NEWS
author wenzelm
Sat Apr 07 16:41:59 2012 +0200 (2012-04-07)
changeset 47389 e8552cba702d
parent 47349 803729c9fd4d
child 47397 d654c73e4b12
permissions -rw-r--r--
explicit checks stable_finished_theory/stable_command allow parallel asynchronous command transactions;
tuned;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
    10 
    11   - markup for bound variables
    12   - markup for types of term variables (e.g. displayed as tooltips)
    13   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
    14   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
    15     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
    16 
    17 * Updated and extended reference manuals ("isar-ref" and
    18 "implementation"); reduced remaining material in old "ref" manual.
    19 
    20 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
    21 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
    22 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
    23 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
    24 etc. was exploited.
    25 
    26 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
    27 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
    28 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
    29 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
    30 indices of schematic variables.
    31 
    32 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
    33 
    34     num ~> num_token
    35     xnum ~> xnum_token
    36     xstr ~> str_token
    37 
    38 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
    39 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
    40 position information via constraints).
    41 
    42 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
    43 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
    44 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    45 
    46 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
    47 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
    48 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
    49 
    50 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
    51 (not just JRE).
    52 
    53 
    54 *** Pure ***
    55 
    56 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
    57 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
    58 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
    59 
    60 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
    61 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
    62 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
    63 undocumented feature.)
    64 
    65 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
    66 collection of foundational premises in the context (marked as legacy
    67 since Isabelle2011).
    68 
    69 * Obsolete command 'types' has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
    70 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    71 
    72 * Ancient code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
    73 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
    74 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    75 
    76 * Redundant attribute 'code_inline' has been discontinued. Use
    77 'code_unfold' instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    78 
    79 * Dropped attribute 'code_unfold_post' in favor of the its dual
    80 'code_abbrev', which yields a common pattern in definitions like
    81 
    82   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
    83 
    84 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    85 
    86 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
    87 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
    88 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
    89 
    90   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
    91 
    92   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
    93     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurence (!)"
    94 
    95 
    96 *** HOL ***
    97 
    98 * New tutorial Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL
    99 
   100 * The representation of numerals has changed. We now have a datatype
   101 "num" representing strictly positive binary numerals, along with
   102 functions "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to
   103 represent positive and negated numeric literals, respectively. (See
   104 definitions in Num.thy.) Potential INCOMPATIBILITY; some user theories
   105 may require adaptations:
   106 
   107   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   108     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   109 
   110   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   111     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   112     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   113 
   114   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   115     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   116 
   117   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   118     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   119     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   120 
   121   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   122     Redefine using other integer operations.
   123 
   124 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   125 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   126 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   127 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase sets S accidentally
   128 used as predicates by "%x. x : S" and predicates P accidentally used
   129 as sets by "{x. P x}".  Corresponding proofs in a first step should be
   130 pruned from any tinkering with former theorems mem_def and
   131 Collect_def as far as possible.
   132 For developments which deliberately mixed predicates and
   133 sets, a planning step is necessary to determine what should become a
   134 predicate and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   135 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   136 
   137 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   138 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   139 
   140 * New proof import from HOL Light: Faster, simpler, and more scalable.
   141 Requires a proof bundle, which is available as an external component.
   142 Removed old (and mostly dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.
   143 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   144 
   145 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   146 
   147 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
   148 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   149 
   150   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
   151   zdiv_self ~> div_self
   152   zmod_self ~> mod_self
   153   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
   154   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
   155   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
   156   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
   157   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
   158   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
   159   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
   160   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
   161   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
   162   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
   163   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
   164   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
   165   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
   166   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
   167   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
   168   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
   169   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
   170   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
   171 
   172 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
   173 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   174 
   175 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   176 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.
   177 Consolidation of some relation theorems:
   178 
   179   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   180   rel_comp_def ~> rel_comp_unfold
   181   symp_def ~> (dropped, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   182   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   183   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   184   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   185 
   186 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   187 
   188 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set conversions
   189 by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   190 
   191 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   192 
   193 * Consolidated various theorem names relating to Finite_Set.fold
   194 combinator:
   195 
   196   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
   197   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
   198   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
   199   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
   200   union_set ~> union_set_fold
   201   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
   202 
   203 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   204 
   205 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
   206 
   207   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
   208   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
   209   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
   210   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
   211   foldr.simps ~> foldr_Nil foldr_Cons (in point-free formulation)
   212   foldl.simps ~> foldl_Nil foldl_Cons
   213   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_def
   214   foldl_fold ~> foldl_def
   215 
   216 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   217 
   218 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
   219 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
   220 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
   221 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
   222 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
   223 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   224 Prefer "List.fold" with canonical argument order, or boil down
   225 "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by unfolding "foldr_def"
   226 and "foldl_def".  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
   227 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".
   228 
   229 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
   230 through option types.
   231 
   232 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   233 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   234 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   235 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   236 one_case.
   237 
   238 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   239 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   240 
   241 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   242 
   243 * Renamed some facts on canonical fold on lists, in order to avoid
   244 problems with interpretation involving corresponding facts on foldl
   245 with the same base names:
   246 
   247   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
   248   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
   249   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
   250 
   251 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   252 
   253 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   254   to match the constant's name:
   255   
   256   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   257   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   258   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   259   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   260   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   261   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   262   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   263   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   264   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2 
   265   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   266   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   267   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   268   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   269   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   270   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   271   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   272   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   273   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   274   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   275   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   276   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   277   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   278   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   279   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   280  
   281 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   282 
   283 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for association
   284   lists with distinct keys.
   285 
   286 * 'datatype' specifications allow explicit sort constraints.
   287 
   288 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   289 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
   290 
   291 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
   292 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
   293 instead.
   294 
   295   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
   296   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
   297   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
   298   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
   299   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
   300   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
   301   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
   302   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
   303   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   304   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   305   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
   306   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
   307   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   308   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
   309   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   310   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
   311   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
   312   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
   313   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
   314   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
   315   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
   316   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
   317   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
   318   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
   319   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
   320   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
   321   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
   322   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
   323   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
   324   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
   325   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
   326   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
   327   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
   328   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
   329   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
   330   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
   331   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
   332   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
   333   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
   334   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
   335   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
   336 
   337 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   338 the result of the fact expression.
   339 
   340 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
   341 relations.
   342 
   343 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   344 
   345 * "sublists" moved to theory More_List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   346 
   347 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
   348 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   349 
   350   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
   351   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
   352   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
   353   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
   354   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
   355   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   356   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
   357   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
   358   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
   359   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
   360   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
   361   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
   362   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
   363   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   364   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   365   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
   366   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
   367   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
   368   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   369   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   370   zle_refl ~> order_refl
   371   zle_trans ~> order_trans
   372   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
   373   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
   374   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
   375   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   376   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
   377   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
   378   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
   379   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
   380   zless_le ~> less_le
   381   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
   382   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
   383   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
   384 
   385 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
   386 
   387   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
   388 
   389 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   390 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   391 
   392   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   393 
   394 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   395 a list and a nat.
   396 
   397 * Improved code generation of multisets.
   398 
   399 * New diagnostic command find_unused_assms to find potentially superfluous
   400   assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   401 
   402 * Quickcheck:
   403   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   404     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   405     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   406     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   407     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   408     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   409     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   410     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   411     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   412     continues searching for genuine ones.
   413     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   414     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to
   415     only show genuine counterexamples.
   416 
   417   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   418     value generators for a given type and operations.
   419     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   420     constructors of that type. 
   421 
   422   - Support for multisets.
   423 
   424   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   425   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   426     conjectures in a locale context.
   427 
   428 * Nitpick:
   429   - Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option and
   430     affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   431 
   432 * Sledgehammer:
   433   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   434   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   435   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   436 
   437 * Metis:
   438   - Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   439     parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   440 
   441 * SMT:
   442   - renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   443  
   444 * Command 'try0':
   445   - Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   446 
   447 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   448   eventually_elim* rules. Supports structured proofs.
   449 
   450 
   451 *** FOL ***
   452 
   453 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
   454 
   455 
   456 *** ML ***
   457 
   458 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
   459 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
   460 
   461 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
   462 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
   463 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
   464 
   465 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
   466 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
   467 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
   468 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
   469 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
   470 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
   471 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
   472 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
   473 
   474 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
   475 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
   476 
   477 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
   478 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
   479 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
   480 
   481 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
   482 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   483 
   484 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
   485 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
   486 context as well.
   487 
   488 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
   489 
   490   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
   491   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
   492   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
   493   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
   494   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
   495   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
   496   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
   497   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
   498   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
   499   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
   500   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
   501   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
   502 
   503 
   504 
   505 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
   506 ------------------------------------
   507 
   508 *** General ***
   509 
   510 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
   511 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
   512 
   513   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
   514     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
   515     files for checking).
   516 
   517   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
   518     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
   519     positions.
   520 
   521   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
   522     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
   523     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
   524 
   525   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
   526     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
   527     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
   528 
   529   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
   530     cores.
   531 
   532   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
   533     versions (garbage collection).
   534 
   535 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
   536 including some remaining limitations.
   537 
   538 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
   539 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
   540 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
   541 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
   542 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
   543 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   544 
   545 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
   546 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
   547 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
   548 
   549 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
   550 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
   551 usedir option -Q.
   552 
   553 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
   554 configuration options, with more conventional names:
   555 
   556   long_names   ~> names_long
   557   short_names  ~> names_short
   558   unique_names ~> names_unique
   559 
   560 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
   561 
   562   declare [[names_unique = false]]
   563 
   564 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
   565 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
   566 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
   567 
   568 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
   569 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
   570 
   571 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
   572   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
   573   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
   574   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
   575     "Classical Reasoner".
   576 
   577 
   578 *** HOL ***
   579 
   580 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
   581 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   582 
   583 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
   584 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
   585 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
   586 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
   587 class complete_linorder.
   588 
   589 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
   590 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
   591 
   592 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
   593 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
   594 
   595   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
   596   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
   597   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
   598   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
   599   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
   600   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
   601   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
   602   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
   603   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
   604   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
   605   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
   606 
   607 More consistent and comprehensive names:
   608 
   609   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
   610   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
   611   INFI_def ~> INF_def
   612   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
   613   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
   614   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
   615   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
   616   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
   617   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
   618   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
   619   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
   620   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
   621   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
   622   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
   623   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
   624   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
   625 
   626 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   627 
   628 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
   629 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   630 
   631 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
   632 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
   633 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
   634 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   635 
   636 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
   637 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
   638 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
   639 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   640 
   641 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
   642 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
   643 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
   644 
   645 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
   646 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
   647 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   648 
   649 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
   650 separate type class floor_ceiling.
   651 
   652 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
   653 
   654     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
   655     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
   656 
   657 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
   658 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   659 
   660 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
   661 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   662 
   663 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
   664 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
   665 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
   666 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   667 
   668   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
   669   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
   670   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
   671   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
   672   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
   673   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
   674   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
   675 
   676 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
   677 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   678 
   679   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
   680   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
   681   real_less_def ~> less_le
   682   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
   683   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
   684   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
   685   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   686   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   687   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   688   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
   689   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
   690   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
   691   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
   692   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
   693   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
   694   real_le_linear ~> linear
   695   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
   696   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   697   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
   698   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
   699   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
   700   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
   701   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
   702   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
   703   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
   704   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
   705   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
   706   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
   707   expi_add ~> exp_add
   708   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
   709   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
   710   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
   711   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
   712   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
   713   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
   714   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
   715   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
   716   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
   717   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
   718   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
   719   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
   720   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
   721   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
   722   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
   723   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
   724   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
   725   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
   726   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
   727   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
   728   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
   729   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
   730   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
   731   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
   732   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
   733   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
   734   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
   735   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
   736   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
   737   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
   738   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
   739   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
   740   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
   741   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
   742   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
   743   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
   744   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
   745   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
   746   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
   747   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
   748   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
   749   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
   750   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
   751   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
   752   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
   753   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
   754   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
   755   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
   756   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
   757   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
   758   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
   759   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
   760   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
   761 
   762 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
   763 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
   764 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
   765 
   766 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
   767 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
   768 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
   769 
   770 * Code generation:
   771 
   772   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
   773     characters in the target language.
   774 
   775   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
   776     instead.
   777 
   778   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
   779 
   780   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
   781     reactivated by the following theory command:
   782 
   783       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
   784 
   785 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   786 
   787 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
   788 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
   789 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
   790 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
   791 syntax.
   792 
   793 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
   794 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
   795 
   796 * Nitpick:
   797   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
   798   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
   799   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
   800     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   801 
   802 * Sledgehammer:
   803   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
   804   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
   805     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
   806   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
   807     this can be done within reasonable time.
   808   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
   809     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   810   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
   811     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
   812   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
   813     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   814 
   815 * Metis:
   816   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   817   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
   818     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   819 
   820 * Command 'try':
   821   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
   822     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   823   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
   824     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
   825 
   826 * Quickcheck:
   827   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
   828     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
   829   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
   830     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
   831   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
   832     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
   833     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
   834     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
   835   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
   836     (formly in HOL/Library).
   837 
   838 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
   839 use 'partial_function' instead.
   840 
   841 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
   842 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
   843 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
   844 
   845 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
   846 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
   847 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   848 
   849 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
   850 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   851 
   852 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
   853 arithmetic.
   854 
   855 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
   856 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
   857 and lattice type classes.
   858 
   859 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
   860 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
   861 
   862 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
   863 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
   864 
   865 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
   866 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
   867 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   868 
   869   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
   870   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
   871   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
   872   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
   873 
   874 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
   875 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
   876 constants:
   877 
   878   type inat   ~> type enat
   879   Fin         ~> enat
   880   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
   881   iSuc        ~> eSuc
   882   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
   883 
   884 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
   885 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   886 
   887 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
   888 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
   889 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
   890 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
   891 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
   892 
   893 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
   894 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
   895 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
   896 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
   897 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
   898 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
   899 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
   900 
   901   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
   902   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
   903   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
   904   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
   905 
   906 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
   907 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
   908 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   909 
   910   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
   911   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
   912   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
   913   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
   914   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
   915   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
   916   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
   917   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
   918   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
   919   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
   920   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
   921   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
   922   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
   923   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
   924   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
   925   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
   926   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
   927   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
   928   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
   929   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
   930   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
   931   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
   932   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
   933   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
   934   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
   935   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
   936   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
   937   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
   938   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
   939   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
   940   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
   941   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
   942   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
   943   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
   944   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
   945   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
   946   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
   947   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
   948   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
   949   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
   950   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
   951   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
   952   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
   953   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
   954   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
   955   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
   956   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
   957   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
   958   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
   959   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
   960   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
   961 
   962 * Session HOL-Probability:
   963   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
   964   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
   965   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
   966   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
   967     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   968 
   969 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   970 
   971   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
   972   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
   973   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
   974   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
   975   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
   976   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
   977   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
   978   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
   979   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
   980   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
   981   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
   982   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
   983   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
   984   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
   985   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
   986   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
   987   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
   988   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
   989   UU_I ~> bottomI
   990   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
   991   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
   992   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
   993   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
   994   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
   995   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
   996 
   997 
   998 *** Document preparation ***
   999 
  1000 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  1001 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  1002 same.
  1003 
  1004 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  1005 result.
  1006 
  1007 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  1008 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  1009 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  1010 
  1011 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  1012 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  1013 
  1014 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  1015 like this:
  1016 
  1017   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  1018   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  1019 
  1020 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  1021 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  1022 layouts.
  1023 
  1024 
  1025 *** ML ***
  1026 
  1027 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  1028 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  1029 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  1030 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  1031 under external program control.
  1032 
  1033 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  1034 data, which requires explicit setup.
  1035 
  1036 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  1037 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  1038 (better known as Proof General).
  1039 
  1040 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1041 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  1042 
  1043 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  1044 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  1045 
  1046 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  1047 (including quotes etc.).
  1048 
  1049 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  1050 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  1051 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  1052 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  1053 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  1054 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  1055 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  1056 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  1057 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  1058 
  1059 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  1060 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  1061 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1062 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  1063 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  1064 
  1065 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  1066 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  1067 
  1068 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  1069 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  1070 
  1071 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  1072 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  1073 
  1074 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  1075 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  1076 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  1077 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  1078 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  1079 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  1080 proper Proof.context.
  1081 
  1082 
  1083 *** System ***
  1084 
  1085 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  1086 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  1087 
  1088 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  1089 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  1090 
  1091 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  1092 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  1093 
  1094   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  1095   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  1096   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  1097   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  1098   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  1099 
  1100 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  1101 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1102 
  1103 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  1104 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  1105 example:
  1106 
  1107   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  1108 
  1109 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  1110 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  1111 
  1112 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  1113 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  1114 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  1115 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  1116 
  1117 
  1118 
  1119 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  1120 ----------------------------------
  1121 
  1122 *** General ***
  1123 
  1124 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  1125 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  1126 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  1127 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  1128 like this:
  1129 
  1130   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  1131 
  1132 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  1133 
  1134 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  1135 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  1136 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  1137 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  1138 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  1139 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  1140 
  1141 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  1142 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  1143 the following package declarations:
  1144 
  1145   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  1146   \usepackage{textcomp}
  1147 
  1148 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  1149 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  1150 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  1151 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  1152 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  1153 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  1154 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  1155 
  1156 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  1157 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1158 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  1159 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  1160 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  1161 
  1162 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  1163 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  1164 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  1165 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  1166 
  1167 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  1168 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  1169 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  1170 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  1171 
  1172   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  1173 
  1174   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  1175   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  1176   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  1177   show_types                    show_types
  1178   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  1179   show_consts                   show_consts
  1180   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  1181 
  1182   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  1183   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  1184   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  1185 
  1186   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  1187   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  1188 
  1189   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  1190 
  1191   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  1192   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  1193   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  1194   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  1195   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  1196 
  1197 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  1198 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  1199 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  1200 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  1201 
  1202 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  1203 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1204 
  1205   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  1206   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  1207 
  1208 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  1209 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  1210 float_token.
  1211 
  1212 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  1213 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  1214 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1215 
  1216 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  1217 DejaVu Sans.
  1218 
  1219 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  1220 
  1221 
  1222 *** Pure ***
  1223 
  1224 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  1225 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  1226 time.
  1227 
  1228 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  1229 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1230 
  1231 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  1232 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1233 
  1234 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  1235 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  1236 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  1237 command already provided this functionality.
  1238 
  1239 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  1240 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  1241 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  1242 without interpretations.
  1243 
  1244 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  1245 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  1246 
  1247 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  1248 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  1249 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  1250 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  1251 
  1252 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  1253 'definition' instead.
  1254 
  1255 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  1256 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  1257 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  1258 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  1259 
  1260 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  1261 constructors.
  1262 
  1263 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  1264 the local file system.
  1265 
  1266 
  1267 *** HOL ***
  1268 
  1269 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  1270 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  1271 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  1272 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  1273 
  1274   declare [[coercion f]]
  1275 
  1276 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  1277 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  1278 
  1279   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  1280 
  1281 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  1282 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  1283 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  1284 other theories like this:
  1285 
  1286   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  1287 
  1288 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  1289 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  1290 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  1291 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  1292 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  1293 for examples.
  1294 
  1295 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  1296 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1297 
  1298 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  1299 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  1300 
  1301 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  1302 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  1303 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  1304 
  1305 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  1306 functorial structure of types.
  1307 
  1308 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  1309 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  1310 
  1311 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  1312 languages.
  1313 
  1314 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  1315 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  1316 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1317 
  1318 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  1319 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1320 
  1321 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  1322 combinators any longer.
  1323 
  1324 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  1325 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  1326 
  1327 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  1328 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  1329 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  1330 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  1331 
  1332   record 'a foo = ...
  1333   ...
  1334   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  1335 
  1336 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  1337 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  1338 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1339 
  1340 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  1341 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  1342 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  1343 
  1344 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  1345 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  1346 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  1347 
  1348 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  1349 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1350 
  1351 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  1352 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  1353 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  1354 independently.
  1355 
  1356 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  1357 counter example search.
  1358 
  1359 * Sledgehammer:
  1360   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  1361     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  1362     sledgehammer").
  1363   - Renamed commands:
  1364     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  1365     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  1366     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  1367     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1368   - Renamed options:
  1369     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  1370     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  1371     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  1372     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  1373     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1374 
  1375 * Nitpick:
  1376   - Renamed options:
  1377     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  1378     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  1379     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1380   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  1381   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  1382   - Added "whack" option.
  1383   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  1384   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  1385   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  1386   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  1387     higher cardinalities.
  1388   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  1389 
  1390 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  1391 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  1392 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  1393 
  1394     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  1395 
  1396 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  1397 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  1398 
  1399 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  1400 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  1401 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  1402 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  1403 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  1404 "smt_solver".
  1405 
  1406 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  1407 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  1408 
  1409 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  1410 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  1411 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  1412 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1413 
  1414 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  1415   - Renamed:
  1416     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  1417     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  1418     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1419   - Added:
  1420     smt_verbose
  1421     smt_random_seed
  1422     smt_datatypes
  1423     smt_infer_triggers
  1424     smt_monomorph_limit
  1425     cvc3_options
  1426     remote_cvc3_options
  1427     remote_z3_options
  1428     yices_options
  1429 
  1430 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  1431 header.
  1432 
  1433 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  1434 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  1435 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  1436 
  1437   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  1438 
  1439 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1440 
  1441 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  1442 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1443 
  1444 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1445 
  1446 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  1447 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1448 
  1449 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  1450 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  1451 
  1452 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  1453 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1454 
  1455 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  1456 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  1457 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1458 
  1459 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1460 
  1461 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  1462 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1463 
  1464 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  1465 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1466 
  1467 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  1468 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  1469 for congruent(2)).
  1470 
  1471 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  1472 
  1473   types
  1474     bool ~> HOL.bool
  1475     nat ~> Nat.nat
  1476 
  1477   constants
  1478     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  1479     True ~> HOL.True
  1480     False ~> HOL.False
  1481     op & ~> HOL.conj
  1482     op | ~> HOL.disj
  1483     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  1484     op = ~> HOL.eq
  1485     Not ~> HOL.Not
  1486     The ~> HOL.The
  1487     All ~> HOL.All
  1488     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  1489     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  1490     Let ~> HOL.Let
  1491     If ~> HOL.If
  1492     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  1493     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  1494     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  1495     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  1496     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  1497     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  1498     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  1499     op : ~> Set.member
  1500     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  1501 
  1502 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1503 
  1504 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  1505 
  1506     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  1507     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  1508     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  1509     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  1510     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  1511     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  1512     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  1513     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  1514 
  1515 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1516 
  1517 * More stylized fact names:
  1518 
  1519   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  1520   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  1521   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  1522   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  1523 
  1524 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1525 
  1526 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  1527 
  1528   constants
  1529     null ~> List.null
  1530 
  1531   facts
  1532     mem_iff ~> member_def
  1533     null_empty ~> null_def
  1534 
  1535 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  1536 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  1537 generation.
  1538 
  1539 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  1540 Haskell code.
  1541 
  1542 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  1543 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  1544 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1545 
  1546 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  1547 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1548 
  1549 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  1550 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  1551 
  1552 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  1553 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  1554 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1555 
  1556 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  1557 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1558 
  1559 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  1560 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1561 
  1562 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  1563 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  1564 referred to by its qualified name.
  1565 
  1566   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  1567   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  1568   product ~>  Enum.product
  1569 
  1570 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  1571 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  1572 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1573 
  1574 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  1575 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  1576 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  1577 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1578 
  1579 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  1580 sort_key.
  1581 
  1582 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  1583 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1584 
  1585 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  1586 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  1587 instead of finite cartesian products.
  1588 
  1589   types
  1590     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  1591               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  1592               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  1593         (depends on your needs)
  1594 
  1595   constants
  1596      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  1597      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  1598      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  1599 
  1600 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  1601 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  1602 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  1603 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1604 
  1605 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  1606 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  1607 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  1608 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  1609 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1610 
  1611 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  1612 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1613 
  1614 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  1615 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  1616 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  1617 
  1618 
  1619 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  1620 
  1621 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  1622 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  1623 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  1624 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  1625 compatibility.
  1626 
  1627 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  1628 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  1629 
  1630 
  1631 *** HOLCF ***
  1632 
  1633 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  1634 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  1635 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  1636 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1637 
  1638 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  1639 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  1640 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1641 
  1642   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  1643   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  1644   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  1645 
  1646 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  1647 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  1648 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1649 
  1650 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  1651 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  1652 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  1653 domain definition now works:
  1654 
  1655   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  1656 
  1657 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  1658 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  1659 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  1660 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  1661 
  1662   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  1663     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  1664 
  1665   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  1666 
  1667 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  1668 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  1669 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1670 
  1671 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  1672 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1673 
  1674 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  1675 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  1676 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  1677 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  1678 
  1679 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  1680 
  1681 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1682 
  1683 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1684 
  1685 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  1686 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1687 
  1688 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  1689 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  1690 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  1691 
  1692 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  1693 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  1694 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1695 
  1696 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  1697 still supported as an input translation.
  1698 
  1699 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  1700 
  1701   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  1702   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  1703   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1704   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  1705   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  1706   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  1707   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1708 
  1709 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  1710 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1711 
  1712   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  1713   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  1714   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  1715   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  1716   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  1717   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  1718 
  1719 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  1720 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1721 
  1722 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  1723 
  1724   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  1725   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  1726   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  1727   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  1728 
  1729 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1730 
  1731 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  1732 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1733 
  1734 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  1735 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1736 
  1737   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  1738   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  1739   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  1740   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  1741   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  1742   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  1743   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  1744   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  1745   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  1746   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  1747   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  1748   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  1749   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  1750   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  1751   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  1752   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  1753   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  1754   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  1755   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  1756   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  1757 
  1758 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1759 
  1760   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  1761   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  1762   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  1763   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  1764   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  1765   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  1766   box_less             ~> box_below
  1767   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  1768   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  1769   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  1770   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  1771   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  1772   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  1773   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  1774   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  1775   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  1776   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  1777   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  1778   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  1779   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  1780   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  1781   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  1782   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  1783   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  1784   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  1785   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  1786   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  1787   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  1788   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  1789   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  1790   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  1791   up_less              ~> up_below
  1792   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  1793   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  1794   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  1795   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  1796   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  1797   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  1798   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  1799   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  1800   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  1801   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  1802   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  1803   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  1804   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  1805 
  1806 
  1807 *** FOL and ZF ***
  1808 
  1809 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  1810 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1811 
  1812 *** ZF ***
  1813 
  1814 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case analysis.
  1815 
  1816 * Much greater use of special symbols.
  1817 
  1818 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1819 
  1820 *** ML ***
  1821 
  1822 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  1823 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  1824 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  1825 
  1826 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  1827 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  1828 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  1829 
  1830 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  1831 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  1832 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  1833 
  1834 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  1835 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  1836 
  1837 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  1838 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  1839 
  1840 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  1841 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  1842 
  1843 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  1844 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  1845 
  1846 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  1847 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  1848 almost all situations.
  1849 
  1850 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  1851 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  1852 Isabelle/ML.
  1853 
  1854 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  1855 meaning.
  1856 
  1857 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  1858 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  1859 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  1860 
  1861 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  1862 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  1863 
  1864 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  1865 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  1866 
  1867 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  1868 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  1869 @{thms} for most purposes.
  1870 
  1871 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  1872 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  1873 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  1874 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  1875 configuration options.
  1876 
  1877 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  1878 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  1879 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  1880 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  1881 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  1882 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  1883 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  1884 
  1885 
  1886 
  1887 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  1888 ---------------------------------
  1889 
  1890 *** General ***
  1891 
  1892 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  1893 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  1894 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  1895 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  1896 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  1897 their full internal name.
  1898 
  1899 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  1900 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  1901 Some hints on upgrading:
  1902 
  1903   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  1904     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  1905     which are independent of this issue.
  1906 
  1907   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  1908     provides the following special forms:
  1909 
  1910       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  1911       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  1912       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  1913 
  1914     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  1915     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  1916     extra variables".
  1917 
  1918     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  1919     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  1920     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  1921     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  1922     "logic".
  1923 
  1924   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  1925     antiquotations:
  1926 
  1927       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  1928       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  1929       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  1930       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  1931 
  1932   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  1933     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  1934     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  1935     antiquotations.
  1936 
  1937 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  1938 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  1939 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  1940 diagnose syntax problems.
  1941 
  1942 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  1943 
  1944 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  1945 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  1946 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  1947 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  1948 
  1949 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  1950 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  1951 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  1952 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1953 
  1954 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  1955 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  1956 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  1957 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  1958 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1959 
  1960 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  1961 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  1962 
  1963 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  1964 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  1965 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  1966 
  1967   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  1968 
  1969 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  1970 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  1971 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  1972 
  1973 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  1974 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  1975 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1976 
  1977 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  1978 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  1979 
  1980 
  1981 *** Pure ***
  1982 
  1983 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  1984 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  1985 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  1986 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  1987 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  1988 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  1989 inspect proof terms.
  1990 
  1991 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  1992 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  1993 are added internally.  For example:
  1994 
  1995   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  1996 
  1997 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  1998 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1999 
  2000 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2001 
  2002 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2003 'class' instead.
  2004 
  2005 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  2006 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  2007 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2008 
  2009 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  2010 invariants.
  2011 
  2012 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  2013 user space functionality any longer.
  2014 
  2015 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  2016 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  2017 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2018 
  2019 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  2020 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  2021 
  2022 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  2023 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  2024 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  2025 
  2026 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  2027 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  2028 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  2029 
  2030 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  2031 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2032 
  2033 
  2034 *** HOL ***
  2035 
  2036 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  2037 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  2038 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  2039 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  2040 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  2041 
  2042 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  2043 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  2044 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  2045 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  2046 
  2047   fun
  2048     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  2049   where
  2050     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  2051 
  2052   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  2053     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  2054 
  2055   quotient_definition
  2056     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  2057 
  2058 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  2059 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  2060 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  2061 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  2062 
  2063 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  2064 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  2065 
  2066 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  2067 separate HOL-SMT session.
  2068 
  2069 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  2070 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2071 
  2072 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  2073 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  2074 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  2075 
  2076 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  2077 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2078 
  2079 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  2080 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2081 
  2082 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  2083 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2084 
  2085 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  2086 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2087 
  2088 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  2089 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  2090 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2091 
  2092   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  2093   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  2094   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  2095   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  2096   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  2097   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  2098   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  2099   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  2100   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  2101   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  2102   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  2103   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  2104   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  2105   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  2106   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  2107   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  2108   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  2109   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  2110   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  2111   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  2112   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  2113   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  2114   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  2115   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  2116   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  2117   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  2118   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  2119   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  2120   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  2121   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  2122 
  2123 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  2124 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  2125 
  2126 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  2127 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  2128 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2129 
  2130 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  2131 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  2132 
  2133 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  2134 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2135 
  2136 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  2137 
  2138 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  2139 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2140 
  2141 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  2142 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2143 
  2144 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2145 
  2146 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  2147 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  2148 
  2149 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  2150 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  2151 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  2152 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2153 
  2154 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  2155   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  2156   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  2157   - inverse, divide: Rings
  2158 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2159 
  2160 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  2161 lattices):
  2162 
  2163     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  2164     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  2165 
  2166     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  2167 
  2168     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  2169     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  2170     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2171     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  2172     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2173     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  2174     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  2175     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  2176     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  2177     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  2178     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  2179     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  2180     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  2181 
  2182     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  2183     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2184     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2185     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  2186     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  2187     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  2188     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  2189     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  2190     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  2191     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  2192     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  2193     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  2194     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  2195     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  2196     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  2197     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  2198     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  2199     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  2200 
  2201   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  2202   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  2203 
  2204     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  2205     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  2206     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  2207     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  2208     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  2209 
  2210 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2211 
  2212 * Refined field classes:
  2213   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  2214     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  2215     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  2216   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  2217 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2218 
  2219 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  2220   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  2221   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  2222   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  2223     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  2224   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  2225     equal_neg_zero.
  2226 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2227 
  2228 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  2229 sets to lattices:
  2230 
  2231   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  2232   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  2233   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  2234   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  2235   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  2236   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  2237   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  2238   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  2239   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  2240   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  2241 
  2242 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  2243 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  2244 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  2245 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  2246 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  2247 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2248 
  2249 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  2250 multiset order:
  2251 
  2252   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  2253     <= and <;
  2254   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  2255     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  2256     multiset_order;
  2257   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  2258     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  2259     generation;
  2260   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  2261     if needed.
  2262 
  2263 Renamed:
  2264 
  2265   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  2266   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  2267   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  2268 
  2269 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2270 
  2271 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  2272 
  2273 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  2274 
  2275 * Theory List: added transpose.
  2276 
  2277 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  2278 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  2279 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2280 
  2281   Constants:
  2282   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  2283   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  2284   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  2285   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  2286   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  2287   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  2288   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  2289   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  2290   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  2291   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  2292   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  2293   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  2294   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  2295 
  2296   Lemmas:
  2297   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  2298   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  2299   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  2300   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  2301   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  2302   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  2303   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  2304   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  2305   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  2306   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  2307   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  2308   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  2309   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  2310 
  2311 * Sledgehammer:
  2312   - Renamed ATP commands:
  2313     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  2314     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  2315     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  2316     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  2317     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  2318     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2319   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  2320   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  2321     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  2322   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  2323     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  2324     is still experimental.)
  2325   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  2326     full-typed mode.
  2327   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  2328 
  2329 * Nitpick:
  2330   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  2331   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  2332   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  2333     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  2334   - Added support for quotient types.
  2335   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  2336     constructs.
  2337   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  2338     "termination" proofs).
  2339   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  2340   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  2341   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  2342   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  2343     record getters.
  2344   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  2345   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  2346   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  2347   - Added "atoms" option.
  2348   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  2349     problems.
  2350   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  2351     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  2352     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2353   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  2354     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2355   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2356 
  2357 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  2358   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  2359   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  2360   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  2361   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  2362   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  2363   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  2364   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  2365   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  2366   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2367 
  2368 
  2369 *** HOLCF ***
  2370 
  2371 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  2372 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  2373 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2374 
  2375 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  2376 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  2377 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  2378 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2379 
  2380 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  2381 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  2382 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  2383 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  2384 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2385 
  2386 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  2387 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  2388 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2389 
  2390 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  2391 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2392 
  2393   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  2394   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  2395 
  2396 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  2397 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2398 
  2399   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  2400   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  2401   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  2402   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  2403   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  2404 
  2405 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  2406 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2407 
  2408   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  2409   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  2410   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  2411 
  2412 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  2413 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  2414 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2415 
  2416 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  2417 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2418 
  2419 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2420 
  2421 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  2422 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2423 
  2424 
  2425 *** ML ***
  2426 
  2427 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  2428 
  2429     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  2430     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  2431 
  2432     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  2433     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  2434     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  2435     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  2436 
  2437     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  2438     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  2439     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  2440 
  2441 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  2442 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  2443 
  2444 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  2445 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  2446 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  2447 
  2448 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  2449 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  2450 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  2451 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  2452 
  2453 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  2454 the context or even global references.
  2455 
  2456 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  2457 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  2458 
  2459 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  2460 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  2461 
  2462   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  2463   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  2464   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  2465   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  2466   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  2467   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  2468   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  2469   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  2470   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  2471   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  2472 
  2473 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  2474 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  2475 
  2476 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  2477 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  2478 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  2479 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  2480 pass the proper local context through the code!
  2481 
  2482 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  2483 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  2484 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  2485 Theory_Data version.
  2486 
  2487 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  2488 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  2489 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  2490 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  2491 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  2492 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  2493 explicitly in rare situations.
  2494 
  2495 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  2496 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  2497 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2498 
  2499 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  2500 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2501 
  2502 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  2503 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  2504 quite rare).
  2505 
  2506 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  2507 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2508 
  2509 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  2510 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  2511 terms.
  2512 
  2513 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  2514 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  2515 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  2516 
  2517 
  2518 *** System ***
  2519 
  2520 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  2521 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  2522 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  2523 
  2524 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  2525 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  2526 respectively.
  2527 
  2528 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  2529 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  2530 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  2531 prefers 64 bit if available:
  2532 
  2533   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  2534 
  2535 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  2536 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  2537 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  2538 component.
  2539 
  2540 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  2541 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  2542 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  2543 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  2544 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  2545 the user for manual installation.
  2546 
  2547 
  2548 
  2549 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  2550 -------------------------------------
  2551 
  2552 *** General ***
  2553 
  2554 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  2555 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  2556 
  2557 
  2558 *** Pure ***
  2559 
  2560 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  2561 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  2562 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  2563 
  2564 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  2565 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  2566 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  2567 
  2568 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  2569 interpretation.
  2570 
  2571 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  2572 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2573 
  2574 
  2575 *** Document preparation ***
  2576 
  2577 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  2578 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  2579 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  2580 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  2581 
  2582 
  2583 *** HOL ***
  2584 
  2585 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  2586 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  2587 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  2588 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  2589 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  2590 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  2591 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  2592 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  2593 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  2594 
  2595 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  2596 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  2597 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  2598 
  2599 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  2600 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  2601 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  2602 
  2603 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  2604 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  2605 
  2606 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  2607 
  2608 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  2609 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  2610 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  2611 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  2612 
  2613 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  2614 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  2615 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  2616 "mirabelle" utility.
  2617 
  2618 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  2619 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  2620 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  2621 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  2622 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  2623 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  2624 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  2625 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  2626 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  2627 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  2628 
  2629 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  2630 procedure only.
  2631 
  2632 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  2633 
  2634 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  2635 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  2636 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  2637 that fail later.
  2638 
  2639 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  2640 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  2641 
  2642 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  2643 the same method as the approximation method.
  2644 
  2645 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  2646 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  2647 series expansion.
  2648 
  2649 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  2650 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  2651 
  2652 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  2653 reals.
  2654 
  2655 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  2656 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  2657 
  2658 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  2659 fixpoint theorem.
  2660 
  2661 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  2662   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  2663     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  2664   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  2665     accordingly
  2666   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  2667     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  2668   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  2669     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  2670 
  2671 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  2672 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  2673 lattice.
  2674 
  2675 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  2676 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  2677 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  2678 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  2679 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  2680 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  2681 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2682 
  2683 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  2684   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  2685     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  2686   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  2687     le_inf_iff
  2688   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  2689     sup_aci)
  2690   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  2691   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  2692   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  2693     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  2694     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  2695     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  2696     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  2697     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  2698     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  2699     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  2700     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  2701     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  2702     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  2703   - authentic syntax for
  2704     Set.Pow
  2705     Set.image
  2706   - mere abbreviations:
  2707     Set.empty               (for bot)
  2708     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  2709     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  2710     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  2711     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  2712     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  2713     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  2714     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  2715   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  2716 
  2717 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  2718 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  2719 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  2720 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  2721 
  2722 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  2723 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  2724 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2725 
  2726 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  2727 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2728 
  2729 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  2730 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  2731 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  2732 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2733 
  2734 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  2735 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2736 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  2737 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  2738 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  2739 
  2740 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  2741 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  2742 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2743 
  2744 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  2745 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2746 
  2747 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  2748 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  2749 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  2750 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  2751 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  2752 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  2753 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  2754 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2755 
  2756 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  2757     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  2758     code_post       replaces    code post
  2759     etc.
  2760   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2761 
  2762 * Renamed methods:
  2763     sizechange -> size_change
  2764     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  2765   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2766 
  2767 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  2768 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  2769 
  2770 * Renamed theorems:
  2771     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  2772     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  2773     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  2774     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  2775     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  2776   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2777 
  2778 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  2779 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2780 
  2781 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  2782 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2783 
  2784 
  2785 *** HOLCF ***
  2786 
  2787 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  2788 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  2789 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  2790 
  2791 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  2792 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  2793 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  2794 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  2795 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  2796 
  2797 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  2798 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  2799 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  2800 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  2801 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  2802 
  2803 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  2804 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  2805 constructor are pre-configured.
  2806 
  2807 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  2808 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  2809 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  2810 
  2811 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  2812 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  2813 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  2814 as well.)
  2815 
  2816 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  2817 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  2818 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  2819 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  2820 examples.
  2821 
  2822 
  2823 *** ML ***
  2824 
  2825 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  2826 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  2827 
  2828 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  2829 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  2830 position, logical grouping etc.
  2831 
  2832 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  2833 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  2834 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  2835 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  2836 
  2837 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  2838 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  2839 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  2840 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  2841 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  2842 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  2843 
  2844 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  2845 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  2846 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  2847 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  2848 experiments with references.
  2849 
  2850 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  2851 parallel tactical reasoning.
  2852 
  2853 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  2854 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  2855 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  2856 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  2857 
  2858 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  2859 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  2860 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  2861 
  2862 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  2863 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  2864 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2865 
  2866 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2867 
  2868 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  2869 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2870 
  2871 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  2872 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  2873 
  2874 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  2875 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  2876 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  2877 
  2878 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  2879 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  2880 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2881 
  2882 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  2883 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  2884 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  2885 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2886 
  2887 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2888 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  2889 instead of global theory.
  2890 
  2891 
  2892 *** System ***
  2893 
  2894 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  2895 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  2896 usedir option -q.
  2897 
  2898 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  2899 also the system manual.
  2900 
  2901 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  2902 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  2903 
  2904 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  2905 this is always enabled.
  2906 
  2907 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  2908 
  2909 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  2910 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  2911 currently supported on Linux only.
  2912 
  2913 
  2914 
  2915 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  2916 --------------------------------
  2917 
  2918 *** General ***
  2919 
  2920 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  2921 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  2922 
  2923   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  2924     "isatool."
  2925 
  2926   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  2927     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  2928 
  2929   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  2930     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  2931 
  2932 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  2933 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  2934 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  2935 
  2936 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  2937 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  2938 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  2939 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  2940 via "isabelle emacs".
  2941 
  2942 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  2943 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  2944 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  2945 
  2946 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  2947 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  2948 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  2949 
  2950 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  2951 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  2952 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  2953 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  2954 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  2955 
  2956 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  2957 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  2958 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  2959 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  2960 
  2961 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  2962 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  2963 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  2964 
  2965 
  2966 *** Pure ***
  2967 
  2968 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  2969 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  2970 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  2971 
  2972 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  2973 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  2974 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  2975 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  2976 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  2977 
  2978 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  2979 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  2980 useful in locale declarations.
  2981 
  2982 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  2983 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  2984 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  2985 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  2986 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  2987 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  2988 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  2989 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  2990 no longer generated.
  2991 
  2992 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  2993 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  2994 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  2995 
  2996 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  2997 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  2998 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  2999 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  3000 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  3001 
  3002 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3003 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  3004 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  3005 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  3006 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  3007 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  3008 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  3009 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  3010 
  3011 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  3012 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  3013 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  3014 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  3015 
  3016 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3017 
  3018 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  3019 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  3020 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  3021 
  3022 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  3023 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3024 
  3025 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  3026 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  3027 in HOL, write
  3028 
  3029     class foo = ...
  3030 
  3031 instead of
  3032 
  3033     class foo = type + ...
  3034 
  3035 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  3036 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3037 
  3038 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  3039 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  3040 
  3041 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  3042 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  3043 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  3044 
  3045 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  3046 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  3047 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  3048 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  3049 directly in regular applications.
  3050 
  3051 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  3052 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  3053 
  3054 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  3055 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  3056 
  3057 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  3058 theory context.
  3059 
  3060 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  3061 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3062 
  3063 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  3064 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  3065 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  3066 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  3067 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  3068 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  3069 
  3070   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  3071 
  3072 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  3073 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  3074 normalization.
  3075 
  3076 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  3077 addressing etc.
  3078 
  3079 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  3080 
  3081   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  3082   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  3083 
  3084 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3085 
  3086   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  3087      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  3088      parts of the code generator framework).
  3089 
  3090   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  3091      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  3092      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  3093 
  3094 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3095 
  3096 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  3097 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3098 
  3099 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  3100 patterns, e.g.
  3101 
  3102     find_consts "_ => bool"
  3103 
  3104 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  3105 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  3106 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  3107 hyphen:
  3108 
  3109     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  3110 
  3111 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  3112 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  3113 
  3114 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  3115 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  3116 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  3117 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  3118 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  3119 higher-order unification.
  3120 
  3121 
  3122 *** Document preparation ***
  3123 
  3124 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  3125 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  3126 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  3127 
  3128 
  3129 *** HOL ***
  3130 
  3131 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  3132 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  3133 
  3134 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  3135 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  3136 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  3137 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  3138 Main, as before.
  3139 
  3140 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  3141 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  3142 
  3143 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  3144 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  3145 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  3146 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  3147 
  3148 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  3149 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  3150 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  3151 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  3152 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  3153 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  3154 
  3155 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  3156 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  3157 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  3158 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  3159 
  3160 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  3161 menu.
  3162 
  3163 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  3164 (contains the empty clause).
  3165 
  3166 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  3167 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  3168 
  3169 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  3170 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  3171 
  3172 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  3173 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  3174 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3175 
  3176 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  3177 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  3178 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  3179 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  3180 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  3181 
  3182 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  3183 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  3184 
  3185 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  3186 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  3187 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  3188 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  3189 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  3190 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  3191 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  3192 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  3193 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  3194 
  3195 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  3196 
  3197 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  3198 
  3199 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  3200 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3201 
  3202 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  3203 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  3204 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  3205 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  3206 
  3207 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  3208 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3209 
  3210     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  3211     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  3212     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  3213     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  3214     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  3215     Union ~>    Set.Union
  3216     {} ~>       Set.empty
  3217     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  3218 
  3219 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  3220 theory Set.
  3221 
  3222 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  3223 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  3224 
  3225 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  3226 
  3227 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  3228 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  3229 
  3230 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  3231 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  3232 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  3233 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  3234 allowed. For examples see
  3235 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  3236 
  3237 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  3238 
  3239 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  3240 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3241 
  3242 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  3243 structure:
  3244 
  3245     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  3246     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3247     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3248     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3249     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3250     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3251     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3252     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3253     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3254     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3255     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3256     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3257     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3258     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3259     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3260     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3261     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3262     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3263     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3264     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3265     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3266     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3267     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3268     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3269     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3270     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3271     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3272     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3273     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3274     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3275     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3276     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  3277     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3278 
  3279     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3280     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3281     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3282     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  3283     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3284     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3285     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3286     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3287     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3288     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3289 
  3290     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3291     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3292     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3293     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3294     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3295     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3296 
  3297 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  3298 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  3299 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  3300 
  3301 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  3302 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  3303 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  3304 
  3305 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  3306 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3307 
  3308 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  3309 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  3310 
  3311 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  3312 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  3313 proofs, e.g.
  3314 
  3315   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  3316 
  3317 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  3318 
  3319 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  3320 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  3321 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3322 
  3323 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  3324 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  3325 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3326 
  3327 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  3328 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  3329 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  3330 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3331 
  3332 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  3333 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  3334 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  3335 preorder_class.*.
  3336 
  3337 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  3338 "diag" to "Id_on".
  3339 
  3340 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  3341 
  3342   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  3343 
  3344 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  3345 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  3346 fold_image.
  3347 
  3348 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  3349 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  3350 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  3351 the former will disappear at some point.
  3352 
  3353 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  3354 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  3355 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  3356 
  3357 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  3358 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  3359 realpow_0      -> power_0
  3360 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  3361 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  3362 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  3363 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  3364 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  3365 
  3366 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  3367 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  3368 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  3369 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  3370 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  3371 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  3372 
  3373     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  3374     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  3375     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  3376     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  3377     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  3378     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  3379     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  3380 
  3381 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  3382 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3383 rename old lemmas as follows:
  3384 
  3385 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  3386 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  3387 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  3388 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  3389 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  3390 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  3391 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  3392 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  3393 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  3394 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  3395 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  3396 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  3397 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  3398 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  3399 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  3400 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  3401 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  3402 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  3403 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  3404 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  3405 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  3406 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  3407 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  3408 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  3409 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  3410 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  3411 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  3412 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  3413 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  3414 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  3415 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  3416 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  3417 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  3418 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  3419 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  3420 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  3421 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  3422 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  3423 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  3424 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  3425 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  3426 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  3427 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  3428 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  3429 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  3430 
  3431 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3432 
  3433 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  3434 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  3435 
  3436 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  3437 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  3438 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  3439 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  3440 
  3441 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  3442 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  3443 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  3444 theory RealVector.
  3445 
  3446 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  3447 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  3448 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  3449 and inner products are included.
  3450 
  3451 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  3452 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  3453 supported.
  3454 
  3455 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  3456 first diagonalization argument.
  3457 
  3458 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  3459 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  3460 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  3461 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3462 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  3463 
  3464     hide (open) const gcd
  3465     abbreviation gcd where
  3466       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  3467     notation (output)
  3468       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  3469 
  3470 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  3471 
  3472 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  3473 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  3474 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3475 
  3476 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  3477 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  3478 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  3479 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  3480 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  3481 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  3482 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  3483 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  3484 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  3485 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  3486 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  3487 cases.
  3488 
  3489 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  3490 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  3491 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  3492 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  3493 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  3494 
  3495     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  3496     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  3497     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  3498     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  3499     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  3500 
  3501 
  3502 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3503 
  3504 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  3505 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  3506 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  3507 
  3508 * New theory of factorial domains.
  3509 
  3510 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  3511 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  3512 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  3513 
  3514 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3515 
  3516 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  3517 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  3518 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  3519 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  3520 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  3521 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  3522 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  3523 
  3524 
  3525 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  3526 
  3527 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  3528 
  3529 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  3530 theory targets.
  3531 
  3532 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  3533 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  3534 'inductive' etc.
  3535 
  3536 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  3537 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  3538 
  3539 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  3540 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  3541 
  3542 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  3543 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  3544 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  3545 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  3546 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  3547 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  3548 the algorithm W:
  3549 
  3550  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  3551  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  3552          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  3553 
  3554 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  3555 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  3556 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  3557 
  3558 
  3559 *** HOLCF ***
  3560 
  3561 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  3562 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  3563 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  3564 
  3565 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  3566 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  3567 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  3568 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  3569 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3570 
  3571 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  3572 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3573 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3574 
  3575 
  3576 *** ZF ***
  3577 
  3578 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  3579 
  3580 
  3581 *** ML ***
  3582 
  3583 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  3584 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  3585 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  3586 5.2.1!
  3587 
  3588 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  3589 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  3590 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  3591 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  3592 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  3593 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  3594 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3595 
  3596 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  3597 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  3598 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  3599 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  3600 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  3601 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  3602 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  3603 
  3604 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  3605 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  3606 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  3607 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  3608 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  3609 
  3610 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  3611 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  3612 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  3613 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  3614 Method.add_method.
  3615 
  3616 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  3617 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  3618 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  3619 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  3620 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  3621 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  3622 
  3623 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  3624 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  3625 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  3626 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  3627 examples.
  3628 
  3629 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  3630 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  3631 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  3632 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  3633 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  3634 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  3635 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  3636 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  3637 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  3638 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  3639 
  3640 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  3641 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  3642 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  3643 
  3644 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  3645 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  3646 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  3647 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  3648 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  3649 resort for legacy applications.
  3650 
  3651 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  3652 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  3653 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  3654 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  3655 explicit runtime argument.
  3656 
  3657 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  3658 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  3659 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  3660 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  3661 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3662 
  3663 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  3664 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  3665 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  3666 theory state.
  3667 
  3668 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  3669 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  3670 
  3671   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  3672   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  3673   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  3674   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  3675   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  3676   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  3677   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  3678   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  3679   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  3680   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  3681 
  3682 
  3683 *** System ***
  3684 
  3685 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  3686 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  3687 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  3688 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  3689 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  3690 
  3691 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  3692 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  3693 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  3694 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  3695 
  3696 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  3697 
  3698 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  3699 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  3700 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  3701 prover operations.
  3702 
  3703 
  3704 
  3705 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  3706 -------------------------------
  3707 
  3708 *** General ***
  3709 
  3710 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  3711 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  3712 
  3713 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  3714 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  3715 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  3716 provides a proper context already.
  3717 
  3718 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  3719 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  3720 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  3721 
  3722 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  3723 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  3724 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  3725 swap theory imports.
  3726 
  3727 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  3728 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  3729 
  3730 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  3731 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3732 white space without escapes.
  3733 
  3734 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  3735 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  3736 "foo_bar".
  3737 
  3738 
  3739 *** Pure ***
  3740 
  3741 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  3742 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  3743 
  3744 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  3745 There are three ways of invoking it:
  3746 
  3747 (1) unused_thms
  3748      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  3749 
  3750 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  3751      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  3752      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  3753 
  3754 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  3755      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  3756      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  3757      their ancestors.
  3758 
  3759 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  3760 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  3761 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  3762 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  3763 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  3764 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  3765 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  3766 
  3767 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  3768 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  3769 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  3770 
  3771 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  3772 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  3773 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  3774 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  3775 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  3776 
  3777 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  3778 
  3779 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  3780 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  3781 update of theories within ML code.
  3782 
  3783 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  3784 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  3785 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  3786 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  3787 
  3788 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  3789 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  3790 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  3791 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3792 
  3793 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  3794 
  3795 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  3796 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  3797 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  3798 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  3799 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  3800 
  3801 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  3802 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  3803 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  3804 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  3805 situations.
  3806 
  3807 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  3808 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  3809 proof text.
  3810 
  3811 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  3812 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  3813 
  3814 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  3815 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  3816 predicates.
  3817 
  3818 
  3819 *** Document preparation ***
  3820 
  3821 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  3822 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  3823 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  3824 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  3825 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  3826 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  3827 
  3828 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  3829 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  3830 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  3831 
  3832 
  3833 *** HOL ***
  3834 
  3835 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  3836 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  3837 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  3838 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  3839 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  3840 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  3841 
  3842 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  3843 with multithreading.
  3844 
  3845 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  3846 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  3847 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  3848 
  3849 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  3850 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  3851 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  3852 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3853 
  3854 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  3855 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  3856 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  3857 and makes them available separately.  See
  3858 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  3859 
  3860 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  3861 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  3862 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  3863 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  3864 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  3865 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  3866 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  3867 the declared rules.
  3868 
  3869 This setup also deals with rules like 
  3870 
  3871   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  3872 
  3873 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  3874 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  3875 
  3876 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  3877 
  3878   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  3879 
  3880   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  3881     definitions on => and bool.
  3882 
  3883   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  3884     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  3885     the following theorems have been renamed:
  3886 
  3887       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  3888       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  3889       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  3890       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  3891       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  3892       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  3893       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  3894       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  3895 
  3896   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  3897     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  3898     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  3899 
  3900   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  3901     The proof pattern
  3902 
  3903       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  3904       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  3905 
  3906     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  3907     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  3908 
  3909       have "EX S. P S"
  3910       proof
  3911         show "P S" <...>
  3912       qed
  3913 
  3914   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  3915     The proof pattern
  3916 
  3917       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  3918       also have "S = T" <...>
  3919       finally have "P T" .
  3920 
  3921     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  3922     must be replaced by something like
  3923 
  3924       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  3925       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  3926       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  3927 
  3928   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  3929     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  3930 
  3931       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  3932 
  3933     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  3934     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  3935     type of the form
  3936 
  3937       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  3938 
  3939     rather than
  3940 
  3941       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  3942 
  3943 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  3944 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  3945 
  3946 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3947 
  3948 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  3949 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  3950 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3951 
  3952 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  3953 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3954 
  3955 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  3956 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3957 
  3958 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  3959 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  3960 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3961 
  3962 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  3963 the same name in theory Orderings:
  3964 
  3965   less_trans
  3966   less_linear
  3967   le_imp_less_or_eq
  3968   le_less_trans
  3969   less_le_trans
  3970   less_not_sym
  3971   less_asym
  3972 
  3973 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  3974 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  3975 and different variable names.
  3976 
  3977 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  3978 
  3979 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  3980 finite maps.
  3981 
  3982 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  3983 
  3984 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  3985 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  3986 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  3987 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  3988 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  3989 accordingly.
  3990 
  3991 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  3992 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  3993 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  3994 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  3995 
  3996 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  3997 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  3998 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  3999 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  4000 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  4001 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4002 
  4003 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  4004 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4005 
  4006 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  4007 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  4008 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  4009 
  4010 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  4011 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4012 
  4013 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  4014 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  4015 
  4016 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  4017 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4018 
  4019 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  4020 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4021 
  4022 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  4023 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  4024 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4025 
  4026 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  4027 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4028 
  4029 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  4030 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  4031 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  4032 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  4033 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  4034 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4035 
  4036 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  4037 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  4038 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  4039 
  4040 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  4041 
  4042 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  4043 
  4044 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  4045 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  4046 well-orders on sets and on types.
  4047 
  4048 
  4049 *** ZF ***
  4050 
  4051 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  4052 same session:
  4053 
  4054   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  4055   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  4056   Int       -> Int_ZF
  4057   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  4058   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  4059   List      -> List_ZF
  4060   Main      -> Main_ZF
  4061 
  4062 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  4063 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  4064 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  4065 
  4066 
  4067 *** ML ***
  4068 
  4069 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  4070 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  4071 
  4072 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  4073 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  4074 
  4075 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  4076 
  4077 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  4078 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  4079 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  4080 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  4081 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4082 
  4083 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  4084 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  4085 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  4086 
  4087 
  4088 *** System ***
  4089 
  4090 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  4091 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  4092 
  4093 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  4094 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  4095 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  4096 
  4097 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  4098 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  4099 
  4100 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  4101 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  4102 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  4103 
  4104 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  4105 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  4106 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  4107 
  4108 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  4109 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  4110 
  4111 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  4112 way of changing the user's settings is via
  4113 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  4114 script.
  4115 
  4116 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  4117 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  4118 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  4119 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  4120 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  4121 
  4122 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  4123 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  4124 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  4125 
  4126 
  4127 
  4128 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  4129 -----------------------------------
  4130 
  4131 *** General ***
  4132 
  4133 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  4134 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  4135 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4136 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  4137 
  4138 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  4139 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  4140 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4141 
  4142 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  4143 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  4144 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  4145 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4146 
  4147 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  4148 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  4149 quotes.
  4150 
  4151 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  4152 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  4153 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  4154 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  4155 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  4156 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  4157 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  4158 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  4159 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  4160 
  4161 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  4162 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  4163 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  4164 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  4165 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  4166 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  4167 
  4168 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4169 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  4170 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  4171 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  4172 
  4173 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  4174 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  4175 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  4176 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  4177 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  4178 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  4179 
  4180 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  4181 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  4182 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  4183 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  4184 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  4185 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  4186 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  4187 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  4188 
  4189 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  4190 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  4191 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  4192 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  4193 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  4194 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  4195 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  4196 
  4197 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  4198 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  4199 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  4200 
  4201 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  4202 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  4203 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  4204 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  4205 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  4206 limit is imposed.
  4207 
  4208 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  4209 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  4210 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  4211 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  4212 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  4213 and scalability.
  4214 
  4215 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  4216 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  4217 
  4218 
  4219 *** Document preparation ***
  4220 
  4221 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  4222 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  4223 current context.
  4224 
  4225 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  4226 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  4227 
  4228 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  4229 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  4230 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  4231 
  4232 
  4233 *** Pure ***
  4234 
  4235 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  4236 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  4237 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  4238 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  4239 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  4240 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  4241 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  4242 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  4243 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  4244 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  4245 
  4246 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  4247 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  4248 sketch:
  4249 
  4250     internal compilation:
  4251         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  4252     writing SML code to a file:
  4253         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  4254     writing OCaml code to a file:
  4255         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  4256     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  4257         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  4258 
  4259     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  4260         method ``eval''
  4261 
  4262 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  4263 
  4264 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  4265 
  4266     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  4267     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  4268     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  4269     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  4270 
  4271 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  4272 
  4273     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  4274       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  4275 
  4276     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  4277       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  4278 
  4279     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  4280       {(target)}+
  4281         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  4282 
  4283     code_class <and_list of classes>
  4284       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  4285         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  4286 
  4287 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  4288 
  4289 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  4290 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  4291 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  4292 codegen".
  4293 
  4294 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  4295 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  4296 annotations).
  4297 
  4298 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  4299 syntax.
  4300 
  4301 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  4302 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  4303 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  4304 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  4305 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  4306 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  4307 
  4308 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  4309 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  4310 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  4311 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  4312 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  4313 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  4314 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  4315 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  4316 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  4317 equations, see section "definitions".
  4318 
  4319 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  4320 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  4321 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  4322 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  4323 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  4324 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  4325 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  4326 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  4327 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  4328 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  4329 
  4330 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  4331 configuration options:
  4332 
  4333   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  4334   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  4335   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  4336   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  4337   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  4338   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  4339   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  4340   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  4341   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  4342 
  4343 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  4344 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  4345 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  4346 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  4347 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  4348 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  4349 order.
  4350 
  4351 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  4352 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  4353 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  4354 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  4355 context encountered later on.
  4356 
  4357 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  4358 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  4359 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  4360 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  4361 
  4362 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  4363 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  4364 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  4365 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  4366 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  4367 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  4368 
  4369 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  4370 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  4371 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  4372 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  4373 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  4374 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  4375 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  4376 more permissive.
  4377 
  4378 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  4379 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  4380 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  4381 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  4382 maintainability of proof texts.
  4383 
  4384 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  4385 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  4386 
  4387   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  4388   then guess x and y by clarify
  4389 
  4390 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  4391 proof tools being involved here.
  4392 
  4393 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  4394 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  4395 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  4396 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  4397 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  4398 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  4399 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  4400 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  4401 
  4402 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  4403 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  4404 certain special cases of literal facts:
  4405 
  4406   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  4407   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  4408   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  4409   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  4410 
  4411 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  4412 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  4413 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  4414 
  4415 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  4416 both named and unnamed ones.
  4417 
  4418 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  4419 
  4420   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  4421 
  4422 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  4423 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  4424 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  4425 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  4426 
  4427 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  4428 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  4429 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  4430 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  4431 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  4432 
  4433 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  4434 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  4435 
  4436 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  4437 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  4438 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  4439 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  4440 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  4441 originally first one.
  4442 
  4443 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  4444 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  4445 expected.
  4446 
  4447 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  4448 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  4449 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  4450 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  4451 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  4452 
  4453   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4454     assumes "EX x. P x"
  4455     obtains x where "P x"
  4456 
  4457   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4458     assumes "A & B"
  4459     obtains A and B
  4460 
  4461   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4462     assumes "A | B"
  4463     obtains
  4464       A
  4465     | B
  4466 
  4467 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  4468 explicitly:
  4469 
  4470   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4471     obtains "~ thesis"
  4472 
  4473   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4474     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  4475 
  4476 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  4477 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  4478 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  4479 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  4480 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  4481 case_names).
  4482 
  4483 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  4484 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  4485 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  4486 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  4487 
  4488 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  4489 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  4490 top-level lemma.
  4491 
  4492 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  4493 introduction rule (default "that").
  4494 
  4495 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4496 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  4497 to occur.
  4498 
  4499 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  4500 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  4501 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  4502 representations independently of name spaces.
  4503 
  4504 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  4505 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  4506 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4507 
  4508 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  4509 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  4510 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  4511 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  4512 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  4513 current context.
  4514 
  4515 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  4516 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  4517 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  4518 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  4519 
  4520   axiomatization
  4521     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  4522     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  4523 
  4524   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  4525   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  4526 
  4527   abbreviation
  4528     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  4529     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  4530 
  4531 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  4532 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  4533 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  4534 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  4535 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  4536 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  4537 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  4538 
  4539 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  4540 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  4541 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  4542 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  4543 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  4544 
  4545 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  4546 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  4547 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  4548 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  4549 
  4550 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  4551 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  4552 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  4553 
  4554   definition "K x _ = x"
  4555 
  4556   inductive conj for A B
  4557   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  4558 
  4559 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  4560 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  4561 abbreviations on output.
  4562 
  4563 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  4564 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  4565 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  4566 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  4567 
  4568 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  4569 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  4570 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  4571 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  4572 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  4573 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  4574 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  4575 
  4576 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  4577 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  4578 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  4579 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  4580 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  4581 
  4582 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  4583 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  4584 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  4585 
  4586 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  4587 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  4588 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  4589 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  4590 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  4591 
  4592   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  4593     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  4594 
  4595 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  4596 definition specification element in the context of locale
  4597 partial_order.
  4598 
  4599 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  4600 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  4601 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  4602 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  4603 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  4604 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  4605 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  4606 examples.
  4607 
  4608 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  4609 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  4610 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  4611 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  4612 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  4613 
  4614 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  4615 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  4616 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  4617 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  4618 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  4619 
  4620   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  4621   (induct set: foo bar)
  4622   (induct pred: foo bar)
  4623   (induct type: foo bar)
  4624 
  4625 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  4626 new format.
  4627 
  4628 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  4629 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  4630 
  4631 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  4632 considered a legacy feature.
  4633 
  4634 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  4635 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4636 
  4637 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  4638 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  4639 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  4640 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  4641   
  4642 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  4643 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  4644 manipulating the claset.
  4645 
  4646 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  4647 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  4648 least one premise.
  4649 
  4650 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  4651 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  4652 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  4653 rule steps.
  4654 
  4655 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  4656 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  4657 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  4658 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  4659 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  4660 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  4661 
  4662 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  4663 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  4664 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  4665 
  4666 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  4667 the graph browser tool.
  4668 
  4669 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  4670 default; use '!' option for full details.
  4671 
  4672 
  4673 *** HOL ***
  4674 
  4675 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  4676 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  4677 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  4678 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  4679 multi-threading.
  4680   
  4681 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  4682 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  4683 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  4684 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  4685 work with multi-threading.
  4686 
  4687 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  4688 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  4689 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  4690 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  4691 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  4692 
  4693 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  4694 
  4695 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  4696 equality.
  4697 
  4698 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  4699 the new 'class' package:
  4700 
  4701     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  4702     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  4703     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  4704     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  4705     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  4706     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  4707     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  4708     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  4709     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  4710     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  4711     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  4712     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  4713     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  4714     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  4715     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  4716     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  4717     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  4718     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  4719     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  4720     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  4721 
  4722 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  4723 
  4724 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  4725 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  4726 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  4727 names.
  4728 
  4729 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  4730 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  4731 
  4732 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  4733 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  4734 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  4735 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  4736 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  4737 
  4738 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  4739 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  4740 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  4741 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  4742 
  4743 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  4744 
  4745 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  4746 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  4747 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  4748 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  4749 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4750 
  4751 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  4752 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4753 
  4754 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  4755 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  4756 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4757 
  4758 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  4759 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  4760 
  4761 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  4762 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  4763 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  4764 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  4765 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  4766 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  4767 in the current context.
  4768 
  4769 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  4770 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  4771 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4772 
  4773 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  4774 with new class dense_linear_order.
  4775 
  4776 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  4777 
  4778     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  4779     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  4780 
  4781     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  4782       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  4783     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  4784     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  4785 
  4786     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  4787     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  4788 
  4789   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  4790 
  4791     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  4792     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  4793     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  4794     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  4795     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  4796     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  4797     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  4798     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  4799     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  4800     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  4801     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  4802     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  4803     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  4804     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  4805     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  4806     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  4807     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  4808     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  4809     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  4810     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  4811     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  4812     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  4813     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  4814     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  4815     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  4816     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  4817     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  4818     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  4819     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  4820     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  4821     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  4822     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  4823     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  4824     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  4825     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  4826 
  4827     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  4828     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  4829     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  4830     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  4831     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  4832     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  4833     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  4834     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  4835     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  4836     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  4837     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  4838     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  4839     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  4840     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  4841     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  4842     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  4843     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  4844 
  4845     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  4846     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  4847     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  4848     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  4849     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  4850     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  4851     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  4852     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  4853     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  4854     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  4855     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  4856     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  4857     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  4858     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  4859     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  4860     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  4861     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  4862     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  4863     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  4864     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  4865     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  4866     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  4867     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  4868     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  4869     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  4870     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  4871     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  4872     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  4873 
  4874     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  4875     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  4876     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  4877     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  4878     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  4879     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  4880 
  4881     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  4882     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  4883     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  4884     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  4885 
  4886     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  4887     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  4888 
  4889     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  4890     join_max                ~> sup_max
  4891 
  4892 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  4893 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  4894 
  4895 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  4896 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  4897 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  4898 "*.size".
  4899 
  4900 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  4901 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4902 
  4903 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  4904 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  4905 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4906 
  4907 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4908 
  4909 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  4910 machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  4911 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  4912 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  4913 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  4914 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  4915 numerals on all operations.
  4916 
  4917 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  4918 
  4919 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  4920 
  4921 * Code generator library theories:
  4922   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  4923     languages.
  4924   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  4925     languages.
  4926   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  4927     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  4928   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  4929   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  4930     denominator).
  4931   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  4932     representable by rational numbers.
  4933   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  4934     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  4935     includes Code_Integer.
  4936   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  4937     target-language built-in integers.
  4938   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  4939     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  4940 
  4941 * New package for inductive predicates
  4942 
  4943   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  4944 
  4945     inductive
  4946       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  4947       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  4948     where
  4949       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  4950     | ...
  4951 
  4952   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  4953 
  4954     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  4955 
  4956     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  4957     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  4958 
  4959     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  4960     intros
  4961       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  4962       ...
  4963 
  4964   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  4965   sets to be defined with the new package via
  4966 
  4967     inductive_set
  4968       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  4969       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  4970     where
  4971       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  4972     | ...
  4973 
  4974   or
  4975 
  4976     inductive_set
  4977       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  4978       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  4979       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  4980     where
  4981       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  4982     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  4983     | ...
  4984 
  4985   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  4986 
  4987   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  4988   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  4989 
  4990   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4991 
  4992   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  4993     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  4994     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  4995     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  4996     than before the actual inductive definition.
  4997 
  4998   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  4999     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  5000     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  5001     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  5002     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  5003     statements of the form
  5004 
  5005       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  5006 
  5007     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  5008     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  5009 
  5010       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  5011 
  5012   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  5013 
  5014       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  5015         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5016         ==> ... ==> P
  5017 
  5018     for predicates and
  5019 
  5020       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5021         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5022         ==> ... ==> P
  5023 
  5024     for sets rather than
  5025 
  5026       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5027         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  5028         ==> ... ==> P
  5029 
  5030     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  5031     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  5032     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  5033 
  5034   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  5035     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  5036     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  5037 
  5038 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  5039 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  5040 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  5041 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  5042 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  5043 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  5044 
  5045 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  5046 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures. 
  5047 
  5048 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  5049 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  5050 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  5051 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  5052 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  5053 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  5054 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  5055 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  5056 variable.
  5057 
  5058 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  5059 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  5060 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  5061 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5062   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  5063   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  5064 
  5065 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  5066 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  5067 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  5068 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  5069 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  5070 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  5071 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  5072 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  5073 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  5074 
  5075 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  5076 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  5077 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  5078 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  5079 rat, etc.
  5080 
  5081 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  5082 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  5083 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  5084 
  5085 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  5086 
  5087 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  5088 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  5089 
  5090 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  5091 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  5092 
  5093 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  5094 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  5095 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5096 
  5097 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  5098 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  5099 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5100 
  5101 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  5102 
  5103 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  5104 
  5105 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  5106 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  5107 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  5108 positive/negative (in inequations).
  5109 
  5110 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  5111 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  5112 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  5113 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5114 
  5115 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  5116 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  5117 algebraic operations.
  5118 
  5119 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  5120 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5121 
  5122 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  5123 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5124 
  5125 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  5126 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  5127 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  5128 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  5129 adapted.
  5130  
  5131 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  5132 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  5133 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  5134 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  5135 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  5136 
  5137 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  5138 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  5139 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  5140 
  5141 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  5142 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  5143 better use 'abbreviation'.
  5144 
  5145 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5146 
  5147 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  5148 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  5149 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  5150   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  5151       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  5152   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  5153   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  5154   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  5155 
  5156 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  5157 
  5158 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  5159 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  5160 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  5161 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  5162 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  5163 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  5164 
  5165 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  5166 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  5167 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  5168 
  5169 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  5170 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  5171 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  5172 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5173 
  5174 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  5175 
  5176 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  5177 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5178 
  5179 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  5180 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  5181 
  5182 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  5183 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  5184 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  5185 
  5186 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  5187 True/False.
  5188 
  5189 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  5190 
  5191 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  5192 
  5193 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  5194 ``rule'' method.
  5195 
  5196 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  5197 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  5198 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  5199 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  5200 
  5201 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  5202 zChaff is still supported as well.
  5203 
  5204 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  5205 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  5206 
  5207 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  5208 Library.
  5209 
  5210 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  5211 
  5212 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  5213 as greatest fixed-point.
  5214 
  5215 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  5216 association lists.
  5217 
  5218 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  5219 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  5220 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  5221 
  5222 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  5223 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  5224 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5225 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  5226 behavior.
  5227 
  5228 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  5229 
  5230 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  5231 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  5232 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  5233 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  5234 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  5235 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  5236 
  5237 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  5238 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  5239 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
  5240 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
  5241 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
  5242 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
  5243 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
  5244 
  5245 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
  5246 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
  5247 
  5248 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
  5249 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
  5250 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
  5251 HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
  5252 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
  5253 
  5254 
  5255 *** HOL-Complex ***
  5256 
  5257 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
  5258 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
  5259 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
  5260 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
  5261 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5262 
  5263 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
  5264 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
  5265 and norm :: 'a => real.
  5266 
  5267 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
  5268 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
  5269 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5270 
  5271 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
  5272 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
  5273 
  5274 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
  5275 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
  5276 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
  5277 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5278 
  5279   Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5280   HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5281   HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5282   approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
  5283   monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  5284   galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  5285   (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  5286   (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5287   (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5288   (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5289   (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
  5290   is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  5291   deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
  5292   sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
  5293   exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
  5294 
  5295 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
  5296 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
  5297 hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
  5298 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5299 
  5300   approx        <-- capprox
  5301   HFinite       <-- CFinite
  5302   HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
  5303   Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
  5304   monad         <-- cmonad
  5305   galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
  5306   (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
  5307   is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
  5308   (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
  5309 
  5310 
  5311 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5312 
  5313 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
  5314 
  5315 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
  5316 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5317 
  5318 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
  5319 greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5320 
  5321 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see
  5322 Ring.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations
  5323 of algebraic structures.
  5324 
  5325 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.
  5326 
  5327 
  5328 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5329 
  5330 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding
  5331 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic.  See src/HOL/Nominal and
  5332 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples.  Prospective users should consult
  5333 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/
  5334 
  5335 
  5336 *** ML ***
  5337 
  5338 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int
  5339 (even on SML/NJ).
  5340 
  5341 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked
  5342 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at
  5343 compile-time.  For example:
  5344 
  5345 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}
  5346 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}
  5347 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}
  5348 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}
  5349 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}
  5350 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}
  5351 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}
  5352 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}
  5353 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}
  5354 ML {* @{type_name c} *}
  5355 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}
  5356 ML {* @{const_name c} *}
  5357 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}
  5358 ML {* @{context} *}
  5359 ML {* @{theory} *}
  5360 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}
  5361 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}
  5362 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}
  5363 ML {* @{simpset} *}
  5364 ML {* @{claset} *}
  5365 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}
  5366 
  5367 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.
  5368 
  5369 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with
  5370 ML_Context.trace enabled.
  5371 
  5372 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions
  5373 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and
  5374 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.
  5375 
  5376 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now
  5377 use Context.generic instead of just theory.
  5378 
  5379 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and
  5380 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of
  5381 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.
  5382 
  5383 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always
  5384 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.
  5385 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while
  5386 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and
  5387 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure
  5388 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably
  5389 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type
  5390 declarations and definitions.
  5391 
  5392 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed
  5393 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,
  5394 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need
  5395 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)
  5396 
  5397 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in
  5398 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the
  5399 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,
  5400 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5401 
  5402 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with
  5403 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed
  5404 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --
  5405 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and
  5406 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede
  5407 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.
  5408 
  5409 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --
  5410 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been
  5411 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted
  5412 accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for
  5413 attributes, methods, etc.
  5414 
  5415 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."
  5416 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to
  5417 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and
  5418 fold_map combinators.
  5419 
  5420 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional
  5421 comments (tags) are now strictly separate.  Name hints -- which are
  5422 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the
  5423 derivation.
  5424 
  5425 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an
  5426 actual goal state (thm).  Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to
  5427 achieve the old behaviour.
  5428 
  5429 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a
  5430 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule
  5431 statements.
  5432 
  5433 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now
  5434 enforced instead of silently assumed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use
  5435 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.
  5436 
  5437 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating
  5438 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc.  This replaces
  5439 some popular functions from term.ML:
  5440 
  5441   Term.variant		->  Name.variant
  5442   Term.variantlist	->  Name.variant_list
  5443   Term.invent_names	->  Name.invent_list
  5444 
  5445 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations
  5446 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).
  5447 
  5448 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper
  5449 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context.  For example,
  5450 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and
  5451 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces
  5452 various freeze_thaw operations.
  5453 
  5454 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for
  5455 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former
  5456 Tactic.prove).  Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results
  5457 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for
  5458 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard.  Note that
  5459 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is
  5460 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or
  5461 in a locale context).
  5462 
  5463 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)
  5464 and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations
  5465 (Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.
  5466 which are considered legacy and await removal.
  5467 
  5468 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking
  5469 (Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),
  5470 with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term
  5471 etc.).  Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still
  5472 available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using
  5473 a mere theory instead of a full context.
  5474 
  5475 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception
  5476 ERROR of string uniformly.  Function error now merely raises ERROR,
  5477 without any side effect on output channels.  The Isar toplevel takes
  5478 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions.  ML code may use plain
  5479 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:
  5480 
  5481   ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."
  5482 
  5483 Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be
  5484 embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like
  5485 this:
  5486 
  5487   Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)
  5488 
  5489 INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed
  5490 obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,
  5491 Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)
  5492 -- use plain ERROR instead.
  5493 
  5494 * Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a
  5495 list.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.
  5496 
  5497 * Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to
  5498 ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.
  5499 
  5500 * Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the
  5501 theory before entering a proof state.  Transactions now always see a
  5502 quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and
  5503 batch mode.
  5504 
  5505 * Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax.  Renamed
  5506 OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords.  Removed
  5507 OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in
  5508 OuterSyntax.command etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5509 
  5510 * Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now
  5511 contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the
  5512 very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by
  5513 simpset_of/local_simpset_of).  Consequently, all plug-in components
  5514 (solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.
  5515 
  5516 * Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the
  5517 local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc
  5518 etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this!  Removed
  5519 former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --
  5520 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to
  5521 specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.
  5522 
  5523 * Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces
  5524 change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a
  5525 theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --
  5526 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5527 
  5528 * Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired
  5529 "Trueprop" etc.
  5530 
  5531 
  5532 *** System ***
  5533 
  5534 * settings: the default heap location within ISABELLE_HOME_USER now
  5535 includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER.  This simplifies use of multiple
  5536 Isabelle installations.
  5537 
  5538 * isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical
  5539 operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source
  5540 code.
  5541 
  5542 * Basic Isabelle mode for jEdit, see Isabelle/lib/jedit/.
  5543 
  5544 * Support for parallel execution, using native multicore support of
  5545 Poly/ML 5.1.  The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing
  5546 independent theories, according to the given theory header
  5547 specifications. The maximum number of worker threads is specified via
  5548 usedir option -M or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. A
  5549 speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected on a 4-core machine, and up
  5550 to 6 on a 8-core machine.  User-code needs to observe certain
  5551 guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A in the Isar
  5552 Implementation manual.
  5553 
  5554 
  5555 
  5556 New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)
  5557 ----------------------------------
  5558 
  5559 *** General ***
  5560 
  5561 * Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is
  5562 
  5563   theory <name>
  5564   imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>
  5565   uses <file1> ... <fileM>
  5566   begin
  5567 
  5568 where the 'uses' part is optional.  The previous syntax
  5569 
  5570   theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:
  5571 
  5572 will disappear in the next release.  Use isatool fixheaders to convert
  5573 existing theory files.  Note that there is no change in ancient
  5574 non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.
  5575 
  5576 * Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via
  5577 relative and absolute paths.
  5578 
  5579 * Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a
  5580 list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,
  5581 simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select
  5582 theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that
  5583 match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified
  5584 name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose
  5585 lhs match term.  Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects
  5586 all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under
  5587 'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f.  Example:
  5588 
  5589   C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."
  5590 
  5591 prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",
  5592 matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."
  5593 in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).
  5594 
  5595 * Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of
  5596 'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5597 
  5598 * Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that
  5599 Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both
  5600 formal and informal parts).  Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof
  5601 General interface.  Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):
  5602 
  5603   http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html
  5604   http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html
  5605 
  5606 * Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the
  5607 Classical Reasoner.  Typical big applications run around 2 times
  5608 faster.
  5609 
  5610 
  5611 *** Document preparation ***
  5612 
  5613 * Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output
  5614 of raw sources.  Only those symbols that do not require additional
  5615 LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are
  5616 displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim.  isatool display
  5617 and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the
  5618 DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).
  5619 
  5620 * Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,
  5621 notably folding and hiding.  Predefined tags include "theory" (for
  5622 theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for
  5623 commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and
  5624 "invisible" are unused by default.  Users may give explicit tag
  5625 specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''.  The
  5626 interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document
  5627 preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of
  5628 isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,
  5629 \isadroptag.
  5630 
  5631 Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool
  5632 usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them).  Typical
  5633 specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present
  5634 theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold
  5635 proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit
  5636 these parts without any formal replacement text.  The Isabelle site
  5637 default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as
  5638 specified above.
  5639 
  5640 * Several new antiquotations:
  5641 
  5642   @{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;
  5643 
  5644   @{typeof term} prints the type of a term;
  5645 
  5646   @{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the
  5647   argument is a known logical constant;
  5648 
  5649   @{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or
  5650   theorem applying a "style" to it
  5651 
  5652   @{ML text}
  5653 
  5654 Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of
  5655 definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the
  5656 conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem19'
  5657 to print the specified premise.  TermStyle.add_style provides an ML
  5658 interface for introducing further styles.  See also the "LaTeX Sugar"
  5659 document practical applications.  The ML antiquotation prints
  5660 type-checked ML expressions verbatim.
  5661 
  5662 * Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',
  5663 and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which
  5664 specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations.  For
  5665 example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.
  5666 
  5667 * Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative
  5668 context interpreting the subsequent argument.  For example: @{thm
  5669 [locale=lattice] inf_assoc}.
  5670 
  5671 * Proper output of proof terms (@{prf ...} and @{full_prf ...}) within
  5672 a proof context.
  5673 
  5674 * Proper output of antiquotations for theory commands involving a
  5675 proof context (such as 'locale' or 'theorem (in loc) ...').
  5676 
  5677 * Delimiters of outer tokens (string etc.) now produce separate LaTeX
  5678 macros (\isachardoublequoteopen, isachardoublequoteclose etc.).
  5679 
  5680 * isatool usedir: new option -C (default true) controls whether option
  5681 -D should include a copy of the original document directory; -C false
  5682 prevents unwanted effects such as copying of administrative CVS data.
  5683 
  5684 
  5685 *** Pure ***
  5686 
  5687 * Considerably improved version of 'constdefs' command.  Now performs
  5688 automatic type-inference of declared constants; additional support for
  5689 local structure declarations (cf. locales and HOL records), see also
  5690 isar-ref manual.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to observe strictly
  5691 sequential dependencies of definitions within a single 'constdefs'
  5692 section; moreover, the declared name needs to be an identifier.  If
  5693 all fails, consider to fall back on 'consts' and 'defs' separately.
  5694 
  5695 * Improved indexed syntax and implicit structures.  First of all,
  5696 indexed syntax provides a notational device for subscripted
  5697 application, using the new syntax \<^bsub>term\<^esub> for arbitrary
  5698 expressions.  Secondly, in a local context with structure
  5699 declarations, number indexes \<^sub>n or the empty index (default
  5700 number 1) refer to a certain fixed variable implicitly; option
  5701 show_structs controls printing of implicit structures.  Typical
  5702 applications of these concepts involve record types and locales.
  5703 
  5704 * New command 'no_syntax' removes grammar declarations (and
  5705 translations) resulting from the given syntax specification, which is
  5706 interpreted in the same manner as for the 'syntax' command.
  5707 
  5708 * 'Advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) may depend
  5709 on the signature of the theory context being presently used for
  5710 parsing/printing, see also isar-ref manual.
  5711 
  5712 * Improved 'oracle' command provides a type-safe interface to turn an
  5713 ML expression of type theory -> T -> term into a primitive rule of
  5714 type theory -> T -> thm (i.e. the functionality of Thm.invoke_oracle
  5715 is already included here); see also FOL/ex/IffExample.thy;
  5716 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5717 
  5718 * axclass: name space prefix for class "c" is now "c_class" (was "c"
  5719 before); "cI" is no longer bound, use "c.intro" instead.
  5720 INCOMPATIBILITY.  This change avoids clashes of fact bindings for
  5721 axclasses vs. locales.
  5722 
  5723 * Improved internal renaming of symbolic identifiers -- attach primes
  5724 instead of base 26 numbers.
  5725 
  5726 * New flag show_question_marks controls printing of leading question
  5727 marks in schematic variable names.
  5728 
  5729 * In schematic variable names, *any* symbol following \<^isub> or
  5730 \<^isup> is now treated as part of the base name.  For example, the
  5731 following works without printing of awkward ".0" indexes:
  5732 
  5733   lemma "x\<^isub>1 = x\<^isub>2 ==> x\<^isub>2 = x\<^isub>1"
  5734     by simp
  5735 
  5736 * Inner syntax includes (*(*nested*) comments*).
  5737 
  5738 * Pretty printer now supports unbreakable blocks, specified in mixfix
  5739 annotations as "(00...)".
  5740 
  5741 * Clear separation of logical types and nonterminals, where the latter
  5742 may only occur in 'syntax' specifications or type abbreviations.
  5743 Before that distinction was only partially implemented via type class
  5744 "logic" vs. "{}".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare cases of improper
  5745 use of 'types'/'consts' instead of 'nonterminals'/'syntax'.  Some very
  5746 exotic syntax specifications may require further adaption
  5747 (e.g. Cube/Cube.thy).
  5748 
  5749 * Removed obsolete type class "logic", use the top sort {} instead.
  5750 Note that non-logical types should be declared as 'nonterminals'
  5751 rather than 'types'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for new object-logic
  5752 specifications.
  5753 
  5754 * Attributes 'induct' and 'cases': type or set names may now be
  5755 locally fixed variables as well.
  5756 
  5757 * Simplifier: can now control the depth to which conditional rewriting
  5758 is traced via the PG menu Isabelle -> Settings -> Trace Simp Depth
  5759 Limit.
  5760 
  5761 * Simplifier: simplification procedures may now take the current
  5762 simpset into account (cf. Simplifier.simproc(_i) / mk_simproc
  5763 interface), which is very useful for calling the Simplifier
  5764 recursively.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: the 'prems' argument of simprocs
  5765 is gone -- use prems_of_ss on the simpset instead.  Moreover, the
  5766 low-level mk_simproc no longer applies Logic.varify internally, to
  5767 allow for use in a context of fixed variables.
  5768 
  5769 * thin_tac now works even if the assumption being deleted contains !!
  5770 or ==>.  More generally, erule now works even if the major premise of
  5771 the elimination rule contains !! or ==>.
  5772 
  5773 * Method 'rules' has been renamed to 'iprover'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5774 
  5775 * Reorganized bootstrapping of the Pure theories; CPure is now derived
  5776 from Pure, which contains all common declarations already.  Both
  5777 theories are defined via plain Isabelle/Isar .thy files.
  5778 INCOMPATIBILITY: elements of CPure (such as the CPure.intro /
  5779 CPure.elim / CPure.dest attributes) now appear in the Pure name space;
  5780 use isatool fixcpure to adapt your theory and ML sources.
  5781 
  5782 * New syntax 'name(i-j, i-, i, ...)' for referring to specific
  5783 selections of theorems in named facts via index ranges.
  5784 
  5785 * 'print_theorems': in theory mode, really print the difference
  5786 wrt. the last state (works for interactive theory development only),
  5787 in proof mode print all local facts (cf. 'print_facts');
  5788 
  5789 * 'hide': option '(open)' hides only base names.
  5790 
  5791 * More efficient treatment of intermediate checkpoints in interactive
  5792 theory development.
  5793 
  5794 * Code generator is now invoked via code_module (incremental code
  5795 generation) and code_library (modular code generation, ML structures
  5796 for each theory).  INCOMPATIBILITY: new keywords 'file' and 'contains'
  5797 must be quoted when used as identifiers.
  5798 
  5799 * New 'value' command for reading, evaluating and printing terms using
  5800 the code generator.  INCOMPATIBILITY: command keyword 'value' must be
  5801 quoted when used as identifier.
  5802 
  5803 
  5804 *** Locales ***
  5805 
  5806 * New commands for the interpretation of locale expressions in
  5807 theories (1), locales (2) and proof contexts (3).  These generate
  5808 proof obligations from the expression specification.  After the
  5809 obligations have been discharged, theorems of the expression are added
  5810 to the theory, target locale or proof context.  The synopsis of the
  5811 commands is a follows:
  5812 
  5813   (1) interpretation expr inst
  5814   (2) interpretation target < expr
  5815   (3) interpret expr inst
  5816 
  5817 Interpretation in theories and proof contexts require a parameter
  5818 instantiation of terms from the current context.  This is applied to
  5819 specifications and theorems of the interpreted expression.
  5820 Interpretation in locales only permits parameter renaming through the
  5821 locale expression.  Interpretation is smart in that interpretations
  5822 that are active already do not occur in proof obligations, neither are
  5823 instantiated theorems stored in duplicate.  Use 'print_interps' to
  5824 inspect active interpretations of a particular locale.  For details,
  5825 see the Isar Reference manual.  Examples can be found in
  5826 HOL/Finite_Set.thy and HOL/Algebra/UnivPoly.thy.
  5827 
  5828 INCOMPATIBILITY: former 'instantiate' has been withdrawn, use
  5829 'interpret' instead.
  5830 
  5831 * New context element 'constrains' for adding type constraints to
  5832 parameters.
  5833 
  5834 * Context expressions: renaming of parameters with syntax
  5835 redeclaration.
  5836 
  5837 * Locale declaration: 'includes' disallowed.
  5838 
  5839 * Proper static binding of attribute syntax -- i.e. types / terms /
  5840 facts mentioned as arguments are always those of the locale definition
  5841 context, independently of the context of later invocations.  Moreover,
  5842 locale operations (renaming and type / term instantiation) are applied
  5843 to attribute arguments as expected.
  5844 
  5845 INCOMPATIBILITY of the ML interface: always pass Attrib.src instead of
  5846 actual attributes; rare situations may require Attrib.attribute to
  5847 embed those attributes into Attrib.src that lack concrete syntax.
  5848 Attribute implementations need to cooperate properly with the static
  5849 binding mechanism.  Basic parsers Args.XXX_typ/term/prop and
  5850 Attrib.XXX_thm etc. already do the right thing without further
  5851 intervention.  Only unusual applications -- such as "where" or "of"
  5852 (cf. src/Pure/Isar/attrib.ML), which process arguments depending both
  5853 on the context and the facts involved -- may have to assign parsed
  5854 values to argument tokens explicitly.
  5855 
  5856 * Changed parameter management in theorem generation for long goal
  5857 statements with 'includes'.  INCOMPATIBILITY: produces a different
  5858 theorem statement in rare situations.
  5859 
  5860 * Locale inspection command 'print_locale' omits notes elements.  Use
  5861 'print_locale!' to have them included in the output.
  5862 
  5863 
  5864 *** Provers ***
  5865 
  5866 * Provers/hypsubst.ML: improved version of the subst method, for
  5867 single-step rewriting: it now works in bound variable contexts. New is
  5868 'subst (asm)', for rewriting an assumption.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may
  5869 rewrite a different subterm than the original subst method, which is
  5870 still available as 'simplesubst'.
  5871 
  5872 * Provers/quasi.ML: new transitivity reasoners for transitivity only
  5873 and quasi orders.
  5874 
  5875 * Provers/trancl.ML: new transitivity reasoner for transitive and
  5876 reflexive-transitive closure of relations.
  5877 
  5878 * Provers/blast.ML: new reference depth_limit to make blast's depth
  5879 limit (previously hard-coded with a value of 20) user-definable.
  5880 
  5881 * Provers/simplifier.ML has been moved to Pure, where Simplifier.setup
  5882 is peformed already.  Object-logics merely need to finish their
  5883 initial simpset configuration as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5884 
  5885 
  5886 *** HOL ***
  5887 
  5888 * Symbolic syntax of Hilbert Choice Operator is now as follows:
  5889 
  5890   syntax (epsilon)
  5891     "_Eps" :: "[pttrn, bool] => 'a"    ("(3\<some>_./ _)" [0, 10] 10)
  5892 
  5893 The symbol \<some> is displayed as the alternative epsilon of LaTeX
  5894 and x-symbol; use option '-m epsilon' to get it actually printed.
  5895 Moreover, the mathematically important symbolic identifier \<epsilon>
  5896 becomes available as variable, constant etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5897 
  5898 * "x > y" abbreviates "y < x" and "x >= y" abbreviates "y <= x".
  5899 Similarly for all quantifiers: "ALL x > y" etc.  The x-symbol for >=
  5900 is \<ge>. New transitivity rules have been added to HOL/Orderings.thy to
  5901 support corresponding Isar calculations.
  5902 
  5903 * "{x:A. P}" abbreviates "{x. x:A & P}", and similarly for "\<in>"
  5904 instead of ":".
  5905 
  5906 * theory SetInterval: changed the syntax for open intervals:
  5907 
  5908   Old       New
  5909   {..n(}    {..<n}
  5910   {)n..}    {n<..}
  5911   {m..n(}   {m..<n}
  5912   {)m..n}   {m<..n}
  5913   {)m..n(}  {m<..<n}
  5914 
  5915 The old syntax is still supported but will disappear in the next
  5916 release.  For conversion use the following Emacs search and replace
  5917 patterns (these are not perfect but work quite well):
  5918 
  5919   {)\([^\.]*\)\.\.  ->  {\1<\.\.}
  5920   \.\.\([^(}]*\)(}  ->  \.\.<\1}
  5921 
  5922 * Theory Commutative_Ring (in Library): method comm_ring for proving
  5923 equalities in commutative rings; method 'algebra' provides a generic
  5924 interface.
  5925 
  5926 * Theory Finite_Set: changed the syntax for 'setsum', summation over
  5927 finite sets: "setsum (%x. e) A", which used to be "\<Sum>x:A. e", is
  5928 now either "SUM x:A. e" or "\<Sum>x \<in> A. e". The bound variable can
  5929 be a tuple pattern.
  5930 
  5931 Some new syntax forms are available:
  5932 
  5933   "\<Sum>x | P. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {x. P}"
  5934   "\<Sum>x = a..b. e"   for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..b}"
  5935   "\<Sum>x = a..<b. e"  for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..<b}"
  5936   "\<Sum>x < k. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {..<k}"
  5937 
  5938 The latter form "\<Sum>x < k. e" used to be based on a separate
  5939 function "Summation", which has been discontinued.
  5940 
  5941 * theory Finite_Set: in structured induction proofs, the insert case
  5942 is now 'case (insert x F)' instead of the old counterintuitive 'case
  5943 (insert F x)'.
  5944 
  5945 * The 'refute' command has been extended to support a much larger
  5946 fragment of HOL, including axiomatic type classes, constdefs and
  5947 typedefs, inductive datatypes and recursion.
  5948 
  5949 * New tactics 'sat' and 'satx' to prove propositional tautologies.
  5950 Requires zChaff with proof generation to be installed.  See
  5951 HOL/ex/SAT_Examples.thy for examples.
  5952 
  5953 * Datatype induction via method 'induct' now preserves the name of the
  5954 induction variable. For example, when proving P(xs::'a list) by
  5955 induction on xs, the induction step is now P(xs) ==> P(a#xs) rather
  5956 than P(list) ==> P(a#list) as previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  5957 in unstructured proof scripts.
  5958 
  5959 * Reworked implementation of records.  Improved scalability for
  5960 records with many fields, avoiding performance problems for type
  5961 inference. Records are no longer composed of nested field types, but
  5962 of nested extension types. Therefore the record type only grows linear
  5963 in the number of extensions and not in the number of fields.  The
  5964 top-level (users) view on records is preserved.  Potential
  5965 INCOMPATIBILITY only in strange cases, where the theory depends on the
  5966 old record representation. The type generated for a record is called
  5967 <record_name>_ext_type.
  5968 
  5969 Flag record_quick_and_dirty_sensitive can be enabled to skip the
  5970 proofs triggered by a record definition or a simproc (if
  5971 quick_and_dirty is enabled).  Definitions of large records can take
  5972 quite long.
  5973 
  5974 New simproc record_upd_simproc for simplification of multiple record
  5975 updates enabled by default.  Moreover, trivial updates are also
  5976 removed: r(|x := x r|) = r.  INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break
  5977 occasionally, since simplification is more powerful by default.
  5978 
  5979 * typedef: proper support for polymorphic sets, which contain extra
  5980 type-variables in the term.
  5981 
  5982 * Simplifier: automatically reasons about transitivity chains
  5983 involving "trancl" (r^+) and "rtrancl" (r^*) by setting up tactics
  5984 provided by Provers/trancl.ML as additional solvers.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5985 old proofs break occasionally as simplification may now solve more
  5986 goals than previously.
  5987 
  5988 * Simplifier: converts x <= y into x = y if assumption y <= x is
  5989 present.  Works for all partial orders (class "order"), in particular
  5990 numbers and sets.  For linear orders (e.g. numbers) it treats ~ x < y
  5991 just like y <= x.
  5992 
  5993 * Simplifier: new simproc for "let x = a in f x".  If a is a free or
  5994 bound variable or a constant then the let is unfolded.  Otherwise
  5995 first a is simplified to b, and then f b is simplified to g. If
  5996 possible we abstract b from g arriving at "let x = b in h x",
  5997 otherwise we unfold the let and arrive at g.  The simproc can be
  5998 enabled/disabled by the reference use_let_simproc.  Potential
  5999 INCOMPATIBILITY since simplification is more powerful by default.
  6000 
  6001 * Classical reasoning: the meson method now accepts theorems as arguments.
  6002 
  6003 * Prover support: pre-release of the Isabelle-ATP linkup, which runs background
  6004 jobs to provide advice on the provability of subgoals.
  6005 
  6006 * Theory OrderedGroup and Ring_and_Field: various additions and
  6007 improvements to faciliate calculations involving equalities and
  6008 inequalities.
  6009 
  6010 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
  6011 (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  6012 
  6013   abs_eq             now named abs_of_nonneg
  6014   abs_of_ge_0        now named abs_of_nonneg
  6015   abs_minus_eq       now named abs_of_nonpos
  6016   imp_abs_id         now named abs_of_nonneg
  6017   imp_abs_neg_id     now named abs_of_nonpos
  6018   mult_pos           now named mult_pos_pos
  6019   mult_pos_le        now named mult_nonneg_nonneg
  6020   mult_pos_neg_le    now named mult_nonneg_nonpos
  6021   mult_pos_neg2_le   now named mult_nonneg_nonpos2
  6022   mult_neg           now named mult_neg_neg
  6023   mult_neg_le        now named mult_nonpos_nonpos
  6024 
  6025 * The following lemmas in Ring_and_Field have been added to the simplifier:
  6026      
  6027      zero_le_square
  6028      not_square_less_zero 
  6029 
  6030   The following lemmas have been deleted from Real/RealPow:
  6031   
  6032      realpow_zero_zero
  6033      realpow_two
  6034      realpow_less
  6035      zero_le_power
  6036      realpow_two_le
  6037      abs_realpow_two
  6038      realpow_two_abs     
  6039 
  6040 * Theory Parity: added rules for simplifying exponents.
  6041 
  6042 * Theory List:
  6043 
  6044 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
  6045 (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  6046 
  6047   list_all_Nil       now named list_all.simps(1)
  6048   list_all_Cons      now named list_all.simps(2)
  6049   list_all_conv      now named list_all_iff
  6050   set_mem_eq         now named mem_iff
  6051 
  6052 * Theories SetsAndFunctions and BigO (see HOL/Library) support
  6053 asymptotic "big O" calculations.  See the notes in BigO.thy.
  6054 
  6055 
  6056 *** HOL-Complex ***
  6057 
  6058 * Theory RealDef: better support for embedding natural numbers and
  6059 integers in the reals.
  6060 
  6061 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
  6062 (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  6063 
  6064   exp_ge_add_one_self  now requires no hypotheses
  6065   real_of_int_add      reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  6066   real_of_int_minus    reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  6067   real_of_int_diff     reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  6068   real_of_int_mult     reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  6069 
  6070 * Theory RComplete: expanded support for floor and ceiling functions.
  6071 
  6072 * Theory Ln is new, with properties of the natural logarithm
  6073 
  6074 * Hyperreal: There is a new type constructor "star" for making
  6075 nonstandard types.  The old type names are now type synonyms:
  6076 
  6077   hypreal = real star
  6078   hypnat = nat star
  6079   hcomplex = complex star
  6080 
  6081 * Hyperreal: Many groups of similarly-defined constants have been
  6082 replaced by polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  6083 
  6084   star_of <-- hypreal_of_real, hypnat_of_nat, hcomplex_of_complex
  6085 
  6086   starset      <-- starsetNat, starsetC
  6087   *s*          <-- *sNat*, *sc*
  6088   starset_n    <-- starsetNat_n, starsetC_n
  6089   *sn*         <-- *sNatn*, *scn*
  6090   InternalSets <-- InternalNatSets, InternalCSets
  6091 
  6092   starfun      <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
  6093   *f*          <-- *fNat*, *fNat2*, *fc*, *fRc*, *fcR*
  6094   starfun_n    <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n
  6095   *fn*         <-- *fNatn*, *fNat2n*, *fcn*, *fRcn*, *fcRn*
  6096   InternalFuns <-- InternalNatFuns, InternalNatFuns2, Internal{C,RC,CR}Funs
  6097 
  6098 * Hyperreal: Many type-specific theorems have been removed in favor of
  6099 theorems specific to various axiomatic type classes (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  6100 
  6101   add_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_commute
  6102   add_assoc   <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_assocs
  6103   OrderedGroup.add_0 <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_zero_left
  6104   OrderedGroup.add_0_right <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_zero_right
  6105   right_minus <-- hypreal_add_minus
  6106   left_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_minus_left
  6107   mult_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_commute
  6108   mult_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_assoc
  6109   mult_1_left <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_1, hcomplex_mult_one_left
  6110   mult_1_right <-- hcomplex_mult_one_right
  6111   mult_zero_left <-- hcomplex_mult_zero_left
  6112   left_distrib <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_mult_distrib
  6113   right_distrib <-- hypnat_add_mult_distrib2
  6114   zero_neq_one <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_not_eq_one
  6115   right_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse
  6116   left_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse_left, hcomplex_mult_inv_left
  6117   order_refl <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_refl
  6118   order_trans <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_trans
  6119   order_antisym <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_anti_sym
  6120   order_less_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less_le
  6121   linorder_linear <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_linear
  6122   add_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_add_left_mono
  6123   mult_strict_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_less_mono2
  6124   add_nonneg_nonneg <-- hypreal_le_add_order
  6125 
  6126 * Hyperreal: Separate theorems having to do with type-specific
  6127 versions of constants have been merged into theorems that apply to the
  6128 new polymorphic constants (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  6129 
  6130   STAR_UNIV_set <-- {STAR_real,NatStar_real,STARC_complex}_set
  6131   STAR_empty_set <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_empty_set
  6132   STAR_Un <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Un
  6133   STAR_Int <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Int
  6134   STAR_Compl <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Compl
  6135   STAR_subset <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_subset
  6136   STAR_mem <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_mem
  6137   STAR_mem_Compl <-- {STAR,STARC}_mem_Compl
  6138   STAR_diff <-- {STAR,STARC}_diff
  6139   STAR_star_of_image_subset <-- {STAR_hypreal_of_real, NatStar_hypreal_of_real,
  6140     STARC_hcomplex_of_complex}_image_subset
  6141   starset_n_Un <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Un
  6142   starset_n_Int <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Int
  6143   starset_n_Compl <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Compl
  6144   starset_n_diff <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_diff
  6145   InternalSets_Un <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Un
  6146   InternalSets_Int <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Int
  6147   InternalSets_Compl <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Compl
  6148   InternalSets_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_diff
  6149   InternalSets_UNIV_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_UNIV_diff
  6150   InternalSets_starset_n <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_starset{Nat,C}_n
  6151   starset_starset_n_eq <-- starset{Nat,C}_starset{Nat,C}_n_eq
  6152   starset_n_starset <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_starset{Nat,C}
  6153   starfun_n_starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n_starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
  6154   starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
  6155   starfun_mult <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_mult
  6156   starfun_add <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_add
  6157   starfun_minus <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_minus
  6158   starfun_diff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_diff
  6159   starfun_o <-- starfun{NatNat2,Nat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o
  6160   starfun_o2 <-- starfun{NatNat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o2
  6161   starfun_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_const_fun
  6162   starfun_inverse <-- starfun{Nat,C,RC,CR}_inverse
  6163   starfun_eq <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_eq
  6164   starfun_eq_iff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_eq_iff
  6165   starfun_Id <-- starfunC_Id
  6166   starfun_approx <-- starfun{Nat,CR}_approx
  6167   starfun_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_capprox
  6168   starfun_abs <-- starfunNat_rabs
  6169   starfun_lambda_cancel <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel
  6170   starfun_lambda_cancel2 <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel2
  6171   starfun_mult_HFinite_approx <-- starfunCR_mult_HFinite_capprox
  6172   starfun_mult_CFinite_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_mult_CFinite_capprox
  6173   starfun_add_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_add_capprox
  6174   starfun_add_approx <-- starfunCR_add_approx
  6175   starfun_inverse_inverse <-- starfunC_inverse_inverse
  6176   starfun_divide <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_divide
  6177   starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n
  6178   starfun_n_mult <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_mult
  6179   starfun_n_add <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_add
  6180   starfun_n_add_minus <-- starfunNat_n_add_minus
  6181   starfun_n_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_const_fun
  6182   starfun_n_minus <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_minus
  6183   starfun_n_eq <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_eq
  6184 
  6185   star_n_add <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add
  6186   star_n_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_minus
  6187   star_n_diff <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_diff
  6188   star_n_mult <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_mult
  6189   star_n_inverse <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_inverse
  6190   star_n_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le
  6191   star_n_less <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less
  6192   star_n_zero_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_num
  6193   star_n_one_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_one_num
  6194   star_n_abs <-- hypreal_hrabs
  6195   star_n_divide <-- hcomplex_divide
  6196 
  6197   star_of_add <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_add
  6198   star_of_minus <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_minus
  6199   star_of_diff <-- hypreal_of_real_diff
  6200   star_of_mult <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_mult
  6201   star_of_one <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_one
  6202   star_of_zero <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_zero
  6203   star_of_le <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_le_iff
  6204   star_of_less <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_less_iff
  6205   star_of_eq <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_eq_iff
  6206   star_of_inverse <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_inverse
  6207   star_of_divide <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_divide
  6208   star_of_of_nat <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_nat
  6209   star_of_of_int <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_int
  6210   star_of_number_of <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_number_of
  6211   star_of_number_less <-- number_of_less_hypreal_of_real_iff
  6212   star_of_number_le <-- number_of_le_hypreal_of_real_iff
  6213   star_of_eq_number <-- hypreal_of_real_eq_number_of_iff
  6214   star_of_less_number <-- hypreal_of_real_less_number_of_iff
  6215   star_of_le_number <-- hypreal_of_real_le_number_of_iff
  6216   star_of_power <-- hypreal_of_real_power
  6217   star_of_eq_0 <-- hcomplex_of_complex_zero_iff
  6218 
  6219 * Hyperreal: new method "transfer" that implements the transfer
  6220 principle of nonstandard analysis. With a subgoal that mentions
  6221 nonstandard types like "'a star", the command "apply transfer"
  6222 replaces it with an equivalent one that mentions only standard types.
  6223 To be successful, all free variables must have standard types; non-
  6224 standard variables must have explicit universal quantifiers.
  6225 
  6226 * Hyperreal: A theory of Taylor series.
  6227 
  6228 
  6229 *** HOLCF ***
  6230 
  6231 * Discontinued special version of 'constdefs' (which used to support
  6232 continuous functions) in favor of the general Pure one with full
  6233 type-inference.
  6234 
  6235 * New simplification procedure for solving continuity conditions; it
  6236 is much faster on terms with many nested lambda abstractions (cubic
  6237 instead of exponential time).
  6238 
  6239 * New syntax for domain package: selector names are now optional.
  6240 Parentheses should be omitted unless argument is lazy, for example:
  6241 
  6242   domain 'a stream = cons "'a" (lazy "'a stream")
  6243 
  6244 * New command 'fixrec' for defining recursive functions with pattern
  6245 matching; defining multiple functions with mutual recursion is also
  6246 supported.  Patterns may include the constants cpair, spair, up, sinl,
  6247 sinr, or any data constructor defined by the domain package. The given
  6248 equations are proven as rewrite rules. See HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  6249 syntax and examples.