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%% $Id$

\chapter{Presenting theories}

\section{Generating theory browsing information} \label{sec:info}
\index{theory browsing information|bold} 

Isabelle is able to generate theory browsing information, such as HTML documents
that show a theory's definition, the theorems proved in its ML file and the relationship
with its ancestors and descendants. HTML is the hypertext markup
language used on the World Wide Web to represent text containing
images and links to other documents.  These documents may be viewed
using Web browsers like Netscape or Lynx.

Besides the three HTML files that are made for every theory
(definition and theorems, ancestors, descendants), Isabelle stores
links to all theories in an index file. These indexes are themself
linked with other indexes to represent the hierarchic structure of
Isabelle's logics.

In addition to the HTML files also {\tt *.graph} files representing the theory
hierarchy graph of a logic are generated. These graphs can be comfortably
displayed by a graph browser applet embedded in the generated HTML pages. There
is also a stand-alone version of the graph browser which allows browsing theory
graphs without having to start a Web browser first. This version also includes
features such as generating {\sc PostScript} files, which are not available in the
applet version. The graph browser will be described later in this chapter.

\medskip To generate theory browsing information for logics that are part of the Isabelle
distribution, simply append ``\texttt{-i true}'' to the
\settdx{ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS} setting before making a logic.  For
example, to generate browsing information for {\FOL}, first add something like
this to your \texttt{\~\relax/isabelle/etc/settings} file:
Then \texttt{cd} into the \texttt{src/FOL} directory of the Isabelle
distribution and do an \texttt{isatool make} (or even \texttt{isatool
  make test}).\\

The directory in which to store theory browsing information is determined 
by the \settdx{ISABELLE_BROWSER_INFO} variable in your \texttt{\~\relax/isabelle/etc/settings}

\medskip As some of Isabelle's logics are based on others (e.g. {\tt
  ZF} on {\tt FOL}) and because the HTML files list a theory's
ancestors, you should not make HTML files for a logic if the HTML
files for the base logic do not exist. Otherwise some of the hypertext
links might point to non-existing documents.

The entry point to all logics is the {\tt index.html} file located in
the directory denoted by \texttt{ISABELLE_BROWSER_INFO}.

A complete HTML version of all distributed Isabelle object-logics and
examples may be accessed on the WWW at:
Note that this is not necessarily consistent with your local sources!

To present your own theories on the WWW, simply copy the whole
\texttt{ISABELLE_BROWSER_INFO} directory to your WWW server.

\section{Extending or adding a logic}

If you add a new subdirectory to Isabelle's logics (or add a
completely new logic), provide a {\tt ROOT.ML} file which reads in the
theory files. The {\tt ROOT.ML} file will then be processed via the function

use_dir : string -> unit

which takes a path as its parameter, changes the working
directory, executes {\tt ROOT.ML}, and makes sure that theory browsing information
is generated properly. The {\tt index.html} file written in this directory will
be automatically linked to the first index found in the (recursively searched)
super directories.

The \texttt{usedir} utility (see also \S\ref{sec:tool-usedir}) will
automatically take care of this.

\medskip The generated HTML files contain all theorems that were
proved in the theory's \ML{} file with {\tt qed}, {\tt qed_goal} and
{\tt qed_goalw}, or stored with {\tt bind_thm} and {\tt store_thm}.
Additionally, there is a hypertext link to the whole \ML{} file.

You can add section headings to the list of theorems by using

section: string -> unit

in a theory's ML file, which converts a plain string to a HTML
heading and inserts it before the next theorem proved or stored with
one of the above functions.

%\section*{*Using someone else's database}
%To make them independent from their storage place, the HTML files only
%contain relative paths which are derived from absolute ones like the
%current working directory, {\tt gif_path} or {\tt base_path}. The
%latter two are reference variables which are initialized at the time
%when the {\tt Pure} database is made. Because you need write access
%for the current directory to make HTML files and therefore (probably)
%generate them in your home directory, the absolute {\tt base_path} is
%not correct if you use someone else's database or a database derived
%from it.
%In that case you first should set {\tt base_path} to the value of {\em
%your} Isabelle main directory, i.e. the directory that contains the
%subdirectories where standard logics like {\tt FOL} and {\tt HOL} or
%your own logics are stored. If you do not do this, the generated HTML
%files will still be usable but may contain incomplete titles and lack
%some hypertext links.
%It's also a good idea to set {\tt gif_path} which points to the
%directory containing two GIF images used in the HTML documents.
%Normally this is the \texttt{src/Tools} subdirectory of Isabelle's
%main directory. While its value in general is still valid, your HTML
%files would depend on files not owned by you. This prevents you from
%changing the location of the HTML files (as they contain relative
%paths) and also causes trouble if the database's maker (re)moves the
%Here's what you should do before invoking {\tt init_html} using
%someone else's \ML{} database:
%base_path := "/home/someone/Isabelle-dist/src";
%gif_path := "/home/someone/Isabelle-dist/src/Tools";

\section{Browsing theory graphs} \label{sec:browse}
\index{theory graph browser|bold} 

The graph browser is a tool for visualizing
dependency graphs of Isabelle theories. Certain nodes of
the graph (i.e.~theories) can be grouped together in "directories",
whose contents may be hidden, thus enabling the user to filter out
irrelevant information. Because it is written in Java, the browser
can be used both as a stand-alone application and as an applet.

\subsection{Invoking the graph browser}
The stand-alone version of the browser can be invoked by the command
isatool browser [filename]
When no filename is specified, the browser automatically changes to the directory

The applet version of the browser can be invoked by opening the {\tt index.html} file
in the directory \texttt{ISABELLE_BROWSER_INFO} from your Web browser and selecting
"version for Java capable browsers". Besides, there's a link to the corresponding theory graph
in every logic's {\tt index.html} file.

\subsection{Using the graph browser}
The browser's main window, which is shown in figure \ref{browserwindow},
consists of two subwindows: In the left subwindow, the directory tree
is displayed. The graph itself is displayed in the right subwindow.
\caption{\label{browserwindow} Browser main window}

\subsubsection*{The directory tree window}
This section describes the usage of the directory browser and the
meaning of the different items in the browser window.
\item A red arrow before a directory name indicates that the directory is
currently "folded", i.e.~the nodes in this directory
are collapsed to one single node. In the right subwindow, the names of
nodes corresponding to folded directories are enclosed in square brackets
and displayed in red colour.
\item A green downward arrow before a directory name indicates that the
directory is currently "unfolded". It can be folded by clicking on the
directory name.
Clicking on the name for a second time unfolds the directory again.
Alternatively, a directory can also be unfolded by clicking on the
corresponding node in the right subwindow.
\item Blue arrows stand before ordinary node (i.e.~theory) names. When
clicking on such a name, the graph display window focuses to the
corresponding node. Double clicking invokes a text viewer window in
which the contents of the theory file are displayed.

\subsubsection*{The graph display window}
When pointing on an ordinary node, an upward and a downward arrow is shown.
Initially, both of these arrows are coloured green. Clicking on the
upward or downward arrow collapses all predecessor or successor nodes,
respectively. The arrow's colour then changes to red, indicating that
the predecessor or successor nodes are currently collapsed. The node
corresponding to the collapsed nodes has the name "{\tt [....]}". To
uncollapse the nodes again, simply click on the red arrow or on the node
with the name "{\tt [....]}". Similar to the directory browser, the contents
of theory files can be displayed by double clicking on the corresponding

\subsubsection*{The "File" menu}
Please note that, due to security restrictions, this menu is not available
in the applet version. The meaning of the menu items is as follows:
\item[Open$\ldots$] Open a new graph file.
\item[Export to PostScript] Outputs the current graph in {\sc PostScript}
format, appropriately scaled to fit on one single sheet of paper.
The resulting file can be sent directly to a {\sc PostScript} capable printer.
\item[Export to EPS] Outputs the current graph in Encapsulated {\sc PostScript}
format. The resulting file can be included in other documents (e.g.~by using
the \LaTeX \ package "epsf").
\item[Quit] Quit the graph browser.

\subsection*{*Syntax of graph definition files}
A graph definition file has the following syntax:
\mbox{\it graph} & = & \{ \: \mbox{\it vertex \tt ;} \: \} ^ + \\
vertex & = & \mbox{\it vertexname} \: \mbox{\it vertexID} \: \mbox{\it dirname} \: [ \mbox{\tt +} ]
\: \mbox{\it path} \: [ \mbox{\tt <} | \mbox{\tt >} ] \: \{ \: \mbox{\it vertexID} \: \} ^ *
The meaning of the items in a vertex description is as follows:
\item[vertexname] The name of the vertex.
\item[vertexID] The vertex identifier. Note that there may be two vertices with equal names,
whereas identifiers must be unique.
\item[dirname] The name of the "directory" the vertex should be placed in.
A "{\tt +}" sign after {\it dirname} indicates that the nodes in the directory
are initially visible. Directories are initially invisible by default.
\item[path] The path of the corresponding theory file. This is specified
relatively to the path of the graph definition file.
\item[List of successor/predecessor nodes] A "{\tt <}" sign before the list
means that successor nodes are listed, a "{\tt >}" sign means that predecessor
nodes are listed. If neither "{\tt <}" nor "{\tt >}" is found, the browser
assumes that successor nodes are listed.
All names should be put in quotation marks.