author paulson Wed, 03 Apr 2019 15:14:36 +0100 changeset 70041 2b23dd163c7f parent 70040 6a9e2a82ea15 child 70042 45787384ff86
Material concerning exact sequences of groups
```--- a/src/HOL/Algebra/Exact_Sequence.thy	Wed Apr 03 14:55:30 2019 +0100
+++ b/src/HOL/Algebra/Exact_Sequence.thy	Wed Apr 03 15:14:36 2019 +0100
@@ -1,12 +1,13 @@
(*  Title:      HOL/Algebra/Exact_Sequence.thy
-    Author:     Martin Baillon
+    Author:     Martin Baillon (first part) and LC Paulson (material ported from HOL Light)
*)

+section \<open>Exact Sequences\<close>
+
theory Exact_Sequence
-  imports Group Coset Solvable_Groups
+  imports Elementary_Groups Solvable_Groups
begin

-section \<open>Exact Sequences\<close>

subsection \<open>Definitions\<close>
@@ -16,6 +17,9 @@
extension: "\<lbrakk> exact_seq ((G # K # l), (g # q)); group H ; h \<in> hom G H ;
kernel G H h = image g (carrier K) \<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> exact_seq (H # G # K # l, h # g # q)"

+inductive_simps exact_seq_end_iff [simp]: "exact_seq ([G,H], (g # q))"
+inductive_simps exact_seq_cons_iff [simp]: "exact_seq ((G # K # H # l), (g # h # q))"
+
abbreviation exact_seq_arrow ::
"('a \<Rightarrow> 'a) \<Rightarrow> 'a monoid list \<times> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'a) list \<Rightarrow>  'a monoid \<Rightarrow> 'a monoid list \<times> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'a) list"
("(3_ / \<longlongrightarrow>\<index> _)" [1000, 60])
@@ -173,4 +177,295 @@
shows "(solvable G1) \<and> (solvable G3) \<longleftrightarrow>  solvable G2"
using exact_seq_solvable_recip exact_seq_solvable_imp assms by blast

+
+lemma exact_seq_eq_triviality:
+  assumes "exact_seq ([E,D,C,B,A], [k,h,g,f])"
+  shows "trivial_group C \<longleftrightarrow> f ` carrier A = carrier B \<and> inj_on k (carrier D)" (is "_ = ?rhs")
+proof
+  assume C: "trivial_group C"
+  with assms have "inj_on k (carrier D)"
+    apply (auto simp: group_hom.image_from_trivial_group trivial_group_def hom_one)
+    apply (simp add: group_hom_def group_hom_axioms_def group_hom.inj_iff_trivial_ker)
+    done
+  with assms C show ?rhs
+    apply (auto simp: group_hom.image_from_trivial_group trivial_group_def hom_one)
+     apply (auto simp: group_hom_def group_hom_axioms_def hom_def kernel_def)
+    done
+next
+  assume ?rhs
+  with assms show "trivial_group C"
+    by (metis group_hom.inj_iff_trivial_ker group_hom.trivial_hom_iff group_hom_axioms.intro group_hom_def)
+qed
+
+lemma exact_seq_imp_triviality:
+   "\<lbrakk>exact_seq ([E,D,C,B,A], [k,h,g,f]); f \<in> iso A B; k \<in> iso D E\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> trivial_group C"
+  by (metis (no_types, lifting) Group.iso_def bij_betw_def exact_seq_eq_triviality mem_Collect_eq)
+
+lemma exact_seq_epi_eq_triviality:
+   "exact_seq ([D,C,B,A], [h,g,f]) \<Longrightarrow> (f ` carrier A = carrier B) \<longleftrightarrow> trivial_homomorphism B C g"
+  by (auto simp: trivial_homomorphism_def kernel_def)
+
+lemma exact_seq_mon_eq_triviality:
+   "exact_seq ([D,C,B,A], [h,g,f]) \<Longrightarrow> inj_on h (carrier C) \<longleftrightarrow> trivial_homomorphism B C g"
+  by (auto simp: trivial_homomorphism_def kernel_def group.is_monoid inj_on_one_iff' image_def) blast
+
+lemma exact_sequence_sum_lemma:
+  assumes "comm_group G" and h: "h \<in> iso A C" and k: "k \<in> iso B D"
+    and ex: "exact_seq ([D,G,A], [g,i])" "exact_seq ([C,G,B], [f,j])"
+    and fih: "\<And>x. x \<in> carrier A \<Longrightarrow> f(i x) = h x"
+    and gjk: "\<And>x. x \<in> carrier B \<Longrightarrow> g(j x) = k x"
+  shows "(\<lambda>(x, y). i x \<otimes>\<^bsub>G\<^esub> j y) \<in> Group.iso (A \<times>\<times> B) G \<and> (\<lambda>z. (f z, g z)) \<in> Group.iso G (C \<times>\<times> D)"
+    (is "?ij \<in> _ \<and> ?gf \<in> _")
+proof (rule epi_iso_compose_rev)
+  interpret comm_group G
+    by (rule assms)
+  interpret f: group_hom G C f
+    using ex by (simp add: group_hom_def group_hom_axioms_def)
+  interpret g: group_hom G D g
+    using ex by (simp add: group_hom_def group_hom_axioms_def)
+  interpret i: group_hom A G i
+    using ex by (simp add: group_hom_def group_hom_axioms_def)
+  interpret j: group_hom B G j
+    using ex by (simp add: group_hom_def group_hom_axioms_def)
+  have kerf: "kernel G C f = j ` carrier B" and "group A" "group B" "i \<in> hom A G"
+    using ex by (auto simp: group_hom_def group_hom_axioms_def)
+  then obtain h' where "h' \<in> hom C A" "(\<forall>x \<in> carrier A. h'(h x) = x)"
+    and hh': "(\<forall>y \<in> carrier C. h(h' y) = y)" and "group_isomorphisms A C h h'"
+    using h by (auto simp: group.iso_iff_group_isomorphisms group_isomorphisms_def)
+  have homij: "?ij \<in> hom (A \<times>\<times> B) G"
+    unfolding case_prod_unfold
+    apply (rule hom_group_mult)
+    using ex by (simp_all add: group_hom_def hom_of_fst [unfolded o_def] hom_of_snd [unfolded o_def])
+  show homgf: "?gf \<in> hom G (C \<times>\<times> D)"
+    using ex by (simp add: hom_paired)
+  show "?ij \<in> epi (A \<times>\<times> B) G"
+  proof (clarsimp simp add: epi_iff_subset homij)
+    fix x
+    assume x: "x \<in> carrier G"
+    with \<open>i \<in> hom A G\<close> \<open>h' \<in> hom C A\<close> have "x \<otimes>\<^bsub>G\<^esub> inv\<^bsub>G\<^esub>(i(h'(f x))) \<in> kernel G C f"
+      by (simp add: kernel_def hom_in_carrier hh' fih)
+    with kerf obtain y where y: "y \<in> carrier B" "j y = x \<otimes>\<^bsub>G\<^esub> inv\<^bsub>G\<^esub>(i(h'(f x)))"
+      by auto
+    have "i (h' (f x)) \<otimes>\<^bsub>G\<^esub> (x \<otimes>\<^bsub>G\<^esub> inv\<^bsub>G\<^esub> i (h' (f x))) = x \<otimes>\<^bsub>G\<^esub> (i (h' (f x)) \<otimes>\<^bsub>G\<^esub> inv\<^bsub>G\<^esub> i (h' (f x)))"
+      by (meson \<open>h' \<in> hom C A\<close> x f.hom_closed hom_in_carrier i.hom_closed inv_closed m_lcomm)
+    also have "\<dots> = x"
+      using \<open>h' \<in> hom C A\<close> hom_in_carrier x by fastforce
+    finally show "x \<in> (\<lambda>(x, y). i x \<otimes>\<^bsub>G\<^esub> j y) ` (carrier A \<times> carrier B)"
+      using x y apply (clarsimp simp: image_def)
+      apply (rule_tac x="h'(f x)" in bexI)
+       apply (rule_tac x=y in bexI, auto)
+      by (meson \<open>h' \<in> hom C A\<close> f.hom_closed hom_in_carrier)
+  qed
+  show "(\<lambda>z. (f z, g z)) \<circ> (\<lambda>(x, y). i x \<otimes>\<^bsub>G\<^esub> j y) \<in> Group.iso (A \<times>\<times> B) (C \<times>\<times> D)"
+    apply (rule group.iso_eq [where f = "\<lambda>(x,y). (h x,k y)"])
+    using ex
+    apply (auto simp: group_hom_def group_hom_axioms_def DirProd_group iso_paired2 h k fih gjk kernel_def set_eq_iff)
+     apply (metis f.hom_closed f.r_one fih imageI)
+    apply (metis g.hom_closed g.l_one gjk imageI)
+    done
+qed
+
+subsection \<open>Splitting lemmas and Short exact sequences\<close>
+text\<open>Ported from HOL Light by LCP\<close>
+
+definition short_exact_sequence
+  where "short_exact_sequence A B C f g \<equiv> \<exists>T1 T2 e1 e2. exact_seq ([T1,A,B,C,T2], [e1,f,g,e2]) \<and> trivial_group T1 \<and> trivial_group T2"
+
+lemma short_exact_sequenceD:
+  assumes "short_exact_sequence A B C f g" shows "exact_seq ([A,B,C], [f,g]) \<and> f \<in> epi B A \<and> g \<in> mon C B"
+  using assms
+  apply (auto simp: short_exact_sequence_def group_hom_def group_hom_axioms_def)
+  apply (simp add: epi_iff_subset group_hom.intro group_hom.kernel_to_trivial_group group_hom_axioms.intro)
+  by (metis (no_types, lifting) group_hom.inj_iff_trivial_ker group_hom.intro group_hom_axioms.intro
+      hom_one image_empty image_insert mem_Collect_eq mon_def trivial_group_def)
+
+lemma short_exact_sequence_iff:
+  "short_exact_sequence A B C f g \<longleftrightarrow> exact_seq ([A,B,C], [f,g]) \<and> f \<in> epi B A \<and> g \<in> mon C B"
+proof -
+  have "short_exact_sequence A B C f g"
+    if "exact_seq ([A, B, C], [f, g])" and "f \<in> epi B A" and "g \<in> mon C B"
+  proof -
+    show ?thesis
+      unfolding short_exact_sequence_def
+    proof (intro exI conjI)
+      have "kernel A (singleton_group \<one>\<^bsub>A\<^esub>) (\<lambda>x. \<one>\<^bsub>A\<^esub>) = f ` carrier B"
+        using that by (simp add: kernel_def singleton_group_def epi_def)
+      moreover have "kernel C B g = {\<one>\<^bsub>C\<^esub>}"
+        using that group_hom.inj_iff_trivial_ker mon_def by fastforce
+      ultimately show "exact_seq ([singleton_group (one A), A, B, C, singleton_group (one C)], [\<lambda>x. \<one>\<^bsub>A\<^esub>, f, g, id])"
+        using that
+        by (simp add: group_hom_def group_hom_axioms_def group.id_hom_singleton)
+    qed auto
+qed
+  then show ?thesis
+    using short_exact_sequenceD by blast
+qed
+
+lemma very_short_exact_sequence:
+  assumes "exact_seq ([D,C,B,A], [h,g,f])" "trivial_group A" "trivial_group D"
+  shows "g \<in> iso B C"
+  using assms
+  apply simp
+  by (metis (no_types, lifting) group_hom.image_from_trivial_group group_hom.iso_iff
+      group_hom.kernel_to_trivial_group group_hom.trivial_ker_imp_inj group_hom_axioms.intro group_hom_def hom_carrier inj_on_one_iff')
+
+lemma splitting_sublemma_gen:
+  assumes ex: "exact_seq ([C,B,A], [g,f])" and fim: "f ` carrier A = H"
+      and "subgroup K B" and 1: "H \<inter> K \<subseteq> {one B}" and eq: "set_mult B H K = carrier B"
+  shows "g \<in> iso (subgroup_generated B K) (subgroup_generated C(g ` carrier B))"
+proof -
+  interpret KB: subgroup K B
+    by (rule assms)
+  interpret fAB: group_hom A B f
+    using ex by simp
+  interpret gBC: group_hom B C g
+    using ex by (simp add: group_hom_def group_hom_axioms_def)
+  have "group A" "group B" "group C" and kerg: "kernel B C g = f ` carrier A"
+      using ex by (auto simp: group_hom_def group_hom_axioms_def)
+  have ker_eq: "kernel B C g = H"
+    using ex by (simp add: fim)
+  then have "subgroup H B"
+    using ex by (simp add: group_hom.img_is_subgroup)
+  show ?thesis
+    unfolding iso_iff
+  proof (intro conjI)
+    show "g \<in> hom (subgroup_generated B K) (subgroup_generated C(g ` carrier B))"
+      by (metis ker_eq \<open>subgroup K B\<close> eq gBC.hom_between_subgroups gBC.set_mult_ker_hom(2) order_refl subgroup.subset)
+    show "g ` carrier (subgroup_generated B K) = carrier (subgroup_generated C(g ` carrier B))"
+      by (metis assms(3) eq fAB.H.subgroupE(1) gBC.img_is_subgroup gBC.set_mult_ker_hom(2) ker_eq subgroup.carrier_subgroup_generated_subgroup)
+    interpret gKBC: group_hom "subgroup_generated B K" C g
+      apply (auto simp: group_hom_def group_hom_axioms_def \<open>group C\<close>)
+      by (simp add: fAB.H.hom_from_subgroup_generated gBC.homh)
+    have *: "x = \<one>\<^bsub>B\<^esub>"
+      if x: "x \<in> carrier (subgroup_generated B K)" and "g x = \<one>\<^bsub>C\<^esub>" for x
+    proof -
+      have x': "x \<in> carrier B"
+        using that fAB.H.carrier_subgroup_generated_subset by blast
+      moreover have "x \<in> H"
+        using kerg fim x' that by (auto simp: kernel_def set_eq_iff)
+      ultimately show ?thesis
+        by (metis "1" x Int_iff singletonD KB.carrier_subgroup_generated_subgroup subsetCE)
+    qed
+    show "inj_on g (carrier (subgroup_generated B K))"
+      using "*" gKBC.inj_on_one_iff by auto
+  qed
+qed
+
+lemma splitting_sublemma:
+  assumes ex: "short_exact_sequence C B A g f" and fim: "f ` carrier A = H"
+      and "subgroup K B" and 1: "H \<inter> K \<subseteq> {one B}" and eq: "set_mult B H K = carrier B"
+    shows "f \<in> iso A (subgroup_generated B H)" (is ?f)
+          "g \<in> iso (subgroup_generated B K) C" (is ?g)
+proof -
+  show ?f
+    using short_exact_sequenceD [OF ex]
+    apply (clarsimp simp add: group_hom_def group.iso_onto_image)
+    using fim group.iso_onto_image by blast
+  have "C = subgroup_generated C(g ` carrier B)"
+    using short_exact_sequenceD [OF ex]
+    apply simp
+    by (metis epi_iff_subset group.subgroup_generated_group_carrier hom_carrier subset_antisym)
+  then show ?g
+    using short_exact_sequenceD [OF ex]
+    by (metis "1" \<open>subgroup K B\<close> eq fim splitting_sublemma_gen)
+qed
+
+lemma splitting_lemma_left_gen:
+  assumes ex: "exact_seq ([C,B,A], [g,f])" and f': "f' \<in> hom B A" and iso: "(f' \<circ> f) \<in> iso A A"
+    and injf: "inj_on f (carrier A)" and surj: "g ` carrier B = carrier C"
+ obtains H K where "H \<lhd> B" "K \<lhd> B" "H \<inter> K \<subseteq> {one B}" "set_mult B H K = carrier B"
+                   "f \<in> iso A (subgroup_generated B H)" "g \<in> iso (subgroup_generated B K) C"
+proof -
+  interpret gBC: group_hom B C g
+    using ex by (simp add: group_hom_def group_hom_axioms_def)
+  have "group A" "group B" "group C" and kerg: "kernel B C g = f ` carrier A"
+    using ex by (auto simp: group_hom_def group_hom_axioms_def)
+  then have *: "f ` carrier A \<inter> kernel B A f' = {\<one>\<^bsub>B\<^esub>} \<and> f ` carrier A <#>\<^bsub>B\<^esub> kernel B A f' = carrier B"
+    using group_semidirect_sum_image_ker [of f A B f' A] assms by auto
+  interpret f'AB: group_hom B A f'
+    using assms by (auto simp: group_hom_def group_hom_axioms_def)
+  let ?H = "f ` carrier A"
+  let ?K = "kernel B A f'"
+  show thesis
+  proof
+    show "?H \<lhd> B"
+      by (simp add: gBC.normal_kernel flip: kerg)
+    show "?K \<lhd> B"
+      by (rule f'AB.normal_kernel)
+    show "?H \<inter> ?K \<subseteq> {\<one>\<^bsub>B\<^esub>}" "?H <#>\<^bsub>B\<^esub> ?K = carrier B"
+      using * by auto
+    show "f \<in> Group.iso A (subgroup_generated B ?H)"
+      using ex by (simp add: injf iso_onto_image group_hom_def group_hom_axioms_def)
+    have C: "C = subgroup_generated C(g ` carrier B)"
+      using surj by (simp add: gBC.subgroup_generated_group_carrier)
+    show "g \<in> Group.iso (subgroup_generated B ?K) C"
+      apply (subst C)
+      apply (rule splitting_sublemma_gen [OF ex refl])
+      using * by (auto simp: f'AB.subgroup_kernel)
+  qed
+qed
+
+lemma splitting_lemma_left:
+  assumes ex: "exact_seq ([C,B,A], [g,f])" and f': "f' \<in> hom B A"
+    and inv: "(\<And>x. x \<in> carrier A \<Longrightarrow> f'(f x) = x)"
+    and injf: "inj_on f (carrier A)" and surj: "g ` carrier B = carrier C"
+ obtains H K where "H \<lhd> B" "K \<lhd> B" "H \<inter> K \<subseteq> {one B}" "set_mult B H K = carrier B"
+                   "f \<in> iso A (subgroup_generated B H)" "g \<in> iso (subgroup_generated B K) C"
+proof -
+  interpret fAB: group_hom A B f
+    using ex by simp
+  interpret gBC: group_hom B C g
+    using ex by (simp add: group_hom_def group_hom_axioms_def)
+  have "group A" "group B" "group C" and kerg: "kernel B C g = f ` carrier A"
+      using ex by (auto simp: group_hom_def group_hom_axioms_def)
+  have iso: "f' \<circ> f \<in> Group.iso A A"
+    using ex by (auto simp: inv intro:  group.iso_eq [OF \<open>group A\<close> id_iso])
+  show thesis
+    by (metis that splitting_lemma_left_gen [OF ex f' iso injf surj])
+qed
+
+lemma splitting_lemma_right_gen:
+  assumes ex: "short_exact_sequence C B A g f" and g': "g' \<in> hom C B" and iso: "(g \<circ> g') \<in> iso C C"
+ obtains H K where "H \<lhd> B" "subgroup K B" "H \<inter> K \<subseteq> {one B}" "set_mult B H K = carrier B"
+                   "f \<in> iso A (subgroup_generated B H)" "g \<in> iso (subgroup_generated B K) C"
+proof
+  interpret fAB: group_hom A B f
+    using short_exact_sequenceD [OF ex] by (simp add: group_hom_def group_hom_axioms_def)
+  interpret gBC: group_hom B C g
+    using short_exact_sequenceD [OF ex] by (simp add: group_hom_def group_hom_axioms_def)
+  have *: "f ` carrier A \<inter> g' ` carrier C = {\<one>\<^bsub>B\<^esub>}"
+          "f ` carrier A <#>\<^bsub>B\<^esub> g' ` carrier C = carrier B"
+          "group A" "group B" "group C"
+          "kernel B C g = f ` carrier A"
+    using group_semidirect_sum_ker_image [of g g' C C B] short_exact_sequenceD [OF ex]
+    by (simp_all add: g' iso group_hom_def)
+  show "kernel B C g \<lhd> B"
+  show "(kernel B C g) \<inter> (g' ` carrier C) \<subseteq> {\<one>\<^bsub>B\<^esub>}" "(kernel B C g) <#>\<^bsub>B\<^esub> (g' ` carrier C) = carrier B"
+    by (auto simp: *)
+  show "f \<in> Group.iso A (subgroup_generated B (kernel B C g))"
+    by (metis "*"(6) fAB.group_hom_axioms group.iso_onto_image group_hom_def short_exact_sequenceD [OF ex])
+  show "subgroup (g' ` carrier C) B"
+    using splitting_sublemma
+    by (simp add: fAB.H.is_group g' gBC.is_group group_hom.img_is_subgroup group_hom_axioms_def group_hom_def)
+  then show "g \<in> Group.iso (subgroup_generated B (g' ` carrier C)) C"
+    by (metis (no_types, lifting) iso_iff fAB.H.hom_from_subgroup_generated gBC.homh image_comp inj_on_imageI iso subgroup.carrier_subgroup_generated_subgroup)
+qed
+
+lemma splitting_lemma_right:
+  assumes ex: "short_exact_sequence C B A g f" and g': "g' \<in> hom C B" and gg': "\<And>z. z \<in> carrier C \<Longrightarrow> g(g' z) = z"
+ obtains H K where "H \<lhd> B" "subgroup K B" "H \<inter> K \<subseteq> {one B}" "set_mult B H K = carrier B"
+                   "f \<in> iso A (subgroup_generated B H)" "g \<in> iso (subgroup_generated B K) C"
+proof -
+  have *: "group A" "group B" "group C"
+    using group_semidirect_sum_ker_image [of g g' C C B] short_exact_sequenceD [OF ex]
+    by (simp_all add: g'  group_hom_def)
+  show thesis
+    apply (rule splitting_lemma_right_gen [OF ex g' group.iso_eq [OF _ id_iso]])
+    using * apply (auto simp: gg' intro: that)
+    done
+qed
+
+
end```