   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  4108   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  4109     denominator).
  4110   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  4111     representable by rational numbers.
  4112   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  4113     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  4114     includes Code_Integer.
  4115   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  4116     target-language built-in integers.
  4117   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  4118     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  4119 
  4120 * New package for inductive predicates
  4121 
  4122   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  4123 
  4124     inductive
  4125       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  4126       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  4127     where
  4128       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  4129     | ...
  4130 
  4131   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  4132 
  4133     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  4134 
  4135     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  4136     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  4137 
  4138     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  4139     intros
  4140       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  4141       ...
  4142 
  4143   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  4144   sets to be defined with the new package via
  4145 
  4146     inductive_set
  4147       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  4148       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  4149     where
  4150       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  4151     | ...
  4152 
  4153   or
  4154 
  4155     inductive_set
  4156       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  4157       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  4158       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  4159     where
  4160       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  4161     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  4162     | ...
  4163 
  4164   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  4165 
  4166   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  4167   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  4168 
  4169   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4170 
  4171   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  4172     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  4173     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  4174     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  4175     than before the actual inductive definition.
  4176 
  4177   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  4178     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  4179     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  4180     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  4181     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  4182     statements of the form
  4183 
  4184       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  4185 
  4186     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  4187     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  4188 
  4189       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  4190 
  4191   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  4192 
  4193       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  4194         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  4195         ==> ... ==> P
  4196 
  4197     for predicates and
  4198 
  4199       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  4200         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  4201         ==> ... ==> P
  4202 
  4203     for sets rather than
  4204 
  4205       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  4206         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  4207         ==> ... ==> P
  4208 
  4209     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  4210     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  4211     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  4212 
  4213   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  4214     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  4215     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  4216 
  4217 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  4218 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  4219 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  4220 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  4221 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  4222 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  4223 
  4224 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  4225 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures. 
  4226 
  4227 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  4228 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  4229 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  4230 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  4231 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  4232 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  4233 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  4234 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  4235 variable.
  4236 
  4237 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  4238 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  4239 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  4240 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4241   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  4242   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  4243 
  4244 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  4245 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  4246 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  4247 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  4248 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  4249 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  4250 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  4251 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  4252 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  4253 
  4254 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  4255 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  4256 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  4257 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  4258 rat, etc.
  4259 
  4260 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  4261 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  4262 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  4263 
  4264 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  4265 
  4266 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  4267 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  4268 
  4269 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  4270 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  4271 
  4272 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  4273 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  4274 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4275 
  4276 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  4277 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  4278 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4279 
  4280 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  4281 
  4282 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  4283 
  4284 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  4285 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  4286 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  4287 positive/negative (in inequations).
  4288 
  4289 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  4290 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  4291 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  4292 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4293 
  4294 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  4295 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  4296 algebraic operations.
  4297 
  4298 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  4299 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4300 
  4301 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  4302 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4303 
  4304 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  4305 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  4306 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  4307 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  4308 adapted.
  4309  
  4310 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  4311 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  4312 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  4313 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  4314 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  4315 
  4316 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  4317 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  4318 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  4319 
  4320 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  4321 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  4322 better use 'abbreviation'.
  4323 
  4324 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4325 
  4326 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  4327 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  4328 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  4329   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  4330       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  4331   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  4332   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  4333   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  4334 
  4335 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  4336 
  4337 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  4338 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  4339 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  4340 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  4341 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  4342 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  4343 
  4344 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  4345 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  4346 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  4347 
  4348 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  4349 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  4350 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  4351 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4352 
  4353 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  4354 
  4355 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  4356 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4357 
  4358 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  4359 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  4360 
  4361 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  4362 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  4363 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  4364 
  4365 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  4366 True/False.
  4367 
  4368 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  4369 
  4370 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  4371 
  4372 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  4373 ``rule'' method.
  4374 
  4375 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  4376 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  4377 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  4378 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  4379 
  4380 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  4381 zChaff is still supported as well.
  4382 
  4383 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  4384 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  4385 
  4386 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  4387 Library.
  4388 
  4389 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  4390 
  4391 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  4392 as greatest fixed-point.
  4393 
  4394 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  4395 association lists.
  4396 
  4397 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  4398 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  4399 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  4400 
  4401 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  4402 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  4403 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4404 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  4405 behavior.
  4406 
  4407 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  4408 
  4409 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  4410 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  4411 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  4412 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  4413 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  4414 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  4415 
  4416 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  4417 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  4418 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
  4419 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
  4420 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
  4421 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
  4422 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
  4423 
  4424 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
  4425 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
  4426 
  4427 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
  4428 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
  4429 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
  4430 HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
  4431 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
  4432 
  4433 
  4434 *** HOL-Complex ***
  4435 
  4436 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
  4437 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
  4438 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
  4439 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
  4440 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4441 
  4442 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
  4443 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
  4444 and norm :: 'a => real.
  4445 
  4446 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
  4447 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
  4448 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4449 
  4450 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
  4451 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
  4452 
  4453 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
  4454 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
  4455 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
  4456 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4457 
  4458   Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  4459   HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  4460   HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  4461   approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
  4462   monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  4463   galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  4464   (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  4465   (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  4466   (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  4467   (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  4468   (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
  4469   is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  4470   deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
  4471   sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
  4472   exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
  4473 
  4474 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
  4475 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
  4476 hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
  4477 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4478 
  4479   approx        <-- capprox
  4480   HFinite       <-- CFinite
  4481   HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
  4482   Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
  4483   monad         <-- cmonad
  4484   galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
  4485   (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
  4486   is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
  4487   (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
  4488 
  4489 
  4490 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4491 
  4492 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
  4493 
  4494 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
  4495 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4496 
  4497 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
  4498 greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4499 
  4500 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see
  4501 Ring.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations
  4502 of algebraic structures.
  4503 
  4504 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.
  4505 
  4506 
  4507 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4508 
  4509 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding
  4510 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic.  See src/HOL/Nominal and
  4511 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples.  Prospective users should consult
  4512 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/
  4513 
  4514 
  4515 *** ML ***
  4516 
  4517 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int
  4518 (even on SML/NJ).
  4519 
  4520 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked
  4521 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at
  4522 compile-time.  For example:
  4523 
  4524 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}
  4525 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}
  4526 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}
  4527 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}
  4528 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}
  4529 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}
  4530 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}
  4531 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}
  4532 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}
  4533 ML {* @{type_name c} *}
  4534 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}
  4535 ML {* @{const_name c} *}
  4536 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}
  4537 ML {* @{context} *}
  4538 ML {* @{theory} *}
  4539 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}
  4540 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}
  4541 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}
  4542 ML {* @{simpset} *}
  4543 ML {* @{claset} *}
  4544 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}
  4545 
  4546 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.
  4547 
  4548 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with
  4549 ML_Context.trace enabled.
  4550 
  4551 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions
  4552 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and
  4553 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.
  4554 
  4555 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now
  4556 use Context.generic instead of just theory.
  4557 
  4558 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and
  4559 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of
  4560 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.
  4561 
  4562 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always
  4563 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.
  4564 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while
  4565 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and
  4566 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure
  4567 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably
  4568 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type
  4569 declarations and definitions.
  4570 
  4571 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed
  4572 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,
  4573 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need
  4574 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)
  4575 
  4576 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in
  4577 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the
  4578 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,
  4579 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4580 
  4581 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with
  4582 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed
  4583 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --
  4584 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and
  4585 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede
  4586 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.
  4587 
  4588 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --
  4589 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been
  4590 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted
  4591 accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for
  4592 attributes, methods, etc.
  4593 
  4594 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."
  4595 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to
  4596 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and
  4597 fold_map combinators.
  4598 
  4599 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional
  4600 comments (tags) are now strictly separate.  Name hints -- which are
  4601 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the
  4602 derivation.
  4603 
  4604 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an
  4605 actual goal state (thm).  Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to
  4606 achieve the old behaviour.
  4607 
  4608 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a
  4609 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule
  4610 statements.
  4611 
  4612 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now
  4613 enforced instead of silently assumed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use
  4614 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.
  4615 
  4616 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating
  4617 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc.  This replaces
  4618 some popular functions from term.ML:
  4619 
  4620   Term.variant		->  Name.variant
  4621   Term.variantlist	->  Name.variant_list
  4622   Term.invent_names	->  Name.invent_list
  4623 
  4624 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations
  4625 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).
  4626 
  4627 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper
  4628 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context.  For example,
  4629 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and
  4630 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces
  4631 various freeze_thaw operations.
  4632 
  4633 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for
  4634 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former
  4635 Tactic.prove).  Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results
  4636 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for
  4637 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard.  Note that
  4638 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is
  4639 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or
  4640 in a locale context).
  4641 
  4642 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)
  4643 and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations
  4644 (Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.
  4645 which are considered legacy and await removal.
  4646 
  4647 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking
  4648 (Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),
  4649 with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term
  4650 etc.).  Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still
  4651 available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using
  4652 a mere theory instead of a full context.
  4653 
  4654 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception
  4655 ERROR of string uniformly.  Function error now merely raises ERROR,
  4656 without any side effect on output channels.  The Isar toplevel takes
  4657 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions.  ML code may use plain
  4658 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:
  4659 
  4660   ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."
  4661 
  4662 Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be
  4663 embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like
  4664 this:
  4665 
  4666   Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)
  4667 
  4668 INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed
  4669 obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,
  4670 Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)
  4671 -- use plain ERROR instead.
  4672 
  4673 * Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a
  4674 list.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.
  4675 
  4676 * Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to
  4677 ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.
  4678 
  4679 * Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the
  4680 theory before entering a proof state.  Transactions now always see a
  4681 quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and
  4682 batch mode.
  4683 
  4684 * Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax.  Renamed
  4685 OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords.  Removed
  4686 OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in
  4687 OuterSyntax.command etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4688 
  4689 * Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now
  4690 contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the
  4691 very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by
  4692 simpset_of/local_simpset_of).  Consequently, all plug-in components
  4693 (solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.
  4694 
  4695 * Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the
  4696 local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc
  4697 etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this!  Removed
  4698 former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --
  4699 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to
  4700 specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.
  4701 
  4702 * Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces
  4703 change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a
  4704 theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --
  4705 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4706 
  4707 * Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired
  4708 "Trueprop" etc.
  4709 
  4710 
  4711 *** System ***
  4712 
  4713 * settings: the default heap location within ISABELLE_HOME_USER now
  4714 includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER.  This simplifies use of multiple
  4715 Isabelle installations.
  4716 
  4717 * isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical
  4718 operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source
  4719 code.
  4720 
  4721 * Basic Isabelle mode for jEdit, see Isabelle/lib/jedit/.
  4722 
  4723 * Support for parallel execution, using native multicore support of
  4724 Poly/ML 5.1.  The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing
  4725 independent theories, according to the given theory header
  4726 specifications. The maximum number of worker threads is specified via
  4727 usedir option -M or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. A
  4728 speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected on a 4-core machine, and up
  4729 to 6 on a 8-core machine.  User-code needs to observe certain
  4730 guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A in the Isar
  4731 Implementation manual.
  4732 
  4733 
  4734 
  4735 New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)
  4736 ----------------------------------
  4737 
  4738 *** General ***
  4739 
  4740 * Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is
  4741 
  4742   theory <name>
  4743   imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>
  4744   uses <file1> ... <fileM>
  4745   begin
  4746 
  4747 where the 'uses' part is optional.  The previous syntax
  4748 
  4749   theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:
  4750 
  4751 will disappear in the next release.  Use isatool fixheaders to convert
  4752 existing theory files.  Note that there is no change in ancient
  4753 non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.
  4754 
  4755 * Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via
  4756 relative and absolute paths.
  4757 
  4758 * Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a
  4759 list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,
  4760 simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select
  4761 theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that
  4762 match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified
  4763 name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose
  4764 lhs match term.  Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects
  4765 all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under
  4766 'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f.  Example:
  4767 
  4768   C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."
  4769 
  4770 prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",
  4771 matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."
  4772 in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).
  4773 
  4774 * Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of
  4775 'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4776 
  4777 * Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that
  4778 Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both
  4779 formal and informal parts).  Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof
  4780 General interface.  Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):
  4781 
  4782   http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html
  4783   http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html
  4784 
  4785 * Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the
  4786 Classical Reasoner.  Typical big applications run around 2 times
  4787 faster.
  4788 
  4789 
  4790 *** Document preparation ***
  4791 
  4792 * Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output
  4793 of raw sources.  Only those symbols that do not require additional
  4794 LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are
  4795 displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim.  isatool display
  4796 and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the
  4797 DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).
  4798 
  4799 * Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,
  4800 notably folding and hiding.  Predefined tags include "theory" (for
  4801 theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for
  4802 commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and
  4803 "invisible" are unused by default.  Users may give explicit tag
  4804 specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''.  The
  4805 interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document
  4806 preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of
  4807 isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,
  4808 \isadroptag.
  4809 
  4810 Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool
  4811 usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them).  Typical
  4812 specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present
  4813 theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold
  4814 proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit
  4815 these parts without any formal replacement text.  The Isabelle site
  4816 default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as
  4817 specified above.
  4818 
  4819 * Several new antiquotations:
  4820 
  4821   @{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;
  4822 
  4823   @{typeof term} prints the type of a term;
  4824 
  4825   @{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the
  4826   argument is a known logical constant;
  4827 
  4828   @{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or
  4829   theorem applying a "style" to it
  4830 
  4831   @{ML text}
  4832 
  4833 Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of
  4834 definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the
  4835 conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem19'
  4836 to print the specified premise.  TermStyle.add_style provides an ML
  4837 interface for introducing further styles.  See also the "LaTeX Sugar"
  4838 document practical applications.  The ML antiquotation prints
  4839 type-checked ML expressions verbatim.
  4840 
  4841 * Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',
  4842 and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which
  4843 specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations.  For
  4844 example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.
  4845 
  4846 * Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative
  4847 context interpreting the subsequent argument.  For example: @{thm
  4848 [locale=lattice] inf_assoc}.
  4849 
  4850 * Proper output of proof terms (@{prf ...} and @{full_prf ...}) within
  4851 a proof context.
  4852 
  4853 * Proper output of antiquotations for theory commands involving a
  4854 proof context (such as 'locale' or 'theorem (in loc) ...').
  4855 
  4856 * Delimiters of outer tokens (string etc.) now produce separate LaTeX
  4857 macros (\isachardoublequoteopen, isachardoublequoteclose etc.).
  4858 
  4859 * isatool usedir: new option -C (default true) controls whether option
  4860 -D should include a copy of the original document directory; -C false
  4861 prevents unwanted effects such as copying of administrative CVS data.
  4862 
  4863 
  4864 *** Pure ***
  4865 
  4866 * Considerably improved version of 'constdefs' command.  Now performs
  4867 automatic type-inference of declared constants; additional support for
  4868 local structure declarations (cf. locales and HOL records), see also
  4869 isar-ref manual.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to observe strictly
  4870 sequential dependencies of definitions within a single 'constdefs'
  4871 section; moreover, the declared name needs to be an identifier.  If
  4872 all fails, consider to fall back on 'consts' and 'defs' separately.
  4873 
  4874 * Improved indexed syntax and implicit structures.  First of all,
  4875 indexed syntax provides a notational device for subscripted
  4876 application, using the new syntax \<^bsub>term\<^esub> for arbitrary
  4877 expressions.  Secondly, in a local context with structure
  4878 declarations, number indexes \<^sub>n or the empty index (default
  4879 number 1) refer to a certain fixed variable implicitly; option
  4880 show_structs controls printing of implicit structures.  Typical
  4881 applications of these concepts involve record types and locales.
  4882 
  4883 * New command 'no_syntax' removes grammar declarations (and
  4884 translations) resulting from the given syntax specification, which is
  4885 interpreted in the same manner as for the 'syntax' command.
  4886 
  4887 * 'Advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) may depend
  4888 on the signature of the theory context being presently used for
  4889 parsing/printing, see also isar-ref manual.
  4890 
  4891 * Improved 'oracle' command provides a type-safe interface to turn an
  4892 ML expression of type theory -> T -> term into a primitive rule of
  4893 type theory -> T -> thm (i.e. the functionality of Thm.invoke_oracle
  4894 is already included here); see also FOL/ex/IffExample.thy;
  4895 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4896 
  4897 * axclass: name space prefix for class "c" is now "c_class" (was "c"
  4898 before); "cI" is no longer bound, use "c.intro" instead.
  4899 INCOMPATIBILITY.  This change avoids clashes of fact bindings for
  4900 axclasses vs. locales.
  4901 
  4902 * Improved internal renaming of symbolic identifiers -- attach primes
  4903 instead of base 26 numbers.
  4904 
  4905 * New flag show_question_marks controls printing of leading question
  4906 marks in schematic variable names.
  4907 
  4908 * In schematic variable names, *any* symbol following \<^isub> or
  4909 \<^isup> is now treated as part of the base name.  For example, the
  4910 following works without printing of awkward ".0" indexes:
  4911 
  4912   lemma "x\<^isub>1 = x\<^isub>2 ==> x\<^isub>2 = x\<^isub>1"
  4913     by simp
  4914 
  4915 * Inner syntax includes (*(*nested*) comments*).
  4916 
  4917 * Pretty printer now supports unbreakable blocks, specified in mixfix
  4918 annotations as "(00...)".
  4919 
  4920 * Clear separation of logical types and nonterminals, where the latter
  4921 may only occur in 'syntax' specifications or type abbreviations.
  4922 Before that distinction was only partially implemented via type class
  4923 "logic" vs. "{}".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare cases of improper
  4924 use of 'types'/'consts' instead of 'nonterminals'/'syntax'.  Some very
  4925 exotic syntax specifications may require further adaption
  4926 (e.g. Cube/Cube.thy).
  4927 
  4928 * Removed obsolete type class "logic", use the top sort {} instead.
  4929 Note that non-logical types should be declared as 'nonterminals'
  4930 rather than 'types'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for new object-logic
  4931 specifications.
  4932 
  4933 * Attributes 'induct' and 'cases': type or set names may now be
  4934 locally fixed variables as well.
  4935 
  4936 * Simplifier: can now control the depth to which conditional rewriting
  4937 is traced via the PG menu Isabelle -> Settings -> Trace Simp Depth
  4938 Limit.
  4939 
  4940 * Simplifier: simplification procedures may now take the current
  4941 simpset into account (cf. Simplifier.simproc(_i) / mk_simproc
  4942 interface), which is very useful for calling the Simplifier
  4943 recursively.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: the 'prems' argument of simprocs
  4944 is gone -- use prems_of_ss on the simpset instead.  Moreover, the
  4945 low-level mk_simproc no longer applies Logic.varify internally, to
  4946 allow for use in a context of fixed variables.
  4947 
  4948 * thin_tac now works even if the assumption being deleted contains !!
  4949 or ==>.  More generally, erule now works even if the major premise of
  4950 the elimination rule contains !! or ==>.
  4951 
  4952 * Method 'rules' has been renamed to 'iprover'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4953 
  4954 * Reorganized bootstrapping of the Pure theories; CPure is now derived
  4955 from Pure, which contains all common declarations already.  Both
  4956 theories are defined via plain Isabelle/Isar .thy files.
  4957 INCOMPATIBILITY: elements of CPure (such as the CPure.intro /
  4958 CPure.elim / CPure.dest attributes) now appear in the Pure name space;
  4959 use isatool fixcpure to adapt your theory and ML sources.
  4960 
  4961 * New syntax 'name(i-j, i-, i, ...)' for referring to specific
  4962 selections of theorems in named facts via index ranges.
  4963 
  4964 * 'print_theorems': in theory mode, really print the difference
  4965 wrt. the last state (works for interactive theory development only),
  4966 in proof mode print all local facts (cf. 'print_facts');
  4967 
  4968 * 'hide': option '(open)' hides only base names.
  4969 
  4970 * More efficient treatment of intermediate checkpoints in interactive
  4971 theory development.
  4972 
  4973 * Code generator is now invoked via code_module (incremental code
  4974 generation) and code_library (modular code generation, ML structures
  4975 for each theory).  INCOMPATIBILITY: new keywords 'file' and 'contains'
  4976 must be quoted when used as identifiers.
  4977 
  4978 * New 'value' command for reading, evaluating and printing terms using
  4979 the code generator.  INCOMPATIBILITY: command keyword 'value' must be
  4980 quoted when used as identifier.
  4981 
  4982 
  4983 *** Locales ***
  4984 
  4985 * New commands for the interpretation of locale expressions in
  4986 theories (1), locales (2) and proof contexts (3).  These generate
  4987 proof obligations from the expression specification.  After the
  4988 obligations have been discharged, theorems of the expression are added
  4989 to the theory, target locale or proof context.  The synopsis of the
  4990 commands is a follows:
  4991 
  4992   (1) interpretation expr inst
  4993   (2) interpretation target < expr
  4994   (3) interpret expr inst
  4995 
  4996 Interpretation in theories and proof contexts require a parameter
  4997 instantiation of terms from the current context.  This is applied to
  4998 specifications and theorems of the interpreted expression.
  4999 Interpretation in locales only permits parameter renaming through the
  5000 locale expression.  Interpretation is smart in that interpretations
  5001 that are active already do not occur in proof obligations, neither are
  5002 instantiated theorems stored in duplicate.  Use 'print_interps' to
  5003 inspect active interpretations of a particular locale.  For details,
  5004 see the Isar Reference manual.  Examples can be found in
  5005 HOL/Finite_Set.thy and HOL/Algebra/UnivPoly.thy.
  5006 
  5007 INCOMPATIBILITY: former 'instantiate' has been withdrawn, use
  5008 'interpret' instead.
  5009 
  5010 * New context element 'constrains' for adding type constraints to
  5011 parameters.
  5012 
  5013 * Context expressions: renaming of parameters with syntax
  5014 redeclaration.
  5015 
  5016 * Locale declaration: 'includes' disallowed.
  5017 
  5018 * Proper static binding of attribute syntax -- i.e. types / terms /
  5019 facts mentioned as arguments are always those of the locale definition
  5020 context, independently of the context of later invocations.  Moreover,
  5021 locale operations (renaming and type / term instantiation) are applied
  5022 to attribute arguments as expected.
  5023 
  5024 INCOMPATIBILITY of the ML interface: always pass Attrib.src instead of
  5025 actual attributes; rare situations may require Attrib.attribute to
  5026 embed those attributes into Attrib.src that lack concrete syntax.
  5027 Attribute implementations need to cooperate properly with the static
  5028 binding mechanism.  Basic parsers Args.XXX_typ/term/prop and
  5029 Attrib.XXX_thm etc. already do the right thing without further
  5030 intervention.  Only unusual applications -- such as "where" or "of"
  5031 (cf. src/Pure/Isar/attrib.ML), which process arguments depending both
  5032 on the context and the facts involved -- may have to assign parsed
  5033 values to argument tokens explicitly.
  5034 
  5035 * Changed parameter management in theorem generation for long goal
  5036 statements with 'includes'.  INCOMPATIBILITY: produces a different
  5037 theorem statement in rare situations.
  5038 
  5039 * Locale inspection command 'print_locale' omits notes elements.  Use
  5040 'print_locale!' to have them included in the output.
  5041 
  5042 
  5043 *** Provers ***
  5044 
  5045 * Provers/hypsubst.ML: improved version of the subst method, for
  5046 single-step rewriting: it now works in bound variable contexts. New is
  5047 'subst (asm)', for rewriting an assumption.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may
  5048 rewrite a different subterm than the original subst method, which is
  5049 still available as 'simplesubst'.
  5050 
  5051 * Provers/quasi.ML: new transitivity reasoners for transitivity only
  5052 and quasi orders.
  5053 
  5054 * Provers/trancl.ML: new transitivity reasoner for transitive and
  5055 reflexive-transitive closure of relations.
  5056 
  5057 * Provers/blast.ML: new reference depth_limit to make blast's depth
  5058 limit (previously hard-coded with a value of 20) user-definable.
  5059 
  5060 * Provers/simplifier.ML has been moved to Pure, where Simplifier.setup
  5061 is peformed already.  Object-logics merely need to finish their
  5062 initial simpset configuration as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5063 
  5064 
  5065 *** HOL ***
  5066 
  5067 * Symbolic syntax of Hilbert Choice Operator is now as follows:
  5068 
  5069   syntax (epsilon)
  5070     "_Eps" :: "[pttrn, bool] => 'a"    ("(3\<some>_./ _)" [0, 10] 10)
  5071 
  5072 The symbol \<some> is displayed as the alternative epsilon of LaTeX
  5073 and x-symbol; use option '-m epsilon' to get it actually printed.
  5074 Moreover, the mathematically important symbolic identifier \<epsilon>
  5075 becomes available as variable, constant etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5076 
  5077 * "x > y" abbreviates "y < x" and "x >= y" abbreviates "y <= x".
  5078 Similarly for all quantifiers: "ALL x > y" etc.  The x-symbol for >=
  5079 is \<ge>. New transitivity rules have been added to HOL/Orderings.thy to
  5080 support corresponding Isar calculations.
  5081 
  5082 * "{x:A. P}" abbreviates "{x. x:A & P}", and similarly for "\<in>"
  5083 instead of ":".
  5084 
  5085 * theory SetInterval: changed the syntax for open intervals:
  5086 
  5087   Old       New
  5088   {..n(}    {..<n}
  5089   {)n..}    {n<..}
  5090   {m..n(}   {m..<n}
  5091   {)m..n}   {m<..n}
  5092   {)m..n(}  {m<..<n}
  5093 
  5094 The old syntax is still supported but will disappear in the next
  5095 release.  For conversion use the following Emacs search and replace
  5096 patterns (these are not perfect but work quite well):
  5097 
  5098   {)\([^\.]*\)\.\.  ->  {\1<\.\.}
  5099   \.\.\([^(}]*\)(}  ->  \.\.<\1}
  5100 
  5101 * Theory Commutative_Ring (in Library): method comm_ring for proving
  5102 equalities in commutative rings; method 'algebra' provides a generic
  5103 interface.
  5104 
  5105 * Theory Finite_Set: changed the syntax for 'setsum', summation over
  5106 finite sets: "setsum (%x. e) A", which used to be "\<Sum>x:A. e", is
  5107 now either "SUM x:A. e" or "\<Sum>x \<in> A. e". The bound variable can
  5108 be a tuple pattern.
  5109 
  5110 Some new syntax forms are available:
  5111 
  5112   "\<Sum>x | P. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {x. P}"
  5113   "\<Sum>x = a..b. e"   for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..b}"
  5114   "\<Sum>x = a..<b. e"  for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..<b}"
  5115   "\<Sum>x < k. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {..<k}"
  5116 
  5117 The latter form "\<Sum>x < k. e" used to be based on a separate
  5118 function "Summation", which has been discontinued.
  5119 
  5120 * theory Finite_Set: in structured induction proofs, the insert case
  5121 is now 'case (insert x F)' instead of the old counterintuitive 'case
  5122 (insert F x)'.
  5123 
  5124 * The 'refute' command has been extended to support a much larger
  5125 fragment of HOL, including axiomatic type classes, constdefs and
  5126 typedefs, inductive datatypes and recursion.
  5127 
  5128 * New tactics 'sat' and 'satx' to prove propositional tautologies.
  5129 Requires zChaff with proof generation to be installed.  See
  5130 HOL/ex/SAT_Examples.thy for examples.
  5131 
  5132 * Datatype induction via method 'induct' now preserves the name of the
  5133 induction variable. For example, when proving P(xs::'a list) by
  5134 induction on xs, the induction step is now P(xs) ==> P(a#xs) rather
  5135 than P(list) ==> P(a#list) as previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  5136 in unstructured proof scripts.
  5137 
  5138 * Reworked implementation of records.  Improved scalability for
  5139 records with many fields, avoiding performance problems for type
  5140 inference. Records are no longer composed of nested field types, but
  5141 of nested extension types. Therefore the record type only grows linear
  5142 in the number of extensions and not in the number of fields.  The
  5143 top-level (users) view on records is preserved.  Potential
  5144 INCOMPATIBILITY only in strange cases, where the theory depends on the
  5145 old record representation. The type generated for a record is called
  5146 <record_name>_ext_type.
  5147 
  5148 Flag record_quick_and_dirty_sensitive can be enabled to skip the
  5149 proofs triggered by a record definition or a simproc (if
  5150 quick_and_dirty is enabled).  Definitions of large records can take
  5151 quite long.
  5152 
  5153 New simproc record_upd_simproc for simplification of multiple record
  5154 updates enabled by default.  Moreover, trivial updates are also
  5155 removed: r(|x := x r|) = r.  INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break
  5156 occasionally, since simplification is more powerful by default.
  5157 
  5158 * typedef: proper support for polymorphic sets, which contain extra
  5159 type-variables in the term.
  5160 
  5161 * Simplifier: automatically reasons about transitivity chains
  5162 involving "trancl" (r^+) and "rtrancl" (r^*) by setting up tactics
  5163 provided by Provers/trancl.ML as additional solvers.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5164 old proofs break occasionally as simplification may now solve more
  5165 goals than previously.
  5166 
  5167 * Simplifier: converts x <= y into x = y if assumption y <= x is
  5168 present.  Works for all partial orders (class "order"), in particular
  5169 numbers and sets.  For linear orders (e.g. numbers) it treats ~ x < y
  5170 just like y <= x.
  5171 
  5172 * Simplifier: new simproc for "let x = a in f x".  If a is a free or
  5173 bound variable or a constant then the let is unfolded.  Otherwise
  5174 first a is simplified to b, and then f b is simplified to g. If
  5175 possible we abstract b from g arriving at "let x = b in h x",
  5176 otherwise we unfold the let and arrive at g.  The simproc can be
  5177 enabled/disabled by the reference use_let_simproc.  Potential
  5178 INCOMPATIBILITY since simplification is more powerful by default.
  5179 
  5180 * Classical reasoning: the meson method now accepts theorems as arguments.
  5181 
  5182 * Prover support: pre-release of the Isabelle-ATP linkup, which runs background
  5183 jobs to provide advice on the provability of subgoals.
  5184 
  5185 * Theory OrderedGroup and Ring_and_Field: various additions and
  5186 improvements to faciliate calculations involving equalities and
  5187 inequalities.
  5188 
  5189 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
  5190 (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5191 
  5192   abs_eq             now named abs_of_nonneg
  5193   abs_of_ge_0        now named abs_of_nonneg
  5194   abs_minus_eq       now named abs_of_nonpos
  5195   imp_abs_id         now named abs_of_nonneg
  5196   imp_abs_neg_id     now named abs_of_nonpos
  5197   mult_pos           now named mult_pos_pos
  5198   mult_pos_le        now named mult_nonneg_nonneg
  5199   mult_pos_neg_le    now named mult_nonneg_nonpos
  5200   mult_pos_neg2_le   now named mult_nonneg_nonpos2
  5201   mult_neg           now named mult_neg_neg
  5202   mult_neg_le        now named mult_nonpos_nonpos
  5203 
  5204 * The following lemmas in Ring_and_Field have been added to the simplifier:
  5205      
  5206      zero_le_square
  5207      not_square_less_zero 
  5208 
  5209   The following lemmas have been deleted from Real/RealPow:
  5210   
  5211      realpow_zero_zero
  5212      realpow_two
  5213      realpow_less
  5214      zero_le_power
  5215      realpow_two_le
  5216      abs_realpow_two
  5217      realpow_two_abs     
  5218 
  5219 * Theory Parity: added rules for simplifying exponents.
  5220 
  5221 * Theory List:
  5222 
  5223 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
  5224 (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5225 
  5226   list_all_Nil       now named list_all.simps(1)
  5227   list_all_Cons      now named list_all.simps(2)
  5228   list_all_conv      now named list_all_iff
  5229   set_mem_eq         now named mem_iff
  5230 
  5231 * Theories SetsAndFunctions and BigO (see HOL/Library) support
  5232 asymptotic "big O" calculations.  See the notes in BigO.thy.
  5233 
  5234 
  5235 *** HOL-Complex ***
  5236 
  5237 * Theory RealDef: better support for embedding natural numbers and
  5238 integers in the reals.
  5239 
  5240 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
  5241 (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5242 
  5243   exp_ge_add_one_self  now requires no hypotheses
  5244   real_of_int_add      reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  5245   real_of_int_minus    reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  5246   real_of_int_diff     reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  5247   real_of_int_mult     reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  5248 
  5249 * Theory RComplete: expanded support for floor and ceiling functions.
  5250 
  5251 * Theory Ln is new, with properties of the natural logarithm
  5252 
  5253 * Hyperreal: There is a new type constructor "star" for making
  5254 nonstandard types.  The old type names are now type synonyms:
  5255 
  5256   hypreal = real star
  5257   hypnat = nat star
  5258   hcomplex = complex star
  5259 
  5260 * Hyperreal: Many groups of similarly-defined constants have been
  5261 replaced by polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5262 
  5263   star_of <-- hypreal_of_real, hypnat_of_nat, hcomplex_of_complex
  5264 
  5265   starset      <-- starsetNat, starsetC
  5266   *s*          <-- *sNat*, *sc*
  5267   starset_n    <-- starsetNat_n, starsetC_n
  5268   *sn*         <-- *sNatn*, *scn*
  5269   InternalSets <-- InternalNatSets, InternalCSets
  5270 
  5271   starfun      <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
  5272   *f*          <-- *fNat*, *fNat2*, *fc*, *fRc*, *fcR*
  5273   starfun_n    <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n
  5274   *fn*         <-- *fNatn*, *fNat2n*, *fcn*, *fRcn*, *fcRn*
  5275   InternalFuns <-- InternalNatFuns, InternalNatFuns2, Internal{C,RC,CR}Funs
  5276 
  5277 * Hyperreal: Many type-specific theorems have been removed in favor of
  5278 theorems specific to various axiomatic type classes (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5279 
  5280   add_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_commute
  5281   add_assoc   <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_assocs
  5282   OrderedGroup.add_0 <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_zero_left
  5283   OrderedGroup.add_0_right <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_zero_right
  5284   right_minus <-- hypreal_add_minus
  5285   left_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_minus_left
  5286   mult_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_commute
  5287   mult_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_assoc
  5288   mult_1_left <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_1, hcomplex_mult_one_left
  5289   mult_1_right <-- hcomplex_mult_one_right
  5290   mult_zero_left <-- hcomplex_mult_zero_left
  5291   left_distrib <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_mult_distrib
  5292   right_distrib <-- hypnat_add_mult_distrib2
  5293   zero_neq_one <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_not_eq_one
  5294   right_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse
  5295   left_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse_left, hcomplex_mult_inv_left
  5296   order_refl <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_refl
  5297   order_trans <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_trans
  5298   order_antisym <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_anti_sym
  5299   order_less_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less_le
  5300   linorder_linear <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_linear
  5301   add_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_add_left_mono
  5302   mult_strict_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_less_mono2
  5303   add_nonneg_nonneg <-- hypreal_le_add_order
  5304 
  5305 * Hyperreal: Separate theorems having to do with type-specific
  5306 versions of constants have been merged into theorems that apply to the
  5307 new polymorphic constants (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5308 
  5309   STAR_UNIV_set <-- {STAR_real,NatStar_real,STARC_complex}_set
  5310   STAR_empty_set <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_empty_set
  5311   STAR_Un <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Un
  5312   STAR_Int <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Int
  5313   STAR_Compl <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Compl
  5314   STAR_subset <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_subset
  5315   STAR_mem <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_mem
  5316   STAR_mem_Compl <-- {STAR,STARC}_mem_Compl
  5317   STAR_diff <-- {STAR,STARC}_diff
  5318   STAR_star_of_image_subset <-- {STAR_hypreal_of_real, NatStar_hypreal_of_real,
  5319     STARC_hcomplex_of_complex}_image_subset
  5320   starset_n_Un <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Un
  5321   starset_n_Int <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Int
  5322   starset_n_Compl <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Compl
  5323   starset_n_diff <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_diff
  5324   InternalSets_Un <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Un
  5325   InternalSets_Int <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Int
  5326   InternalSets_Compl <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Compl
  5327   InternalSets_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_diff
  5328   InternalSets_UNIV_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_UNIV_diff
  5329   InternalSets_starset_n <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_starset{Nat,C}_n
  5330   starset_starset_n_eq <-- starset{Nat,C}_starset{Nat,C}_n_eq
  5331   starset_n_starset <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_starset{Nat,C}
  5332   starfun_n_starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n_starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
  5333   starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
  5334   starfun_mult <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_mult
  5335   starfun_add <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_add
  5336   starfun_minus <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_minus
  5337   starfun_diff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_diff
  5338   starfun_o <-- starfun{NatNat2,Nat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o
  5339   starfun_o2 <-- starfun{NatNat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o2
  5340   starfun_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_const_fun
  5341   starfun_inverse <-- starfun{Nat,C,RC,CR}_inverse
  5342   starfun_eq <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_eq
  5343   starfun_eq_iff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_eq_iff
  5344   starfun_Id <-- starfunC_Id
  5345   starfun_approx <-- starfun{Nat,CR}_approx
  5346   starfun_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_capprox
  5347   starfun_abs <-- starfunNat_rabs
  5348   starfun_lambda_cancel <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel
  5349   starfun_lambda_cancel2 <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel2
  5350   starfun_mult_HFinite_approx <-- starfunCR_mult_HFinite_capprox
  5351   starfun_mult_CFinite_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_mult_CFinite_capprox
  5352   starfun_add_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_add_capprox
  5353   starfun_add_approx <-- starfunCR_add_approx
  5354   starfun_inverse_inverse <-- starfunC_inverse_inverse
  5355   starfun_divide <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_divide
  5356   starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n
  5357   starfun_n_mult <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_mult
  5358   starfun_n_add <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_add
  5359   starfun_n_add_minus <-- starfunNat_n_add_minus
  5360   starfun_n_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_const_fun
  5361   starfun_n_minus <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_minus
  5362   starfun_n_eq <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_eq
  5363 
  5364   star_n_add <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add
  5365   star_n_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_minus
  5366   star_n_diff <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_diff
  5367   star_n_mult <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_mult
  5368   star_n_inverse <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_inverse
  5369   star_n_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le
  5370   star_n_less <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less
  5371   star_n_zero_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_num
  5372   star_n_one_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_one_num
  5373   star_n_abs <-- hypreal_hrabs
  5374   star_n_divide <-- hcomplex_divide
  5375 
  5376   star_of_add <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_add
  5377   star_of_minus <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_minus
  5378   star_of_diff <-- hypreal_of_real_diff
  5379   star_of_mult <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_mult
  5380   star_of_one <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_one
  5381   star_of_zero <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_zero
  5382   star_of_le <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_le_iff
  5383   star_of_less <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_less_iff
  5384   star_of_eq <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_eq_iff
  5385   star_of_inverse <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_inverse
  5386   star_of_divide <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_divide
  5387   star_of_of_nat <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_nat
  5388   star_of_of_int <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_int
  5389   star_of_number_of <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_number_of
  5390   star_of_number_less <-- number_of_less_hypreal_of_real_iff
  5391   star_of_number_le <-- number_of_le_hypreal_of_real_iff
  5392   star_of_eq_number <-- hypreal_of_real_eq_number_of_iff
  5393   star_of_less_number <-- hypreal_of_real_less_number_of_iff
  5394   star_of_le_number <-- hypreal_of_real_le_number_of_iff
  5395   star_of_power <-- hypreal_of_real_power
  5396   star_of_eq_0 <-- hcomplex_of_complex_zero_iff
  5397 
  5398 * Hyperreal: new method "transfer" that implements the transfer
  5399 principle of nonstandard analysis. With a subgoal that mentions
  5400 nonstandard types like "'a star", the command "apply transfer"
  5401 replaces it with an equivalent one that mentions only standard types.
  5402 To be successful, all free variables must have standard types; non-
  5403 standard variables must have explicit universal quantifiers.
  5404 
  5405 * Hyperreal: A theory of Taylor series.
  5406 
  5407 
  5408 *** HOLCF ***
  5409 
  5410 * Discontinued special version of 'constdefs' (which used to support
  5411 continuous functions) in favor of the general Pure one with full
  5412 type-inference.
  5413 
  5414 * New simplification procedure for solving continuity conditions; it
  5415 is much faster on terms with many nested lambda abstractions (cubic
  5416 instead of exponential time).
  5417 
  5418 * New syntax for domain package: selector names are now optional.
  5419 Parentheses should be omitted unless argument is lazy, for example:
  5420 
  5421   domain 'a stream = cons "'a" (lazy "'a stream")
  5422 
  5423 * New command 'fixrec' for defining recursive functions with pattern
  5424 matching; defining multiple functions with mutual recursion is also
  5425 supported.  Patterns may include the constants cpair, spair, up, sinl,
  5426 sinr, or any data constructor defined by the domain package. The given
  5427 equations are proven as rewrite rules. See HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5428 syntax and examples.
  5429 
  5430 * New commands 'cpodef' and 'pcpodef' for defining predicate subtypes
  5431 of cpo and pcpo types. Syntax is exactly like the 'typedef' command,
  5432 but the proof obligation additionally includes an admissibility
  5433 requirement. The packages generate instances of class cpo or pcpo,
  5434 with continuity and strictness theorems for Rep and Abs.
  5435 
  5436 * HOLCF: Many theorems have been renamed according to a more standard naming
  5437 scheme (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5438 
  5439   foo_inject:  "foo$x = foo$y ==> x = y"
  5440   foo_eq:      "(foo$x = foo$y) = (x = y)"
  5441   foo_less:    "(foo$x << foo$y) = (x << y)"
  5442   foo_strict:  "foo$UU = UU"
  5443   foo_defined: "... ==> foo$x ~= UU"
  5444   foo_defined_iff: "(foo$x = UU) = (x = UU)"
  5445 
  5446 
  5447 *** ZF ***
  5448 
  5449 * ZF/ex: theories Group and Ring provide examples in abstract algebra,
  5450 including the First Isomorphism Theorem (on quotienting by the kernel
  5451 of a homomorphism).
  5452 
  5453 * ZF/Simplifier: install second copy of type solver that actually
  5454 makes use of TC rules declared to Isar proof contexts (or locales);
  5455 the old version is still required for ML proof scripts.
  5456 
  5457 
  5458 *** Cube ***
  5459 
  5460 * Converted to Isar theory format; use locales instead of axiomatic
  5461 theories.
  5462 
  5463 
  5464 *** ML ***
  5465 
  5466 * Pure/library.ML: added ##>, ##>>, #>> -- higher-order counterparts
  5467 for ||>, ||>>, |>>,
  5468 
  5469 * Pure/library.ML no longer defines its own option datatype, but uses
  5470 that of the SML basis, which has constructors NONE and SOME instead of
  5471 None and Some, as well as exception Option.Option instead of OPTION.
  5472 The functions the, if_none, is_some, is_none have been adapted
  5473 accordingly, while Option.map replaces apsome.
  5474 
  5475 * Pure/library.ML: the exception LIST has been given up in favour of
  5476 the standard exceptions Empty and Subscript, as well as
  5477 Library.UnequalLengths.  Function like Library.hd and Library.tl are
  5478 superceded by the standard hd and tl functions etc.
  5479 
  5480 A number of basic list functions are no longer exported to the ML
  5481 toplevel, as they are variants of predefined functions.  The following
  5482 suggests how one can translate existing code:
  5483 
  5484     rev_append xs ys = List.revAppend (xs, ys)
  5485     nth_elem (i, xs) = List.nth (xs, i)
  5486     last_elem xs = List.last xs
  5487     flat xss = List.concat xss
  5488     seq fs = List.app fs
  5489     partition P xs = List.partition P xs
  5490     mapfilter f xs = List.mapPartial f xs
  5491 
  5492 * Pure/library.ML: several combinators for linear functional
  5493 transformations, notably reverse application and composition:
  5494 
  5495   x |> f                f #> g
  5496   (x, y) |-> f          f #-> g
  5497 
  5498 * Pure/library.ML: introduced/changed precedence of infix operators:
  5499 
  5500   infix 1 |> |-> ||> ||>> |>> |>>> #> #->;
  5501   infix 2 ?;
  5502   infix 3 o oo ooo oooo;
  5503   infix 4 ~~ upto downto;
  5504 
  5505 Maybe INCOMPATIBILITY when any of those is used in conjunction with other
  5506 infix operators.
  5507 
  5508 * Pure/library.ML: natural list combinators fold, fold_rev, and
  5509 fold_map support linear functional transformations and nesting.  For
  5510 example:
  5511 
  5512   fold f [x1, ..., xN] y =
  5513     y |> f x1 |> ... |> f xN
  5514 
  5515   (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] y =
  5516     y |> fold f xs1 |> ... |> fold f xsN
  5517 
  5518   fold f [x1, ..., xN] =
  5519     f x1 #> ... #> f xN
  5520 
  5521   (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] =
  5522     fold f xs1 #> ... #> fold f xsN
  5523 
  5524 * Pure/library.ML: the following selectors on type 'a option are
  5525 available:
  5526 
  5527   the:               'a option -> 'a  (*partial*)
  5528   these:             'a option -> 'a  where 'a = 'b list
  5529   the_default: 'a -> 'a option -> 'a
  5530   the_list:          'a option -> 'a list
  5531 
  5532 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides
  5533 basic operations for association lists, following natural argument
  5534 order; moreover the explicit equality predicate passed here avoids
  5535 potentially expensive polymorphic runtime equality checks.
  5536 The old functions may be expressed as follows:
  5537 
  5538   assoc = uncurry (AList.lookup (op =))
  5539   assocs = these oo AList.lookup (op =)
  5540   overwrite = uncurry (AList.update (op =)) o swap
  5541 
  5542 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides
  5543 
  5544   val make: ('a -> 'b) -> 'a list -> ('a * 'b) list
  5545   val find: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> ('c * 'b) list -> 'a -> 'c list
  5546 
  5547 replacing make_keylist and keyfilter (occassionally used)
  5548 Naive rewrites:
  5549 
  5550   make_keylist = AList.make
  5551   keyfilter = AList.find (op =)
  5552 
  5553 * eq_fst and eq_snd now take explicit equality parameter, thus
  5554   avoiding eqtypes. Naive rewrites:
  5555 
  5556     eq_fst = eq_fst (op =)
  5557     eq_snd = eq_snd (op =)
  5558 
  5559 * Removed deprecated apl and apr (rarely used).
  5560   Naive rewrites:
  5561 
  5562     apl (n, op) =>>= curry op n
  5563     apr (op, m) =>>= fn n => op (n, m)
  5564 
  5565 * Pure/General: structure OrdList (cf. Pure/General/ord_list.ML)
  5566 provides a reasonably efficient light-weight implementation of sets as
  5567 lists.
  5568 
  5569 * Pure/General: generic tables (cf. Pure/General/table.ML) provide a
  5570 few new operations; existing lookup and update are now curried to
  5571 follow natural argument order (for use with fold etc.);
  5572 INCOMPATIBILITY, use (uncurry Symtab.lookup) etc. as last resort.
  5573 
  5574 * Pure/General: output via the Isabelle channels of
  5575 writeln/warning/error etc. is now passed through Output.output, with a
  5576 hook for arbitrary transformations depending on the print_mode
  5577 (cf. Output.add_mode -- the first active mode that provides a output
  5578 function wins).  Already formatted output may be embedded into further
  5579 text via Output.raw; the result of Pretty.string_of/str_of and derived
  5580 functions (string_of_term/cterm/thm etc.) is already marked raw to
  5581 accommodate easy composition of diagnostic messages etc.  Programmers
  5582 rarely need to care about Output.output or Output.raw at all, with
  5583 some notable exceptions: Output.output is required when bypassing the
  5584 standard channels (writeln etc.), or in token translations to produce
  5585 properly formatted results; Output.raw is required when capturing
  5586 already output material that will eventually be presented to the user
  5587 a second time.  For the default print mode, both Output.output and
  5588 Output.raw have no effect.
  5589 
  5590 * Pure/General: Output.time_accumulator NAME creates an operator ('a
  5591 -> 'b) -> 'a -> 'b to measure runtime and count invocations; the
  5592 cumulative results are displayed at the end of a batch session.
  5593 
  5594 * Pure/General: File.sysify_path and File.quote_sysify path have been
  5595 replaced by File.platform_path and File.shell_path (with appropriate
  5596 hooks).  This provides a clean interface for unusual systems where the
  5597 internal and external process view of file names are different.
  5598 
  5599 * Pure: more efficient orders for basic syntactic entities: added
  5600 fast_string_ord, fast_indexname_ord, fast_term_ord; changed sort_ord
  5601 and typ_ord to use fast_string_ord and fast_indexname_ord (term_ord is
  5602 NOT affected); structures Symtab, Vartab, Typtab, Termtab use the fast
  5603 orders now -- potential INCOMPATIBILITY for code that depends on a
  5604 particular order for Symtab.keys, Symtab.dest, etc. (consider using
  5605 Library.sort_strings on result).
  5606 
  5607 * Pure/term.ML: combinators fold_atyps, fold_aterms, fold_term_types,
  5608 fold_types traverse types/terms from left to right, observing natural
  5609 argument order.  Supercedes previous foldl_XXX versions, add_frees,
  5610 add_vars etc. have been adapted as well: INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5611 
  5612 * Pure: name spaces have been refined, with significant changes of the
  5613 internal interfaces -- INCOMPATIBILITY.  Renamed cond_extern(_table)
  5614 to extern(_table).  The plain name entry path is superceded by a
  5615 general 'naming' context, which also includes the 'policy' to produce
  5616 a fully qualified name and external accesses of a fully qualified
  5617 name; NameSpace.extend is superceded by context dependent
  5618 Sign.declare_name.  Several theory and proof context operations modify
  5619 the naming context.  Especially note Theory.restore_naming and
  5620 ProofContext.restore_naming to get back to a sane state; note that
  5621 Theory.add_path is no longer sufficient to recover from
  5622 Theory.absolute_path in particular.
  5623 
  5624 * Pure: new flags short_names (default false) and unique_names
  5625 (default true) for controlling output of qualified names.  If
  5626 short_names is set, names are printed unqualified.  If unique_names is
  5627 reset, the name prefix is reduced to the minimum required to achieve
  5628 the original result when interning again, even if there is an overlap
  5629 with earlier declarations.
  5630 
  5631 * Pure/TheoryDataFun: change of the argument structure; 'prep_ext' is
  5632 now 'extend', and 'merge' gets an additional Pretty.pp argument
  5633 (useful for printing error messages).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5634 
  5635 * Pure: major reorganization of the theory context.  Type Sign.sg and
  5636 Theory.theory are now identified, referring to the universal
  5637 Context.theory (see Pure/context.ML).  Actual signature and theory
  5638 content is managed as theory data.  The old code and interfaces were
  5639 spread over many files and structures; the new arrangement introduces
  5640 considerable INCOMPATIBILITY to gain more clarity:
  5641 
  5642   Context -- theory management operations (name, identity, inclusion,
  5643     parents, ancestors, merge, etc.), plus generic theory data;
  5644 
  5645   Sign -- logical signature and syntax operations (declaring consts,
  5646     types, etc.), plus certify/read for common entities;
  5647 
  5648   Theory -- logical theory operations (stating axioms, definitions,
  5649     oracles), plus a copy of logical signature operations (consts,
  5650     types, etc.); also a few basic management operations (Theory.copy,
  5651     Theory.merge, etc.)
  5652 
  5653 The most basic sign_of operations (Theory.sign_of, Thm.sign_of_thm
  5654 etc.) as well as the sign field in Thm.rep_thm etc. have been retained
  5655 for convenience -- they merely return the theory.
  5656 
  5657 * Pure: type Type.tsig is superceded by theory in most interfaces.
  5658 
  5659 * Pure: the Isar proof context type is already defined early in Pure
  5660 as Context.proof (note that ProofContext.context and Proof.context are
  5661 aliases, where the latter is the preferred name).  This enables other
  5662 Isabelle components to refer to that type even before Isar is present.
  5663 
  5664 * Pure/sign/theory: discontinued named name spaces (i.e. classK,
  5665 typeK, constK, axiomK, oracleK), but provide explicit operations for
  5666 any of these kinds.  For example, Sign.intern typeK is now
  5667 Sign.intern_type, Theory.hide_space Sign.typeK is now
  5668 Theory.hide_types.  Also note that former
  5669 Theory.hide_classes/types/consts are now
  5670 Theory.hide_classes_i/types_i/consts_i, while the non '_i' versions
  5671 internalize their arguments!  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5672 
  5673 * Pure: get_thm interface (of PureThy and ProofContext) expects
  5674 datatype thmref (with constructors Name and NameSelection) instead of
  5675 plain string -- INCOMPATIBILITY;
  5676 
  5677 * Pure: cases produced by proof methods specify options, where NONE
  5678 means to remove case bindings -- INCOMPATIBILITY in
  5679 (RAW_)METHOD_CASES.
  5680 
  5681 * Pure: the following operations retrieve axioms or theorems from a
  5682 theory node or theory hierarchy, respectively:
  5683 
  5684   Theory.axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list
  5685   Theory.all_axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list
  5686   PureThy.thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list
  5687   PureThy.all_thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list
  5688 
  5689 * Pure: print_tac now outputs the goal through the trace channel.
  5690 
  5691 * Isar toplevel: improved diagnostics, mostly for Poly/ML only.
  5692 Reference Toplevel.debug (default false) controls detailed printing
  5693 and tracing of low-level exceptions; Toplevel.profiling (default 0)
  5694 controls execution profiling -- set to 1 for time and 2 for space
  5695 (both increase the runtime).
  5696 
  5697 * Isar session: The initial use of ROOT.ML is now always timed,
  5698 i.e. the log will show the actual process times, in contrast to the
  5699 elapsed wall-clock time that the outer shell wrapper produces.
  5700 
  5701 * Simplifier: improved handling of bound variables (nameless
  5702 representation, avoid allocating new strings).  Simprocs that invoke
  5703 the Simplifier recursively should use Simplifier.inherit_bounds to
  5704 avoid local name clashes.  Failure to do so produces warnings
  5705 "Simplifier: renamed bound variable ..."; set Simplifier.debug_bounds
  5706 for further details.
  5707 
  5708 * ML functions legacy_bindings and use_legacy_bindings produce ML fact
  5709 bindings for all theorems stored within a given theory; this may help
  5710 in porting non-Isar theories to Isar ones, while keeping ML proof
  5711 scripts for the time being.
  5712 
  5713 * ML operator HTML.with_charset specifies the charset begin used for
  5714 generated HTML files.  For example:
  5715 
  5716   HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Hebrew";
  5717   HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Chinese";
  5718 
  5719 
  5720 *** System ***
  5721 
  5722 * Allow symlinks to all proper Isabelle executables (Isabelle,
  5723 isabelle, isatool etc.).
  5724 
  5725 * ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT setting specifies preferred document format (for
  5726 isatool doc, isatool mkdir, display_drafts etc.).
  5727 
  5728 * isatool usedir: option -f allows specification of the ML file to be
  5729 used by Isabelle; default is ROOT.ML.
  5730 
  5731 * New isatool version outputs the version identifier of the Isabelle
  5732 distribution being used.
  5733 
  5734 * HOL: new isatool dimacs2hol converts files in DIMACS CNF format
  5735 (containing Boolean satisfiability problems) into Isabelle/HOL
  5736 theories.
  5737 
  5738 
  5739 
  5740 New in Isabelle2004 (April 2004)
  5741 --------------------------------
  5742 
  5743 *** General ***
  5744 
  5745 * Provers/order.ML:  new efficient reasoner for partial and linear orders.
  5746   Replaces linorder.ML.
  5747 
  5748 * Pure: Greek letters (except small lambda, \<lambda>), as well as Gothic
  5749   (\<aa>...\<zz>\<AA>...\<ZZ>), calligraphic (\<A>...\<Z>), and Euler
  5750   (\<a>...\<z>), are now considered normal letters, and can therefore
  5751   be used anywhere where an ASCII letter (a...zA...Z) has until
  5752   now. COMPATIBILITY: This obviously changes the parsing of some
  5753   terms, especially where a symbol has been used as a binder, say
  5754   '\<Pi>x. ...', which is now a type error since \<Pi>x will be parsed
  5755   as an identifier.  Fix it by inserting a space around former
  5756   symbols.  Call 'isatool fixgreek' to try to fix parsing errors in
  5757   existing theory and ML files.
  5758 
  5759 * Pure: Macintosh and Windows line-breaks are now allowed in theory files.
  5760 
  5761 * Pure: single letter sub/superscripts (\<^isub> and \<^isup>) are now
  5762   allowed in identifiers. Similar to Greek letters \<^isub> is now considered
  5763   a normal (but invisible) letter. For multiple letter subscripts repeat
  5764   \<^isub> like this: x\<^isub>1\<^isub>2.
  5765 
  5766 * Pure: There are now sub-/superscripts that can span more than one
  5767   character. Text between \<^bsub> and \<^esub> is set in subscript in
  5768   ProofGeneral and LaTeX, text between \<^bsup> and \<^esup> in
  5769   superscript. The new control characters are not identifier parts.
  5770 
  5771 * Pure: Control-symbols of the form \<^raw:...> will literally print the
  5772   content of "..." to the latex file instead of \isacntrl... . The "..."
  5773   may consist of any printable characters excluding the end bracket >.
  5774 
  5775 * Pure: Using new Isar command "finalconsts" (or the ML functions
  5776   Theory.add_finals or Theory.add_finals_i) it is now possible to
  5777   declare constants "final", which prevents their being given a definition
  5778   later.  It is useful for constants whose behaviour is fixed axiomatically
  5779   rather than definitionally, such as the meta-logic connectives.
  5780 
  5781 * Pure: 'instance' now handles general arities with general sorts
  5782   (i.e. intersections of classes),
  5783 
  5784 * Presentation: generated HTML now uses a CSS style sheet to make layout
  5785   (somewhat) independent of content. It is copied from lib/html/isabelle.css.
  5786   It can be changed to alter the colors/layout of generated pages.
  5787 
  5788 
  5789 *** Isar ***
  5790 
  5791 * Tactic emulation methods rule_tac, erule_tac, drule_tac, frule_tac,
  5792   cut_tac, subgoal_tac and thin_tac:
  5793   - Now understand static (Isar) contexts.  As a consequence, users of Isar
  5794     locales are no longer forced to write Isar proof scripts.
  5795     For details see Isar Reference Manual, paragraph 4.3.2: Further tactic
  5796     emulations.
  5797   - INCOMPATIBILITY: names of variables to be instantiated may no
  5798     longer be enclosed in quotes.  Instead, precede variable name with `?'.
  5799     This is consistent with the instantiation attribute "where".
  5800 
  5801 * Attributes "where" and "of":
  5802   - Now take type variables of instantiated theorem into account when reading
  5803     the instantiation string.  This fixes a bug that caused instantiated
  5804     theorems to have too special types in some circumstances.
  5805   - "where" permits explicit instantiations of type variables.
  5806 
  5807 * Calculation commands "moreover" and "also" no longer interfere with
  5808   current facts ("this"), admitting arbitrary combinations with "then"
  5809   and derived forms.
  5810 
  5811 * Locales:
  5812   - Goal statements involving the context element "includes" no longer
  5813     generate theorems with internal delta predicates (those ending on
  5814     "_axioms") in the premise.
  5815     Resolve particular premise with <locale>.intro to obtain old form.
  5816   - Fixed bug in type inference ("unify_frozen") that prevented mix of target
  5817     specification and "includes" elements in goal statement.
  5818   - Rule sets <locale>.intro and <locale>.axioms no longer declared as
  5819     [intro?] and [elim?] (respectively) by default.
  5820   - Experimental command for instantiation of locales in proof contexts:
  5821         instantiate <label>[<attrs>]: <loc>
  5822     Instantiates locale <loc> and adds all its theorems to the current context
  5823     taking into account their attributes.  Label and attrs are optional
  5824     modifiers, like in theorem declarations.  If present, names of
  5825     instantiated theorems are qualified with <label>, and the attributes
  5826     <attrs> are applied after any attributes these theorems might have already.
  5827       If the locale has assumptions, a chained fact of the form
  5828     "<loc> t1 ... tn" is expected from which instantiations of the parameters
  5829     are derived.  The command does not support old-style locales declared
  5830     with "locale (open)".
  5831       A few (very simple) examples can be found in FOL/ex/LocaleInst.thy.
  5832 
  5833 * HOL: Tactic emulation methods induct_tac and case_tac understand static
  5834   (Isar) contexts.
  5835 
  5836 
  5837 *** HOL ***
  5838 
  5839 * Proof import: new image HOL4 contains the imported library from
  5840   the HOL4 system with about 2500 theorems. It is imported by
  5841   replaying proof terms produced by HOL4 in Isabelle. The HOL4 image
  5842   can be used like any other Isabelle image.  See
  5843   HOL/Import/HOL/README for more information.
  5844 
  5845 * Simplifier:
  5846   - Much improved handling of linear and partial orders.
  5847     Reasoners for linear and partial orders are set up for type classes
  5848     "linorder" and "order" respectively, and are added to the default simpset
  5849     as solvers.  This means that the simplifier can build transitivity chains
  5850     to solve goals from the assumptions.
  5851   - INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break occasionally.  Typically, applications
  5852     of blast or auto after simplification become unnecessary because the goal
  5853     is solved by simplification already.
  5854 
  5855 * Numerics: new theory Ring_and_Field contains over 250 basic numerical laws,
  5856     all proved in axiomatic type classes for semirings, rings and fields.
  5857 
  5858 * Numerics:
  5859   - Numeric types (nat, int, and in HOL-Complex rat, real, complex, etc.) are
  5860     now formalized using the Ring_and_Field theory mentioned above.
  5861   - INCOMPATIBILITY: simplification and arithmetic behaves somewhat differently
  5862     than before, because now they are set up once in a generic manner.
  5863   - INCOMPATIBILITY: many type-specific arithmetic laws have gone.
  5864     Look for the general versions in Ring_and_Field (and Power if they concern
  5865     exponentiation).
  5866 
  5867 * Type "rat" of the rational numbers is now available in HOL-Complex.
  5868 
  5869 * Records:
  5870   - Record types are now by default printed with their type abbreviation
  5871     instead of the list of all field types. This can be configured via
  5872     the reference "print_record_type_abbr".
  5873   - Simproc "record_upd_simproc" for simplification of multiple updates added
  5874     (not enabled by default).
  5875   - Simproc "record_ex_sel_eq_simproc" to simplify EX x. sel r = x resp.
  5876     EX x. x = sel r to True (not enabled by default).
  5877   - Tactic "record_split_simp_tac" to split and simplify records added.
  5878 
  5879 * 'specification' command added, allowing for definition by
  5880   specification.  There is also an 'ax_specification' command that
  5881   introduces the new constants axiomatically.
  5882 
  5883 * arith(_tac) is now able to generate counterexamples for reals as well.
  5884 
  5885 * HOL-Algebra: new locale "ring" for non-commutative rings.
  5886 
  5887 * HOL-ex: InductiveInvariant_examples illustrates advanced recursive function
  5888   definitions, thanks to Sava Krsti\'{c} and John Matthews.
  5889 
  5890 * HOL-Matrix: a first theory for matrices in HOL with an application of
  5891   matrix theory to linear programming.
  5892 
  5893 * Unions and Intersections:
  5894   The latex output syntax of UN and INT has been changed
  5895   from "\Union x \in A. B" to "\Union_{x \in A} B"
  5896   i.e. the index formulae has become a subscript.
  5897   Similarly for "\Union x. B", and for \Inter instead of \Union.
  5898 
  5899 * Unions and Intersections over Intervals:
  5900   There is new short syntax "UN i<=n. A" for "UN i:{0..n}. A". There is
  5901   also an x-symbol version with subscripts "\<Union>\<^bsub>i <= n\<^esub>. A"
  5902   like in normal math, and corresponding versions for < and for intersection.
  5903 
  5904 * HOL/List: Ordering "lexico" is renamed "lenlex" and the standard
  5905   lexicographic dictonary ordering has been added as "lexord".
  5906 
  5907 * ML: the legacy theory structures Int and List have been removed. They had
  5908   conflicted with ML Basis Library structures having the same names.
  5909 
  5910 * 'refute' command added to search for (finite) countermodels.  Only works
  5911   for a fragment of HOL.  The installation of an external SAT solver is
  5912   highly recommended.  See "HOL/Refute.thy" for details.
  5913 
  5914 * 'quickcheck' command: Allows to find counterexamples by evaluating
  5915   formulae under an assignment of free variables to random values.
  5916   In contrast to 'refute', it can deal with inductive datatypes,
  5917   but cannot handle quantifiers. See "HOL/ex/Quickcheck_Examples.thy"
  5918   for examples.
  5919 
  5920 
  5921 *** HOLCF ***
  5922 
  5923 * Streams now come with concatenation and are part of the HOLCF image
  5924 
  5925 
  5926 
  5927 New in Isabelle2003 (May 2003)
  5928 ------------------------------
  5929 
  5930 *** General ***
  5931 
  5932 * Provers/simplifier:
  5933 
  5934   - Completely reimplemented method simp (ML: Asm_full_simp_tac):
  5935     Assumptions are now subject to complete mutual simplification,
  5936     not just from left to right. The simplifier now preserves
  5937     the order of assumptions.
  5938 
  5939     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5940 
  5941     -- simp sometimes diverges where the old version did
  5942        not, e.g. invoking simp on the goal
  5943 
  5944         [| P (f x); y = x; f x = f y |] ==> Q
  5945 
  5946        now gives rise to the infinite reduction sequence
  5947 
  5948         P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> P(f y) --(y = x)--> P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> ...
  5949 
  5950        Using "simp (asm_lr)" (ML: Asm_lr_simp_tac) instead often solves this
  5951        kind of problem.
  5952 
  5953     -- Tactics combining classical reasoner and simplification (such as auto)
  5954        are also affected by this change, because many of them rely on
  5955        simp. They may sometimes diverge as well or yield a different numbers
  5956        of subgoals. Try to use e.g. force, fastsimp, or safe instead of auto
  5957        in case of problems. Sometimes subsequent calls to the classical
  5958        reasoner will fail because a preceeding call to the simplifier too
  5959        eagerly simplified the goal, e.g. deleted redundant premises.
  5960 
  5961   - The simplifier trace now shows the names of the applied rewrite rules
  5962 
  5963   - You can limit the number of recursive invocations of the simplifier
  5964     during conditional rewriting (where the simplifie tries to solve the
  5965     conditions before applying the rewrite rule):
  5966     ML "simp_depth_limit := n"
  5967     where n is an integer. Thus you can force termination where previously
  5968     the simplifier would diverge.
  5969 
  5970   - Accepts free variables as head terms in congruence rules.  Useful in Isar.
  5971 
  5972   - No longer aborts on failed congruence proof.  Instead, the
  5973     congruence is ignored.
  5974 
  5975 * Pure: New generic framework for extracting programs from constructive
  5976   proofs. See HOL/Extraction.thy for an example instantiation, as well
  5977   as HOL/Extraction for some case studies.
  5978 
  5979 * Pure: The main goal of the proof state is no longer shown by default, only
  5980 the subgoals. This behaviour is controlled by a new flag.
  5981    PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Settings -> Show Main Goal
  5982 (ML: Proof.show_main_goal).
  5983 
  5984 * Pure: You can find all matching introduction rules for subgoal 1, i.e. all
  5985 rules whose conclusion matches subgoal 1:
  5986       PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Show me -> matching rules
  5987 The rules are ordered by how closely they match the subgoal.
  5988 In particular, rules that solve a subgoal outright are displayed first
  5989 (or rather last, the way they are printed).
  5990 (ML: ProofGeneral.print_intros())
  5991 
  5992 * Pure: New flag trace_unify_fail causes unification to print
  5993 diagnostic information (PG: in trace buffer) when it fails. This is
  5994 useful for figuring out why single step proofs like rule, erule or
  5995 assumption failed.
  5996 
  5997 * Pure: Locale specifications now produce predicate definitions
  5998 according to the body of text (covering assumptions modulo local
  5999 definitions); predicate "loc_axioms" covers newly introduced text,
  6000 while "loc" is cumulative wrt. all included locale expressions; the
  6001 latter view is presented only on export into the global theory
  6002 context; potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use "(open)" option to fall back
  6003 on the old view without predicates;
  6004 
  6005 * Pure: predefined locales "var" and "struct" are useful for sharing
  6006 parameters (as in CASL, for example); just specify something like
  6007 ``var x + var y + struct M'' as import;
  6008 
  6009 * Pure: improved thms_containing: proper indexing of facts instead of
  6010 raw theorems; check validity of results wrt. current name space;
  6011 include local facts of proof configuration (also covers active
  6012 locales), cover fixed variables in index; may use "_" in term
  6013 specification; an optional limit for the number of printed facts may
  6014 be given (the default is 40);
  6015 
  6016 * Pure: disallow duplicate fact bindings within new-style theory files
  6017 (batch-mode only);
  6018 
  6019 * Provers: improved induct method: assumptions introduced by case
  6020 "foo" are split into "foo.hyps" (from the rule) and "foo.prems" (from
  6021 the goal statement); "foo" still refers to all facts collectively;
  6022 
  6023 * Provers: the function blast.overloaded has been removed: all constants
  6024 are regarded as potentially overloaded, which improves robustness in exchange
  6025 for slight decrease in efficiency;
  6026 
  6027 * Provers/linorder: New generic prover for transitivity reasoning over
  6028 linear orders.  Note: this prover is not efficient!
  6029 
  6030 * Isar: preview of problems to finish 'show' now produce an error
  6031 rather than just a warning (in interactive mode);
  6032 
  6033 
  6034 *** HOL ***
  6035 
  6036 * arith(_tac)
  6037 
  6038  - Produces a counter example if it cannot prove a goal.
  6039    Note that the counter example may be spurious if the goal is not a formula
  6040    of quantifier-free linear arithmetic.
  6041    In ProofGeneral the counter example appears in the trace buffer.
  6042 
  6043  - Knows about div k and mod k where k is a numeral of type nat or int.
  6044 
  6045  - Calls full Presburger arithmetic (by Amine Chaieb) if quantifier-free
  6046    linear arithmetic fails. This takes account of quantifiers and divisibility.
  6047    Presburger arithmetic can also be called explicitly via presburger(_tac).
  6048 
  6049 * simp's arithmetic capabilities have been enhanced a bit: it now
  6050 takes ~= in premises into account (by performing a case split);
  6051 
  6052 * simp reduces "m*(n div m) + n mod m" to n, even if the two summands
  6053 are distributed over a sum of terms;
  6054 
  6055 * New tactic "trans_tac" and method "trans" instantiate
  6056 Provers/linorder.ML for axclasses "order" and "linorder" (predicates
  6057 "<=", "<" and "=").
  6058 
  6059 * function INCOMPATIBILITIES: Pi-sets have been redefined and moved from main
  6060 HOL to Library/FuncSet; constant "Fun.op o" is now called "Fun.comp";
  6061 
  6062 * 'typedef' command has new option "open" to suppress the set
  6063 definition;
  6064 
  6065 * functions Min and Max on finite sets have been introduced (theory
  6066 Finite_Set);
  6067 
  6068 * attribute [symmetric] now works for relations as well; it turns
  6069 (x,y) : R^-1 into (y,x) : R, and vice versa;
  6070 
  6071 * induct over a !!-quantified statement (say !!x1..xn):
  6072   each "case" automatically performs "fix x1 .. xn" with exactly those names.
  6073 
  6074 * Map: `empty' is no longer a constant but a syntactic abbreviation for
  6075 %x. None. Warning: empty_def now refers to the previously hidden definition
  6076 of the empty set.
  6077 
  6078 * Algebra: formalization of classical algebra.  Intended as base for
  6079 any algebraic development in Isabelle.  Currently covers group theory
  6080 (up to Sylow's theorem) and ring theory (Universal Property of
  6081 Univariate Polynomials).  Contributions welcome;
  6082 
  6083 * GroupTheory: deleted, since its material has been moved to Algebra;
  6084 
  6085 * Complex: new directory of the complex numbers with numeric constants,
  6086 nonstandard complex numbers, and some complex analysis, standard and
  6087 nonstandard (Jacques Fleuriot);
  6088 
  6089 * HOL-Complex: new image for analysis, replacing HOL-Real and HOL-Hyperreal;
  6090 
  6091 * Hyperreal: introduced Gauge integration and hyperreal logarithms (Jacques
  6092 Fleuriot);
  6093 
  6094 * Real/HahnBanach: updated and adapted to locales;
  6095 
  6096 * NumberTheory: added Gauss's law of quadratic reciprocity (by Avigad,
  6097 Gray and Kramer);
  6098 
  6099 * UNITY: added the Meier-Sanders theory of progress sets;
  6100 
  6101 * MicroJava: bytecode verifier and lightweight bytecode verifier
  6102 as abstract algorithms, instantiated to the JVM;
  6103 
  6104 * Bali: Java source language formalization. Type system, operational
  6105 semantics, axiomatic semantics. Supported language features:
  6106 classes, interfaces, objects,virtual methods, static methods,
  6107 static/instance fields, arrays, access modifiers, definite
  6108 assignment, exceptions.
  6109 
  6110 
  6111 *** ZF ***
  6112 
  6113 * ZF/Constructible: consistency proof for AC (Gdel's constructible
  6114 universe, etc.);
  6115 
  6116 * Main ZF: virtually all theories converted to new-style format;
  6117 
  6118 
  6119 *** ML ***
  6120 
  6121 * Pure: Tactic.prove provides sane interface for internal proofs;
  6122 omits the infamous "standard" operation, so this is more appropriate
  6123 than prove_goalw_cterm in many situations (e.g. in simprocs);
  6124 
  6125 * Pure: improved error reporting of simprocs;
  6126 
  6127 * Provers: Simplifier.simproc(_i) provides sane interface for setting
  6128 up simprocs;
  6129 
  6130 
  6131 *** Document preparation ***
  6132 
  6133 * uses \par instead of \\ for line breaks in theory text. This may
  6134 shift some page breaks in large documents. To get the old behaviour
  6135 use \renewcommand{\isanewline}{\mbox{}\\\mbox{}} in root.tex.
  6136 
  6137 * minimized dependencies of isabelle.sty and isabellesym.sty on
  6138 other packages
  6139 
  6140 * \<euro> now needs package babel/greek instead of marvosym (which
  6141 broke \Rightarrow)
  6142 
  6143 * normal size for \<zero>...\<nine> (uses \mathbf instead of
  6144 textcomp package)
  6145 
  6146 
  6147 
  6148 New in Isabelle2002 (March 2002)
  6149 --------------------------------
  6150 
  6151 *** Document preparation ***
  6152 
  6153 * greatly simplified document preparation setup, including more
  6154 graceful interpretation of isatool usedir -i/-d/-D options, and more
  6155 instructive isatool mkdir; users should basically be able to get
  6156 started with "isatool mkdir HOL Test && isatool make"; alternatively,
  6157 users may run a separate document processing stage manually like this:
  6158 "isatool usedir -D output HOL Test && isatool document Test/output";
  6159 
  6160 * theory dependency graph may now be incorporated into documents;
  6161 isatool usedir -g true will produce session_graph.eps/.pdf for use
  6162 with \includegraphics of LaTeX;
  6163 
  6164 * proper spacing of consecutive markup elements, especially text
  6165 blocks after section headings;
  6166 
  6167 * support bold style (for single symbols only), input syntax is like
  6168 this: "\<^bold>\<alpha>" or "\<^bold>A";
  6169 
  6170 * \<bullet> is now output as bold \cdot by default, which looks much
  6171 better in printed text;
  6172 
  6173 * added default LaTeX bindings for \<tturnstile> and \<TTurnstile>;
  6174 note that these symbols are currently unavailable in Proof General /
  6175 X-Symbol; new symbols \<zero>, \<one>, ..., \<nine>, and \<euro>;
  6176 
  6177 * isatool latex no longer depends on changed TEXINPUTS, instead
  6178 isatool document copies the Isabelle style files to the target
  6179 location;
  6180 
  6181 
  6182 *** Isar ***
  6183 
  6184 * Pure/Provers: improved proof by cases and induction;
  6185   - 'case' command admits impromptu naming of parameters (such as
  6186     "case (Suc n)");
  6187   - 'induct' method divinates rule instantiation from the inductive
  6188     claim; no longer requires excessive ?P bindings for proper
  6189     instantiation of cases;
  6190   - 'induct' method properly enumerates all possibilities of set/type
  6191     rules; as a consequence facts may be also passed through *type*
  6192     rules without further ado;
  6193   - 'induct' method now derives symbolic cases from the *rulified*
  6194     rule (before it used to rulify cases stemming from the internal
  6195     atomized version); this means that the context of a non-atomic
  6196     statement becomes is included in the hypothesis, avoiding the
  6197     slightly cumbersome show "PROP ?case" form;
  6198   - 'induct' may now use elim-style induction rules without chaining
  6199     facts, using ``missing'' premises from the goal state; this allows
  6200     rules stemming from inductive sets to be applied in unstructured
  6201     scripts, while still benefitting from proper handling of non-atomic
  6202     statements; NB: major inductive premises need to be put first, all
  6203     the rest of the goal is passed through the induction;
  6204   - 'induct' proper support for mutual induction involving non-atomic
  6205     rule statements (uses the new concept of simultaneous goals, see
  6206     below);
  6207   - append all possible rule selections, but only use the first
  6208     success (no backtracking);
  6209   - removed obsolete "(simplified)" and "(stripped)" options of methods;
  6210   - undeclared rule case names default to numbers 1, 2, 3, ...;
  6211   - added 'print_induct_rules' (covered by help item in recent Proof
  6212     General versions);
  6213   - moved induct/cases attributes to Pure, methods to Provers;
  6214   - generic method setup instantiated for FOL and HOL;
  6215 
  6216 * Pure: support multiple simultaneous goal statements, for example
  6217 "have a: A and b: B" (same for 'theorem' etc.); being a pure
  6218 meta-level mechanism, this acts as if several individual goals had
  6219 been stated separately; in particular common proof methods need to be
  6220 repeated in order to cover all claims; note that a single elimination
  6221 step is *not* sufficient to establish the two conjunctions, so this
  6222 fails:
  6223 
  6224   assume "A & B" then have A and B ..   (*".." fails*)
  6225 
  6226 better use "obtain" in situations as above; alternative refer to
  6227 multi-step methods like 'auto', 'simp_all', 'blast+' etc.;
  6228 
  6229 * Pure: proper integration with ``locales''; unlike the original
  6230 version by Florian Kammller, Isar locales package high-level proof
  6231 contexts rather than raw logical on