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NEWS

author | wenzelm |

Sat Apr 07 16:41:59 2012 +0200 (2012-04-07) | |

changeset 47389 | e8552cba702d |

parent 47349 | 803729c9fd4d |

child 47397 | d654c73e4b12 |

permissions | -rw-r--r-- |

explicit checks stable_finished_theory/stable_command allow parallel asynchronous command transactions;

tuned;

tuned;

1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes

2 ==============================================

4 New in this Isabelle version

5 ----------------------------

7 *** General ***

9 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:

11 - markup for bound variables

12 - markup for types of term variables (e.g. displayed as tooltips)

13 - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session

14 - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range

15 e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)

17 * Updated and extended reference manuals ("isar-ref" and

18 "implementation"); reduced remaining material in old "ref" manual.

20 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)

21 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead

22 of the original expression. INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where

23 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations

24 etc. was exploited.

26 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'

27 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored. Thus

28 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts

29 becomes obsolete. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of

30 indices of schematic variables.

32 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:

34 num ~> num_token

35 xnum ~> xnum_token

36 xstr ~> str_token

38 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY. Note that in practice "num_const" or

39 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include

40 position information via constraints).

42 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see

43 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref

44 manual. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

46 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory

47 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands. Allow new

48 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.

50 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar

51 (not just JRE).

54 *** Pure ***

56 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"

57 into the user context. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular

58 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.

60 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into

61 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always

62 expand it. This also works for object-logic equality. (Formerly

63 undocumented feature.)

65 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental

66 collection of foundational premises in the context (marked as legacy

67 since Isabelle2011).

69 * Obsolete command 'types' has been discontinued. Use 'type_synonym'

70 instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

72 * Ancient code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',

73 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.

74 Use commands of the generic code generator instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

76 * Redundant attribute 'code_inline' has been discontinued. Use

77 'code_unfold' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

79 * Dropped attribute 'code_unfold_post' in favor of the its dual

80 'code_abbrev', which yields a common pattern in definitions like

82 definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"

84 INCOMPATIBILITY.

86 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just

87 like type constraints. INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where

88 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally. For example:

90 lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)" -- "now illegal"

92 lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"

93 -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurence (!)"

96 *** HOL ***

98 * New tutorial Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL

100 * The representation of numerals has changed. We now have a datatype

101 "num" representing strictly positive binary numerals, along with

102 functions "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to

103 represent positive and negated numeric literals, respectively. (See

104 definitions in Num.thy.) Potential INCOMPATIBILITY; some user theories

105 may require adaptations:

107 - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These

108 classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.

110 - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,

111 and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until

112 after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.

114 - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"

115 pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.

117 - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes

118 automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and

119 simprocs may now apply within the proof.

121 - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:

122 Redefine using other integer operations.

124 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before

125 Isabelle2008). Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.

126 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY. For developments keeping predicates and

127 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase sets S accidentally

128 used as predicates by "%x. x : S" and predicates P accidentally used

129 as sets by "{x. P x}". Corresponding proofs in a first step should be

130 pruned from any tinkering with former theorems mem_def and

131 Collect_def as far as possible.

132 For developments which deliberately mixed predicates and

133 sets, a planning step is necessary to determine what should become a

134 predicate and what a set. It can be helpful to carry out that step in

135 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.

137 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather

138 than predicates. INCOMPATIBILITY.

140 * New proof import from HOL Light: Faster, simpler, and more scalable.

141 Requires a proof bundle, which is available as an external component.

142 Removed old (and mostly dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.

143 INCOMPATIBILITY.

145 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set

147 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.

148 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.

150 DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0

151 zdiv_self ~> div_self

152 zmod_self ~> mod_self

153 zdiv_zero ~> div_0

154 zmod_zero ~> mod_0

155 zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2

156 zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality

157 zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial

158 zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus

159 zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus

160 zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right

161 zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right

162 zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right

163 zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right

164 zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel

165 zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq

166 zpower_zmod ~> power_mod

167 zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod

168 zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd

169 mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left

170 mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right

172 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use

173 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

175 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations

176 and predicates. Added powers of predicate relations.

177 Consolidation of some relation theorems:

179 converse_def ~> converse_unfold

180 rel_comp_def ~> rel_comp_unfold

181 symp_def ~> (dropped, use symp_def and sym_def instead)

182 transp_def ~> transp_trans

183 Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold

184 Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]

186 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.

188 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set conversions

189 by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".

191 INCOMPATIBILITY.

193 * Consolidated various theorem names relating to Finite_Set.fold

194 combinator:

196 inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf

197 sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup

198 INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf

199 SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup

200 union_set ~> union_set_fold

201 minus_set ~> minus_set_fold

203 INCOMPATIBILITY.

205 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:

207 INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold

208 SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold

209 INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr

210 SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr

211 foldr.simps ~> foldr_Nil foldr_Cons (in point-free formulation)

212 foldl.simps ~> foldl_Nil foldl_Cons

213 foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_def

214 foldl_fold ~> foldl_def

216 INCOMPATIBILITY.

218 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:

219 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,

220 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,

221 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,

222 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,

223 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort. INCOMPATIBILITY.

224 Prefer "List.fold" with canonical argument order, or boil down

225 "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by unfolding "foldr_def"

226 and "foldl_def". For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"

227 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".

229 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion

230 through option types.

232 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source

233 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.

234 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the

235 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of

236 one_case.

238 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms

239 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.

241 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified. INCOMPATIBILITY.

243 * Renamed some facts on canonical fold on lists, in order to avoid

244 problems with interpretation involving corresponding facts on foldl

245 with the same base names:

247 fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups

248 fold_set ~> fold_set_fold

249 fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold

251 INCOMPATIBILITY.

253 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow

254 to match the constant's name:

256 rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1

257 rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I

258 rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I

259 rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2

260 rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E

261 rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E

262 rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E

263 rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2

264 rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2

265 rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'

266 rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2

267 rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add

268 rel_pow_commute ~> relpow

269 rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:

270 rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow

271 rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl

272 rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow

273 rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow

274 rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv

275 rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1

276 rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded

277 rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow

278 trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow

279 single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow

281 INCOMPATIBILITY.

283 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for association

284 lists with distinct keys.

286 * 'datatype' specifications allow explicit sort constraints.

288 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,

289 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.

291 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to

292 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems

293 instead.

295 word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi

296 word_add_alt ~> word_add_def

297 word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def

298 word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def

299 word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi

300 word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi

301 word_add_0 ~> add_0_left

302 word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right

303 word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left

304 word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right

305 word_add_commute ~> add_commute

306 word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc

307 word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute

308 word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute

309 word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc

310 word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute

311 word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib

312 word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib

313 word_left_minus ~> left_minus

314 word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right

315 word_diff_self ~> diff_self

316 word_sub_def ~> diff_minus

317 word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus

318 word_add_ac ~> add_ac

319 word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac

320 word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac

321 word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac

322 word_order_trans ~> order_trans

323 word_order_refl ~> order_refl

324 word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym

325 word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear

326 lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one

327 word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq

328 word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add

329 word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub

330 word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult

331 word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg

332 word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ

333 word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred

334 word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi

335 word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi

337 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying

338 the result of the fact expression.

340 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on

341 relations.

343 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified. INCOMPATIBILITY.

345 * "sublists" moved to theory More_List. INCOMPATIBILITY.

347 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.

348 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.

350 zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus

351 zminus_0 ~> minus_zero

352 zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib

353 zadd_commute ~> add_commute

354 zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc

355 zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute

356 zadd_ac ~> add_ac

357 zmult_ac ~> mult_ac

358 zadd_0 ~> add_0_left

359 zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right

360 zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus

361 zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left

362 zmult_commute ~> mult_commute

363 zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc

364 zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib

365 zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib

366 zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib

367 zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib

368 zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left

369 zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right

370 zle_refl ~> order_refl

371 zle_trans ~> order_trans

372 zle_antisym ~> order_antisym

373 zle_linear ~> linorder_linear

374 zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear

375 zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono

376 zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono

377 zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono

378 int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one

379 int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one

380 zless_le ~> less_le

381 zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add

382 zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff

383 zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs

385 * Theory Deriv: Renamed

387 DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing

389 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple

390 case distinctions at the same time. E.g.

392 list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]

394 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both

395 a list and a nat.

397 * Improved code generation of multisets.

399 * New diagnostic command find_unused_assms to find potentially superfluous

400 assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.

402 * Quickcheck:

403 - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which

404 allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.

405 For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable

406 assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that

407 any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.

408 These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as

409 Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the

410 obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".

411 After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck

412 continues searching for genuine ones.

413 By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine

414 counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to

415 only show genuine counterexamples.

417 - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive

418 value generators for a given type and operations.

419 It generates values by using the operations as if they were

420 constructors of that type.

422 - Support for multisets.

424 - Added "use_subtype" options.

425 - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process

426 conjectures in a locale context.

428 * Nitpick:

429 - Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option and

430 affecting 'rat' and 'real'.

432 * Sledgehammer:

433 - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.

434 - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").

435 - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".

437 * Metis:

438 - Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a

439 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").

441 * SMT:

442 - renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".

444 * Command 'try0':

445 - Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

447 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the

448 eventually_elim* rules. Supports structured proofs.

451 *** FOL ***

453 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).

456 *** ML ***

458 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax

459 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.

461 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the

462 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory

463 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.

465 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name

466 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given. If that is Binding.empty

467 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level

468 fact. The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a

469 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),

470 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context. Potential

471 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify

472 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.

474 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in

475 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.

477 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source

478 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with

479 declarations like Local_Theory.note.

481 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme. Old

482 ProofContext has been discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY.

484 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle

485 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory

486 context as well.

488 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:

490 addeqcongs ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong

491 deleqcongs ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong

492 addcongs ~> Simplifier.add_cong

493 delcongs ~> Simplifier.del_cong

494 setmksimps ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps

495 setmkcong ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong

496 setmksym ~> Simplifier.set_mksym

497 setmkeqTrue ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue

498 settermless ~> Simplifier.set_termless

499 setsubgoaler ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler

500 addsplits ~> Splitter.add_split

501 delsplits ~> Splitter.del_split

505 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)

506 ------------------------------------

508 *** General ***

510 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as

511 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.

513 - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor

514 buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save

515 files for checking).

517 - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic

518 highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source

519 positions.

521 - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source

522 buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML

523 theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).

525 - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,

526 based on interactive editor view. (Note: jEdit folding and

527 narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)

529 - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few

530 cores.

532 - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document

533 versions (garbage collection).

535 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,

536 including some remaining limitations.

538 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master

539 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).

540 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.

541 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the

542 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".

543 INCOMPATIBILITY.

545 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1

546 digests. Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional

547 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.

549 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to

550 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100). See also isabelle

551 usedir option -Q.

553 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper

554 configuration options, with more conventional names:

556 long_names ~> names_long

557 short_names ~> names_short

558 unique_names ~> names_unique

560 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:

562 declare [[names_unique = false]]

564 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`. Note

565 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications

566 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.

568 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case

569 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].

571 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:

572 - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.

573 - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.

574 - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about

575 "Classical Reasoner".

578 *** HOL ***

580 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than

581 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

583 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;

584 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong. New type classes for

585 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders. Lemmas

586 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in

587 class complete_linorder.

589 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,

590 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.

592 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to

593 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):

595 Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]

596 Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]

597 Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right

598 Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right

599 Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right

600 Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right

601 Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def

602 Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def

603 INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def

604 UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def

605 INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]

607 More consistent and comprehensive names:

609 INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def

610 UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def

611 INFI_def ~> INF_def

612 SUPR_def ~> SUP_def

613 INF_leI ~> INF_lower

614 INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2

615 le_INFI ~> INF_greatest

616 le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper

617 le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2

618 SUP_leI ~> SUP_least

619 INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq

620 SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq

621 INFI_apply ~> INF_apply

622 SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply

623 INTER_def ~> INTER_eq

624 UNION_def ~> UNION_eq

626 INCOMPATIBILITY.

628 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.

629 INCOMPATIBILITY.

631 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,

632 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,

633 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,

634 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp]. INCOMPATIBILITY.

636 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,

637 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,

638 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp]. Minor

639 INCOMPATIBILITY.

641 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective

642 constants. INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the

643 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.

645 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems

646 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection

647 UN_ball_bex_simps. INCOMPATIBILITY.

649 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a

650 separate type class floor_ceiling.

652 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:

654 locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute

655 locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem

657 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need

658 adjustment. INCOMPATIBILITY.

660 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in

661 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.

663 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the

664 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in

665 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the

666 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

668 divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib

669 divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib

670 divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib

671 mult.add_right ~> right_distrib

672 mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib

673 mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib

674 mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib

676 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or

677 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.

679 real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def

680 real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def

681 real_less_def ~> less_le

682 real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def

683 real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def

684 real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute

685 real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc

686 real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left

687 real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib

688 real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one

689 real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse

690 INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero

691 real_le_refl ~> order_refl

692 real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym

693 real_le_trans ~> order_trans

694 real_le_linear ~> linear

695 real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0

696 real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono

697 real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos

698 real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono

699 real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq

700 real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff

701 realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff

702 real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored

703 realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored

704 reals_complete2 ~> complete_real

705 real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum

706 exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique

707 expi_add ~> exp_add

708 expi_zero ~> exp_zero

709 lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong

710 LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff

711 LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const

712 LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm

713 LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add

714 LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus

715 LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel

716 LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff

717 bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto

718 bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto

719 LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult

720 LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse

721 LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide

722 LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power

723 LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum

724 LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod

725 LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff

726 LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff

727 LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs

728 LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]

729 LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]

730 LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]

731 LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex

732 LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at

733 LIM_const ~> tendsto_const

734 LIM_add ~> tendsto_add

735 LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero

736 LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus

737 LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff

738 LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm

739 LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero

740 LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel

741 LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff

742 LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs

743 LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero

744 LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel

745 LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff

746 LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose

747 LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult

748 LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR

749 LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real

750 LIM_power ~> tendsto_power

751 LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse

752 LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn

753 isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose

754 bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto

755 bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero

756 bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto

757 bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero

758 bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero

759 bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero

760 LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]

762 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was

763 generalized. Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,

764 comm_monoid_add}. Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.

766 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now

767 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus

768 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".

770 * Code generation:

772 - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of

773 characters in the target language.

775 - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code

776 instead.

778 - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.

780 - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default. May be

781 reactivated by the following theory command:

783 setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}

785 * Declare ext [intro] by default. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.

787 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the

788 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come

789 from rule induction. The latter are still called "hyps". Method

790 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same

791 syntax.

793 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is

794 still available as a legacy feature for some time.

796 * Nitpick:

797 - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.

798 - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.

799 - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.

800 INCOMPATIBILITY.

802 * Sledgehammer:

803 - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.

804 - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,

805 Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.

806 - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if

807 this can be done within reasonable time.

808 - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.

809 INCOMPATIBILITY.

810 - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",

811 "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.

812 - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full

813 Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.

815 * Metis:

816 - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

817 - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.

818 INCOMPATIBILITY.

820 * Command 'try':

821 - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and

822 "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.

823 - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also

824 'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.

826 * Quickcheck:

827 - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample

828 (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).

829 - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples

830 (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).

831 - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables

832 narrowing-based testing. Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler

833 with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings

834 environment as ISABELLE_GHC.

835 - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator

836 (formly in HOL/Library).

838 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec". INCOMPATIBILITY,

839 use 'partial_function' instead.

841 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended

842 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by

843 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.

845 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,

846 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.

847 INCOMPATIBILITY.

849 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has

850 been moved here. INCOMPATIBILITY.

852 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated

853 arithmetic.

855 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the

856 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order

857 and lattice type classes.

859 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof

860 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.

862 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets

863 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.

865 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories

866 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an

867 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.

869 - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.

870 - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.

871 - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.

872 - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.

874 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to

875 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and

876 constants:

878 type inat ~> type enat

879 Fin ~> enat

880 Infty ~> infinity (overloaded)

881 iSuc ~> eSuc

882 the_Fin ~> the_enat

884 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has

885 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.

887 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now

888 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard

889 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of

890 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.

891 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".

893 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed

894 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants

895 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to

896 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have

897 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use

898 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have

899 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):

901 Cart_eq ~> vec_eq_iff

902 dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le

903 tendsto_vector ~> vec_tendstoI

904 Cauchy_vector ~> vec_CauchyI

906 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been

907 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more

908 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.

910 finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice

911 eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj

912 eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff

913 eventually_false ~> eventually_False

914 setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum

915 Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def

916 Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident

917 Lim_const ~> tendsto_const

918 Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]

919 Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus

920 Lim_add ~> tendsto_add

921 Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff

922 Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR

923 Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]

924 Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]

925 Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto

926 Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component

927 Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth

928 Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]

929 dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left

930 dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right

931 continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]

932 continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus

933 continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff

934 continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]

935 continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR

936 continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse

937 continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse

938 continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse

939 continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]

940 continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]

941 continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]

942 continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus

943 continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff

944 continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]

945 continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]

946 continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR

947 continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult

948 continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]

949 continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]

950 continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv

951 uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus

952 uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff

953 subset_interior ~> interior_mono

954 subset_closure ~> closure_mono

955 closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV

956 real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2

957 real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3

958 real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel

959 real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3

960 norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2

962 * Session HOL-Probability:

963 - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.

964 - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.

965 - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent

966 - Use extended reals instead of positive extended

967 reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.

969 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.

971 expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff

972 below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI

973 expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff

974 ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI

975 expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff

976 below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI

977 monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD

978 monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE

979 monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]

980 cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]

981 cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP

982 cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app

983 cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app

984 cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]

985 cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]

986 contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]

987 contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]

988 thelubI ~> lub_eqI

989 UU_I ~> bottomI

990 lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)

991 lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)

992 Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)

993 Def_inject ~> lift.inject

994 below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff

995 eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff

998 *** Document preparation ***

1000 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also

1001 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the

1002 same.

1004 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its

1005 result.

1007 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of

1008 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,

1009 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.

1011 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>

1012 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).

1014 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups

1015 like this:

1017 \isabellestyle{it} %preferred default

1018 {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}

1020 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators. Implicit

1021 tab-width is now defined as 1. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual

1022 layouts.

1025 *** ML ***

1027 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML

1028 representations within quoted string tokens. By encoding logical

1029 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be

1030 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text

1031 under external program control.

1033 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory

1034 data, which requires explicit setup.

1036 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official

1037 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop

1038 (better known as Proof General).

1040 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme. Old

1041 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.

1043 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes

1044 former start_timing/end_timing etc.

1046 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users

1047 (including quotes etc.).

1049 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories

1050 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as

1051 type constraints). Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant

1052 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints. Positions can

1053 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /

1054 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant

1055 "_strip_positions" within parse trees. As last resort, positions can

1056 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is

1057 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.

1059 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute

1060 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less

1061 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY,

1062 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,

1063 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.

1065 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is

1066 already available via context of "advanced" translation.

1068 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic

1069 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.

1071 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving

1072 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).

1074 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types

1075 claset/clasimpset. Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs

1076 operate directly on Proof.context. Raw type claset retains its use as

1077 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via

1078 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc. Type clasimpset has been discontinued.

1079 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require

1080 proper Proof.context.

1083 *** System ***

1085 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version

1086 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.

1088 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been

1089 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.

1091 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and

1092 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:

1094 ISABELLE_CSDP (formerly CSDP_EXE)

1095 ISABELLE_GHC (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)

1096 ISABELLE_OCAML (formerly EXEC_OCAML)

1097 ISABELLE_SWIPL (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)

1098 ISABELLE_YAP (formerly EXEC_YAP)

1100 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has

1101 been discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1103 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static

1104 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML. For

1105 example:

1107 Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"

1109 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode

1110 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.

1112 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the

1113 Prover IDE. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have

1114 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to

1115 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.

1119 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)

1120 ----------------------------------

1122 *** General ***

1124 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see

1125 src/Tools/jEdit). This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with

1126 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis. The

1127 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run

1128 like this:

1130 Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit

1132 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.

1134 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER

1135 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),

1136 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra

1137 suffix. This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each

1138 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.

1139 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.

1141 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned

1142 ISO-Latin-1. INCOMPATIBILITY. Isabelle LaTeX documents might require

1143 the following package declarations:

1145 \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}

1146 \usepackage{textcomp}

1148 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that

1149 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of

1150 non-ASCII bytes as before. Since Isabelle/ML string literals may

1151 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be

1152 used here as well. Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a

1153 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)

1154 merely give a byte-oriented representation.

1156 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master

1157 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).

1158 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.

1159 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use

1160 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.

1162 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.

1163 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --

1164 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies. Recall that Isabelle/ML

1165 files exclusively use the .ML extension. Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.

1167 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly

1168 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of

1169 unsynchronized references or print modes. There are both ML Config.T

1170 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.

1172 ML (Config.T) Isar (attribute)

1174 eta_contract eta_contract

1175 show_brackets show_brackets

1176 show_sorts show_sorts

1177 show_types show_types

1178 show_question_marks show_question_marks

1179 show_consts show_consts

1180 show_abbrevs show_abbrevs

1182 Syntax.ast_trace syntax_ast_trace

1183 Syntax.ast_stat syntax_ast_stat

1184 Syntax.ambiguity_level syntax_ambiguity_level

1186 Goal_Display.goals_limit goals_limit

1187 Goal_Display.show_main_goal show_main_goal

1189 Method.rule_trace rule_trace

1191 Thy_Output.display thy_output_display

1192 Thy_Output.quotes thy_output_quotes

1193 Thy_Output.indent thy_output_indent

1194 Thy_Output.source thy_output_source

1195 Thy_Output.break thy_output_break

1197 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be

1198 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.

1199 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode

1200 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.

1202 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.

1203 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1205 trace_simp ~> simp_trace

1206 debug_simp ~> simp_debug

1208 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic

1209 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for

1210 float_token.

1212 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):

1213 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.

1214 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1216 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from

1217 DejaVu Sans.

1219 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.

1222 *** Pure ***

1224 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat

1225 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some

1226 time.

1228 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)

1229 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1231 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for

1232 experimentation in Isar without any result. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1234 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept

1235 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate

1236 entities in the context of the interpretation. The 'interpretation'

1237 command already provided this functionality.

1239 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances

1240 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in

1241 the current context. Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context

1242 without interpretations.

1244 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs

1245 in addition to interpretations in theories.

1247 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate

1248 the theory name space. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY. The ML functions

1249 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this

1250 feature is still required for historical reasons.

1252 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

1253 'definition' instead.

1255 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of

1256 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as

1257 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon. Consider using "assms"

1258 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.

1260 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type

1261 constructors.

1263 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within

1264 the local file system.

1267 *** HOL ***

1269 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type

1270 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term. Theory

1271 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as

1272 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:

1274 declare [[coercion f]]

1276 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to

1277 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.

1279 declare [[coercion_map map]]

1281 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including

1282 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main. This is controlled by

1283 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in

1284 other theories like this:

1286 declare [[coercion_enabled]]

1288 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive

1289 function definitions over complete partial orders. Concrete instances

1290 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary

1291 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL. See

1292 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy

1293 for examples.

1295 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared

1296 as [simp]. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1298 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class

1299 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.

1301 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to

1302 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for

1303 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.

1305 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the

1306 functorial structure of types.

1308 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator

1309 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.

1311 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target

1312 languages.

1314 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"

1315 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".

1316 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1318 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints

1319 to standard output. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1321 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case

1322 combinators any longer.

1324 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with

1325 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".

1327 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record

1328 types. Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code

1329 generation any longer. INCOMPATIBILITY. In cases of need, a suitable

1330 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:

1332 record 'a foo = ...

1333 ...

1334 rep_datatype foo_ext ...

1336 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a

1337 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).

1338 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1340 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random

1341 testing. Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",

1342 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".

1344 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite

1345 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to

1346 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.

1348 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to

1349 "random". INCOMPATIBILITY.

1351 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30

1352 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the

1353 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set

1354 independently.

1356 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for

1357 counter example search.

1359 * Sledgehammer:

1360 - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof

1361 method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc

1362 sledgehammer").

1363 - Renamed commands:

1364 sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers

1365 sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers

1366 sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers

1367 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1368 - Renamed options:

1369 sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]

1370 sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]

1371 sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]

1372 (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)

1373 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1375 * Nitpick:

1376 - Renamed options:

1377 nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]

1378 nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]

1379 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1380 - Added support for partial quotient types.

1381 - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.

1382 - Added "whack" option.

1383 - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.

1384 - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.

1385 - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.

1386 - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach

1387 higher cardinalities.

1388 - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.

1390 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options

1391 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled

1392 to diagnose these tools. E.g.

1394 using [[metis_trace = true]]

1396 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct". The tool is now available

1397 manually as command 'solve_direct'.

1399 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to

1400 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable

1401 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example. For

1402 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;

1403 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option

1404 "smt_solver".

1406 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,

1407 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".

1409 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using

1410 the oracle mode (no proofs). Direct support of pairs has been dropped

1411 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT

1412 support for a similar behavior). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

1414 * Changed SMT configuration options:

1415 - Renamed:

1416 z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)

1417 z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts

1418 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1419 - Added:

1420 smt_verbose

1421 smt_random_seed

1422 smt_datatypes

1423 smt_infer_triggers

1424 smt_monomorph_limit

1425 cvc3_options

1426 remote_cvc3_options

1427 remote_z3_options

1428 yices_options

1430 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory

1431 header.

1433 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list

1434 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions. Occasional

1435 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:

1437 declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]

1439 * Removed old version of primrec package. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1441 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long

1442 been the case with "split". INCOMPATIBILITY.

1444 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1446 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of

1447 [split_format]. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

1449 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction

1450 rules. INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.

1452 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name

1453 contents for other uses. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1455 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class

1456 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various

1457 tuning. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1459 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1461 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".

1462 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1464 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to

1465 avoid confusion with finite sets. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1467 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence

1468 relations. INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same

1469 for congruent(2)).

1471 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:

1473 types

1474 bool ~> HOL.bool

1475 nat ~> Nat.nat

1477 constants

1478 Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop

1479 True ~> HOL.True

1480 False ~> HOL.False

1481 op & ~> HOL.conj

1482 op | ~> HOL.disj

1483 op --> ~> HOL.implies

1484 op = ~> HOL.eq

1485 Not ~> HOL.Not

1486 The ~> HOL.The

1487 All ~> HOL.All

1488 Ex ~> HOL.Ex

1489 Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1

1490 Let ~> HOL.Let

1491 If ~> HOL.If

1492 Ball ~> Set.Ball

1493 Bex ~> Set.Bex

1494 Suc ~> Nat.Suc

1495 Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair

1496 fst ~> Product_Type.fst

1497 snd ~> Product_Type.snd

1498 curry ~> Product_Type.curry

1499 op : ~> Set.member

1500 Collect ~> Set.Collect

1502 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1504 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:

1506 bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def

1507 top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def

1508 inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def

1509 sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def

1510 bot_fun_eq ~> bot_fun_def

1511 top_fun_eq ~> top_fun_def

1512 inf_fun_eq ~> inf_fun_def

1513 sup_fun_eq ~> sup_fun_def

1515 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1517 * More stylized fact names:

1519 expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff

1520 expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff

1521 set_ext ~> set_eqI

1522 nat_number ~> eval_nat_numeral

1524 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1526 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:

1528 constants

1529 null ~> List.null

1531 facts

1532 mem_iff ~> member_def

1533 null_empty ~> null_def

1535 INCOMPATIBILITY. Note that these were not supposed to be used

1536 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code

1537 generation.

1539 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating

1540 Haskell code.

1542 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV". Term

1543 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV". The theorems

1544 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1546 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace

1547 "*" and "+" respectively. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1549 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden. Write

1550 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.

1552 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of

1553 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,

1554 though. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1556 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"

1557 instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1559 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".

1560 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1562 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.

1563 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be

1564 referred to by its qualified name.

1566 enum ~> Enum.enum

1567 nlists ~> Enum.nlists

1568 product ~> Enum.product

1570 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.

1571 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.

1572 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1574 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into

1575 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names

1576 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.

1577 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1579 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of

1580 sort_key.

1582 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.

1583 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1585 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean

1586 space. Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces

1587 instead of finite cartesian products.

1589 types

1590 real ^ 'n ~> 'a::real_vector

1591 ~> 'a::euclidean_space

1592 ~> 'a::ordered_euclidean_space

1593 (depends on your needs)

1595 constants

1596 _ $ _ ~> _ $$ _

1597 \<chi> x. _ ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _

1598 CARD('n) ~> DIM('a)

1600 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some

1601 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products

1602 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to

1603 be euclidean_spaces. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1605 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real

1606 numbers. Use pextreal as value for measures. Introduce the

1607 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for

1608 arbitrary sigma finite measures. Introduces Lebesgue measure based on

1609 the integral in Multivariate Analysis. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1611 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.

1612 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1614 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and

1615 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program

1616 verifier. See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.

1619 *** HOL-Algebra ***

1621 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and

1622 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative

1623 counterparts. Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory

1624 qualifier 'add'. Previous theorem names are redeclared for

1625 compatibility.

1627 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a

1628 definition). This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.

1631 *** HOLCF ***

1633 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The

1634 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'. To use the domain

1635 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.

1636 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1638 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort. Class "predomain"

1639 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by

1640 replacing sort annotations as shown below. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1642 'a::type ~> 'a::countable

1643 'a::cpo ~> 'a::predomain

1644 'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain

1646 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".

1647 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any

1648 "default_sort rep" declarations. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1650 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed

1651 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict

1652 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following

1653 domain definition now works:

1655 domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")

1657 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class

1658 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,

1659 'a option, and 'a list. Additionally, it configures fixrec and the

1660 domain package to work with these types. For example:

1662 fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"

1663 where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"

1665 domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")

1667 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a

1668 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See

1669 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1671 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class

1672 now just asserts that such a function exists. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1674 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl". HOLCF no longer

1675 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances

1676 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in

1677 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.

1679 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".

1681 * The predicate "directed" has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1683 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1685 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".

1686 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1688 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax

1689 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents

1690 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".

1692 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed

1693 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set

1694 syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1696 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom". The syntax "UU" is

1697 still supported as an input translation.

1699 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).

1701 expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff

1702 below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI

1703 expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff

1704 ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI

1705 expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff

1706 below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI

1707 cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP

1709 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.

1710 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1712 Rep_CFun ~> Rep_cfun

1713 Abs_CFun ~> Abs_cfun

1714 Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod

1715 Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod

1716 Rep_Ssum ~> Rep_ssum

1717 Abs_Ssum ~> Abs_ssum

1719 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have

1720 been renamed to *_bottom_iff. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1722 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:

1724 - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.

1725 - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.

1726 - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.

1727 - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.

1729 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1731 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are

1732 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when". INCOMPATIBILITY.

1734 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the

1735 names of constants and types involved. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1737 thelub_const ~> lub_const

1738 lub_const ~> is_lub_const

1739 thelubI ~> lub_eqI

1740 is_lub_lub ~> is_lubD2

1741 lubI ~> is_lub_lub

1742 unique_lub ~> is_lub_unique

1743 is_ub_lub ~> is_lub_rangeD1

1744 lub_bin_chain ~> is_lub_bin_chain

1745 lub_fun ~> is_lub_fun

1746 thelub_fun ~> lub_fun

1747 thelub_cfun ~> lub_cfun

1748 thelub_Pair ~> lub_Pair

1749 lub_cprod ~> is_lub_prod

1750 thelub_cprod ~> lub_prod

1751 minimal_cprod ~> minimal_prod

1752 inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo

1753 UU_I ~> bottomI

1754 compact_UU ~> compact_bottom

1755 deflation_UU ~> deflation_bottom

1756 finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom

1758 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1760 sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans

1761 sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans

1762 refl_less ~> below_refl

1763 trans_less ~> below_trans

1764 antisym_less ~> below_antisym

1765 antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]

1766 box_less ~> box_below

1767 rev_trans_less ~> rev_below_trans

1768 not_less2not_eq ~> not_below2not_eq

1769 less_UU_iff ~> below_UU_iff

1770 flat_less_iff ~> flat_below_iff

1771 adm_less ~> adm_below

1772 adm_not_less ~> adm_not_below

1773 adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below

1774 less_fun_def ~> below_fun_def

1775 expand_fun_less ~> fun_below_iff

1776 less_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI

1777 less_discr_def ~> below_discr_def

1778 discr_less_eq ~> discr_below_eq

1779 less_unit_def ~> below_unit_def

1780 less_cprod_def ~> below_prod_def

1781 prod_lessI ~> prod_belowI

1782 Pair_less_iff ~> Pair_below_iff

1783 fst_less_iff ~> fst_below_iff

1784 snd_less_iff ~> snd_below_iff

1785 expand_cfun_less ~> cfun_below_iff

1786 less_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI

1787 injection_less ~> injection_below

1788 less_up_def ~> below_up_def

1789 not_Iup_less ~> not_Iup_below

1790 Iup_less ~> Iup_below

1791 up_less ~> up_below

1792 Def_inject_less_eq ~> Def_below_Def

1793 Def_less_is_eq ~> Def_below_iff

1794 spair_less_iff ~> spair_below_iff

1795 less_sprod ~> below_sprod

1796 spair_less ~> spair_below

1797 sfst_less_iff ~> sfst_below_iff

1798 ssnd_less_iff ~> ssnd_below_iff

1799 fix_least_less ~> fix_least_below

1800 dist_less_one ~> dist_below_one

1801 less_ONE ~> below_ONE

1802 ONE_less_iff ~> ONE_below_iff

1803 less_sinlD ~> below_sinlD

1804 less_sinrD ~> below_sinrD

1807 *** FOL and ZF ***

1809 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper

1810 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =". INCOMPATIBILITY.

1812 *** ZF ***

1814 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case analysis.

1816 * Much greater use of special symbols.

1818 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1820 *** ML ***

1822 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises

1823 Fail if the argument is false. Due to inlining the source position of

1824 failed assertions is included in the error output.

1826 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML

1827 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.

1828 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.

1830 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of

1831 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.

1832 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.

1834 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority

1835 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.

1837 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax

1838 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.

1840 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with

1841 ListPair.UnequalLengths.

1843 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier. Note that the

1844 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.

1846 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its

1847 meaning. Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in

1848 almost all situations.

1850 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.

1851 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in

1852 Isabelle/ML.

1854 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its

1855 meaning.

1857 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its

1858 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is

1859 rarely-used global-only stuff.

1861 * Discontinued Output.debug. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln

1862 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).

1864 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty

1865 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.

1867 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive. Rare

1868 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and

1869 @{thms} for most purposes.

1871 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar

1872 interaction mode as before. Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been

1873 discontinued -- use plain := instead. This should be *rare* anyway,

1874 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably

1875 configuration options.

1877 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning

1878 interrupts. Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that

1879 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt. User code must not absorb

1880 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be

1881 followed by re-raising of the original exception. Another common

1882 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of

1883 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.

1887 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)

1888 ---------------------------------

1890 *** General ***

1892 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type

1893 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust

1894 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax. Within

1895 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by

1896 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with

1897 their full internal name.

1899 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations

1900 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).

1901 Some hints on upgrading:

1903 - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced

1904 by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',

1905 which are independent of this issue.

1907 - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax

1908 provides the following special forms:

1910 CONST c -- produces syntax version of constant c from context

1911 XCONST c -- literally c, checked as constant from context

1912 c -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'

1914 Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the

1915 system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains

1916 extra variables".

1918 Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their

1919 concrete syntax. Some old translations rules need to be written

1920 for the "type" category, using type constructor application

1921 instead of pseudo-term application of the default category

1922 "logic".

1924 - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following

1925 antiquotations:

1927 @{class_syntax c} -- type class c within parse tree / AST

1928 @{term_syntax c} -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST

1929 @{const_syntax c} -- ML version of "CONST c" above

1930 @{syntax_const c} -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)

1932 - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*

1933 represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim. Use @{class

1934 c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax

1935 antiquotations.

1937 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base

1938 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide. Recall

1939 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to

1940 diagnose syntax problems.

1942 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.

1944 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof

1945 body, too. This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',

1946 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is

1947 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.

1949 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --

1950 need to specify constant name and syntax separately. Internal ML

1951 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.

1952 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

1954 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,

1955 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',

1956 'schematic_corollary'. Thus the relevance of the proof is made

1957 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or

1958 asynchronous interactive environment. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

1960 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been

1961 discontinued (old legacy feature).

1963 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by

1964 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the

1965 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via

1967 using [[trace_simp = true]]

1969 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in

1970 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or

1971 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.

1973 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',

1974 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command. Minor

1975 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1977 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is

1978 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.

1981 *** Pure ***

1983 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the

1984 "unconstrain" operation internally. This eliminates all sort

1985 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit

1986 OFCLASS-premises. On the proof term level, this operation is

1987 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs

1988 are always free of sort constraints. INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that

1989 inspect proof terms.

1991 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that

1992 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself

1993 are added internally. For example:

1995 definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"

1997 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory

1998 "class" prefix. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2000 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2002 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

2003 'class' instead.

2005 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into

2006 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.

2007 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2009 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying

2010 invariants.

2012 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the

2013 user space functionality any longer.

2015 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale

2016 subgoals. This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.

2017 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2019 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body. This allows to

2020 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.

2022 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax

2023 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the

2024 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).

2026 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory

2027 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or

2028 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.

2030 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works

2031 within a local theory context. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

2034 *** HOL ***

2036 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without

2037 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not

2038 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL. Note that the logical environment may

2039 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different

2040 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.

2042 * New package for quotient types. Commands 'quotient_type' and

2043 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by

2044 quotient constructions. An example is the type of integers created by

2045 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:

2047 fun

2048 intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"

2049 where

2050 "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"

2052 quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel

2053 by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)

2055 quotient_definition

2056 "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"

2058 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the

2059 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type. The example

2060 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient

2061 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.

2063 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid

2064 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.

2066 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating

2067 separate HOL-SMT session.

2069 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.

2070 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2072 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed. Use library Word/Word.thy

2073 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in

2074 the AFP entry RSAPPS.

2076 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no

2077 longer shadowed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2079 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.

2080 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2082 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.

2083 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2085 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes

2086 instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2088 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and

2089 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"

2090 instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2092 floor_number_of_eq ~> floor_number_of

2093 le_floor_eq_number_of ~> number_of_le_floor

2094 le_floor_eq_zero ~> zero_le_floor

2095 le_floor_eq_one ~> one_le_floor

2096 floor_less_eq_number_of ~> floor_less_number_of

2097 floor_less_eq_zero ~> floor_less_zero

2098 floor_less_eq_one ~> floor_less_one

2099 less_floor_eq_number_of ~> number_of_less_floor

2100 less_floor_eq_zero ~> zero_less_floor

2101 less_floor_eq_one ~> one_less_floor

2102 floor_le_eq_number_of ~> floor_le_number_of

2103 floor_le_eq_zero ~> floor_le_zero

2104 floor_le_eq_one ~> floor_le_one

2105 floor_subtract_number_of ~> floor_diff_number_of

2106 floor_subtract_one ~> floor_diff_one

2107 ceiling_number_of_eq ~> ceiling_number_of

2108 ceiling_le_eq_number_of ~> ceiling_le_number_of

2109 ceiling_le_zero_eq ~> ceiling_le_zero

2110 ceiling_le_eq_one ~> ceiling_le_one

2111 less_ceiling_eq_number_of ~> number_of_less_ceiling

2112 less_ceiling_eq_zero ~> zero_less_ceiling

2113 less_ceiling_eq_one ~> one_less_ceiling

2114 ceiling_less_eq_number_of ~> ceiling_less_number_of

2115 ceiling_less_eq_zero ~> ceiling_less_zero

2116 ceiling_less_eq_one ~> ceiling_less_one

2117 le_ceiling_eq_number_of ~> number_of_le_ceiling

2118 le_ceiling_eq_zero ~> zero_le_ceiling

2119 le_ceiling_eq_one ~> one_le_ceiling

2120 ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of

2121 ceiling_subtract_one ~> ceiling_diff_one

2123 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the

2124 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.

2126 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"

2127 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as

2128 implementation. INCOMPATIBILTY.

2130 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by

2131 AFP/thys/Coinductive.

2133 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has

2134 been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2136 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.

2138 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,

2139 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2141 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",

2142 "Int" etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2144 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2146 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute

2147 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.

2149 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory

2150 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more

2151 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes

2152 within the HOL theories. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2154 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:

2155 - less_eq, less: Orderings

2156 - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups

2157 - inverse, divide: Rings

2158 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2160 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and

2161 lattices):

2163 lower_semilattice ~> semilattice_inf

2164 upper_semilattice ~> semilattice_sup

2166 dense_linear_order ~> dense_linorder

2168 pordered_ab_group_add ~> ordered_ab_group_add

2169 pordered_ab_group_add_abs ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs

2170 pordered_ab_semigroup_add ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add

2171 pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le

2172 pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add

2173 pordered_cancel_comm_semiring ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring

2174 pordered_cancel_semiring ~> ordered_cancel_semiring

2175 pordered_comm_monoid_add ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add

2176 pordered_comm_ring ~> ordered_comm_ring

2177 pordered_comm_semiring ~> ordered_comm_semiring

2178 pordered_ring ~> ordered_ring

2179 pordered_ring_abs ~> ordered_ring_abs

2180 pordered_semiring ~> ordered_semiring

2182 ordered_ab_group_add ~> linordered_ab_group_add

2183 ordered_ab_semigroup_add ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add

2184 ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add

2185 ordered_comm_semiring_strict ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict

2186 ordered_field ~> linordered_field

2187 ordered_field_no_lb ~> linordered_field_no_lb

2188 ordered_field_no_ub ~> linordered_field_no_ub

2189 ordered_field_dense_linear_order ~> dense_linordered_field

2190 ordered_idom ~> linordered_idom

2191 ordered_ring ~> linordered_ring

2192 ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor

2193 ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor

2194 ordered_ring_strict ~> linordered_ring_strict

2195 ordered_semidom ~> linordered_semidom

2196 ordered_semiring ~> linordered_semiring

2197 ordered_semiring_1 ~> linordered_semiring_1

2198 ordered_semiring_1_strict ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict

2199 ordered_semiring_strict ~> linordered_semiring_strict

2201 The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a

2202 separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:

2204 lordered_ab_group_add ~> lattice_ab_group_add

2205 lordered_ab_group_add_abs ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs

2206 lordered_ab_group_add_meet ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add

2207 lordered_ab_group_add_join ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add

2208 lordered_ring ~> lattice_ring

2210 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2212 * Refined field classes:

2213 - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,

2214 linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --

2215 subsumes former division_by_zero class;

2216 - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.

2217 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2219 * Refined algebra theorem collections:

2220 - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;

2221 - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;

2222 - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem

2223 groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;

2224 - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for

2225 equal_neg_zero.

2226 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2228 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from

2229 sets to lattices:

2231 fun_left_comm_idem_inter ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf

2232 fun_left_comm_idem_union ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup

2233 inter_Inter_fold_inter ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf

2234 union_Union_fold_union ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup

2235 Inter_fold_inter ~> Inf_fold_inf

2236 Union_fold_union ~> Sup_fold_sup

2237 inter_INTER_fold_inter ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf

2238 union_UNION_fold_union ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup

2239 INTER_fold_inter ~> INFI_fold_inf

2240 UNION_fold_union ~> SUPR_fold_sup

2242 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been

2243 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.

2244 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed

2245 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert. Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace

2246 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ. Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right

2247 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2249 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and

2250 multiset order:

2252 - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax

2253 <= and <;

2254 - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties

2255 are provided by means of interpretation with prefix

2256 multiset_order;

2257 - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,

2258 conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code

2259 generation;

2260 - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,

2261 if needed.

2263 Renamed:

2265 multiset_eq_conv_count_eq ~> multiset_ext_iff

2266 multi_count_ext ~> multiset_ext

2267 diff_union_inverse2 ~> diff_union_cancelR

2269 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2271 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.

2273 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.

2275 * Theory List: added transpose.

2277 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions

2278 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries

2279 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2281 Constants:

2282 Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat ~> prod_encode

2283 Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2 ~> prod_decode

2284 Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij ~> int_encode

2285 Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij ~> int_decode

2286 Countable.pair_encode ~> prod_encode

2287 NatIso.prod2nat ~> prod_encode

2288 NatIso.nat2prod ~> prod_decode

2289 NatIso.sum2nat ~> sum_encode

2290 NatIso.nat2sum ~> sum_decode

2291 NatIso.list2nat ~> list_encode

2292 NatIso.nat2list ~> list_decode

2293 NatIso.set2nat ~> set_encode

2294 NatIso.nat2set ~> set_decode

2296 Lemmas:

2297 Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij ~> bij_int_decode

2298 Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj ~> inj_prod_encode

2299 Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj ~> surj_prod_encode

2300 Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj ~> inj_prod_decode

2301 Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj ~> surj_prod_decode

2302 Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id ~> int_encode_inverse

2303 Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id ~> int_decode_inverse

2304 Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode

2305 Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode

2306 Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij ~> inj_int_encode

2307 Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij ~> inj_int_decode

2308 Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij ~> bij_int_encode

2309 Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij ~> bij_int_decode

2311 * Sledgehammer:

2312 - Renamed ATP commands:

2313 atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_atps

2314 atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_atps

2315 atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages

2316 atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize

2317 print_atps ~> sledgehammer available_atps

2318 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2319 - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").

2320 - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize

2321 Sledgehammer's behavior. See the manual for details.

2322 - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces

2323 direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction. (This feature

2324 is still experimental.)

2325 - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in

2326 full-typed mode.

2327 - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.

2329 * Nitpick:

2330 - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.

2331 - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.

2332 - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision

2333 of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.

2334 - Added support for quotient types.

2335 - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"

2336 constructs.

2337 - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and

2338 "termination" proofs).

2339 - Added support for term postprocessors.

2340 - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".

2341 - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.

2342 - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and

2343 record getters.

2344 - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.

2345 - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.

2346 - Improved precision of set constructs.

2347 - Added "atoms" option.

2348 - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same

2349 problems.

2350 - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and

2351 "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and

2352 "SAT4J_Light". INCOMPATIBILITY.

2353 - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",

2354 "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2355 - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2357 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not

2358 a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.

2359 If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.

2360 By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations

2361 are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases

2362 to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.

2363 Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old

2364 behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"

2365 and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.

2366 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2369 *** HOLCF ***

2371 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have

2372 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype

2373 package. Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.

2375 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for

2376 recursive domain "foo". The reach lemma is now stated directly in

2377 terms of "foo_take". Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must

2378 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.

2380 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously

2381 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form

2382 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.

2383 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,

2384 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

2386 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now

2387 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each

2388 constructor). INCOMPATIBILITY.

2390 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"

2391 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.

2393 foo_bar.reach ~> foo.reach bar.reach

2394 foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma bar.take_lemma

2396 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for

2397 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.

2399 foo.ind ~> foo.induct

2400 foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct

2401 foo.coind ~> foo.coinduct

2402 foo.casedist ~> foo.exhaust

2403 foo.exhaust ~> foo.nchotomy

2405 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package

2406 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.

2408 foo_simps ~> foo.simps

2409 foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold

2410 foo_induct ~> foo.induct

2412 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed. The "fixrec_simp"

2413 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.

2414 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2416 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed. Proof scripts should use

2417 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.

2419 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.

2421 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of

2422 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.

2425 *** ML ***

2427 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:

2429 @{class NAME} -- type class

2430 @{class_syntax NAME} -- syntax representation of the above

2432 @{type_name NAME} -- logical type

2433 @{type_abbrev NAME} -- type abbreviation

2434 @{nonterminal NAME} -- type of concrete syntactic category

2435 @{type_syntax NAME} -- syntax representation of any of the above

2437 @{const_name NAME} -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)

2438 @{const_abbrev NAME} -- abbreviated constant

2439 @{const_syntax NAME} -- syntax representation of any of the above

2441 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw

2442 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).

2444 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary

2445 values similar to the ML toplevel. The result is compiler dependent

2446 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.

2448 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to

2449 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}. This replaces impure

2450 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do

2451 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.

2453 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on

2454 the context or even global references.

2456 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174). It

2457 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).

2459 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names

2460 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:

2462 OuterKeyword ~> Keyword

2463 OuterLex ~> Token

2464 OuterParse ~> Parse

2465 OuterSyntax ~> Outer_Syntax

2466 PrintMode ~> Print_Mode

2467 SpecParse ~> Parse_Spec

2468 ThyInfo ~> Thy_Info

2469 ThyLoad ~> Thy_Load

2470 ThyOutput ~> Thy_Output

2471 TypeInfer ~> Type_Infer

2473 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting

2474 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.

2476 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named

2477 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or

2478 ProofContext.init_global. There are some situations where a global

2479 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to

2480 pass the proper local context through the code!

2482 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data

2483 needs to be pure. Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional

2484 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard

2485 Theory_Data version.

2487 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms

2488 no longer minimize sorts. Thus certification at the boundary of the

2489 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,

2490 which is an important monotonicity principle. Sorts are now minimized

2491 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the

2492 system. Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort

2493 explicitly in rare situations.

2495 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to

2496 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.

2497 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2499 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as

2500 usual for resolution. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.

2502 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global

2503 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is

2504 quite rare).

2506 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted

2507 as infinity (as in chop). Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.

2509 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical

2510 order of type variables. INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof

2511 terms.

2513 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs

2514 may no longer carry premises. User-level specifications are

2515 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.

2518 *** System ***

2520 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;

2521 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions. Note that

2522 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.

2524 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy

2525 feature since Isabelle2009). Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,

2526 respectively.

2528 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the

2529 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit

2530 variant, even on a 64 bit machine. The following example setting

2531 prefers 64 bit if available:

2533 ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"

2535 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging

2536 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.

2537 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built

2538 component.

2540 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono

2541 and Bluesky TeX fonts. It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,

2542 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system

2543 (cf. isabellesym.sty). The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System

2544 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking

2545 the user for manual installation.

2549 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)

2550 -------------------------------------

2552 *** General ***

2554 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>. Only

2555 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.

2558 *** Pure ***

2560 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.

2561 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map

2562 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.

2564 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'. Use "print_interps

2565 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.

2566 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.

2568 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial. New section on conditional

2569 interpretation.

2571 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters

2572 are formally declared. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2575 *** Document preparation ***

2577 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}

2578 instead of @{foo_style style ...} (old form is still retained for

2579 backward compatibility). Styles can be also applied for

2580 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.

2583 *** HOL ***

2585 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with

2586 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and

2587 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order

2588 features (esp. lambda abstractions). It is an incomplete decision

2589 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;

2590 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing. Certificates

2591 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for

2592 re-checking proofs. Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for

2593 installing SMT solvers locally. See src/HOL/SMT.

2595 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by

2596 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C

2597 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#). See src/HOL/Boogie.

2599 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod

2600 relational model finder. See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and

2601 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.

2603 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate

2604 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.

2606 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.

2608 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;

2609 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records

2610 and datatypes. Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory

2611 Library/SML_Quickcheck.

2613 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools. Applies

2614 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to

2615 every proof step in a theory. To be used in batch mode via the

2616 "mirabelle" utility.

2618 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real

2619 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory

2620 Library/Sum_Of_Squares. It is not a complete decision procedure but

2621 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,

2622 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and

2623 inequalities between polynomials. It makes use of external

2624 semidefinite programming solvers. Method "sos" generates a

2625 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need

2626 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked. See

2627 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.

2629 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision

2630 procedure only.

2632 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.

2634 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.

2635 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs. This slows

2636 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"

2637 that fail later.

2639 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type

2640 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.

2642 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using

2643 the same method as the approximation method.

2645 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as

2646 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor

2647 series expansion.

2649 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype

2650 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.

2652 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of

2653 reals.

2655 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure

2656 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.

2658 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's

2659 fixpoint theorem.

2661 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:

2662 - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides

2663 and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory

2664 - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int

2665 accordingly

2666 - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including

2667 theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)

2668 - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to

2669 src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory

2671 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and

2672 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete

2673 lattice.

2675 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of

2676 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,

2677 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been

2678 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems

2679 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and

2680 zdiv_zmult_zmult2. div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.

2681 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2683 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:

2684 - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default

2685 intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity

2686 - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with

2687 le_inf_iff

2688 - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and

2689 sup_aci)

2690 - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci

2691 - new class "boolean_algebra"

2692 - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory

2693 "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)

2694 renamed and with authentic syntax:

2695 Set.Inf ~> Complete_Lattice.Inf

2696 Set.Sup ~> Complete_Lattice.Sup

2697 Set.INFI ~> Complete_Lattice.INFI

2698 Set.SUPR ~> Complete_Lattice.SUPR

2699 Set.Inter ~> Complete_Lattice.Inter

2700 Set.Union ~> Complete_Lattice.Union

2701 Set.INTER ~> Complete_Lattice.INTER

2702 Set.UNION ~> Complete_Lattice.UNION

2703 - authentic syntax for

2704 Set.Pow

2705 Set.image

2706 - mere abbreviations:

2707 Set.empty (for bot)

2708 Set.UNIV (for top)

2709 Set.inter (for inf, formerly Set.Int)

2710 Set.union (for sup, formerly Set.Un)

2711 Complete_Lattice.Inter (for Inf)

2712 Complete_Lattice.Union (for Sup)

2713 Complete_Lattice.INTER (for INFI)

2714 Complete_Lattice.UNION (for SUPR)

2715 - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate

2717 INCOMPATIBILITY. Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or

2718 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also

2719 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be

2720 deleted to achieve the desired effect.

2722 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp

2723 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1

2724 etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2726 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as

2727 pred_set_conv by default. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2729 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated

2730 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^". Power operation on

2731 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic

2732 in class power. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2734 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:

2735 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}". INCOMPATIBILITY,

2736 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally

2737 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this. Fix using

2738 O_assoc[symmetric]. The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".

2740 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an

2741 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV". Lemmas are renamed accordingly.

2742 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2744 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory

2745 prefixes. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2747 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by

2748 the attribute of the same name. Each of the theorems in the list

2749 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and

2750 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the

2751 Simplifier. Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative

2752 of most elementary terms. Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and

2753 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).

2754 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2756 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:

2757 code_unfold replaces code unfold

2758 code_post replaces code post

2759 etc.

2760 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2762 * Renamed methods:

2763 sizechange -> size_change

2764 induct_scheme -> induction_schema

2765 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2767 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".

2768 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.

2770 * Renamed theorems:

2771 Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1

2772 Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left

2773 Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1

2774 *anti_sym -> *antisym*

2775 vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def

2776 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2778 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp]. Removed List.map_compose.

2779 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2781 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).

2782 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2785 *** HOLCF ***

2787 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are

2788 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".

2789 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.

2791 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the

2792 domain package, for representable domains. Syntax is identical to the

2793 old domain package. The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect

2794 recursion using previously-defined type constructors. See

2795 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.

2797 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant

2798 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs

2799 simplification. Rewriting is done using rules declared with the

2800 "fixrec_simp" attribute. The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a

2801 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.

2803 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors

2804 with HOL function types. Pattern-match combinators for the Pair

2805 constructor are pre-configured.

2807 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules

2808 for mutually-recursive definitions: Induction rules have conclusions

2809 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".

2811 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has

2812 been renamed to "below". The name "below" now replaces "less" in many

2813 theorem names. (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported

2814 as well.)

2816 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns". Bottom

2817 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make

2818 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the

2819 Glasgow Haskell Compiler). See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for

2820 examples.

2823 *** ML ***

2825 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler

2826 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.

2828 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely

2829 identified entries, with some additional information such as source

2830 position, logical grouping etc.

2832 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and

2833 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data. Data needs

2834 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit

2835 copy operation) is still available for some time.

2837 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)

2838 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state

2839 variables with atomic update. This works via pure function

2840 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as

2841 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,

2842 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!

2844 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)

2845 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe

2846 behaviour. The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to

2847 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive

2848 experiments with references.

2850 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for

2851 parallel tactical reasoning.

2853 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS

2854 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the

2855 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the

2856 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.

2858 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has

2859 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion. Use SUBPROOF

2860 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.

2862 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph. (Since

2863 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them

2864 separately.) Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

2866 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2868 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar. Occasional,

2869 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2871 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty

2872 mode, which avoids critical setmp.

2874 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related

2875 combinators for "args". INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified

2876 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.

2878 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of. May fall

2879 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as

2880 last resort. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2882 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former

2883 ProofContext.pretty_thm). May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global

2884 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.

2885 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2887 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

2888 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context

2889 instead of global theory.

2892 *** System ***

2894 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores

2895 (max. speedup factor 5.0). See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and

2896 usedir option -q.

2898 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see

2899 also the system manual.

2901 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with

2902 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".

2904 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;

2905 this is always enabled.

2907 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.

2909 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'

2910 on a given logic image. This requires the lighttpd webserver and is

2911 currently supported on Linux only.

2915 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)

2916 --------------------------------

2918 *** General ***

2920 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on

2921 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).

2923 - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of

2924 "isatool."

2926 - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been

2927 removed (should rarely occur to regular users).

2929 - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been

2930 removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).

2932 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables

2933 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,

2934 respectively. (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)

2936 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if

2937 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise. Individual

2938 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the

2939 Isabelle system manual. In particular, Proof General is now available

2940 via "isabelle emacs".

2942 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts. Users may need to

2943 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle

2944 install -p ...", or use symlinks.

2946 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the

2947 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause

2948 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).

2950 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,

2951 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place. Special

2952 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle. Note that

2953 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any

2954 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.

2956 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on

2957 multi-core systems. A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on

2958 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably

2959 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H). (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)

2961 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and

2962 "system") have been updated and extended. Formally checked references

2963 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.

2966 *** Pure ***

2968 * Complete re-implementation of locales. INCOMPATIBILITY in several

2969 respects. The most important changes are listed below. See the

2970 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.

2972 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming. Parameters

2973 must be declared in a for clause. To aid compatibility with previous

2974 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not

2975 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added

2976 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.

2978 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in

2979 locale expressions and context elements. The latter is particularly

2980 useful in locale declarations.

2982 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale

2983 expressions. Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale

2984 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or

2985 optional (syntax "name?:"). The default depends for plain "name:"

2986 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in

2987 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in

2988 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory. The old

2989 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are

2990 no longer generated.

2992 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e". The

2993 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square

2994 brackets) is no longer available. Use locale expressions.

2996 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in

2997 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even

2998 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior. In the

2999 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones. Qualifiers

3000 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.

3002 - Dropped locale element "includes". This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.

3003 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the

3004 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those

3005 that are already present in the theorem specification. Multiple

3006 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one

3007 involving the locale predicate. In the proof body, declarations (most

3008 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective

3009 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").

3011 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the

3012 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,

3013 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on

3014 the parameters (context element "constrains").

3016 - Discontinued "locale (open)". INCOMPATIBILITY.

3018 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.

3019 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs. Use

3020 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.

3022 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation

3023 attributes. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3025 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import

3026 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification. Particularly

3027 in HOL, write

3029 class foo = ...

3031 instead of

3033 class foo = type + ...

3035 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a

3036 parameter prefix any longer. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3038 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.

3039 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.

3041 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in

3042 Isabelle2007. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really

3043 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.

3045 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in

3046 isar-ref manual. Removed locales meta_term_syntax and

3047 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,

3048 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations. Note that &&& should not be used

3049 directly in regular applications.

3051 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal

3052 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).

3054 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command. INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML

3055 interface with 'setup' command instead.

3057 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local

3058 theory context.

3060 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory

3061 context. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3063 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort

3064 hypotheses. Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be

3065 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the

3066 type instance information of the background theory. Non-trivial sort

3067 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via

3068 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c). For example:

3070 lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...

3072 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --

3073 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule

3074 normalization.

3076 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state

3077 addressing etc.

3079 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:

3081 unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)

3082 unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)

3084 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):

3086 a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular

3087 constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other

3088 parts of the code generator framework).

3090 b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code

3091 attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming

3092 from definition, primrec, fun etc.

3094 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3096 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators. Thus [code

3097 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3099 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name

3100 patterns, e.g.

3102 find_consts "_ => bool"

3104 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to

3105 the whole type. Searching by name is possible. Multiple queries are

3106 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a

3107 hyphen:

3109 find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"

3111 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that

3112 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).

3114 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal

3115 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could

3116 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.

3117 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,

3118 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of

3119 higher-order unification.

3122 *** Document preparation ***

3124 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,

3125 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression

3126 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.

3129 *** HOL ***

3131 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL. Entry

3132 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.

3134 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important

3135 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...). This facilitates

3136 experimentation and tool development. Note that user applications

3137 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory

3138 Main, as before.

3140 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates

3141 experimentation due to shorter build times.

3143 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which

3144 were previously part of former HOL-Complex. Entry point Hyperreal

3145 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use

3146 new entry point Hypercomplex.

3148 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of

3149 Posix processes. Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML

3150 process. New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix

3151 platforms (Cygwin). Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined

3152 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions. Basic Sledgehammer

3153 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.

3155 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use

3156 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other

3157 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also

3158 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.

3160 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings

3161 menu.

3163 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial

3164 (contains the empty clause).

3166 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising

3167 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.

3169 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also

3170 src/Tools/coherent.ML).

3172 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary". Usually

3173 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though

3174 logically there is no difference. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3176 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms. The

3177 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed. In

3178 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be

3179 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]). See further

3180 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.

3182 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.

3183 Declare with attribute [code nbe].

3185 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules

3186 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the

3187 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes. Mutual induction rules

3188 are now presented as a list of individual projections

3189 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with

3190 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported. INCOMPATIBILITY, in

3191 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple

3192 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t

3193 rule: prod.exhaust) here.

3195 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.

3197 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".

3199 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option. Renamed

3200 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.

3202 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial

3203 orders. With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about

3204 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",

3205 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".

3207 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with

3208 authentic syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY:

3210 op Int ~> Set.Int

3211 op Un ~> Set.Un

3212 INTER ~> Set.INTER

3213 UNION ~> Set.UNION

3214 Inter ~> Set.Inter

3215 Union ~> Set.Union

3216 {} ~> Set.empty

3217 UNIV ~> Set.UNIV

3219 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in

3220 theory Set.

3222 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any

3223 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.

3225 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.

3227 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,

3228 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.

3230 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof

3231 method "approximation". It proves formulas on real values by using

3232 interval arithmetic. In the formulas are also the transcendental

3233 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are

3234 allowed. For examples see

3235 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.

3237 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.

3239 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".

3240 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3242 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution

3243 structure:

3245 src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy

3246 src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/

3247 src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/

3248 src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/

3249 src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/

3250 src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/

3251 src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/

3252 src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/

3253 src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/

3254 src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/

3255 src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/

3256 src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/

3257 src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/

3258 src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/

3259 src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/

3260 src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/

3261 src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/

3262 src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/

3263 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/

3264 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/

3265 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/

3266 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/

3267 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/

3268 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/

3269 src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/

3270 src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/

3271 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/

3272 src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/

3273 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/

3274 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/

3275 src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/

3276 src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach

3277 src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/

3279 src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

3280 src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

3281 src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

3282 src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML

3283 src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

3284 src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

3285 src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

3286 src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

3287 src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

3288 src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

3290 src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

3291 src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

3292 src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

3293 src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

3294 src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

3295 src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

3297 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof

3298 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if

3299 possible), avoiding strange error messages.

3301 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a

3302 modification of) the size-change principle. Requires SAT solver. See

3303 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.

3305 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound

3306 variable occurs at most once in let expression body. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3308 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when

3309 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.

3311 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used

3312 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in

3313 proofs, e.g.

3315 assumes [arith]: "x > 0"

3317 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.

3319 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and

3320 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"

3321 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot". INCOMPATIBILITY.

3323 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an

3324 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.

3325 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3327 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit

3328 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption. For instantiation of

3329 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.

3330 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3332 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".

3333 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder

3334 etc. slightly changed. Some theorems named order_class.* now named

3335 preorder_class.*.

3337 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,

3338 "diag" to "Id_on".

3340 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type

3342 ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b

3344 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator

3345 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to

3346 fold_image.

3348 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"

3349 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be

3350 extended with further lemmas!). At the moment both still exist but

3351 the former will disappear at some point.

3353 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in

3354 class recpower. Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types

3355 have been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:

3357 rat_power_0 -> power_0

3358 rat_power_Suc -> power_Suc

3359 realpow_0 -> power_0

3360 realpow_Suc -> power_Suc

3361 complexpow_0 -> power_0

3362 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc

3363 power_poly_0 -> power_0

3364 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc

3366 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been

3367 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on

3368 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1. Likewise a bunch

3369 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class

3370 semiring_div. INCOMPATIBILITY. This involves the following theorem

3371 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:

3373 dvd_def_mod ~> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0

3374 zero_dvd_iff ~> dvd_0_left_iff

3375 dvd_0 ~> dvd_0_right

3376 DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0

3377 DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0

3378 mult_div ~> div_mult_self2_is_id

3379 mult_mod ~> mod_mult_self2_is_0

3381 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based

3382 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field). INCOMPATIBILITY,

3383 rename old lemmas as follows:

3385 dvd_diff -> nat_dvd_diff

3386 dvd_zminus_iff -> dvd_minus_iff

3387 mod_add1_eq -> mod_add_eq

3388 mod_mult1_eq -> mod_mult_right_eq

3389 mod_mult1_eq' -> mod_mult_left_eq

3390 mod_mult_distrib_mod -> mod_mult_eq

3391 nat_mod_add_left_eq -> mod_add_left_eq

3392 nat_mod_add_right_eq -> mod_add_right_eq

3393 nat_mod_div_trivial -> mod_div_trivial

3394 nat_mod_mod_trivial -> mod_mod_trivial

3395 zdiv_zadd_self1 -> div_add_self1

3396 zdiv_zadd_self2 -> div_add_self2

3397 zdiv_zmult_self1 -> div_mult_self2_is_id

3398 zdiv_zmult_self2 -> div_mult_self1_is_id

3399 zdvd_triv_left -> dvd_triv_left

3400 zdvd_triv_right -> dvd_triv_right

3401 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left

3402 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]

3403 zmod_zadd_left_eq -> mod_add_left_eq

3404 zmod_zadd_right_eq -> mod_add_right_eq

3405 zmod_zadd_self1 -> mod_add_self1

3406 zmod_zadd_self2 -> mod_add_self2

3407 zmod_zadd1_eq -> mod_add_eq

3408 zmod_zdiff1_eq -> mod_diff_eq

3409 zmod_zdvd_zmod -> mod_mod_cancel

3410 zmod_zmod_cancel -> mod_mod_cancel

3411 zmod_zmult_self1 -> mod_mult_self2_is_0

3412 zmod_zmult_self2 -> mod_mult_self1_is_0

3413 zmod_1 -> mod_by_1

3414 zdiv_1 -> div_by_1

3415 zdvd_abs1 -> abs_dvd_iff

3416 zdvd_abs2 -> dvd_abs_iff

3417 zdvd_refl -> dvd_refl

3418 zdvd_trans -> dvd_trans

3419 zdvd_zadd -> dvd_add

3420 zdvd_zdiff -> dvd_diff

3421 zdvd_zminus_iff -> dvd_minus_iff

3422 zdvd_zminus2_iff -> minus_dvd_iff

3423 zdvd_zmultD -> dvd_mult_right

3424 zdvd_zmultD2 -> dvd_mult_left

3425 zdvd_zmult_mono -> mult_dvd_mono

3426 zdvd_0_right -> dvd_0_right

3427 zdvd_0_left -> dvd_0_left_iff

3428 zdvd_1_left -> one_dvd

3429 zminus_dvd_iff -> minus_dvd_iff

3431 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3433 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated

3434 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.

3436 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of

3437 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a. In addition to

3438 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod. Code

3439 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.

3441 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real

3442 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a

3443 => real. Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from

3444 theory RealVector.

3446 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product

3447 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.

3448 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,

3449 and inner products are included.

3451 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2. In

3452 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also

3453 supported.

3455 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's

3456 first diagonalization argument.

3458 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,

3459 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in

3460 the HOL Distribution. Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and

3461 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY,

3462 may recover tupled syntax as follows:

3464 hide (open) const gcd

3465 abbreviation gcd where

3466 "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"

3467 notation (output)

3468 GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")

3470 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.

3472 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more

3473 instantiations for algebraic structures. Removed some duplicate

3474 theorems. Changes in simp rules. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3476 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates

3477 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding

3478 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.

3479 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated

3480 simultaneously. Provides a generic and safe interface for

3481 instrumentalizing code generation. See

3482 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.

3483 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML

3484 code on the ML toplevel. Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}

3485 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are

3486 set. Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that

3487 cases.

3489 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now

3490 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be

3491 represented as datatype. The characteristic theorems have to be

3492 proven. INCOMPATIBILITY. Also observe that the following theorems

3493 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:

3495 unit_induct ~> unit.induct

3496 prod_induct ~> prod.induct

3497 sum_induct ~> sum.induct

3498 Suc_Suc_eq ~> nat.inject

3499 Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc ~> nat.distinct

3502 *** HOL-Algebra ***

3504 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation

3505 is not restricted to equality. INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice

3506 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.

3508 * New theory of factorial domains.

3510 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.

3511 INCOMPATIBILITY. Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv

3512 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.

3514 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:

3516 UpperD ~> Upper_memD

3517 LowerD ~> Lower_memD

3518 least_carrier ~> least_closed

3519 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed

3520 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below

3521 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero

3522 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero (collision with assumption)

3525 *** HOL-Nominal ***

3527 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.

3529 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local

3530 theory targets.

3532 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its

3533 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in

3534 'inductive' etc.

3536 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes

3537 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.

3539 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the

3540 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.

3542 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction

3543 principles for inductive definitions. In contrast to

3544 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of

3545 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of

3546 atoms to be avoided. The only inductive definition we have at the

3547 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in

3548 the algorithm W:

3550 Gamma |- t1 : T1 (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2 x#Gamma

3551 -----------------------------------------------------------------

3552 Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2

3554 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by

3555 "close Gamma T1". We are looking for other examples where this

3556 feature might be useful. Please let us know.

3559 *** HOLCF ***

3561 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity

3562 subgoals. The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional

3563 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].

3565 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for

3566 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions. In

3567 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the

3568 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.

3569 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

3571 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general

3572 format as seen in 'inductive' etc. See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for

3573 examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3576 *** ZF ***

3578 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.

3581 *** ML ***

3583 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for

3584 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later. Important note: the TimeLimit facility

3585 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML

3586 5.2.1!

3588 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see

3589 src/Pure/Cuncurrent. The data-oriented model of "future values" is

3590 particularly convenient to organize independent functional

3591 computations. The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a

3592 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the

3593 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables. (Requires

3594 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)

3596 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar

3597 context (theory or proof). Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'

3598 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning

3599 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).

3600 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the

3601 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a

3602 theory. (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)

3604 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof

3605 context. Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in

3606 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.

3607 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the

3608 proof. (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)

3610 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup

3611 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and

3612 'method_setup'. INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify

3613 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old

3614 Method.add_method.

3616 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm

3617 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle

3618 name. The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type

3619 is specified. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code

3620 accordingly. Note that extra performance may be gained by producing

3621 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.

3623 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via

3624 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally

3625 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user

3626 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common

3627 examples.

3629 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and

3630 name space operations. Basic operations on qualified names have been

3631 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,

3632 Long_Name.append. Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by

3633 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise

3634 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper

3635 tracking of source positions. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old

3636 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract

3637 bindings everywhere. See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,

3638 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML

3640 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,

3641 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the

3642 bstring as before. INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!

3644 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,

3645 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,

3646 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.). INCOMPATIBILITY, should

3647 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,

3648 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last

3649 resort for legacy applications.

3651 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to

3652 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,

3653 Simp_tac, SIMPSET). INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in

3654 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as

3655 explicit runtime argument.

3657 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,

3658 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof

3659 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking. Moreover,

3660 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings

3661 thereof. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3663 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of

3664 transactions. E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML

3665 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new

3666 theory state.

3668 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by

3669 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:

3671 @{binding name} - basic name binding

3672 @{let ?pat = term} - term abbreviation (HO matching)

3673 @{note name = fact} - fact abbreviation

3674 @{thm fact} - singleton fact (with attributes)

3675 @{thms fact} - general fact (with attributes)

3676 @{lemma prop by method} - singleton goal

3677 @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2} - singleton goal

3678 @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method} - general goal

3679 @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal

3680 @{lemma (open) ...} - open derivation

3683 *** System ***

3685 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke

3686 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not

3687 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on

3688 isabelle-process). The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the

3689 installation location of the Proof General distribution.

3691 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate

3692 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application. See

3693 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example. (The obsolete Java

3694 process wrapper has been discontinued.)

3696 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.

3698 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are

3699 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled. This allows

3700 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal

3701 prover operations.

3705 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)

3706 -------------------------------

3708 *** General ***

3710 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized

3711 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.

3713 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the

3714 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in

3715 conflict with concurrency. INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which

3716 provides a proper context already.

3718 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy

3719 file are no longer supported. INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and

3720 'use' within a theory file will do the job.

3722 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space

3723 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first

3724 space take precedence. INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to

3725 swap theory imports.

3727 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter. Potential

3728 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.

3730 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,

3731 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

3732 white space without escapes.

3734 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes

3735 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML). E.g. "foo\095bar" for

3736 "foo_bar".

3739 *** Pure ***

3741 * Context-dependent token translations. Default setup reverts locally

3742 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.

3744 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.

3745 There are three ways of invoking it:

3747 (1) unused_thms

3748 Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.

3750 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -

3751 Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,

3752 excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.

3754 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m

3755 Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of

3756 their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of

3757 their ancestors.

3759 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by

3760 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance

3761 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered

3762 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in

3763 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer

3764 reported as unused. Moreover, if all theorems in the group are

3765 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.

3767 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for

3768 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is

3769 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).

3771 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous

3772 theorems within the same name space. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove

3773 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications. Note

3774 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using

3775 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.

3777 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.

3779 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and

3780 clasimpset. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear

3781 update of theories within ML code.

3783 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.

3784 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require

3785 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics

3786 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.

3788 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on

3789 theory/local_theory. Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'

3790 instead. Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.

3791 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3793 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.

3795 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class

3796 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.

3797 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.

3798 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and

3799 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.

3801 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only

3802 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the

3803 background context (locale etc.). Affects `prop` notation and method

3804 "fact". INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare

3805 situations.

3807 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented

3808 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the

3809 proof text.

3811 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".

3812 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.

3814 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';

3815 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale

3816 predicates.

3819 *** Document preparation ***

3821 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for

3822 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed

3823 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the

3824 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default

3825 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets

3826 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).

3828 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given

3829 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method

3830 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.

3833 *** HOL ***

3835 * New primrec package. Specification syntax conforms in style to

3836 definition/function/.... No separate induction rule is provided. The

3837 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications

3838 by syntax. The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.

3839 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style

3840 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.

3842 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works

3843 with multithreading.

3845 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a

3846 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses. Theorems that

3847 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.

3849 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To

3850 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]]. Attributes

3851 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed

3852 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3854 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules

3855 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors

3856 out some operations that are done internally by the function package

3857 and makes them available separately. See

3858 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.

3860 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination

3861 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the

3862 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.

3863 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and

3864 just guides the heuristic. To find suitable measure functions, the

3865 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate

3866 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using

3867 the declared rules.

3869 This setup also deals with rules like

3871 "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"

3873 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.

3874 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.

3876 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"

3878 INCOMPATIBILITIES:

3880 - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by

3881 definitions on => and bool.

3883 - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved

3884 using the definitions of the operators on => and bool. Therefore,

3885 the following theorems have been renamed:

3887 subset_def -> subset_eq

3888 psubset_def -> psubset_eq

3889 set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq

3890 Compl_def -> Compl_eq

3891 Sup_set_def -> Sup_set_eq

3892 Inf_set_def -> Inf_set_eq

3893 sup_set_def -> sup_set_eq

3894 inf_set_def -> inf_set_eq

3896 - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some

3897 rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of

3898 the unknowns in the rule is a set.

3900 - Higher order unification and forward proofs:

3901 The proof pattern

3903 have "P (S::'a set)" <...>

3904 then have "EX S. P S" ..

3906 no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification

3907 algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern

3909 have "EX S. P S"

3910 proof

3911 show "P S" <...>

3912 qed

3914 - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):

3915 The proof pattern

3917 have "P (S::'a set)" <...>

3918 also have "S = T" <...>

3919 finally have "P T" .

3921 no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and

3922 must be replaced by something like

3924 have "P (S::'a set)" <...>

3925 moreover have "S = T" <...>

3926 ultimately have "P T" by simp

3928 - Tactics or packages written in ML code:

3929 Code performing pattern matching on types via

3931 Type ("set", [T]) => ...

3933 must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or

3934 binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a

3935 type of the form

3937 T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool

3939 rather than

3941 T1 => ... => Tn => U set

3943 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and

3944 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.

3946 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3948 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter. Use class

3949 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.

3950 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3952 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"

3953 and "Cons". INCOMPATIBILITY.

3955 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.

3956 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

3958 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and

3959 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.

3960 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3962 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of

3963 the same name in theory Orderings:

3965 less_trans

3966 less_linear

3967 le_imp_less_or_eq

3968 le_less_trans

3969 less_le_trans

3970 less_not_sym

3971 less_asym

3973 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to

3974 less_irrefl_nat. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types

3975 and different variable names.

3977 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.

3979 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of

3980 finite maps.

3982 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.

3984 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed. The infix

3985 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have

3986 disappeared. INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in

3987 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively. Theorems

3988 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"

3989 accordingly.

3991 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer

3992 depend on well-founded relations. INCOMPATIBILITY. Definitions

3993 le_def and less_def have disappeared. Consider lemmas not_less

3994 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.

3996 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin

3997 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been

3998 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes

3999 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,

4000 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.

4001 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4003 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper

4004 case_names ("base" and "step"). INCOMPATIBILITY.

4006 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete

4007 lattices. The form set-specific version is available as

4008 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.

4010 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".

4011 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4013 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings

4014 with division and modulo operations. Subsumes former class dvd_mod.

4016 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory

4017 Int. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4019 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural

4020 numbers rather than integers. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4022 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class

4023 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).

4024 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4026 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic

4027 syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4029 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,

4030 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,

4031 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,

4032 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,

4033 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object

4034 equality. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4036 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term

4037 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.

4038 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.

4040 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.

4042 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.

4044 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of

4045 pairs. Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and

4046 well-orders on sets and on types.

4049 *** ZF ***

4051 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the

4052 same session:

4054 Datatype -> Datatype_ZF

4055 Inductive -> Inductive_ZF

4056 Int -> Int_ZF

4057 IntDiv -> IntDiv_ZF

4058 Nat -> Nat_ZF

4059 List -> List_ZF

4060 Main -> Main_ZF

4062 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below

4063 Main might need to be adapted. Regular theory Main is still

4064 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.

4067 *** ML ***

4069 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const

4070 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.

4072 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact

4073 (of the same name). Removed obsolete print command.

4075 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.

4077 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global

4078 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes

4079 non-critical. The global print_mode reference is for session

4080 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,

4081 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4083 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external

4084 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML

4085 5.2.1). Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!

4088 *** System ***

4090 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---

4091 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.

4093 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;

4094 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR

4095 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".

4097 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general

4098 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.

4100 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to

4101 standard XML transfer syntax. See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and

4102 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.

4104 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)

4105 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust

4106 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.

4108 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),

4109 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).

4111 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature. NB: the documented

4112 way of changing the user's settings is via

4113 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash

4114 script.

4116 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU

4117 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for

4118 optimal performance tuning. The corresponding usedir option -M allows

4119 "max" as an alias for "0". WARNING: does not work on certain versions

4120 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).

4122 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the

4123 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably

4124 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).

4128 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)

4129 -----------------------------------

4131 *** General ***

4133 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a

4134 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the

4135 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:

4136 legacy features will disappear eventually.

4138 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been

4139 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''. Use isatool

4140 fixheaders to convert existing theory files. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4142 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been

4143 discontinued altogether. Note that ML proof scripts may still be used

4144 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML

4145 function use_legacy_bindings. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4147 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',

4148 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords. INCOMPATIBILITY, use double

4149 quotes.

4151 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory

4152 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the

4153 accidental file locations of previously successful loads. The strict

4154 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by

4155 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several

4156 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header

4157 specification, but without merging the results. Potential

4158 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands

4159 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.

4161 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file

4162 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical

4163 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting

4164 (cf. the system manual). The new scheme allows to work with

4165 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source

4166 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.

4168 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy

4169 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy

4170 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader

4171 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.

4173 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is

4174 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous

4175 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the

4176 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and

4177 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit

4178 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.

4180 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',

4181 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in

4182 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations

4183 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space

4184 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse

4185 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax

4186 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and

4187 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.

4189 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required

4190 to keep existing proof scripts running. Most other user-level

4191 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open

4192 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).

4193 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because

4194 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being

4195 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().

4197 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"

4198 criterion; "with_dups" option. Certain ProofGeneral versions might

4199 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).

4201 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1

4202 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are

4203 suppressed from proof state output. Note that the ProofGeneral

4204 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but

4205 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems

4206 limit is imposed.

4208 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of

4209 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''. The body may

4210 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism

4211 that has been implemented on top of these primitives. This concept

4212 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility

4213 and scalability.

4215 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;

4216 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).

4219 *** Document preparation ***

4221 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,

4222 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the

4223 current context.

4225 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which

4226 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.

4228 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation

4229 "c args == rhs" given in the current context. (Any number of

4230 arguments may be given on the LHS.)

4233 *** Pure ***

4235 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to

4236 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle. Definitions and

4237 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with

4238 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic

4239 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class

4240 context). Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate

4241 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting

4242 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.

4243 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).

4244 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.

4246 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable

4247 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes). A short usage

4248 sketch:

4250 internal compilation:

4251 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML

4252 writing SML code to a file:

4253 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>

4254 writing OCaml code to a file:

4255 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>

4256 writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:

4257 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>

4259 evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:

4260 method ``eval''

4262 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.

4264 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:

4266 [code fun]: select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant

4267 [code fun del]: deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant

4268 [code inline]: select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place

4269 [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place

4271 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):

4273 code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>

4274 {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+

4276 code_type <and-list of type constructors>

4277 {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+

4279 code_instance <and-list of instances>

4280 {(target)}+

4281 where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>

4283 code_class <and_list of classes>

4284 {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+

4285 where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?

4287 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.

4289 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and

4290 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy. A separate tutorial on code

4291 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc

4292 codegen".

4294 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now

4295 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type

4296 annotations).

4298 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory

4299 syntax.

4301 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic

4302 dependencies. The overloading scheme is slightly more general than

4303 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact

4304 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.

4305 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more

4306 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!

4308 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the

4309 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general

4310 declaration given in the signature. For example, with the declaration

4311 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented

4312 as c(nat). Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural

4313 recursion over such type arguments. Incomplete specification patterns

4314 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the

4315 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.

4316 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive

4317 equations, see section "definitions".

4319 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof

4320 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple

4321 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data. Tools may

4322 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to

4323 these values using Config.get etc. Users may change options via an

4324 associated attribute of the same name. This form of context

4325 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or

4326 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''. Thus it has become

4327 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar

4328 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.

4330 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into

4331 configuration options:

4333 Unify.search_bound unify_search_bound

4334 Unify.trace_bound unify_trace_bound

4335 Unify.trace_simp unify_trace_simp

4336 Unify.trace_types unify_trace_types

4337 Simplifier.simp_depth_limit simp_depth_limit

4338 Blast.depth_limit blast_depth_limit

4339 DatatypeProp.dtK datatype_distinctness_limit

4340 fast_arith_neq_limit fast_arith_neq_limit

4341 fast_arith_split_limit fast_arith_split_limit

4343 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context

4344 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also

4345 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML). The user may add or delete facts via

4346 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command. This facility is

4347 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way

4348 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical

4349 order.

4351 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic

4352 declaration functions written in ML. This enables arbitrary content

4353 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the

4354 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application

4355 context encountered later on.

4357 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures. Command

4358 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body

4359 text in ML). Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current

4360 context. ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.

4362 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations

4363 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,

4364 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on

4365 the background context will persist. This form of in-place

4366 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and

4367 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.

4369 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now

4370 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying

4371 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic

4372 assumption steps. This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'

4373 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",

4374 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the

4375 Isar proof context. POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is

4376 more permissive.

4378 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is

4379 considered a legacy feature. Common applications like ``have A .''

4380 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''. In general,

4381 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and

4382 maintainability of proof texts.

4384 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives

4385 the obtained context from the course of reasoning! For example:

4387 assume "EX x y. A x & B y" -- "any previous fact"

4388 then guess x and y by clarify

4390 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and

4391 proof tools being involved here.

4393 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal

4394 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax. This works wherever

4395 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof

4396 methods, attributes etc. Literal facts are retrieved from the context

4397 according to unification of type and term parameters. For example,

4398 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known

4399 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:

4400 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.

4402 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition

4403 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with

4404 certain special cases of literal facts:

4406 have "A" by fact == note `A`

4407 have "A ==> B" by fact == note `A ==> B`

4408 have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact == note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`

4409 have "P a ==> Q a" by fact == note `P a ==> Q a`

4411 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in

4412 outer syntax. Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without

4413 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.

4415 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,

4416 both named and unnamed ones.

4418 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:

4420 def x == "t" and y == "u"

4422 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to

4423 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given

4424 rewrite rules. Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or

4425 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.

4427 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',

4428 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities

4429 (potentially conditional). The underlying notion of rewrite rule is

4430 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the

4431 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).

4433 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the

4434 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.

4436 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a

4437 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N

4438 sub-goals, which need to exist. For example, ``simp_all [3]''

4439 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]

4440 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the

4441 originally first one.

4443 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order

4444 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as

4445 expected.

4447 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either

4448 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'

4449 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and

4450 assumptions). The latter allows to express general elimination rules

4451 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:

4453 lemma exE: -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

4454 assumes "EX x. P x"

4455 obtains x where "P x"

4457 lemma conjE: -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

4458 assumes "A & B"

4459 obtains A and B

4461 lemma disjE: -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

4462 assumes "A | B"

4463 obtains

4464 A

4465 | B

4467 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"

4468 explicitly:

4470 lemma classical: -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

4471 obtains "~ thesis"

4473 lemma Peirce's_Law: -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

4474 obtains "thesis ==> something"

4476 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the

4477 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.

4478 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be

4479 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the

4480 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute

4481 case_names).

4483 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as

4484 "assms" fact in the proof context. This is more appropriate than the

4485 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current

4486 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.

4488 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or

4489 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a

4490 top-level lemma.

4492 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context

4493 introduction rule (default "that").

4495 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

4496 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens

4497 to occur.

4499 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant

4500 according to the current context. This is particularly useful for

4501 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant

4502 representations independently of name spaces.

4504 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"

4505 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist

4506 in the same context. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4508 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'

4509 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and

4510 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation

4511 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the

4512 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the

4513 current context.

4515 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',

4516 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit

4517 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence). See also the

4518 isar-ref manual. Examples:

4520 axiomatization

4521 eq (infix "===" 50) where

4522 eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"

4524 definition "f x y = x + y + 1"

4525 definition g where "g x = f x x"

4527 abbreviation

4528 neq (infix "=!=" 50) where

4529 "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"

4531 These specifications may be also used in a locale context. Then the

4532 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the

4533 constant name is qualified by the locale base name. An internal

4534 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the

4535 parameters implicit and using the original short name. See also

4536 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic

4537 entities from a monomorphic theory.

4539 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but

4540 not inherited by general import expressions. Also note that

4541 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +

4542 'translations' in common applications. The "no_abbrevs" print mode

4543 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.

4545 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,

4546 independently of name spaces. The parse tree representation is

4547 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and

4548 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.

4550 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms

4551 (e.g. 'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits

4552 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_"). For example:

4554 definition "K x _ = x"

4556 inductive conj for A B

4557 where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"

4559 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of

4560 the current context. Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of

4561 abbreviations on output.

4563 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and

4564 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer

4565 required to be injective. For example, this allows to define

4566 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.

4568 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.

4569 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is

4570 now an interpretation. INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of

4571 locale expressions. In particular, in interpretations of locales with

4572 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not

4573 removed automatically. Use methods `intro_locales' and

4574 `unfold_locales'; see below.

4576 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'

4577 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates. The methods are

4578 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.

4579 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not

4580 unfold predicates to assumptions.

4582 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated

4583 has changed. This enables to override declarations from fragments due

4584 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.

4586 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been

4587 extended. One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are

4588 unfolded in interpreted theorems. This is useful for replacing

4589 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by

4590 concepts already existing in the target context. Example:

4592 interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]

4593 where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"

4595 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a

4596 definition specification element in the context of locale

4597 partial_order.

4599 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support

4600 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level

4601 connectives !! and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals

4602 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long

4603 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in

4604 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also

4605 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic

4606 examples.

4608 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of

4609 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into

4610 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested

4611 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,

4612 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.

4614 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list

4615 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide

4616 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive

4617 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify

4618 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:

4620 (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)

4621 (induct set: foo bar)

4622 (induct pred: foo bar)

4623 (induct type: foo bar)

4625 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the

4626 new format.

4628 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see

4629 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.

4631 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is

4632 considered a legacy feature.

4634 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic

4635 variables (index 0). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

4637 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level

4638 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by

4639 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The

4640 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.

4642 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format

4643 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when

4644 manipulating the claset.

4646 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,

4647 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at

4648 least one premise.

4650 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional

4651 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions). Weights are

4652 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single

4653 rule steps.

4655 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",

4656 where the body does not mention the bound variable. Note that dummy

4657 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes

4658 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected. Potential

4659 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic

4660 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.

4662 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated

4663 parse translation. INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,

4664 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".

4666 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using

4667 the graph browser tool.

4669 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by

4670 default; use '!' option for full details.

4673 *** HOL ***

4675 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose

4676 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).

4677 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples. WARNING: the

4678 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with

4679 multi-threading.

4681 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as

4682 background processes. It generates calls to the "metis" method if

4683 successful. These can be pasted into the proof. Users do not have to

4684 wait for the automatic provers to return. WARNING: does not really

4685 work with multi-threading.

4687 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for

4688 potential counter-examples. Controlled by ML references

4689 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default

4690 5000 milliseconds). Fails silently if statements is outside of

4691 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.

4693 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".

4695 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic

4696 equality.

4698 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in

4699 the new 'class' package:

4701 HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs

4702 HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide

4703 0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero

4704 1 ~> HOL.one_class.one

4705 op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus

4706 op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus

4707 uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus

4708 op * ~> HOL.times_class.times

4709 op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less

4710 op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq

4711 Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power

4712 Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size

4713 Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of

4714 FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf

4715 FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup

4716 Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min

4717 Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max

4718 Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div

4719 Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod

4720 Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd

4722 INCOMPATIBILITY. Adaptions may be required in the following cases:

4724 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",

4725 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for

4726 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong. INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific

4727 names.

4729 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"

4730 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.

4732 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")

4733 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative

4734 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows

4735 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle

4736 distribution). INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs

4738 d) ML code directly refering to constant names

4739 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and

4740 so on. INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.

4741 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.

4743 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".

4745 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex

4746 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn". Two possible defs of

4747 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and

4748 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.

4749 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4751 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory

4752 Orderings), added parameter "less". INCOMPATIBILITY.

4754 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and

4755 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid

4756 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans". INCOMPATIBILITY.

4758 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to

4759 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.

4761 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up

4762 for classes "order" and "linorder". Instances of the reasoner are available

4763 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.

4764 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner

4765 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver. Diagnostic

4766 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner

4767 in the current context.

4769 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated

4770 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.

4771 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4773 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration

4774 with new class dense_linear_order.

4776 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.

4778 constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"

4779 constant "Meet" now named "Inf"

4781 classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named

4782 "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"

4783 class "lorder" now named "lattice"

4784 class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"

4786 Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions

4787 for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).

4789 INCOMPATIBILITY. Theorem renames:

4791 meet_left_le ~> inf_le1

4792 meet_right_le ~> inf_le2

4793 join_left_le ~> sup_ge1

4794 join_right_le ~> sup_ge2

4795 meet_join_le ~> inf_sup_ord

4796 le_meetI ~> le_infI

4797 join_leI ~> le_supI

4798 le_meet ~> le_inf_iff

4799 le_join ~> ge_sup_conv

4800 meet_idempotent ~> inf_idem

4801 join_idempotent ~> sup_idem

4802 meet_comm ~> inf_commute

4803 join_comm ~> sup_commute

4804 meet_leI1 ~> le_infI1

4805 meet_leI2 ~> le_infI2

4806 le_joinI1 ~> le_supI1

4807 le_joinI2 ~> le_supI2

4808 meet_assoc ~> inf_assoc

4809 join_assoc ~> sup_assoc

4810 meet_left_comm ~> inf_left_commute

4811 meet_left_idempotent ~> inf_left_idem

4812 join_left_comm ~> sup_left_commute

4813 join_left_idempotent ~> sup_left_idem

4814 meet_aci ~> inf_aci

4815 join_aci ~> sup_aci

4816 le_def_meet ~> le_iff_inf

4817 le_def_join ~> le_iff_sup

4818 join_absorp2 ~> sup_absorb2

4819 join_absorp1 ~> sup_absorb1

4820 meet_absorp1 ~> inf_absorb1

4821 meet_absorp2 ~> inf_absorb2

4822 meet_join_absorp ~> inf_sup_absorb

4823 join_meet_absorp ~> sup_inf_absorb

4824 distrib_join_le ~> distrib_sup_le

4825 distrib_meet_le ~> distrib_inf_le

4827 add_meet_distrib_left ~> add_inf_distrib_left

4828 add_join_distrib_left ~> add_sup_distrib_left

4829 is_join_neg_meet ~> is_join_neg_inf

4830 is_meet_neg_join ~> is_meet_neg_sup

4831 add_meet_distrib_right ~> add_inf_distrib_right

4832 add_join_distrib_right ~> add_sup_distrib_right

4833 add_meet_join_distribs ~> add_sup_inf_distribs

4834 join_eq_neg_meet ~> sup_eq_neg_inf

4835 meet_eq_neg_join ~> inf_eq_neg_sup

4836 add_eq_meet_join ~> add_eq_inf_sup

4837 meet_0_imp_0 ~> inf_0_imp_0

4838 join_0_imp_0 ~> sup_0_imp_0

4839 meet_0_eq_0 ~> inf_0_eq_0

4840 join_0_eq_0 ~> sup_0_eq_0

4841 neg_meet_eq_join ~> neg_inf_eq_sup

4842 neg_join_eq_meet ~> neg_sup_eq_inf

4843 join_eq_if ~> sup_eq_if

4845 mono_meet ~> mono_inf

4846 mono_join ~> mono_sup

4847 meet_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_eq

4848 join_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_eq

4849 meet_fun_eq ~> inf_fun_eq

4850 join_fun_eq ~> sup_fun_eq

4851 meet_set_eq ~> inf_set_eq

4852 join_set_eq ~> sup_set_eq

4853 meet1_iff ~> inf1_iff

4854 meet2_iff ~> inf2_iff

4855 meet1I ~> inf1I

4856 meet2I ~> inf2I

4857 meet1D1 ~> inf1D1

4858 meet2D1 ~> inf2D1

4859 meet1D2 ~> inf1D2

4860 meet2D2 ~> inf2D2

4861 meet1E ~> inf1E

4862 meet2E ~> inf2E

4863 join1_iff ~> sup1_iff

4864 join2_iff ~> sup2_iff

4865 join1I1 ~> sup1I1

4866 join2I1 ~> sup2I1

4867 join1I1 ~> sup1I1

4868 join2I2 ~> sup1I2

4869 join1CI ~> sup1CI

4870 join2CI ~> sup2CI

4871 join1E ~> sup1E

4872 join2E ~> sup2E

4874 is_meet_Meet ~> is_meet_Inf

4875 Meet_bool_def ~> Inf_bool_def

4876 Meet_fun_def ~> Inf_fun_def

4877 Meet_greatest ~> Inf_greatest

4878 Meet_lower ~> Inf_lower

4879 Meet_set_def ~> Inf_set_def

4881 Sup_def ~> Sup_Inf

4882 Sup_bool_eq ~> Sup_bool_def

4883 Sup_fun_eq ~> Sup_fun_def

4884 Sup_set_eq ~> Sup_set_def

4886 listsp_meetI ~> listsp_infI

4887 listsp_meet_eq ~> listsp_inf_eq

4889 meet_min ~> inf_min

4890 join_max ~> sup_max

4892 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has

4893 type "'a::size ==> bool"

4895 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems

4896 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still

4897 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named

4898 "*.size".

4900 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".

4901 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4903 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,

4904 Linorder etc. have disappeared; operations defined in terms of

4905 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4907 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4909 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size

4910 machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating

4911 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for

4912 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including

4913 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity. Instantiated to all appropriate

4914 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of

4915 numerals on all operations.

4917 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.

4919 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).

4921 * Code generator library theories:

4922 - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target

4923 languages.

4924 - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target

4925 languages.

4926 - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character

4927 codes; includes Code_Integer.

4928 - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.

4929 - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,

4930 denominator).

4931 - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those

4932 representable by rational numbers.

4933 - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will

4934 result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;

4935 includes Code_Integer.

4936 - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to

4937 target-language built-in integers.

4938 - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to

4939 strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.

4941 * New package for inductive predicates

4943 An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via

4945 inductive

4946 p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

4947 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

4948 where

4949 rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"

4950 | ...

4952 with full support for type-inference, rather than

4954 consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

4956 abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

4957 where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

4959 inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"

4960 intros

4961 rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

4962 ...

4964 For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive

4965 sets to be defined with the new package via

4967 inductive_set

4968 s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

4969 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

4970 where

4971 rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

4972 | ...

4974 or

4976 inductive_set

4977 s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

4978 and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

4979 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

4980 where

4981 "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

4982 | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"

4983 | ...

4985 if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.

4987 Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,

4988 src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.

4990 INCOMPATIBILITIES:

4992 - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates

4993 is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly

4994 introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the

4995 introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather

4996 than before the actual inductive definition.

4998 - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now

4999 quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction

5000 rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break

5001 some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by

5002 reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'

5003 statements of the form

5005 case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})

5007 or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding

5008 meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.

5010 | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"

5012 - The format of the elimination rules is now

5014 p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>

5015 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)

5016 ==> ... ==> P

5018 for predicates and

5020 (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>

5021 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)

5022 ==> ... ==> P

5024 for sets rather than

5026 x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>

5027 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)

5028 ==> ... ==> P

5030 This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples

5031 (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all

5032 rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.

5034 - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive

5035 sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The

5036 list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.

5038 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,

5039 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,

5040 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy

5041 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function

5042 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but

5043 users are encouraged to use the new package.

5045 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination

5046 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures.

5048 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including

5049 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional

5050 programming. Internally, this is translated into nested

5051 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined

5052 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show

5053 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow

5054 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an

5055 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new

5056 variable.

5058 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"

5059 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification

5060 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did

5061 previously. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:

5062 - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"

5063 - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules

5065 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using

5066 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the

5067 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for

5068 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding

5069 declarations for computation on the coefficients. The method is

5070 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class

5071 of idoms with numerals. See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at

5072 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this

5073 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.

5075 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over

5076 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to

5077 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class

5078 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,

5079 rat, etc.

5081 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append". Use ML

5082 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to

5083 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.

5085 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".

5087 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.

5088 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)

5090 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.

5091 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.

5093 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :

5094 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list

5095 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity. INCOMPATIBILITY.

5097 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders. It used to be

5098 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]

5099 INCOMPATIBILITY.

5101 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD" to "set_takeWhileD".

5103 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.

5105 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for

5106 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all

5107 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or

5108 positive/negative (in inequations).

5110 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib

5111 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and

5112 ring_distribs. Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field

5113 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz. INCOMPATIBILITY.

5115 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function

5116 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried. Infix syntax for

5117 algebraic operations.

5119 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.

5120 INCOMPATIBILITY.

5122 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.

5123 INCOMPATIBILITY.

5125 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the

5126 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update

5127 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.

5128 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be

5129 adapted.

5131 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0

5132 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring. Richer structures do not

5133 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem

5134 there, not an axiom. INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,

5135 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.

5137 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just

5138 commutative semirings. INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate

5139 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.

5141 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.

5142 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,

5143 better use 'abbreviation'.

5145 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member". INCOMPATIBILITY.

5147 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has

5148 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'. INCOMPATIBILITY --

5149 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:

5150 - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead

5151 of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.

5152 - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.

5153 - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.

5154 - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.

5156 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.

5158 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may

5159 contain free variables. For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''

5160 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof). This command is suitable for

5161 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML

5162 first. Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided. See

5163 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.

5165 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority

5166 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is

5167 "A = B" (with priority 50).

5169 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.

5170 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,

5171 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z". Potential

5172 INCOMPATIBILITY.

5174 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).

5176 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds

5177 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.

5179 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been

5180 removed. Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.

5182 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites

5183 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq"). INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using

5184 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.

5186 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to

5187 True/False.

5189 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".

5191 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.

5193 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the

5194 ``rule'' method.

5196 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:

5197 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences

5198 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form

5199 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.

5201 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.

5202 zChaff is still supported as well.

5204 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,

5205 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;

5207 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to

5208 Library.

5210 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.

5212 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists

5213 as greatest fixed-point.

5215 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as

5216 association lists.

5218 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)

5219 efficiently by compiling it to ML. The goal is "proved" (via an

5220 oracle) if it evaluates to True.

5222 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)

5223 also when invoked by the simplifier. This results in the Simplifier

5224 being more powerful on arithmetic goals. INCOMPATIBILITY.

5225 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old

5226 behavior.

5228 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.

5230 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an

5231 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional

5232 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the

5233 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The

5234 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs

5235 s. If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.

5237 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)

5238 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,

5239 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code

5240 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then

5241 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =

5242 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the

5243 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.

5245 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is

5246 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy

5248 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a

5249 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an

5250 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of

5251 HOL types. This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,

5252 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.

5255 *** HOL-Complex ***

5257 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real

5258 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.

5259 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so

5260 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential

5261 INCOMPATIBILITY.

5263 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and

5264 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a

5265 and norm :: 'a => real.

5267 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from

5268 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now

5269 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

5271 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.

5272 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.

5274 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the

5275 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector

5276 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential

5277 INCOMPATIBILITY.

5279 Infinitesimal :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

5280 HFinite :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

5281 HInfinite :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

5282 approx :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool

5283 monad :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set

5284 galaxy :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set

5285 (NS)LIMSEQ :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool

5286 (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

5287 (NS)Bseq :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

5288 (NS)Cauchy :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

5289 (NS)LIM :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool

5290 is(NS)Cont :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool

5291 deriv :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool

5292 sgn :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a

5293 exp :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a

5295 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for

5296 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =

5297 hnorm. Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the

5298 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):

5300 approx <-- capprox

5301 HFinite <-- CFinite

5302 HInfinite <-- CInfinite

5303 Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal

5304 monad <-- cmonad

5305 galaxy <-- cgalaxy

5306 (NS)LIM <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM

5307 is(NS)Cont <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR

5308 (ns)deriv <-- (ns)cderiv

5311 *** HOL-Algebra ***

5313 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.

5315 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.

5316 INCOMPATIBILITY.

5318 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->

5319 greatest_closed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

5321 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute. For examples see

5322 Ring.thy. INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations

5323 of algebraic structures.

5325 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.

5328 *** HOL-Nominal ***

5330 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding

5331 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic. See src/HOL/Nominal and

5332 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples. Prospective users should consult

5333 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/

5336 *** ML ***

5338 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int

5339 (even on SML/NJ).

5341 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked

5342 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at

5343 compile-time. For example:

5345 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}

5346 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}

5347 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}

5348 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}

5349 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}

5350 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}

5351 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}

5352 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}

5353 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}

5354 ML {* @{type_name c} *}

5355 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}

5356 ML {* @{const_name c} *}

5357 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}

5358 ML {* @{context} *}

5359 ML {* @{theory} *}

5360 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}

5361 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}

5362 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}

5363 ML {* @{simpset} *}

5364 ML {* @{claset} *}

5365 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}

5367 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.

5369 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with

5370 ML_Context.trace enabled.

5372 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions

5373 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and

5374 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.

5376 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now

5377 use Context.generic instead of just theory.

5379 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and

5380 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of

5381 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.

5383 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always

5384 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.

5385 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while

5386 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and

5387 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure

5388 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably

5389 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type

5390 declarations and definitions.

5392 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed

5393 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,

5394 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need

5395 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)

5397 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in

5398 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the

5399 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,

5400 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

5402 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with

5403 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed

5404 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --

5405 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and

5406 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede

5407 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.

5409 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --

5410 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been

5411 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted

5412 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for

5413 attributes, methods, etc.

5415 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."

5416 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to

5417 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and

5418 fold_map combinators.

5420 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional

5421 comments (tags) are now strictly separate. Name hints -- which are

5422 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the

5423 derivation.

5425 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an

5426 actual goal state (thm). Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to

5427 achieve the old behaviour.

5429 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a

5430 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule

5431 statements.

5433 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now

5434 enforced instead of silently assumed. INCOMPATIBILITY, may use

5435 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.

5437 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating

5438 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc. This replaces

5439 some popular functions from term.ML:

5441 Term.variant -> Name.variant

5442 Term.variantlist -> Name.variant_list

5443 Term.invent_names -> Name.invent_list

5445 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations

5446 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).

5448 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper

5449 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context. For example,

5450 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and

5451 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces

5452 various freeze_thaw operations.

5454 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for

5455 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former

5456 Tactic.prove). Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results

5457 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for

5458 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard. Note that

5459 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is

5460 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or

5461 in a locale context).

5463 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)

5464 and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations

5465 (Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.

5466 which are considered legacy and await removal.

5468 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking

5469 (Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),

5470 with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term

5471 etc.). Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still

5472 available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using

5473 a mere theory instead of a full context.

5475 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception

5476 ERROR of string uniformly. Function error now merely raises ERROR,

5477 without any side effect on output channels. The Isar toplevel takes

5478 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions. ML code may use plain

5479 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:

5481 ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."

5483 Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be

5484 embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like

5485 this:

5487 Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)

5489 INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed

5490 obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,

5491 Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)

5492 -- use plain ERROR instead.

5494 * Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a

5495 list. INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.

5497 * Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to

5498 ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.

5500 * Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the

5501 theory before entering a proof state. Transactions now always see a

5502 quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and

5503 batch mode.

5505 * Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax. Renamed

5506 OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords. Removed

5507 OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in

5508 OuterSyntax.command etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

5510 * Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now

5511 contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the

5512 very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by

5513 simpset_of/local_simpset_of). Consequently, all plug-in components

5514 (solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.

5516 * Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the

5517 local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc

5518 etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this! Removed

5519 former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --

5520 INCOMPATIBILITY. Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to

5521 specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.

5523 * Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces

5524 change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a

5525 theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --

5526 INCOMPATIBILITY.

5528 * Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired

5529 "Trueprop" etc.

5532 *** System ***

5534 * settings: the default heap location within ISABELLE_HOME_USER now

5535 includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER. This simplifies use of multiple

5536 Isabelle installations.

5538 * isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical

5539 operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source

5540 code.

5542 * Basic Isabelle mode for jEdit, see Isabelle/lib/jedit/.

5544 * Support for parallel execution, using native multicore support of

5545 Poly/ML 5.1. The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing

5546 independent theories, according to the given theory header

5547 specifications. The maximum number of worker threads is specified via

5548 usedir option -M or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. A

5549 speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected on a 4-core machine, and up

5550 to 6 on a 8-core machine. User-code needs to observe certain

5551 guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A in the Isar

5552 Implementation manual.

5556 New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)

5557 ----------------------------------

5559 *** General ***

5561 * Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is

5563 theory <name>

5564 imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>

5565 uses <file1> ... <fileM>

5566 begin

5568 where the 'uses' part is optional. The previous syntax

5570 theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:

5572 will disappear in the next release. Use isatool fixheaders to convert

5573 existing theory files. Note that there is no change in ancient

5574 non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.

5576 * Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via

5577 relative and absolute paths.

5579 * Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a

5580 list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,

5581 simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select

5582 theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that

5583 match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified

5584 name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose

5585 lhs match term. Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects

5586 all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under

5587 'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f. Example:

5589 C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."

5591 prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",

5592 matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."

5593 in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).

5595 * Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of

5596 'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.

5598 * Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that

5599 Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both

5600 formal and informal parts). Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof

5601 General interface. Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):

5603 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html

5604 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html

5606 * Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the

5607 Classical Reasoner. Typical big applications run around 2 times

5608 faster.

5611 *** Document preparation ***

5613 * Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output

5614 of raw sources. Only those symbols that do not require additional

5615 LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are

5616 displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim. isatool display

5617 and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the

5618 DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).

5620 * Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,

5621 notably folding and hiding. Predefined tags include "theory" (for

5622 theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for

5623 commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and

5624 "invisible" are unused by default. Users may give explicit tag

5625 specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''. The

5626 interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document

5627 preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of

5628 isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,

5629 \isadroptag.

5631 Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool

5632 usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them). Typical

5633 specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present

5634 theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold

5635 proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit

5636 these parts without any formal replacement text. The Isabelle site

5637 default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as

5638 specified above.

5640 * Several new antiquotations:

5642 @{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;

5644 @{typeof term} prints the type of a term;

5646 @{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the

5647 argument is a known logical constant;

5649 @{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or

5650 theorem applying a "style" to it

5652 @{ML text}

5654 Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of

5655 definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the

5656 conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem19'

5657 to print the specified premise. TermStyle.add_style provides an ML

5658 interface for introducing further styles. See also the "LaTeX Sugar"

5659 document practical applications. The ML antiquotation prints

5660 type-checked ML expressions verbatim.

5662 * Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',

5663 and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which

5664 specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations. For

5665 example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.

5667 * Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative

5668 context interpreting the subsequent argument. For example: @{thm

5669 [locale=lattice] inf_assoc}.

5671 * Proper output of proof terms (@{prf ...} and @{full_prf ...}) within

5672 a proof context.

5674 * Proper output of antiquotations for theory commands involving a

5675 proof context (such as 'locale' or 'theorem (in loc) ...').

5677 * Delimiters of outer tokens (string etc.) now produce separate LaTeX

5678 macros (\isachardoublequoteopen, isachardoublequoteclose etc.).

5680 * isatool usedir: new option -C (default true) controls whether option

5681 -D should include a copy of the original document directory; -C false

5682 prevents unwanted effects such as copying of administrative CVS data.

5685 *** Pure ***

5687 * Considerably improved version of 'constdefs' command. Now performs

5688 automatic type-inference of declared constants; additional support for

5689 local structure declarations (cf. locales and HOL records), see also

5690 isar-ref manual. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to observe strictly

5691 sequential dependencies of definitions within a single 'constdefs'

5692 section; moreover, the declared name needs to be an identifier. If

5693 all fails, consider to fall back on 'consts' and 'defs' separately.

5695 * Improved indexed syntax and implicit structures. First of all,

5696 indexed syntax provides a notational device for subscripted

5697 application, using the new syntax \<^bsub>term\<^esub> for arbitrary

5698 expressions. Secondly, in a local context with structure

5699 declarations, number indexes \<^sub>n or the empty index (default

5700 number 1) refer to a certain fixed variable implicitly; option

5701 show_structs controls printing of implicit structures. Typical

5702 applications of these concepts involve record types and locales.

5704 * New command 'no_syntax' removes grammar declarations (and

5705 translations) resulting from the given syntax specification, which is

5706 interpreted in the same manner as for the 'syntax' command.

5708 * 'Advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) may depend

5709 on the signature of the theory context being presently used for

5710 parsing/printing, see also isar-ref manual.

5712 * Improved 'oracle' command provides a type-safe interface to turn an

5713 ML expression of type theory -> T -> term into a primitive rule of

5714 type theory -> T -> thm (i.e. the functionality of Thm.invoke_oracle

5715 is already included here); see also FOL/ex/IffExample.thy;

5716 INCOMPATIBILITY.

5718 * axclass: name space prefix for class "c" is now "c_class" (was "c"

5719 before); "cI" is no longer bound, use "c.intro" instead.

5720 INCOMPATIBILITY. This change avoids clashes of fact bindings for

5721 axclasses vs. locales.

5723 * Improved internal renaming of symbolic identifiers -- attach primes

5724 instead of base 26 numbers.

5726 * New flag show_question_marks controls printing of leading question

5727 marks in schematic variable names.

5729 * In schematic variable names, *any* symbol following \<^isub> or

5730 \<^isup> is now treated as part of the base name. For example, the

5731 following works without printing of awkward ".0" indexes:

5733 lemma "x\<^isub>1 = x\<^isub>2 ==> x\<^isub>2 = x\<^isub>1"

5734 by simp

5736 * Inner syntax includes (*(*nested*) comments*).

5738 * Pretty printer now supports unbreakable blocks, specified in mixfix

5739 annotations as "(00...)".

5741 * Clear separation of logical types and nonterminals, where the latter

5742 may only occur in 'syntax' specifications or type abbreviations.

5743 Before that distinction was only partially implemented via type class

5744 "logic" vs. "{}". Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare cases of improper

5745 use of 'types'/'consts' instead of 'nonterminals'/'syntax'. Some very

5746 exotic syntax specifications may require further adaption

5747 (e.g. Cube/Cube.thy).

5749 * Removed obsolete type class "logic", use the top sort {} instead.

5750 Note that non-logical types should be declared as 'nonterminals'

5751 rather than 'types'. INCOMPATIBILITY for new object-logic

5752 specifications.

5754 * Attributes 'induct' and 'cases': type or set names may now be

5755 locally fixed variables as well.

5757 * Simplifier: can now control the depth to which conditional rewriting

5758 is traced via the PG menu Isabelle -> Settings -> Trace Simp Depth

5759 Limit.

5761 * Simplifier: simplification procedures may now take the current

5762 simpset into account (cf. Simplifier.simproc(_i) / mk_simproc

5763 interface), which is very useful for calling the Simplifier

5764 recursively. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: the 'prems' argument of simprocs

5765 is gone -- use prems_of_ss on the simpset instead. Moreover, the

5766 low-level mk_simproc no longer applies Logic.varify internally, to

5767 allow for use in a context of fixed variables.

5769 * thin_tac now works even if the assumption being deleted contains !!

5770 or ==>. More generally, erule now works even if the major premise of

5771 the elimination rule contains !! or ==>.

5773 * Method 'rules' has been renamed to 'iprover'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

5775 * Reorganized bootstrapping of the Pure theories; CPure is now derived

5776 from Pure, which contains all common declarations already. Both

5777 theories are defined via plain Isabelle/Isar .thy files.

5778 INCOMPATIBILITY: elements of CPure (such as the CPure.intro /

5779 CPure.elim / CPure.dest attributes) now appear in the Pure name space;

5780 use isatool fixcpure to adapt your theory and ML sources.

5782 * New syntax 'name(i-j, i-, i, ...)' for referring to specific

5783 selections of theorems in named facts via index ranges.

5785 * 'print_theorems': in theory mode, really print the difference

5786 wrt. the last state (works for interactive theory development only),

5787 in proof mode print all local facts (cf. 'print_facts');

5789 * 'hide': option '(open)' hides only base names.

5791 * More efficient treatment of intermediate checkpoints in interactive

5792 theory development.

5794 * Code generator is now invoked via code_module (incremental code

5795 generation) and code_library (modular code generation, ML structures

5796 for each theory). INCOMPATIBILITY: new keywords 'file' and 'contains'

5797 must be quoted when used as identifiers.

5799 * New 'value' command for reading, evaluating and printing terms using

5800 the code generator. INCOMPATIBILITY: command keyword 'value' must be

5801 quoted when used as identifier.

5804 *** Locales ***

5806 * New commands for the interpretation of locale expressions in

5807 theories (1), locales (2) and proof contexts (3). These generate

5808 proof obligations from the expression specification. After the

5809 obligations have been discharged, theorems of the expression are added

5810 to the theory, target locale or proof context. The synopsis of the

5811 commands is a follows:

5813 (1) interpretation expr inst

5814 (2) interpretation target < expr

5815 (3) interpret expr inst

5817 Interpretation in theories and proof contexts require a parameter

5818 instantiation of terms from the current context. This is applied to

5819 specifications and theorems of the interpreted expression.

5820 Interpretation in locales only permits parameter renaming through the

5821 locale expression. Interpretation is smart in that interpretations

5822 that are active already do not occur in proof obligations, neither are

5823 instantiated theorems stored in duplicate. Use 'print_interps' to

5824 inspect active interpretations of a particular locale. For details,

5825 see the Isar Reference manual. Examples can be found in

5826 HOL/Finite_Set.thy and HOL/Algebra/UnivPoly.thy.

5828 INCOMPATIBILITY: former 'instantiate' has been withdrawn, use

5829 'interpret' instead.

5831 * New context element 'constrains' for adding type constraints to

5832 parameters.

5834 * Context expressions: renaming of parameters with syntax

5835 redeclaration.

5837 * Locale declaration: 'includes' disallowed.

5839 * Proper static binding of attribute syntax -- i.e. types / terms /

5840 facts mentioned as arguments are always those of the locale definition

5841 context, independently of the context of later invocations. Moreover,

5842 locale operations (renaming and type / term instantiation) are applied

5843 to attribute arguments as expected.

5845 INCOMPATIBILITY of the ML interface: always pass Attrib.src instead of

5846 actual attributes; rare situations may require Attrib.attribute to

5847 embed those attributes into Attrib.src that lack concrete syntax.

5848 Attribute implementations need to cooperate properly with the static

5849 binding mechanism. Basic parsers Args.XXX_typ/term/prop and

5850 Attrib.XXX_thm etc. already do the right thing without further

5851 intervention. Only unusual applications -- such as "where" or "of"

5852 (cf. src/Pure/Isar/attrib.ML), which process arguments depending both

5853 on the context and the facts involved -- may have to assign parsed

5854 values to argument tokens explicitly.

5856 * Changed parameter management in theorem generation for long goal

5857 statements with 'includes'. INCOMPATIBILITY: produces a different

5858 theorem statement in rare situations.

5860 * Locale inspection command 'print_locale' omits notes elements. Use

5861 'print_locale!' to have them included in the output.

5864 *** Provers ***

5866 * Provers/hypsubst.ML: improved version of the subst method, for

5867 single-step rewriting: it now works in bound variable contexts. New is

5868 'subst (asm)', for rewriting an assumption. INCOMPATIBILITY: may

5869 rewrite a different subterm than the original subst method, which is

5870 still available as 'simplesubst'.

5872 * Provers/quasi.ML: new transitivity reasoners for transitivity only

5873 and quasi orders.

5875 * Provers/trancl.ML: new transitivity reasoner for transitive and

5876 reflexive-transitive closure of relations.

5878 * Provers/blast.ML: new reference depth_limit to make blast's depth

5879 limit (previously hard-coded with a value of 20) user-definable.

5881 * Provers/simplifier.ML has been moved to Pure, where Simplifier.setup

5882 is peformed already. Object-logics merely need to finish their

5883 initial simpset configuration as before. INCOMPATIBILITY.

5886 *** HOL ***

5888 * Symbolic syntax of Hilbert Choice Operator is now as follows:

5890 syntax (epsilon)

5891 "_Eps" :: "[pttrn, bool] => 'a" ("(3\<some>_./ _)" [0, 10] 10)

5893 The symbol \<some> is displayed as the alternative epsilon of LaTeX

5894 and x-symbol; use option '-m epsilon' to get it actually printed.

5895 Moreover, the mathematically important symbolic identifier \<epsilon>

5896 becomes available as variable, constant etc. INCOMPATIBILITY,

5898 * "x > y" abbreviates "y < x" and "x >= y" abbreviates "y <= x".

5899 Similarly for all quantifiers: "ALL x > y" etc. The x-symbol for >=

5900 is \<ge>. New transitivity rules have been added to HOL/Orderings.thy to

5901 support corresponding Isar calculations.

5903 * "{x:A. P}" abbreviates "{x. x:A & P}", and similarly for "\<in>"

5904 instead of ":".

5906 * theory SetInterval: changed the syntax for open intervals:

5908 Old New

5909 {..n(} {..<n}

5910 {)n..} {n<..}

5911 {m..n(} {m..<n}

5912 {)m..n} {m<..n}

5913 {)m..n(} {m<..<n}

5915 The old syntax is still supported but will disappear in the next

5916 release. For conversion use the following Emacs search and replace

5917 patterns (these are not perfect but work quite well):

5919 {)\([^\.]*\)\.\. -> {\1<\.\.}

5920 \.\.\([^(}]*\)(} -> \.\.<\1}

5922 * Theory Commutative_Ring (in Library): method comm_ring for proving

5923 equalities in commutative rings; method 'algebra' provides a generic

5924 interface.

5926 * Theory Finite_Set: changed the syntax for 'setsum', summation over

5927 finite sets: "setsum (%x. e) A", which used to be "\<Sum>x:A. e", is

5928 now either "SUM x:A. e" or "\<Sum>x \<in> A. e". The bound variable can

5929 be a tuple pattern.

5931 Some new syntax forms are available:

5933 "\<Sum>x | P. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {x. P}"

5934 "\<Sum>x = a..b. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {a..b}"

5935 "\<Sum>x = a..<b. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {a..<b}"

5936 "\<Sum>x < k. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {..<k}"

5938 The latter form "\<Sum>x < k. e" used to be based on a separate

5939 function "Summation", which has been discontinued.

5941 * theory Finite_Set: in structured induction proofs, the insert case

5942 is now 'case (insert x F)' instead of the old counterintuitive 'case

5943 (insert F x)'.

5945 * The 'refute' command has been extended to support a much larger

5946 fragment of HOL, including axiomatic type classes, constdefs and

5947 typedefs, inductive datatypes and recursion.

5949 * New tactics 'sat' and 'satx' to prove propositional tautologies.

5950 Requires zChaff with proof generation to be installed. See

5951 HOL/ex/SAT_Examples.thy for examples.

5953 * Datatype induction via method 'induct' now preserves the name of the

5954 induction variable. For example, when proving P(xs::'a list) by

5955 induction on xs, the induction step is now P(xs) ==> P(a#xs) rather

5956 than P(list) ==> P(a#list) as previously. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY

5957 in unstructured proof scripts.

5959 * Reworked implementation of records. Improved scalability for

5960 records with many fields, avoiding performance problems for type

5961 inference. Records are no longer composed of nested field types, but

5962 of nested extension types. Therefore the record type only grows linear

5963 in the number of extensions and not in the number of fields. The

5964 top-level (users) view on records is preserved. Potential

5965 INCOMPATIBILITY only in strange cases, where the theory depends on the

5966 old record representation. The type generated for a record is called

5967 <record_name>_ext_type.

5969 Flag record_quick_and_dirty_sensitive can be enabled to skip the

5970 proofs triggered by a record definition or a simproc (if

5971 quick_and_dirty is enabled). Definitions of large records can take

5972 quite long.

5974 New simproc record_upd_simproc for simplification of multiple record

5975 updates enabled by default. Moreover, trivial updates are also

5976 removed: r(|x := x r|) = r. INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break

5977 occasionally, since simplification is more powerful by default.

5979 * typedef: proper support for polymorphic sets, which contain extra

5980 type-variables in the term.

5982 * Simplifier: automatically reasons about transitivity chains

5983 involving "trancl" (r^+) and "rtrancl" (r^*) by setting up tactics

5984 provided by Provers/trancl.ML as additional solvers. INCOMPATIBILITY:

5985 old proofs break occasionally as simplification may now solve more

5986 goals than previously.

5988 * Simplifier: converts x <= y into x = y if assumption y <= x is

5989 present. Works for all partial orders (class "order"), in particular

5990 numbers and sets. For linear orders (e.g. numbers) it treats ~ x < y

5991 just like y <= x.

5993 * Simplifier: new simproc for "let x = a in f x". If a is a free or

5994 bound variable or a constant then the let is unfolded. Otherwise

5995 first a is simplified to b, and then f b is simplified to g. If

5996 possible we abstract b from g arriving at "let x = b in h x",

5997 otherwise we unfold the let and arrive at g. The simproc can be

5998 enabled/disabled by the reference use_let_simproc. Potential

5999 INCOMPATIBILITY since simplification is more powerful by default.

6001 * Classical reasoning: the meson method now accepts theorems as arguments.

6003 * Prover support: pre-release of the Isabelle-ATP linkup, which runs background

6004 jobs to provide advice on the provability of subgoals.

6006 * Theory OrderedGroup and Ring_and_Field: various additions and

6007 improvements to faciliate calculations involving equalities and

6008 inequalities.

6010 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

6011 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

6013 abs_eq now named abs_of_nonneg

6014 abs_of_ge_0 now named abs_of_nonneg

6015 abs_minus_eq now named abs_of_nonpos

6016 imp_abs_id now named abs_of_nonneg

6017 imp_abs_neg_id now named abs_of_nonpos

6018 mult_pos now named mult_pos_pos

6019 mult_pos_le now named mult_nonneg_nonneg

6020 mult_pos_neg_le now named mult_nonneg_nonpos

6021 mult_pos_neg2_le now named mult_nonneg_nonpos2

6022 mult_neg now named mult_neg_neg

6023 mult_neg_le now named mult_nonpos_nonpos

6025 * The following lemmas in Ring_and_Field have been added to the simplifier:

6027 zero_le_square

6028 not_square_less_zero

6030 The following lemmas have been deleted from Real/RealPow:

6032 realpow_zero_zero

6033 realpow_two

6034 realpow_less

6035 zero_le_power

6036 realpow_two_le

6037 abs_realpow_two

6038 realpow_two_abs

6040 * Theory Parity: added rules for simplifying exponents.

6042 * Theory List:

6044 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

6045 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

6047 list_all_Nil now named list_all.simps(1)

6048 list_all_Cons now named list_all.simps(2)

6049 list_all_conv now named list_all_iff

6050 set_mem_eq now named mem_iff

6052 * Theories SetsAndFunctions and BigO (see HOL/Library) support

6053 asymptotic "big O" calculations. See the notes in BigO.thy.

6056 *** HOL-Complex ***

6058 * Theory RealDef: better support for embedding natural numbers and

6059 integers in the reals.

6061 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

6062 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

6064 exp_ge_add_one_self now requires no hypotheses

6065 real_of_int_add reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

6066 real_of_int_minus reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

6067 real_of_int_diff reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

6068 real_of_int_mult reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

6070 * Theory RComplete: expanded support for floor and ceiling functions.

6072 * Theory Ln is new, with properties of the natural logarithm

6074 * Hyperreal: There is a new type constructor "star" for making

6075 nonstandard types. The old type names are now type synonyms:

6077 hypreal = real star

6078 hypnat = nat star

6079 hcomplex = complex star

6081 * Hyperreal: Many groups of similarly-defined constants have been

6082 replaced by polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):

6084 star_of <-- hypreal_of_real, hypnat_of_nat, hcomplex_of_complex

6086 starset <-- starsetNat, starsetC

6087 *s* <-- *sNat*, *sc*

6088 starset_n <-- starsetNat_n, starsetC_n

6089 *sn* <-- *sNatn*, *scn*

6090 InternalSets <-- InternalNatSets, InternalCSets

6092 starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

6093 *f* <-- *fNat*, *fNat2*, *fc*, *fRc*, *fcR*

6094 starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n

6095 *fn* <-- *fNatn*, *fNat2n*, *fcn*, *fRcn*, *fcRn*

6096 InternalFuns <-- InternalNatFuns, InternalNatFuns2, Internal{C,RC,CR}Funs

6098 * Hyperreal: Many type-specific theorems have been removed in favor of

6099 theorems specific to various axiomatic type classes (INCOMPATIBILITY):

6101 add_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_commute

6102 add_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_assocs

6103 OrderedGroup.add_0 <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_zero_left

6104 OrderedGroup.add_0_right <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_zero_right

6105 right_minus <-- hypreal_add_minus

6106 left_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_minus_left

6107 mult_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_commute

6108 mult_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_assoc

6109 mult_1_left <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_1, hcomplex_mult_one_left

6110 mult_1_right <-- hcomplex_mult_one_right

6111 mult_zero_left <-- hcomplex_mult_zero_left

6112 left_distrib <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_mult_distrib

6113 right_distrib <-- hypnat_add_mult_distrib2

6114 zero_neq_one <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_not_eq_one

6115 right_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse

6116 left_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse_left, hcomplex_mult_inv_left

6117 order_refl <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_refl

6118 order_trans <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_trans

6119 order_antisym <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_anti_sym

6120 order_less_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less_le

6121 linorder_linear <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_linear

6122 add_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_add_left_mono

6123 mult_strict_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_less_mono2

6124 add_nonneg_nonneg <-- hypreal_le_add_order

6126 * Hyperreal: Separate theorems having to do with type-specific

6127 versions of constants have been merged into theorems that apply to the

6128 new polymorphic constants (INCOMPATIBILITY):

6130 STAR_UNIV_set <-- {STAR_real,NatStar_real,STARC_complex}_set

6131 STAR_empty_set <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_empty_set

6132 STAR_Un <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Un

6133 STAR_Int <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Int

6134 STAR_Compl <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Compl

6135 STAR_subset <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_subset

6136 STAR_mem <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_mem

6137 STAR_mem_Compl <-- {STAR,STARC}_mem_Compl

6138 STAR_diff <-- {STAR,STARC}_diff

6139 STAR_star_of_image_subset <-- {STAR_hypreal_of_real, NatStar_hypreal_of_real,

6140 STARC_hcomplex_of_complex}_image_subset

6141 starset_n_Un <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Un

6142 starset_n_Int <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Int

6143 starset_n_Compl <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Compl

6144 starset_n_diff <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_diff

6145 InternalSets_Un <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Un

6146 InternalSets_Int <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Int

6147 InternalSets_Compl <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Compl

6148 InternalSets_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_diff

6149 InternalSets_UNIV_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_UNIV_diff

6150 InternalSets_starset_n <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_starset{Nat,C}_n

6151 starset_starset_n_eq <-- starset{Nat,C}_starset{Nat,C}_n_eq

6152 starset_n_starset <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_starset{Nat,C}

6153 starfun_n_starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n_starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

6154 starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

6155 starfun_mult <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_mult

6156 starfun_add <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_add

6157 starfun_minus <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_minus

6158 starfun_diff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_diff

6159 starfun_o <-- starfun{NatNat2,Nat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o

6160 starfun_o2 <-- starfun{NatNat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o2

6161 starfun_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_const_fun

6162 starfun_inverse <-- starfun{Nat,C,RC,CR}_inverse

6163 starfun_eq <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_eq

6164 starfun_eq_iff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_eq_iff

6165 starfun_Id <-- starfunC_Id

6166 starfun_approx <-- starfun{Nat,CR}_approx

6167 starfun_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_capprox

6168 starfun_abs <-- starfunNat_rabs

6169 starfun_lambda_cancel <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel

6170 starfun_lambda_cancel2 <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel2

6171 starfun_mult_HFinite_approx <-- starfunCR_mult_HFinite_capprox

6172 starfun_mult_CFinite_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_mult_CFinite_capprox

6173 starfun_add_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_add_capprox

6174 starfun_add_approx <-- starfunCR_add_approx

6175 starfun_inverse_inverse <-- starfunC_inverse_inverse

6176 starfun_divide <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_divide

6177 starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n

6178 starfun_n_mult <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_mult

6179 starfun_n_add <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_add

6180 starfun_n_add_minus <-- starfunNat_n_add_minus

6181 starfun_n_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_const_fun

6182 starfun_n_minus <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_minus

6183 starfun_n_eq <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_eq

6185 star_n_add <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add

6186 star_n_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_minus

6187 star_n_diff <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_diff

6188 star_n_mult <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_mult

6189 star_n_inverse <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_inverse

6190 star_n_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le

6191 star_n_less <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less

6192 star_n_zero_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_num

6193 star_n_one_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_one_num

6194 star_n_abs <-- hypreal_hrabs

6195 star_n_divide <-- hcomplex_divide

6197 star_of_add <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_add

6198 star_of_minus <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_minus

6199 star_of_diff <-- hypreal_of_real_diff

6200 star_of_mult <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_mult

6201 star_of_one <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_one

6202 star_of_zero <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_zero

6203 star_of_le <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_le_iff

6204 star_of_less <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_less_iff

6205 star_of_eq <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_eq_iff

6206 star_of_inverse <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_inverse

6207 star_of_divide <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_divide

6208 star_of_of_nat <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_nat

6209 star_of_of_int <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_int

6210 star_of_number_of <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_number_of

6211 star_of_number_less <-- number_of_less_hypreal_of_real_iff

6212 star_of_number_le <-- number_of_le_hypreal_of_real_iff

6213 star_of_eq_number <-- hypreal_of_real_eq_number_of_iff

6214 star_of_less_number <-- hypreal_of_real_less_number_of_iff

6215 star_of_le_number <-- hypreal_of_real_le_number_of_iff

6216 star_of_power <-- hypreal_of_real_power

6217 star_of_eq_0 <-- hcomplex_of_complex_zero_iff

6219 * Hyperreal: new method "transfer" that implements the transfer

6220 principle of nonstandard analysis. With a subgoal that mentions

6221 nonstandard types like "'a star", the command "apply transfer"

6222 replaces it with an equivalent one that mentions only standard types.

6223 To be successful, all free variables must have standard types; non-

6224 standard variables must have explicit universal quantifiers.

6226 * Hyperreal: A theory of Taylor series.

6229 *** HOLCF ***

6231 * Discontinued special version of 'constdefs' (which used to support

6232 continuous functions) in favor of the general Pure one with full

6233 type-inference.

6235 * New simplification procedure for solving continuity conditions; it

6236 is much faster on terms with many nested lambda abstractions (cubic

6237 instead of exponential time).

6239 * New syntax for domain package: selector names are now optional.

6240 Parentheses should be omitted unless argument is lazy, for example:

6242 domain 'a stream = cons "'a" (lazy "'a stream")

6244 * New command 'fixrec' for defining recursive functions with pattern

6245 matching; defining multiple functions with mutual recursion is also

6246 supported. Patterns may include the constants cpair, spair, up, sinl,

6247 sinr, or any data constructor defined by the domain package. The given

6248 equations are proven as rewrite rules. See HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for

6249 syntax and examples.