author paulson Fri, 23 Jun 2006 09:55:01 +0200 changeset 19944 60e0cbeae3d8 parent 19943 26b37721b357 child 19945 ed388c5c7e54
Introduction of Ramsey's theorem
 src/HOL/Infinite_Set.thy file | annotate | diff | comparison | revisions src/HOL/IsaMakefile file | annotate | diff | comparison | revisions src/HOL/Library/Ramsey.thy file | annotate | diff | comparison | revisions
```--- a/src/HOL/Infinite_Set.thy	Thu Jun 22 18:48:25 2006 +0200
+++ b/src/HOL/Infinite_Set.thy	Fri Jun 23 09:55:01 2006 +0200
@@ -221,7 +221,7 @@
*}

lemma linorder_injI:
-  assumes hyp: "\<forall>x y. x < (y::'a::linorder) \<longrightarrow> f x \<noteq> f y"
+  assumes hyp: "!!x y. x < (y::'a::linorder) ==> f x \<noteq> f y"
shows "inj f"
proof (rule inj_onI)
fix x y
@@ -295,8 +295,8 @@
qed
have inj: "inj pick"
proof (rule linorder_injI)
-    show "\<forall>i j. i<(j::nat) \<longrightarrow> pick i \<noteq> pick j"
-    proof (clarify)
+    show "!!i j. i<(j::nat) ==> pick i \<noteq> pick j"
+    proof
fix i j
assume ij: "i<(j::nat)"
and eq: "pick i = pick j"```
```--- a/src/HOL/IsaMakefile	Thu Jun 22 18:48:25 2006 +0200
+++ b/src/HOL/IsaMakefile	Fri Jun 23 09:55:01 2006 +0200
@@ -199,7 +199,7 @@
HOL-Library: HOL \$(LOG)/HOL-Library.gz

\$(LOG)/HOL-Library.gz: \$(OUT)/HOL \
-  Library/SetsAndFunctions.thy Library/BigO.thy \
+  Library/SetsAndFunctions.thy Library/BigO.thy Library/Ramsey.thy \
Library/EfficientNat.thy Library/ExecutableSet.thy Library/ExecutableRat.thy \
Library/FuncSet.thy Library/Library.thy \
Library/List_Prefix.thy Library/Multiset.thy Library/NatPair.thy \```
```--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/src/HOL/Library/Ramsey.thy	Fri Jun 23 09:55:01 2006 +0200
@@ -0,0 +1,221 @@
+(*  Title:      HOL/Library/Ramsey.thy
+    ID:         \$Id\$
+    Author:     Tom Ridge. Converted to structured Isar by L C Paulson
+*)
+
+
+theory Ramsey imports Main begin
+
+
+subsection{*``Axiom'' of Dependent Choice*}
+
+consts choice :: "('a => bool) => (('a * 'a) set) => nat => 'a"
+  --{*An integer-indexed chain of choices*}
+primrec
+  choice_0:   "choice P r 0 = (SOME x. P x)"
+
+  choice_Suc: "choice P r (Suc n) = (SOME y. P y & (choice P r n, y) \<in> r)"
+
+
+lemma choice_n:
+  assumes P0: "P x0"
+      and Pstep: "!!x. P x ==> \<exists>y. P y & (x,y) \<in> r"
+  shows "P (choice P r n)"
+ proof (induct n)
+   case 0 show ?case by (force intro: someI P0)
+ next
+   case (Suc n) thus ?case by (auto intro: someI2_ex [OF Pstep])
+ qed
+
+lemma dependent_choice:
+  assumes trans: "trans r"
+      and P0: "P x0"
+      and Pstep: "!!x. P x ==> \<exists>y. P y & (x,y) \<in> r"
+  shows "\<exists>f::nat=>'a. (\<forall>n. P (f n)) & (\<forall>n m. n<m --> (f n, f m) \<in> r)"
+proof (intro exI conjI)
+  show "\<forall>n. P (choice P r n)" by (blast intro: choice_n [OF P0 Pstep])
+next
+  have PSuc: "\<forall>n. (choice P r n, choice P r (Suc n)) \<in> r"
+    using Pstep [OF choice_n [OF P0 Pstep]]
+    by (auto intro: someI2_ex)
+  show "\<forall>n m. n<m --> (choice P r n, choice P r m) \<in> r"
+  proof (intro strip)
+    fix n and m::nat
+    assume less: "n<m"
+    show "(choice P r n, choice P r m) \<in> r" using PSuc
+      by (auto intro: less_Suc_induct [OF less] transD [OF trans])
+  qed
+qed
+
+
+subsection {*Partitions of a Set*}
+
+constdefs part :: "nat => nat => 'a set => ('a set => nat) => bool"
+  --{*the function @{term f} partitions the @{term r}-subsets of the typically
+       infinite set @{term Y} into @{term s} distinct categories.*}
+  "part r s Y f == \<forall>X. X \<subseteq> Y & finite X & card X = r --> f X < s"
+
+text{*For induction, we decrease the value of @{term r} in partitions.*}
+lemma part_Suc_imp_part:
+     "[| infinite Y; part (Suc r) s Y f; y \<in> Y |]
+      ==> part r s (Y - {y}) (%u. f (insert y u))"
+  apply(drule_tac x="insert y X" in spec)
+  apply(force simp:card_Diff_singleton_if)
+  done
+
+lemma part_subset: "part r s YY f ==> Y \<subseteq> YY ==> part r s Y f"
+  by (simp add: part_def, blast)
+
+
+subsection {*Ramsey's Theorem: Infinitary Version*}
+
+lemma ramsey_induction:
+  fixes s::nat and r::nat
+  shows
+  "!!(YY::'a set) (f::'a set => nat).
+      [|infinite YY; part r s YY f|]
+      ==> \<exists>Y' t'. Y' \<subseteq> YY & infinite Y' & t' < s &
+                  (\<forall>X. X \<subseteq> Y' & finite X & card X = r --> f X = t')"
+proof (induct r)
+  case 0
+  thus ?case by (auto simp add: part_def card_eq_0_iff cong: conj_cong)
+next
+  case (Suc r)
+  show ?case
+  proof -
+    from Suc.prems infinite_imp_nonempty obtain yy where yy: "yy \<in> YY" by blast
+    let ?ramr = "{((y,Y,t),(y',Y',t')). y' \<in> Y & Y' \<subseteq> Y}"
+    let ?propr = "%(y,Y,t).
+		 y \<in> YY & y \<notin> Y & Y \<subseteq> YY & infinite Y & t < s
+		 & (\<forall>X. X\<subseteq>Y & finite X & card X = r --> (f o insert y) X = t)"
+    have infYY': "infinite (YY-{yy})" using Suc.prems by auto
+    have partf': "part r s (YY - {yy}) (f \<circ> insert yy)"
+      by (simp add: o_def part_Suc_imp_part yy Suc.prems)
+    have transr: "trans ?ramr" by (force simp add: trans_def)
+    from Suc.hyps [OF infYY' partf']
+    obtain Y0 and t0
+    where "Y0 \<subseteq> YY - {yy}"  "infinite Y0"  "t0 < s"
+          "\<forall>X. X\<subseteq>Y0 \<and> finite X \<and> card X = r \<longrightarrow> (f \<circ> insert yy) X = t0"
+        by blast
+    with yy have propr0: "?propr(yy,Y0,t0)" by blast
+    have proprstep: "\<And>x. ?propr x \<Longrightarrow> \<exists>y. ?propr y \<and> (x, y) \<in> ?ramr"
+    proof -
+      fix x
+      assume px: "?propr x" thus "?thesis x"
+      proof (cases x)
+        case (fields yx Yx tx)
+        then obtain yx' where yx': "yx' \<in> Yx" using px
+               by (blast dest: infinite_imp_nonempty)
+        have infYx': "infinite (Yx-{yx'})" using fields px by auto
+        with fields px yx' Suc.prems
+        have partfx': "part r s (Yx - {yx'}) (f \<circ> insert yx')"
+          by (simp add: o_def part_Suc_imp_part part_subset [where ?YY=YY])
+	from Suc.hyps [OF infYx' partfx']
+	obtain Y' and t'
+	where Y': "Y' \<subseteq> Yx - {yx'}"  "infinite Y'"  "t' < s"
+	       "\<forall>X. X\<subseteq>Y' \<and> finite X \<and> card X = r \<longrightarrow> (f \<circ> insert yx') X = t'"
+	    by blast
+	show ?thesis
+	proof
+	  show "?propr (yx',Y',t') & (x, (yx',Y',t')) \<in> ?ramr"
+  	    using fields Y' yx' px by blast
+	qed
+      qed
+    qed
+    from dependent_choice [OF transr propr0 proprstep]
+    obtain g where "(\<forall>n::nat. ?propr(g n)) & (\<forall>n m. n<m -->(g n, g m) \<in> ?ramr)"
+      .. --{*for some reason, can't derive the following directly from dc*}
+    hence pg: "!!n.  ?propr (g n)"
+      and rg: "!!n m. n<m ==> (g n, g m) \<in> ?ramr" by auto
+    let ?gy = "(\<lambda>n. let (y,Y,t) = g n in y)"
+    let ?gt = "(\<lambda>n. let (y,Y,t) = g n in t)"
+    have rangeg: "\<exists>k. range ?gt \<subseteq> {..<k}"
+    proof (intro exI subsetI)
+      fix x
+      assume "x \<in> range ?gt"
+      then obtain n where "x = ?gt n" ..
+      with pg [of n] show "x \<in> {..<s}" by (cases "g n") auto
+    qed
+    have "\<exists>s' \<in> range ?gt. infinite (?gt -` {s'})"
+     by (rule inf_img_fin_dom [OF _ nat_infinite])
+    then obtain s' and n'
+            where s':      "s' = ?gt n'"
+              and infeqs': "infinite {n. ?gt n = s'}"
+       by (auto simp add: vimage_def)
+    with pg [of n'] have less': "s'<s" by (cases "g n'") auto
+    have inj_gy: "inj ?gy"
+    proof (rule linorder_injI)
+      fix m and m'::nat assume less: "m < m'" show "?gy m \<noteq> ?gy m'"
+        using rg [OF less] pg [of m] by (cases "g m", cases "g m'", auto)
+    qed
+    show ?thesis
+    proof (intro exI conjI)
+      show "?gy ` {n. ?gt n = s'} \<subseteq> YY" using pg
+        by (auto simp add: Let_def split_beta)
+    next
+      show "infinite (?gy ` {n. ?gt n = s'})" using infeqs'
+        by (blast intro: inj_gy [THEN subset_inj_on] dest: finite_imageD)
+    next
+      show "s' < s" by (rule less')
+    next
+      show "\<forall>X. X \<subseteq> ?gy ` {n. ?gt n = s'} & finite X & card X = Suc r
+          --> f X = s'"
+      proof -
+        {fix X
+         assume "X \<subseteq> ?gy ` {n. ?gt n = s'}"
+            and cardX: "finite X" "card X = Suc r"
+         then obtain AA where AA: "AA \<subseteq> {n. ?gt n = s'}" and Xeq: "X = ?gy`AA"
+             by (auto simp add: subset_image_iff)
+         with cardX have "AA\<noteq>{}" by auto
+         hence AAleast: "(LEAST x. x \<in> AA) \<in> AA" by (auto intro: LeastI_ex)
+         have "f X = s'"
+         proof (cases "g (LEAST x. x \<in> AA)")
+           case (fields ya Ya ta)
+           with AAleast Xeq
+           have ya: "ya \<in> X" by (force intro!: rev_image_eqI)
+           hence "f X = f (insert ya (X - {ya}))" by (simp add: insert_absorb)
+           also have "... = ta"
+           proof -
+             have "X - {ya} \<subseteq> Ya"
+             proof
+               fix x
+               assume x: "x \<in> X - {ya}"
+               then obtain a' where xeq: "x = ?gy a'" and a': "a' \<in> AA"
+                 by (auto simp add: Xeq)
+               hence "a' \<noteq> (LEAST x. x \<in> AA)" using x fields by auto
+               hence lessa': "(LEAST x. x \<in> AA) < a'"
+                 using Least_le [of "%x. x \<in> AA", OF a'] by arith
+               show "x \<in> Ya" using xeq fields rg [OF lessa'] by auto
+             qed
+             moreover
+             have "card (X - {ya}) = r"
+               by (simp add: card_Diff_singleton_if cardX ya)
+             ultimately show ?thesis
+               using pg [of "LEAST x. x \<in> AA"] fields cardX
+               by (clarify, drule_tac x="X-{ya}" in spec, simp)
+           qed
+           also have "... = s'" using AA AAleast fields by auto
+           finally show ?thesis .
+         qed}
+        thus ?thesis by blast
+      qed
+    qed
+  qed
+qed
+
+
+text{*Repackaging of Tom Ridge's final result*}
+theorem Ramsey:
+  fixes s::nat and r::nat and Z::"'a set" and f::"'a set => nat"
+  shows
+   "[|infinite Z;
+      \<forall>X. X \<subseteq> Z & finite X & card X = r --> f X < s|]
+  ==> \<exists>Y t. Y \<subseteq> Z & infinite Y & t < s
+            & (\<forall>X. X \<subseteq> Y & finite X & card X = r --> f X = t)"
+by (blast intro: ramsey_induction [unfolded part_def, rule_format])
+
+end
+```