merged
authorAndreas Lochbihler
Wed, 08 Jun 2016 09:05:32 +0200
changeset 63245 ea13f44da888
parent 63244 9986559617ee (current diff)
parent 63243 af43e35211c8 (diff)
child 63246 c493859d4267
merged
--- a/src/HOL/Library/Complete_Partial_Order2.thy	Mon Jun 06 22:22:05 2016 +0200
+++ b/src/HOL/Library/Complete_Partial_Order2.thy	Wed Jun 08 09:05:32 2016 +0200
@@ -1701,10 +1701,48 @@
   \<Longrightarrow> mcont lub ord lubb ordb (\<lambda>x. snd (t x))"
 by(auto intro!: mcontI monotoneI contI dest: mcont_monoD mcont_contD simp add: rel_prod_sel split_beta prod_lub_def image_image)
 
+lemma monotone_Pair:
+  "\<lbrakk> monotone ord orda f; monotone ord ordb g \<rbrakk>
+  \<Longrightarrow> monotone ord (rel_prod orda ordb) (\<lambda>x. (f x, g x))"
+by(simp add: monotone_def)
+
+lemma cont_Pair:
+  "\<lbrakk> cont lub ord luba orda f; cont lub ord lubb ordb g \<rbrakk>
+  \<Longrightarrow> cont lub ord (prod_lub luba lubb) (rel_prod orda ordb) (\<lambda>x. (f x, g x))"
+by(rule contI)(auto simp add: prod_lub_def image_image dest!: contD)
+
+lemma mcont_Pair:
+  "\<lbrakk> mcont lub ord luba orda f; mcont lub ord lubb ordb g \<rbrakk>
+  \<Longrightarrow> mcont lub ord (prod_lub luba lubb) (rel_prod orda ordb) (\<lambda>x. (f x, g x))"
+by(rule mcontI)(simp_all add: monotone_Pair mcont_mono cont_Pair)
+
 context partial_function_definitions begin
 text \<open>Specialised versions of @{thm [source] mcont_call} for admissibility proofs for parallel fixpoint inductions\<close>
 lemmas mcont_call_fst [cont_intro] = mcont_call[THEN mcont2mcont, OF mcont_fst]
 lemmas mcont_call_snd [cont_intro] = mcont_call[THEN mcont2mcont, OF mcont_snd]
 end
 
+lemma map_option_mono [partial_function_mono]:
+  "mono_option B \<Longrightarrow> mono_option (\<lambda>f. map_option g (B f))"
+unfolding map_conv_bind_option by(rule bind_mono) simp_all
+
+lemma compact_flat_lub [cont_intro]: "compact (flat_lub x) (flat_ord x) y"
+using flat_interpretation[THEN ccpo]
+proof(rule ccpo.compactI[OF _ ccpo.admissibleI])
+  fix A
+  assume chain: "Complete_Partial_Order.chain (flat_ord x) A"
+    and A: "A \<noteq> {}"
+    and *: "\<forall>z\<in>A. \<not> flat_ord x y z"
+  from A obtain z where "z \<in> A" by blast
+  with * have z: "\<not> flat_ord x y z" ..
+  hence y: "x \<noteq> y" "y \<noteq> z" by(auto simp add: flat_ord_def)
+  { assume "\<not> A \<subseteq> {x}"
+    then obtain z' where "z' \<in> A" "z' \<noteq> x" by auto
+    then have "(THE z. z \<in> A - {x}) = z'"
+      by(intro the_equality)(auto dest: chainD[OF chain] simp add: flat_ord_def)
+    moreover have "z' \<noteq> y" using \<open>z' \<in> A\<close> * by(auto simp add: flat_ord_def)
+    ultimately have "y \<noteq> (THE z. z \<in> A - {x})" by simp }
+  with z show "\<not> flat_ord x y (flat_lub x A)" by(simp add: flat_ord_def flat_lub_def)
+qed
+
 end
--- a/src/HOL/Probability/Probability.thy	Mon Jun 06 22:22:05 2016 +0200
+++ b/src/HOL/Probability/Probability.thy	Wed Jun 08 09:05:32 2016 +0200
@@ -8,6 +8,7 @@
   Complete_Measure
   Projective_Limit
   Probability_Mass_Function
+  SPMF
   PMF_Impl
   Stream_Space
   Random_Permutations
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/src/HOL/Probability/SPMF.thy	Wed Jun 08 09:05:32 2016 +0200
@@ -0,0 +1,2726 @@
+(* Author: Andreas Lochbihler, ETH Zurich *)
+
+section \<open>Discrete subprobability distribution\<close>
+
+theory SPMF imports
+  Probability_Mass_Function
+  Embed_Measure
+  "~~/src/HOL/Library/Complete_Partial_Order2"
+  "~~/src/HOL/Library/Rewrite"
+begin
+
+subsection \<open>Auxiliary material\<close>
+
+lemma cSUP_singleton [simp]: "(SUP x:{x}. f x :: _ :: conditionally_complete_lattice) = f x"
+by (metis cSup_singleton image_empty image_insert)
+
+subsubsection \<open>More about extended reals\<close>
+
+lemma [simp]:
+  shows ennreal_max_0: "ennreal (max 0 x) = ennreal x"
+  and ennreal_max_0': "ennreal (max x 0) = ennreal x"
+by(simp_all add: max_def ennreal_eq_0_iff)
+
+lemma ennreal_enn2real_if: "ennreal (enn2real r) = (if r = \<top> then 0 else r)"
+by(auto intro!: ennreal_enn2real simp add: less_top)
+
+lemma e2ennreal_0 [simp]: "e2ennreal 0 = 0"
+by(simp add: zero_ennreal_def)
+
+lemma enn2real_bot [simp]: "enn2real \<bottom> = 0"
+by(simp add: bot_ennreal_def)
+
+lemma continuous_at_ennreal[continuous_intros]: "continuous F f \<Longrightarrow> continuous F (\<lambda>x. ennreal (f x))"
+  unfolding continuous_def by auto
+
+lemma ennreal_Sup:
+  assumes *: "(SUP a:A. ennreal a) \<noteq> \<top>"
+  and "A \<noteq> {}"
+  shows "ennreal (Sup A) = (SUP a:A. ennreal a)"
+proof (rule continuous_at_Sup_mono)
+  obtain r where r: "ennreal r = (SUP a:A. ennreal a)" "r \<ge> 0"
+    using * by(cases "(SUP a:A. ennreal a)") simp_all
+  then show "bdd_above A"
+    by(auto intro!: SUP_upper bdd_aboveI[of _ r] simp add: ennreal_le_iff[symmetric])
+qed (auto simp: mono_def continuous_at_imp_continuous_at_within continuous_at_ennreal ennreal_leI assms)
+
+lemma ennreal_SUP:
+  "\<lbrakk> (SUP a:A. ennreal (f a)) \<noteq> \<top>; A \<noteq> {} \<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> ennreal (SUP a:A. f a) = (SUP a:A. ennreal (f a))"
+using ennreal_Sup[of "f ` A"] by auto
+
+lemma ennreal_lt_0: "x < 0 \<Longrightarrow> ennreal x = 0"
+by(simp add: ennreal_eq_0_iff)
+
+subsubsection \<open>More about @{typ "'a option"}\<close>
+
+lemma None_in_map_option_image [simp]: "None \<in> map_option f ` A \<longleftrightarrow> None \<in> A"
+by auto
+
+lemma Some_in_map_option_image [simp]: "Some x \<in> map_option f ` A \<longleftrightarrow> (\<exists>y. x = f y \<and> Some y \<in> A)"
+by(auto intro: rev_image_eqI dest: sym)
+
+lemma case_option_collapse: "case_option x (\<lambda>_. x) = (\<lambda>_. x)"
+by(simp add: fun_eq_iff split: option.split)
+
+lemma case_option_id: "case_option None Some = id"
+by(rule ext)(simp split: option.split)
+
+inductive ord_option :: "('a \<Rightarrow> 'b \<Rightarrow> bool) \<Rightarrow> 'a option \<Rightarrow> 'b option \<Rightarrow> bool"
+  for ord :: "'a \<Rightarrow> 'b \<Rightarrow> bool"
+where
+  None: "ord_option ord None x"
+| Some: "ord x y \<Longrightarrow> ord_option ord (Some x) (Some y)"
+
+inductive_simps ord_option_simps [simp]:
+  "ord_option ord None x"
+  "ord_option ord x None"
+  "ord_option ord (Some x) (Some y)"
+  "ord_option ord (Some x) None"
+
+inductive_simps ord_option_eq_simps [simp]:
+  "ord_option op = None y"
+  "ord_option op = (Some x) y"
+
+lemma ord_option_reflI: "(\<And>y. y \<in> set_option x \<Longrightarrow> ord y y) \<Longrightarrow> ord_option ord x x"
+by(cases x) simp_all
+
+lemma reflp_ord_option: "reflp ord \<Longrightarrow> reflp (ord_option ord)"
+by(simp add: reflp_def ord_option_reflI)
+
+lemma ord_option_trans:
+  "\<lbrakk> ord_option ord x y; ord_option ord y z;
+    \<And>a b c. \<lbrakk> a \<in> set_option x; b \<in> set_option y; c \<in> set_option z; ord a b; ord b c \<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> ord a c \<rbrakk>
+  \<Longrightarrow> ord_option ord x z"
+by(auto elim!: ord_option.cases)
+
+lemma transp_ord_option: "transp ord \<Longrightarrow> transp (ord_option ord)"
+unfolding transp_def by(blast intro: ord_option_trans)
+
+lemma antisymP_ord_option: "antisymP ord \<Longrightarrow> antisymP (ord_option ord)"
+by(auto intro!: antisymI elim!: ord_option.cases dest: antisymD)
+
+lemma ord_option_chainD:
+  "Complete_Partial_Order.chain (ord_option ord) Y
+  \<Longrightarrow> Complete_Partial_Order.chain ord {x. Some x \<in> Y}"
+by(rule chainI)(auto dest: chainD)
+
+definition lub_option :: "('a set \<Rightarrow> 'b) \<Rightarrow> 'a option set \<Rightarrow> 'b option"
+where "lub_option lub Y = (if Y \<subseteq> {None} then None else Some (lub {x. Some x \<in> Y}))"
+
+lemma map_lub_option: "map_option f (lub_option lub Y) = lub_option (f \<circ> lub) Y"
+by(simp add: lub_option_def)
+
+lemma lub_option_upper:
+  assumes "Complete_Partial_Order.chain (ord_option ord) Y" "x \<in> Y"
+  and lub_upper: "\<And>Y x. \<lbrakk> Complete_Partial_Order.chain ord Y; x \<in> Y \<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> ord x (lub Y)"
+  shows "ord_option ord x (lub_option lub Y)"
+using assms(1-2)
+by(cases x)(auto simp add: lub_option_def intro: lub_upper[OF ord_option_chainD])
+
+lemma lub_option_least:
+  assumes Y: "Complete_Partial_Order.chain (ord_option ord) Y"
+  and upper: "\<And>x. x \<in> Y \<Longrightarrow> ord_option ord x y"
+  assumes lub_least: "\<And>Y y. \<lbrakk> Complete_Partial_Order.chain ord Y; \<And>x. x \<in> Y \<Longrightarrow> ord x y \<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> ord (lub Y) y"
+  shows "ord_option ord (lub_option lub Y) y"
+using Y
+by(cases y)(auto 4 3 simp add: lub_option_def intro: lub_least[OF ord_option_chainD] dest: upper)
+
+lemma lub_map_option: "lub_option lub (map_option f ` Y) = lub_option (lub \<circ> op ` f) Y"
+apply(auto simp add: lub_option_def)
+apply(erule notE)
+apply(rule arg_cong[where f=lub])
+apply(auto intro: rev_image_eqI dest: sym)
+done
+
+lemma ord_option_mono: "\<lbrakk> ord_option A x y; \<And>x y. A x y \<Longrightarrow> B x y \<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> ord_option B x y"
+by(auto elim: ord_option.cases)
+
+lemma ord_option_mono' [mono]:
+  "(\<And>x y. A x y \<longrightarrow> B x y) \<Longrightarrow> ord_option A x y \<longrightarrow> ord_option B x y"
+by(blast intro: ord_option_mono)
+
+lemma ord_option_compp: "ord_option (A OO B) = ord_option A OO ord_option B"
+by(auto simp add: fun_eq_iff elim!: ord_option.cases intro: ord_option.intros)
+
+lemma ord_option_inf: "inf (ord_option A) (ord_option B) = ord_option (inf A B)" (is "?lhs = ?rhs")
+proof(rule antisym)
+  show "?lhs \<le> ?rhs" by(auto elim!: ord_option.cases)
+qed(auto elim: ord_option_mono)
+
+lemma ord_option_map2: "ord_option ord x (map_option f y) = ord_option (\<lambda>x y. ord x (f y)) x y"
+by(auto elim: ord_option.cases)
+
+lemma ord_option_map1: "ord_option ord (map_option f x) y = ord_option (\<lambda>x y. ord (f x) y) x y"
+by(auto elim: ord_option.cases)
+
+lemma option_ord_Some1_iff: "option_ord (Some x) y \<longleftrightarrow> y = Some x"
+by(auto simp add: flat_ord_def)
+
+subsubsection \<open>A relator for sets that treats sets like predicates\<close>
+
+context begin interpretation lifting_syntax .
+definition rel_pred :: "('a \<Rightarrow> 'b \<Rightarrow> bool) \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'b set \<Rightarrow> bool"
+where "rel_pred R A B = (R ===> op =) (\<lambda>x. x \<in> A) (\<lambda>y. y \<in> B)"
+
+lemma rel_predI: "(R ===> op =) (\<lambda>x. x \<in> A) (\<lambda>y. y \<in> B) \<Longrightarrow> rel_pred R A B"
+by(simp add: rel_pred_def)
+
+lemma rel_predD: "\<lbrakk> rel_pred R A B; R x y \<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> x \<in> A \<longleftrightarrow> y \<in> B"
+by(simp add: rel_pred_def rel_fun_def)
+
+lemma Collect_parametric: "((A ===> op =) ===> rel_pred A) Collect Collect"
+  -- \<open>Declare this rule as @{attribute transfer_rule} only locally
+      because it blows up the search space for @{method transfer}
+      (in combination with @{thm [source] Collect_transfer})\<close>
+by(simp add: rel_funI rel_predI)
+end
+
+subsubsection \<open>Monotonicity rules\<close>
+
+lemma monotone_gfp_eadd1: "monotone op \<ge> op \<ge> (\<lambda>x. x + y :: enat)"
+by(auto intro!: monotoneI)
+
+lemma monotone_gfp_eadd2: "monotone op \<ge> op \<ge> (\<lambda>y. x + y :: enat)"
+by(auto intro!: monotoneI)
+
+lemma mono2mono_gfp_eadd[THEN gfp.mono2mono2, cont_intro, simp]:
+  shows monotone_eadd: "monotone (rel_prod op \<ge> op \<ge>) op \<ge> (\<lambda>(x, y). x + y :: enat)"
+by(simp add: monotone_gfp_eadd1 monotone_gfp_eadd2)
+
+lemma eadd_gfp_partial_function_mono [partial_function_mono]:
+  "\<lbrakk> monotone (fun_ord op \<ge>) op \<ge> f; monotone (fun_ord op \<ge>) op \<ge> g \<rbrakk>
+  \<Longrightarrow> monotone (fun_ord op \<ge>) op \<ge> (\<lambda>x. f x + g x :: enat)"
+by(rule mono2mono_gfp_eadd)
+
+lemma mono2mono_ereal[THEN lfp.mono2mono]:
+  shows monotone_ereal: "monotone op \<le> op \<le> ereal"
+by(rule monotoneI) simp
+
+lemma mono2mono_ennreal[THEN lfp.mono2mono]:
+  shows monotone_ennreal: "monotone op \<le> op \<le> ennreal"
+by(rule monotoneI)(simp add: ennreal_leI)
+
+subsubsection \<open>Bijections\<close>
+
+lemma bi_unique_rel_set_bij_betw:
+  assumes unique: "bi_unique R"
+  and rel: "rel_set R A B"
+  shows "\<exists>f. bij_betw f A B \<and> (\<forall>x\<in>A. R x (f x))"
+proof -
+  from assms obtain f where f: "\<And>x. x \<in> A \<Longrightarrow> R x (f x)" and B: "\<And>x. x \<in> A \<Longrightarrow> f x \<in> B"
+    apply(atomize_elim)
+    apply(fold all_conj_distrib)
+    apply(subst choice_iff[symmetric])
+    apply(auto dest: rel_setD1)
+    done
+  have "inj_on f A" by(rule inj_onI)(auto dest!: f dest: bi_uniqueDl[OF unique])
+  moreover have "f ` A = B" using rel
+    by(auto 4 3 intro: B dest: rel_setD2 f bi_uniqueDr[OF unique])
+  ultimately have "bij_betw f A B" unfolding bij_betw_def ..
+  thus ?thesis using f by blast
+qed
+
+lemma bij_betw_rel_setD: "bij_betw f A B \<Longrightarrow> rel_set (\<lambda>x y. y = f x) A B"
+by(rule rel_setI)(auto dest: bij_betwE bij_betw_imp_surj_on[symmetric])
+
+subsection {* Subprobability mass function *}
+
+type_synonym 'a spmf = "'a option pmf"
+translations (type) "'a spmf" \<leftharpoondown> (type) "'a option pmf"
+
+definition measure_spmf :: "'a spmf \<Rightarrow> 'a measure"
+where "measure_spmf p = distr (restrict_space (measure_pmf p) (range Some)) (count_space UNIV) the"
+
+abbreviation spmf :: "'a spmf \<Rightarrow> 'a \<Rightarrow> real"
+where "spmf p x \<equiv> pmf p (Some x)"
+
+lemma space_measure_spmf: "space (measure_spmf p) = UNIV"
+by(simp add: measure_spmf_def)
+
+lemma sets_measure_spmf [simp, measurable_cong]: "sets (measure_spmf p) = sets (count_space UNIV)"
+by(simp add: measure_spmf_def)
+
+lemma measure_spmf_not_bot [simp]: "measure_spmf p \<noteq> \<bottom>"
+proof
+  assume "measure_spmf p = \<bottom>"
+  hence "space (measure_spmf p) = space \<bottom>" by simp
+  thus False by(simp add: space_measure_spmf)
+qed
+
+lemma measurable_the_measure_pmf_Some [measurable, simp]:
+  "the \<in> measurable (restrict_space (measure_pmf p) (range Some)) (count_space UNIV)"
+by(auto simp add: measurable_def sets_restrict_space space_restrict_space integral_restrict_space)
+
+lemma measurable_spmf_measure1[simp]: "measurable (measure_spmf M) N = UNIV \<rightarrow> space N"
+by(auto simp: measurable_def space_measure_spmf)
+
+lemma measurable_spmf_measure2[simp]: "measurable N (measure_spmf M) = measurable N (count_space UNIV)"
+by(intro measurable_cong_sets) simp_all
+
+lemma subprob_space_measure_spmf [simp, intro!]: "subprob_space (measure_spmf p)"
+proof
+  show "emeasure (measure_spmf p) (space (measure_spmf p)) \<le> 1"
+    by(simp add: measure_spmf_def emeasure_distr emeasure_restrict_space space_restrict_space measure_pmf.measure_le_1)
+qed(simp add: space_measure_spmf)
+
+interpretation measure_spmf: subprob_space "measure_spmf p" for p
+by(rule subprob_space_measure_spmf)
+
+lemma finite_measure_spmf [simp]: "finite_measure (measure_spmf p)"
+by unfold_locales
+
+lemma spmf_conv_measure_spmf: "spmf p x = measure (measure_spmf p) {x}"
+by(auto simp add: measure_spmf_def measure_distr measure_restrict_space pmf.rep_eq space_restrict_space intro: arg_cong2[where f=measure])
+
+lemma emeasure_measure_spmf_conv_measure_pmf:
+  "emeasure (measure_spmf p) A = emeasure (measure_pmf p) (Some ` A)"
+by(auto simp add: measure_spmf_def emeasure_distr emeasure_restrict_space space_restrict_space intro: arg_cong2[where f=emeasure])
+
+lemma measure_measure_spmf_conv_measure_pmf:
+  "measure (measure_spmf p) A = measure (measure_pmf p) (Some ` A)"
+using emeasure_measure_spmf_conv_measure_pmf[of p A]
+by(simp add: measure_spmf.emeasure_eq_measure measure_pmf.emeasure_eq_measure)
+
+lemma emeasure_spmf_map_pmf_Some [simp]:
+  "emeasure (measure_spmf (map_pmf Some p)) A = emeasure (measure_pmf p) A"
+by(auto simp add: measure_spmf_def emeasure_distr emeasure_restrict_space space_restrict_space intro: arg_cong2[where f=emeasure])
+
+lemma measure_spmf_map_pmf_Some [simp]:
+  "measure (measure_spmf (map_pmf Some p)) A = measure (measure_pmf p) A"
+using emeasure_spmf_map_pmf_Some[of p A] by(simp add: measure_spmf.emeasure_eq_measure measure_pmf.emeasure_eq_measure)
+
+lemma nn_integral_measure_spmf: "(\<integral>\<^sup>+ x. f x \<partial>measure_spmf p) = \<integral>\<^sup>+ x. ennreal (spmf p x) * f x \<partial>count_space UNIV"
+  (is "?lhs = ?rhs")
+proof -
+  have "?lhs = \<integral>\<^sup>+ x. pmf p x * f (the x) \<partial>count_space (range Some)"
+    by(simp add: measure_spmf_def nn_integral_distr nn_integral_restrict_space nn_integral_measure_pmf nn_integral_count_space_indicator ac_simps times_ereal.simps(1)[symmetric] del: times_ereal.simps(1))
+  also have "\<dots> = \<integral>\<^sup>+ x. ennreal (spmf p (the x)) * f (the x) \<partial>count_space (range Some)"
+    by(rule nn_integral_cong) auto
+  also have "\<dots> = \<integral>\<^sup>+ x. spmf p (the (Some x)) * f (the (Some x)) \<partial>count_space UNIV"
+    by(rule nn_integral_bij_count_space[symmetric])(simp add: bij_betw_def)
+  also have "\<dots> = ?rhs" by simp
+  finally show ?thesis .
+qed
+
+lemma integral_measure_spmf: 
+  assumes "integrable (measure_spmf p) f"
+  shows "(\<integral> x. f x \<partial>measure_spmf p) = \<integral> x. spmf p x * f x \<partial>count_space UNIV"
+proof -
+  have "integrable (count_space UNIV) (\<lambda>x. spmf p x * f x)"
+    using assms by(simp add: integrable_iff_bounded nn_integral_measure_spmf abs_mult ennreal_mult'')
+  then show ?thesis using assms
+    by(simp add: real_lebesgue_integral_def nn_integral_measure_spmf ennreal_mult'[symmetric])
+qed
+
+lemma emeasure_spmf_single: "emeasure (measure_spmf p) {x} = spmf p x"
+by(simp add: measure_spmf.emeasure_eq_measure spmf_conv_measure_spmf)
+
+lemma measurable_measure_spmf[measurable]:
+  "(\<lambda>x. measure_spmf (M x)) \<in> measurable (count_space UNIV) (subprob_algebra (count_space UNIV))"
+by (auto simp: space_subprob_algebra)
+
+lemma nn_integral_measure_spmf_conv_measure_pmf:
+  assumes [measurable]: "f \<in> borel_measurable (count_space UNIV)"
+  shows "nn_integral (measure_spmf p) f = nn_integral (restrict_space (measure_pmf p) (range Some)) (f \<circ> the)"
+by(simp add: measure_spmf_def nn_integral_distr o_def)
+
+lemma measure_spmf_in_space_subprob_algebra [simp]:
+  "measure_spmf p \<in> space (subprob_algebra (count_space UNIV))"
+by(simp add: space_subprob_algebra)
+
+lemma nn_integral_spmf_neq_top: "(\<integral>\<^sup>+ x. spmf p x \<partial>count_space UNIV) \<noteq> \<top>"
+using nn_integral_measure_spmf[where f="\<lambda>_. 1", of p, symmetric] by simp
+
+lemma SUP_spmf_neq_top': "(SUP p:Y. ennreal (spmf p x)) \<noteq> \<top>"
+proof(rule neq_top_trans)
+  show "(SUP p:Y. ennreal (spmf p x)) \<le> 1" by(rule SUP_least)(simp add: pmf_le_1)
+qed simp
+
+lemma SUP_spmf_neq_top: "(SUP i. ennreal (spmf (Y i) x)) \<noteq> \<top>"
+proof(rule neq_top_trans)
+  show "(SUP i. ennreal (spmf (Y i) x)) \<le> 1" by(rule SUP_least)(simp add: pmf_le_1)
+qed simp
+                 
+lemma SUP_emeasure_spmf_neq_top: "(SUP p:Y. emeasure (measure_spmf p) A) \<noteq> \<top>"
+proof(rule neq_top_trans)
+  show "(SUP p:Y. emeasure (measure_spmf p) A) \<le> 1"
+    by(rule SUP_least)(simp add: measure_spmf.subprob_emeasure_le_1)
+qed simp
+
+subsection {* Support *}
+
+definition set_spmf :: "'a spmf \<Rightarrow> 'a set"
+where "set_spmf p = set_pmf p \<bind> set_option"
+
+lemma set_spmf_rep_eq: "set_spmf p = {x. measure (measure_spmf p) {x} \<noteq> 0}"
+proof -
+  have "\<And>x :: 'a. the -` {x} \<inter> range Some = {Some x}" by auto
+  then show ?thesis
+    by(auto simp add: set_spmf_def set_pmf.rep_eq measure_spmf_def measure_distr measure_restrict_space space_restrict_space intro: rev_image_eqI)
+qed
+
+lemma in_set_spmf: "x \<in> set_spmf p \<longleftrightarrow> Some x \<in> set_pmf p"
+by(simp add: set_spmf_def)
+
+lemma AE_measure_spmf_iff [simp]: "(AE x in measure_spmf p. P x) \<longleftrightarrow> (\<forall>x\<in>set_spmf p. P x)"
+by(auto 4 3 simp add: measure_spmf_def AE_distr_iff AE_restrict_space_iff AE_measure_pmf_iff set_spmf_def cong del: AE_cong)
+
+lemma spmf_eq_0_set_spmf: "spmf p x = 0 \<longleftrightarrow> x \<notin> set_spmf p"
+by(auto simp add: pmf_eq_0_set_pmf set_spmf_def intro: rev_image_eqI)
+
+lemma in_set_spmf_iff_spmf: "x \<in> set_spmf p \<longleftrightarrow> spmf p x \<noteq> 0"
+by(auto simp add: set_spmf_def set_pmf_iff intro: rev_image_eqI)
+
+lemma set_spmf_return_pmf_None [simp]: "set_spmf (return_pmf None) = {}"
+by(auto simp add: set_spmf_def)
+
+lemma countable_set_spmf [simp]: "countable (set_spmf p)"
+by(simp add: set_spmf_def bind_UNION)
+
+lemma spmf_eqI:
+  assumes "\<And>i. spmf p i = spmf q i"
+  shows "p = q"
+proof(rule pmf_eqI)
+  fix i
+  show "pmf p i = pmf q i"
+  proof(cases i)
+    case (Some i')
+    thus ?thesis by(simp add: assms)
+  next
+    case None
+    have "ennreal (pmf p i) = measure (measure_pmf p) {i}" by(simp add: pmf_def)
+    also have "{i} = space (measure_pmf p) - range Some"
+      by(auto simp add: None intro: ccontr)
+    also have "measure (measure_pmf p) \<dots> = ennreal 1 - measure (measure_pmf p) (range Some)"
+      by(simp add: measure_pmf.prob_compl ennreal_minus[symmetric] del: space_measure_pmf)
+    also have "range Some = (\<Union>x\<in>set_spmf p. {Some x}) \<union> Some ` (- set_spmf p)"
+      by auto
+    also have "measure (measure_pmf p) \<dots> = measure (measure_pmf p) (\<Union>x\<in>set_spmf p. {Some x})"
+      by(rule measure_pmf.measure_zero_union)(auto simp add: measure_pmf.prob_eq_0 AE_measure_pmf_iff in_set_spmf_iff_spmf set_pmf_iff)
+    also have "ennreal \<dots> = \<integral>\<^sup>+ x. measure (measure_pmf p) {Some x} \<partial>count_space (set_spmf p)"
+      unfolding measure_pmf.emeasure_eq_measure[symmetric]
+      by(simp_all add: emeasure_UN_countable disjoint_family_on_def)
+    also have "\<dots> = \<integral>\<^sup>+ x. spmf p x \<partial>count_space (set_spmf p)" by(simp add: pmf_def)
+    also have "\<dots> = \<integral>\<^sup>+ x. spmf q x \<partial>count_space (set_spmf p)" by(simp add: assms)
+    also have "set_spmf p = set_spmf q" by(auto simp add: in_set_spmf_iff_spmf assms)
+    also have "(\<integral>\<^sup>+ x. spmf q x \<partial>count_space (set_spmf q)) = \<integral>\<^sup>+ x. measure (measure_pmf q) {Some x} \<partial>count_space (set_spmf q)"
+      by(simp add: pmf_def)
+    also have "\<dots> = measure (measure_pmf q) (\<Union>x\<in>set_spmf q. {Some x})"
+      unfolding measure_pmf.emeasure_eq_measure[symmetric]
+      by(simp_all add: emeasure_UN_countable disjoint_family_on_def)
+    also have "\<dots> = measure (measure_pmf q) ((\<Union>x\<in>set_spmf q. {Some x}) \<union> Some ` (- set_spmf q))"
+      by(rule ennreal_cong measure_pmf.measure_zero_union[symmetric])+(auto simp add: measure_pmf.prob_eq_0 AE_measure_pmf_iff in_set_spmf_iff_spmf set_pmf_iff)
+    also have "((\<Union>x\<in>set_spmf q. {Some x}) \<union> Some ` (- set_spmf q)) = range Some" by auto
+    also have "ennreal 1 - measure (measure_pmf q) \<dots> = measure (measure_pmf q) (space (measure_pmf q) - range Some)"
+      by(simp add: one_ereal_def measure_pmf.prob_compl ennreal_minus[symmetric] del: space_measure_pmf)
+    also have "space (measure_pmf q) - range Some = {i}"
+      by(auto simp add: None intro: ccontr)
+    also have "measure (measure_pmf q) \<dots> = pmf q i" by(simp add: pmf_def)
+    finally show ?thesis by simp
+  qed
+qed
+
+lemma integral_measure_spmf_restrict:
+  fixes f ::  "'a \<Rightarrow> 'b :: {banach, second_countable_topology}" shows
+  "(\<integral> x. f x \<partial>measure_spmf M) = (\<integral> x. f x \<partial>restrict_space (measure_spmf M) (set_spmf M))"
+by(auto intro!: integral_cong_AE simp add: integral_restrict_space)
+
+lemma nn_integral_measure_spmf':
+  "(\<integral>\<^sup>+ x. f x \<partial>measure_spmf p) = \<integral>\<^sup>+ x. ennreal (spmf p x) * f x \<partial>count_space (set_spmf p)"
+by(auto simp add: nn_integral_measure_spmf nn_integral_count_space_indicator in_set_spmf_iff_spmf intro!: nn_integral_cong split: split_indicator)
+
+subsection {* Functorial structure *}
+
+abbreviation map_spmf :: "('a \<Rightarrow> 'b) \<Rightarrow> 'a spmf \<Rightarrow> 'b spmf"
+where "map_spmf f \<equiv> map_pmf (map_option f)"
+
+context begin
+local_setup {* Local_Theory.map_background_naming (Name_Space.mandatory_path "spmf") *}
+
+lemma map_comp: "map_spmf f (map_spmf g p) = map_spmf (f \<circ> g) p"
+by(simp add: pmf.map_comp o_def option.map_comp)
+
+lemma map_id0: "map_spmf id = id"
+by(simp add: pmf.map_id option.map_id0)
+
+lemma map_id [simp]: "map_spmf id p = p"
+by(simp add: map_id0)
+
+lemma map_ident [simp]: "map_spmf (\<lambda>x. x) p = p"
+by(simp add: id_def[symmetric])
+
+end
+
+lemma set_map_spmf [simp]: "set_spmf (map_spmf f p) = f ` set_spmf p"
+by(simp add: set_spmf_def image_bind bind_image o_def Option.option.set_map)
+        
+lemma map_spmf_cong:
+  "\<lbrakk> p = q; \<And>x. x \<in> set_spmf q \<Longrightarrow> f x = g x \<rbrakk>
+  \<Longrightarrow> map_spmf f p = map_spmf g q"
+by(auto intro: pmf.map_cong option.map_cong simp add: in_set_spmf)
+
+lemma map_spmf_cong_simp:
+  "\<lbrakk> p = q; \<And>x. x \<in> set_spmf q =simp=> f x = g x \<rbrakk>
+  \<Longrightarrow> map_spmf f p = map_spmf g q"
+unfolding simp_implies_def by(rule map_spmf_cong)
+
+lemma map_spmf_idI: "(\<And>x. x \<in> set_spmf p \<Longrightarrow> f x = x) \<Longrightarrow> map_spmf f p = p"
+by(rule map_pmf_idI map_option_idI)+(simp add: in_set_spmf)
+
+lemma emeasure_map_spmf:
+  "emeasure (measure_spmf (map_spmf f p)) A = emeasure (measure_spmf p) (f -` A)"
+by(auto simp add: measure_spmf_def emeasure_distr measurable_restrict_space1 space_restrict_space emeasure_restrict_space intro: arg_cong2[where f=emeasure])
+
+lemma measure_map_spmf: "measure (measure_spmf (map_spmf f p)) A = measure (measure_spmf p) (f -` A)"
+using emeasure_map_spmf[of f p A] by(simp add: measure_spmf.emeasure_eq_measure)
+
+lemma measure_map_spmf_conv_distr:
+  "measure_spmf (map_spmf f p) = distr (measure_spmf p) (count_space UNIV) f"
+by(rule measure_eqI)(simp_all add: emeasure_map_spmf emeasure_distr)
+
+lemma spmf_map_pmf_Some [simp]: "spmf (map_pmf Some p) i = pmf p i"
+by(simp add: pmf_map_inj')
+
+lemma spmf_map_inj: "\<lbrakk> inj_on f (set_spmf M); x \<in> set_spmf M \<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> spmf (map_spmf f M) (f x) = spmf M x"
+by(subst option.map(2)[symmetric, where f=f])(rule pmf_map_inj, auto simp add: in_set_spmf inj_on_def elim!: option.inj_map_strong[rotated])
+
+lemma spmf_map_inj': "inj f \<Longrightarrow> spmf (map_spmf f M) (f x) = spmf M x"
+by(subst option.map(2)[symmetric, where f=f])(rule pmf_map_inj'[OF option.inj_map])
+
+lemma spmf_map_outside: "x \<notin> f ` set_spmf M \<Longrightarrow> spmf (map_spmf f M) x = 0"
+unfolding spmf_eq_0_set_spmf by simp
+
+lemma ennreal_spmf_map: "ennreal (spmf (map_spmf f p) x) = emeasure (measure_spmf p) (f -` {x})"
+by(auto simp add: ennreal_pmf_map measure_spmf_def emeasure_distr emeasure_restrict_space space_restrict_space intro: arg_cong2[where f=emeasure])
+
+lemma spmf_map: "spmf (map_spmf f p) x = measure (measure_spmf p) (f -` {x})"
+using ennreal_spmf_map[of f p x] by(simp add: measure_spmf.emeasure_eq_measure)
+
+lemma ennreal_spmf_map_conv_nn_integral:
+  "ennreal (spmf (map_spmf f p) x) = integral\<^sup>N (measure_spmf p) (indicator (f -` {x}))"
+by(auto simp add: ennreal_pmf_map measure_spmf_def emeasure_distr space_restrict_space emeasure_restrict_space intro: arg_cong2[where f=emeasure])
+
+subsection {* Monad operations *}
+
+subsubsection {* Return *}
+
+abbreviation return_spmf :: "'a \<Rightarrow> 'a spmf"
+where "return_spmf x \<equiv> return_pmf (Some x)"
+
+lemma pmf_return_spmf: "pmf (return_spmf x) y = indicator {y} (Some x)"
+by(fact pmf_return)
+
+lemma measure_spmf_return_spmf: "measure_spmf (return_spmf x) = Giry_Monad.return (count_space UNIV) x"
+by(rule measure_eqI)(simp_all add: measure_spmf_def emeasure_distr space_restrict_space emeasure_restrict_space indicator_def)
+
+lemma measure_spmf_return_pmf_None [simp]: "measure_spmf (return_pmf None) = null_measure (count_space UNIV)"
+by(rule measure_eqI)(auto simp add: measure_spmf_def emeasure_distr space_restrict_space emeasure_restrict_space indicator_eq_0_iff)
+
+lemma set_return_spmf [simp]: "set_spmf (return_spmf x) = {x}"
+by(auto simp add: set_spmf_def)
+
+subsubsection {* Bind *}
+
+definition bind_spmf :: "'a spmf \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b spmf) \<Rightarrow> 'b spmf"
+where "bind_spmf x f = bind_pmf x (\<lambda>a. case a of None \<Rightarrow> return_pmf None | Some a' \<Rightarrow> f a')"
+
+adhoc_overloading Monad_Syntax.bind bind_spmf
+
+lemma return_None_bind_spmf [simp]: "return_pmf None \<bind> (f :: 'a \<Rightarrow> _) = return_pmf None"
+by(simp add: bind_spmf_def bind_return_pmf)
+
+lemma return_bind_spmf [simp]: "return_spmf x \<bind> f = f x"
+by(simp add: bind_spmf_def bind_return_pmf)
+
+lemma bind_return_spmf [simp]: "x \<bind> return_spmf = x"
+proof -
+  have "\<And>a :: 'a option. (case a of None \<Rightarrow> return_pmf None | Some a' \<Rightarrow> return_spmf a') = return_pmf a"
+    by(simp split: option.split)
+  then show ?thesis
+    by(simp add: bind_spmf_def bind_return_pmf')
+qed
+
+lemma bind_spmf_assoc [simp]:
+  fixes x :: "'a spmf" and f :: "'a \<Rightarrow> 'b spmf" and g :: "'b \<Rightarrow> 'c spmf"
+  shows "(x \<bind> f) \<bind> g = x \<bind> (\<lambda>y. f y \<bind> g)"
+by(auto simp add: bind_spmf_def bind_assoc_pmf fun_eq_iff bind_return_pmf split: option.split intro: arg_cong[where f="bind_pmf x"])
+
+lemma pmf_bind_spmf_None: "pmf (p \<bind> f) None = pmf p None + \<integral> x. pmf (f x) None \<partial>measure_spmf p"
+  (is "?lhs = ?rhs")
+proof -
+  let ?f = "\<lambda>x. pmf (case x of None \<Rightarrow> return_pmf None | Some x \<Rightarrow> f x) None"
+  have "?lhs = \<integral> x. ?f x \<partial>measure_pmf p"
+    by(simp add: bind_spmf_def pmf_bind)
+  also have "\<dots> = \<integral> x. ?f None * indicator {None} x + ?f x * indicator (range Some) x \<partial>measure_pmf p"
+    by(rule integral_cong)(auto simp add: indicator_def)
+  also have "\<dots> = (\<integral> x. ?f None * indicator {None} x \<partial>measure_pmf p) + (\<integral> x. ?f x * indicator (range Some) x \<partial>measure_pmf p)"
+    by(rule integral_add)(auto 4 3 intro: integrable_real_mult_indicator measure_pmf.integrable_const_bound[where B=1] simp add: AE_measure_pmf_iff pmf_le_1)
+  also have "\<dots> = pmf p None + \<integral> x. indicator (range Some) x * pmf (f (the x)) None \<partial>measure_pmf p"
+    by(auto simp add: measure_measure_pmf_finite indicator_eq_0_iff intro!: integral_cong)
+  also have "\<dots> = ?rhs" unfolding measure_spmf_def
+    by(subst integral_distr)(auto simp add: integral_restrict_space)
+  finally show ?thesis .
+qed
+
+lemma spmf_bind: "spmf (p \<bind> f) y = \<integral> x. spmf (f x) y \<partial>measure_spmf p"
+unfolding measure_spmf_def
+by(subst integral_distr)(auto simp add: bind_spmf_def pmf_bind integral_restrict_space indicator_eq_0_iff intro!: integral_cong split: option.split)
+
+lemma ennreal_spmf_bind: "ennreal (spmf (p \<bind> f) x) = \<integral>\<^sup>+ y. spmf (f y) x \<partial>measure_spmf p"
+by(auto simp add: bind_spmf_def ennreal_pmf_bind nn_integral_measure_spmf_conv_measure_pmf nn_integral_restrict_space intro: nn_integral_cong split: split_indicator option.split)
+
+lemma measure_spmf_bind_pmf: "measure_spmf (p \<bind> f) = measure_pmf p \<bind> measure_spmf \<circ> f"
+  (is "?lhs = ?rhs")
+proof(rule measure_eqI)
+  show "sets ?lhs = sets ?rhs"
+    by(simp add: sets_bind[where N="count_space UNIV"] space_measure_spmf)
+next
+  fix A :: "'a set"
+  have "emeasure ?lhs A = \<integral>\<^sup>+ x. emeasure (measure_spmf (f x)) A \<partial>measure_pmf p" 
+    by(simp add: measure_spmf_def emeasure_distr space_restrict_space emeasure_restrict_space bind_spmf_def)
+  also have "\<dots> = emeasure ?rhs A"
+    by(simp add: emeasure_bind[where N="count_space UNIV"] space_measure_spmf space_subprob_algebra)
+  finally show "emeasure ?lhs A = emeasure ?rhs A" .
+qed
+
+lemma measure_spmf_bind: "measure_spmf (p \<bind> f) = measure_spmf p \<bind> measure_spmf \<circ> f"
+  (is "?lhs = ?rhs")
+proof(rule measure_eqI)
+  show "sets ?lhs = sets ?rhs"
+    by(simp add: sets_bind[where N="count_space UNIV"] space_measure_spmf)
+next
+  fix A :: "'a set"
+  let ?A = "the -` A \<inter> range Some"
+  have "emeasure ?lhs A = \<integral>\<^sup>+ x. emeasure (measure_pmf (case x of None \<Rightarrow> return_pmf None | Some x \<Rightarrow> f x)) ?A \<partial>measure_pmf p" 
+    by(simp add: measure_spmf_def emeasure_distr space_restrict_space emeasure_restrict_space bind_spmf_def)
+  also have "\<dots> =  \<integral>\<^sup>+ x. emeasure (measure_pmf (f (the x))) ?A * indicator (range Some) x \<partial>measure_pmf p"
+    by(rule nn_integral_cong)(auto split: option.split simp add: indicator_def)
+  also have "\<dots> = \<integral>\<^sup>+ x. emeasure (measure_spmf (f x)) A \<partial>measure_spmf p"
+    by(simp add: measure_spmf_def nn_integral_distr nn_integral_restrict_space emeasure_distr space_restrict_space emeasure_restrict_space)
+  also have "\<dots> = emeasure ?rhs A" 
+    by(simp add: emeasure_bind[where N="count_space UNIV"] space_measure_spmf space_subprob_algebra)
+  finally show "emeasure ?lhs A = emeasure ?rhs A" .
+qed
+
+lemma map_spmf_bind_spmf: "map_spmf f (bind_spmf p g) = bind_spmf p (map_spmf f \<circ> g)"
+by(auto simp add: bind_spmf_def map_bind_pmf fun_eq_iff split: option.split intro: arg_cong2[where f=bind_pmf])
+
+lemma bind_map_spmf: "map_spmf f p \<bind> g = p \<bind> g \<circ> f"
+by(simp add: bind_spmf_def bind_map_pmf o_def cong del: option.case_cong_weak)
+
+lemma spmf_bind_leI:
+  assumes "\<And>y. y \<in> set_spmf p \<Longrightarrow> spmf (f y) x \<le> r"
+  and "0 \<le> r"
+  shows "spmf (bind_spmf p f) x \<le> r"
+proof -
+  have "ennreal (spmf (bind_spmf p f) x) = \<integral>\<^sup>+ y. spmf (f y) x \<partial>measure_spmf p" by(rule ennreal_spmf_bind)
+  also have "\<dots> \<le> \<integral>\<^sup>+ y. r \<partial>measure_spmf p" by(rule nn_integral_mono_AE)(simp add: assms)
+  also have "\<dots> \<le> r" using assms measure_spmf.emeasure_space_le_1
+    by(auto simp add: measure_spmf.emeasure_eq_measure intro!: mult_left_le)
+  finally show ?thesis using assms(2) by(simp)
+qed
+
+lemma map_spmf_conv_bind_spmf: "map_spmf f p = (p \<bind> (\<lambda>x. return_spmf (f x)))"
+by(simp add: map_pmf_def bind_spmf_def)(rule bind_pmf_cong, simp_all split: option.split)
+
+lemma bind_spmf_cong:
+  "\<lbrakk> p = q; \<And>x. x \<in> set_spmf q \<Longrightarrow> f x = g x \<rbrakk>
+  \<Longrightarrow> bind_spmf p f = bind_spmf q g"
+by(auto simp add: bind_spmf_def in_set_spmf intro: bind_pmf_cong option.case_cong)
+
+lemma bind_spmf_cong_simp:
+  "\<lbrakk> p = q; \<And>x. x \<in> set_spmf q =simp=> f x = g x \<rbrakk>
+  \<Longrightarrow> bind_spmf p f = bind_spmf q g"
+by(simp add: simp_implies_def cong: bind_spmf_cong)
+
+lemma set_bind_spmf: "set_spmf (M \<bind> f) = set_spmf M \<bind> (set_spmf \<circ> f)"
+by(auto simp add: set_spmf_def bind_spmf_def bind_UNION split: option.splits)
+
+lemma bind_spmf_const_return_None [simp]: "bind_spmf p (\<lambda>_. return_pmf None) = return_pmf None"
+by(simp add: bind_spmf_def case_option_collapse)
+
+lemma bind_commute_spmf:
+  "bind_spmf p (\<lambda>x. bind_spmf q (f x)) = bind_spmf q (\<lambda>y. bind_spmf p (\<lambda>x. f x y))"
+  (is "?lhs = ?rhs")
+proof -
+  let ?f = "\<lambda>x y. case x of None \<Rightarrow> return_pmf None | Some a \<Rightarrow> (case y of None \<Rightarrow> return_pmf None | Some b \<Rightarrow> f a b)"
+  have "?lhs = p \<bind> (\<lambda>x. q \<bind> ?f x)"
+    unfolding bind_spmf_def by(rule bind_pmf_cong[OF refl])(simp split: option.split)
+  also have "\<dots> = q \<bind> (\<lambda>y. p \<bind> (\<lambda>x. ?f x y))" by(rule bind_commute_pmf)
+  also have "\<dots> = ?rhs" unfolding bind_spmf_def
+    by(rule bind_pmf_cong[OF refl])(auto split: option.split, metis bind_spmf_const_return_None bind_spmf_def)
+  finally show ?thesis .
+qed
+
+subsection {* Relator *}
+
+abbreviation rel_spmf :: "('a \<Rightarrow> 'b \<Rightarrow> bool) \<Rightarrow> 'a spmf \<Rightarrow> 'b spmf \<Rightarrow> bool"
+where "rel_spmf R \<equiv> rel_pmf (rel_option R)"
+
+lemma rel_pmf_mono:
+  "\<lbrakk>rel_pmf A f g; \<And>x y. A x y \<Longrightarrow> B x y \<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> rel_pmf B f g"
+using pmf.rel_mono[of A B] by(simp add: le_fun_def)
+
+lemma rel_spmf_mono:
+  "\<lbrakk>rel_spmf A f g; \<And>x y. A x y \<Longrightarrow> B x y \<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> rel_spmf B f g"
+apply(erule rel_pmf_mono) 
+using option.rel_mono[of A B] by(simp add: le_fun_def)
+
+lemma rel_spmf_mono_strong:
+  "\<lbrakk> rel_spmf A f g; \<And>x y. \<lbrakk> A x y; x \<in> set_spmf f; y \<in> set_spmf g \<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> B x y \<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> rel_spmf B f g"
+apply(erule pmf.rel_mono_strong)
+apply(erule option.rel_mono_strong)
+apply(auto simp add: in_set_spmf)
+done
+
+lemma rel_spmf_reflI: "(\<And>x. x \<in> set_spmf p \<Longrightarrow> P x x) \<Longrightarrow> rel_spmf P p p"
+by(rule rel_pmf_reflI)(auto simp add: set_spmf_def intro: rel_option_reflI)
+
+lemma rel_spmfI [intro?]:
+  "\<lbrakk> \<And>x y. (x, y) \<in> set_spmf pq \<Longrightarrow> P x y; map_spmf fst pq = p; map_spmf snd pq = q \<rbrakk>
+  \<Longrightarrow> rel_spmf P p q"
+by(rule rel_pmf.intros[where pq="map_pmf (\<lambda>x. case x of None \<Rightarrow> (None, None) | Some (a, b) \<Rightarrow> (Some a, Some b)) pq"])
+  (auto simp add: pmf.map_comp o_def in_set_spmf split: option.splits intro: pmf.map_cong)
+
+lemma rel_spmfE [elim?, consumes 1, case_names rel_spmf]:
+  assumes "rel_spmf P p q"
+  obtains pq where 
+    "\<And>x y. (x, y) \<in> set_spmf pq \<Longrightarrow> P x y"
+    "p = map_spmf fst pq"
+    "q = map_spmf snd pq"
+using assms
+proof(cases rule: rel_pmf.cases[consumes 1, case_names rel_pmf])
+  case (rel_pmf pq)
+  let ?pq = "map_pmf (\<lambda>(a, b). case (a, b) of (Some x, Some y) \<Rightarrow> Some (x, y) | _ \<Rightarrow> None) pq"
+  have "\<And>x y. (x, y) \<in> set_spmf ?pq \<Longrightarrow> P x y"
+    by(auto simp add: in_set_spmf split: option.split_asm dest: rel_pmf(1))
+  moreover
+  have "\<And>x. (x, None) \<in> set_pmf pq \<Longrightarrow> x = None" by(auto dest!: rel_pmf(1))
+  then have "p = map_spmf fst ?pq" using rel_pmf(2)
+    by(auto simp add: pmf.map_comp split_beta intro!: pmf.map_cong split: option.split)
+  moreover
+  have "\<And>y. (None, y) \<in> set_pmf pq \<Longrightarrow> y = None" by(auto dest!: rel_pmf(1))
+  then have "q = map_spmf snd ?pq" using rel_pmf(3)
+    by(auto simp add: pmf.map_comp split_beta intro!: pmf.map_cong split: option.split)
+  ultimately show thesis ..
+qed
+
+lemma rel_spmf_simps:
+  "rel_spmf R p q \<longleftrightarrow> (\<exists>pq. (\<forall>(x, y)\<in>set_spmf pq. R x y) \<and> map_spmf fst pq = p \<and> map_spmf snd pq = q)"
+by(auto intro: rel_spmfI elim!: rel_spmfE)
+
+lemma spmf_rel_map:
+  shows spmf_rel_map1: "\<And>R f x. rel_spmf R (map_spmf f x) = rel_spmf (\<lambda>x. R (f x)) x"
+  and spmf_rel_map2: "\<And>R x g y. rel_spmf R x (map_spmf g y) = rel_spmf (\<lambda>x y. R x (g y)) x y"
+by(simp_all add: fun_eq_iff pmf.rel_map option.rel_map[abs_def])
+
+lemma spmf_rel_conversep: "rel_spmf R\<inverse>\<inverse> = (rel_spmf R)\<inverse>\<inverse>"
+by(simp add: option.rel_conversep pmf.rel_conversep)
+
+lemma spmf_rel_eq: "rel_spmf op = = op ="
+by(simp add: pmf.rel_eq option.rel_eq)
+
+context begin interpretation lifting_syntax .
+
+lemma bind_spmf_parametric [transfer_rule]:
+  "(rel_spmf A ===> (A ===> rel_spmf B) ===> rel_spmf B) bind_spmf bind_spmf"
+unfolding bind_spmf_def[abs_def] by transfer_prover
+
+lemma return_spmf_parametric: "(A ===> rel_spmf A) return_spmf return_spmf"
+by transfer_prover
+
+lemma map_spmf_parametric: "((A ===> B) ===> rel_spmf A ===> rel_spmf B) map_spmf map_spmf"
+by transfer_prover
+
+lemma rel_spmf_parametric:
+  "((A ===> B ===> op =) ===> rel_spmf A ===> rel_spmf B ===> op =) rel_spmf rel_spmf"
+by transfer_prover
+
+lemma set_spmf_parametric [transfer_rule]:
+  "(rel_spmf A ===> rel_set A) set_spmf set_spmf"
+unfolding set_spmf_def[abs_def] by transfer_prover
+
+lemma return_spmf_None_parametric:
+  "(rel_spmf A) (return_pmf None) (return_pmf None)"
+by simp
+
+end
+
+lemma rel_spmf_bindI:
+  "\<lbrakk> rel_spmf R p q; \<And>x y. R x y \<Longrightarrow> rel_spmf P (f x) (g y) \<rbrakk>
+  \<Longrightarrow> rel_spmf P (p \<bind> f) (q \<bind> g)"
+by(fact bind_spmf_parametric[THEN rel_funD, THEN rel_funD, OF _ rel_funI])
+
+lemma rel_spmf_bind_reflI:
+  "(\<And>x. x \<in> set_spmf p \<Longrightarrow> rel_spmf P (f x) (g x)) \<Longrightarrow> rel_spmf P (p \<bind> f) (p \<bind> g)"
+by(rule rel_spmf_bindI[where R="\<lambda>x y. x = y \<and> x \<in> set_spmf p"])(auto intro: rel_spmf_reflI)
+
+lemma rel_pmf_return_pmfI: "P x y \<Longrightarrow> rel_pmf P (return_pmf x) (return_pmf y)"
+by(rule rel_pmf.intros[where pq="return_pmf (x, y)"])(simp_all)
+
+context begin interpretation lifting_syntax .
+text \<open>We do not yet have a relator for @{typ "'a measure"}, so we combine @{const measure} and @{const measure_pmf}\<close>
+lemma measure_pmf_parametric:
+  "(rel_pmf A ===> rel_pred A ===> op =) (\<lambda>p. measure (measure_pmf p)) (\<lambda>q. measure (measure_pmf q))"
+proof(rule rel_funI)+
+  fix p q X Y
+  assume "rel_pmf A p q" and "rel_pred A X Y"
+  from this(1) obtain pq where A: "\<And>x y. (x, y) \<in> set_pmf pq \<Longrightarrow> A x y"
+    and p: "p = map_pmf fst pq" and q: "q = map_pmf snd pq" by cases auto
+  show "measure p X = measure q Y" unfolding p q measure_map_pmf
+    by(rule measure_pmf.finite_measure_eq_AE)(auto simp add: AE_measure_pmf_iff dest!: A rel_predD[OF \<open>rel_pred _ _ _\<close>])
+qed
+
+lemma measure_spmf_parametric:
+  "(rel_spmf A ===> rel_pred A ===> op =) (\<lambda>p. measure (measure_spmf p)) (\<lambda>q. measure (measure_spmf q))"
+unfolding measure_measure_spmf_conv_measure_pmf[abs_def]
+apply(rule rel_funI)+
+apply(erule measure_pmf_parametric[THEN rel_funD, THEN rel_funD])
+apply(auto simp add: rel_pred_def rel_fun_def elim: option.rel_cases)
+done
+end
+
+subsection {* From @{typ "'a pmf"} to @{typ "'a spmf"} *}
+
+definition spmf_of_pmf :: "'a pmf \<Rightarrow> 'a spmf"
+where "spmf_of_pmf = map_pmf Some"
+
+lemma set_spmf_spmf_of_pmf [simp]: "set_spmf (spmf_of_pmf p) = set_pmf p"
+by(auto simp add: spmf_of_pmf_def set_spmf_def bind_image o_def)
+
+lemma spmf_spmf_of_pmf [simp]: "spmf (spmf_of_pmf p) x = pmf p x"
+by(simp add: spmf_of_pmf_def)
+
+lemma pmf_spmf_of_pmf_None [simp]: "pmf (spmf_of_pmf p) None = 0"
+using ennreal_pmf_map[of Some p None] by(simp add: spmf_of_pmf_def)
+
+lemma emeasure_spmf_of_pmf [simp]: "emeasure (measure_spmf (spmf_of_pmf p)) A = emeasure (measure_pmf p) A"
+by(simp add: emeasure_measure_spmf_conv_measure_pmf spmf_of_pmf_def inj_vimage_image_eq)
+
+lemma measure_spmf_spmf_of_pmf [simp]: "measure_spmf (spmf_of_pmf p) = measure_pmf p"
+by(rule measure_eqI) simp_all
+
+lemma map_spmf_of_pmf [simp]: "map_spmf f (spmf_of_pmf p) = spmf_of_pmf (map_pmf f p)"
+by(simp add: spmf_of_pmf_def pmf.map_comp o_def)
+
+lemma rel_spmf_spmf_of_pmf [simp]: "rel_spmf R (spmf_of_pmf p) (spmf_of_pmf q) = rel_pmf R p q"
+by(simp add: spmf_of_pmf_def pmf.rel_map)
+
+lemma spmf_of_pmf_return_pmf [simp]: "spmf_of_pmf (return_pmf x) = return_spmf x"
+by(simp add: spmf_of_pmf_def)
+
+lemma bind_spmf_of_pmf [simp]: "bind_spmf (spmf_of_pmf p) f = bind_pmf p f"
+by(simp add: spmf_of_pmf_def bind_spmf_def bind_map_pmf)
+
+lemma set_spmf_bind_pmf: "set_spmf (bind_pmf p f) = Set.bind (set_pmf p) (set_spmf \<circ> f)"
+unfolding bind_spmf_of_pmf[symmetric] by(subst set_bind_spmf) simp
+
+lemma spmf_of_pmf_bind: "spmf_of_pmf (bind_pmf p f) = bind_pmf p (\<lambda>x. spmf_of_pmf (f x))"
+by(simp add: spmf_of_pmf_def map_bind_pmf)
+
+lemma bind_pmf_return_spmf: "p \<bind> (\<lambda>x. return_spmf (f x)) = spmf_of_pmf (map_pmf f p)"
+by(simp add: map_pmf_def spmf_of_pmf_bind)
+
+subsection {* Weight of a subprobability *}
+
+abbreviation weight_spmf :: "'a spmf \<Rightarrow> real"
+where "weight_spmf p \<equiv> measure (measure_spmf p) (space (measure_spmf p))"
+
+lemma weight_spmf_def: "weight_spmf p = measure (measure_spmf p) UNIV"
+by(simp add: space_measure_spmf)
+
+lemma weight_spmf_le_1: "weight_spmf p \<le> 1"
+by(simp add: measure_spmf.subprob_measure_le_1)
+
+lemma weight_return_spmf [simp]: "weight_spmf (return_spmf x) = 1"
+by(simp add: measure_spmf_return_spmf measure_return)
+
+lemma weight_return_pmf_None [simp]: "weight_spmf (return_pmf None) = 0"
+by(simp)
+
+lemma weight_map_spmf [simp]: "weight_spmf (map_spmf f p) = weight_spmf p"
+by(simp add: weight_spmf_def measure_map_spmf)
+
+lemma weight_spmf_of_pmf [simp]: "weight_spmf (spmf_of_pmf p) = 1"
+using measure_pmf.prob_space[of p] by(simp add: spmf_of_pmf_def weight_spmf_def)
+
+lemma weight_spmf_nonneg: "weight_spmf p \<ge> 0"
+by(fact measure_nonneg)
+
+lemma (in finite_measure) integrable_weight_spmf [simp]: 
+  "(\<lambda>x. weight_spmf (f x)) \<in> borel_measurable M \<Longrightarrow> integrable M (\<lambda>x. weight_spmf (f x))"
+by(rule integrable_const_bound[where B=1])(simp_all add: weight_spmf_nonneg weight_spmf_le_1)
+
+lemma weight_spmf_eq_nn_integral_spmf: "weight_spmf p = \<integral>\<^sup>+ x. spmf p x \<partial>count_space UNIV"
+by(simp add: measure_measure_spmf_conv_measure_pmf space_measure_spmf measure_pmf.emeasure_eq_measure[symmetric] nn_integral_pmf[symmetric] embed_measure_count_space[symmetric] inj_on_def nn_integral_embed_measure measurable_embed_measure1)
+
+lemma weight_spmf_eq_nn_integral_support:
+  "weight_spmf p = \<integral>\<^sup>+ x. spmf p x \<partial>count_space (set_spmf p)"
+unfolding weight_spmf_eq_nn_integral_spmf
+by(auto simp add: nn_integral_count_space_indicator in_set_spmf_iff_spmf intro!: nn_integral_cong split: split_indicator)
+
+lemma pmf_None_eq_weight_spmf: "pmf p None = 1 - weight_spmf p"
+proof -
+  have "weight_spmf p = \<integral>\<^sup>+ x. spmf p x \<partial>count_space UNIV" by(rule weight_spmf_eq_nn_integral_spmf)
+  also have "\<dots> = \<integral>\<^sup>+ x. ennreal (pmf p x) * indicator (range Some) x \<partial>count_space UNIV"
+    by(simp add: nn_integral_count_space_indicator[symmetric] embed_measure_count_space[symmetric] nn_integral_embed_measure measurable_embed_measure1)
+  also have "\<dots> + pmf p None = \<integral>\<^sup>+ x. ennreal (pmf p x) * indicator (range Some) x + ennreal (pmf p None) * indicator {None} x \<partial>count_space UNIV"
+    by(subst nn_integral_add)(simp_all add: max_def)
+  also have "\<dots> = \<integral>\<^sup>+ x. pmf p x \<partial>count_space UNIV"
+    by(rule nn_integral_cong)(auto split: split_indicator)
+  also have "\<dots> = 1" by (simp add: nn_integral_pmf)
+  finally show ?thesis by(simp add: ennreal_plus[symmetric] del: ennreal_plus)
+qed
+
+lemma weight_spmf_conv_pmf_None: "weight_spmf p = 1 - pmf p None"
+by(simp add: pmf_None_eq_weight_spmf)
+
+lemma weight_spmf_le_0: "weight_spmf p \<le> 0 \<longleftrightarrow> weight_spmf p = 0"
+by(rule measure_le_0_iff)
+
+lemma weight_spmf_lt_0: "\<not> weight_spmf p < 0"
+by(simp add: not_less weight_spmf_nonneg)
+
+lemma spmf_le_weight: "spmf p x \<le> weight_spmf p"
+proof -
+  have "ennreal (spmf p x) \<le> weight_spmf p"
+    unfolding weight_spmf_eq_nn_integral_spmf by(rule nn_integral_ge_point) simp
+  then show ?thesis by simp
+qed
+
+lemma weight_spmf_eq_0: "weight_spmf p = 0 \<longleftrightarrow> p = return_pmf None"
+by(auto intro!: pmf_eqI simp add: pmf_None_eq_weight_spmf split: split_indicator)(metis not_Some_eq pmf_le_0_iff spmf_le_weight)
+
+lemma weight_bind_spmf: "weight_spmf (x \<bind> f) = lebesgue_integral (measure_spmf x) (weight_spmf \<circ> f)"
+unfolding weight_spmf_def
+by(simp add: measure_spmf_bind o_def measure_spmf.measure_bind[where N="count_space UNIV"])
+
+lemma rel_spmf_weightD: "rel_spmf A p q \<Longrightarrow> weight_spmf p = weight_spmf q"
+by(erule rel_spmfE) simp
+
+lemma rel_spmf_bij_betw:
+  assumes f: "bij_betw f (set_spmf p) (set_spmf q)"
+  and eq: "\<And>x. x \<in> set_spmf p \<Longrightarrow> spmf p x = spmf q (f x)"
+  shows "rel_spmf (\<lambda>x y. f x = y) p q"
+proof -
+  let ?f = "map_option f"
+
+  have weq: "ennreal (weight_spmf p) = ennreal (weight_spmf q)"
+    unfolding weight_spmf_eq_nn_integral_support
+    by(subst nn_integral_bij_count_space[OF f, symmetric])(rule nn_integral_cong_AE, simp add: eq AE_count_space)
+  then have "None \<in> set_pmf p \<longleftrightarrow> None \<in> set_pmf q"
+    by(simp add: pmf_None_eq_weight_spmf set_pmf_iff)
+  with f have "bij_betw (map_option f) (set_pmf p) (set_pmf q)"
+    apply(auto simp add: bij_betw_def in_set_spmf inj_on_def intro: option.expand)
+    apply(rename_tac [!] x)
+    apply(case_tac [!] x)
+    apply(auto iff: in_set_spmf)
+    done
+  then have "rel_pmf (\<lambda>x y. ?f x = y) p q"
+    by(rule rel_pmf_bij_betw)(case_tac x, simp_all add: weq[simplified] eq in_set_spmf pmf_None_eq_weight_spmf)
+  thus ?thesis by(rule pmf.rel_mono_strong)(auto intro!: rel_optionI simp add: Option.is_none_def)
+qed
+
+subsection {* From density to spmfs *}
+
+context fixes f :: "'a \<Rightarrow> real" begin
+
+definition embed_spmf :: "'a spmf"
+where "embed_spmf = embed_pmf (\<lambda>x. case x of None \<Rightarrow> 1 - enn2real (\<integral>\<^sup>+ x. ennreal (f x) \<partial>count_space UNIV) | Some x' \<Rightarrow> max 0 (f x'))"
+
+context
+  assumes prob: "(\<integral>\<^sup>+ x. ennreal (f x) \<partial>count_space UNIV) \<le> 1"
+begin
+
+lemma nn_integral_embed_spmf_eq_1:
+  "(\<integral>\<^sup>+ x. ennreal (case x of None \<Rightarrow> 1 - enn2real (\<integral>\<^sup>+ x. ennreal (f x) \<partial>count_space UNIV) | Some x' \<Rightarrow> max 0 (f x')) \<partial>count_space UNIV) = 1"
+  (is "?lhs = _" is "(\<integral>\<^sup>+ x. ?f x \<partial>?M) = _")
+proof -
+  have "?lhs = \<integral>\<^sup>+ x. ?f x * indicator {None} x + ?f x * indicator (range Some) x \<partial>?M"
+    by(rule nn_integral_cong)(auto split: split_indicator)
+  also have "\<dots> = (1 - enn2real (\<integral>\<^sup>+ x. ennreal (f x) \<partial>count_space UNIV)) + \<integral>\<^sup>+ x. ?f x * indicator (range Some) x \<partial>?M"
+    (is "_ = ?None + ?Some")
+    by(subst nn_integral_add)(simp_all add: AE_count_space max_def le_diff_eq real_le_ereal_iff one_ereal_def[symmetric] prob split: option.split)
+  also have "?Some = \<integral>\<^sup>+ x. ?f x \<partial>count_space (range Some)"
+    by(simp add: nn_integral_count_space_indicator)
+  also have "count_space (range Some) = embed_measure (count_space UNIV) Some"
+    by(simp add: embed_measure_count_space)
+  also have "(\<integral>\<^sup>+ x. ?f x \<partial>\<dots>) = \<integral>\<^sup>+ x. ennreal (f x) \<partial>count_space UNIV"
+    by(subst nn_integral_embed_measure)(simp_all add: measurable_embed_measure1)
+  also have "?None + \<dots> = 1" using prob
+    by(auto simp add: ennreal_minus[symmetric] ennreal_1[symmetric] ennreal_enn2real_if top_unique simp del: ennreal_1)(simp add: diff_add_self_ennreal)
+  finally show ?thesis .
+qed
+
+lemma pmf_embed_spmf_None: "pmf embed_spmf None = 1 - enn2real (\<integral>\<^sup>+ x. ennreal (f x) \<partial>count_space UNIV)"
+unfolding embed_spmf_def
+apply(subst pmf_embed_pmf)
+  subgoal using prob by(simp add: field_simps enn2real_leI split: option.split)
+ apply(rule nn_integral_embed_spmf_eq_1)
+apply simp
+done
+
+lemma spmf_embed_spmf [simp]: "spmf embed_spmf x = max 0 (f x)"
+unfolding embed_spmf_def
+apply(subst pmf_embed_pmf)
+  subgoal using prob by(simp add: field_simps enn2real_leI split: option.split)
+ apply(rule nn_integral_embed_spmf_eq_1)
+apply simp
+done
+
+end
+
+end
+
+lemma embed_spmf_K_0[simp]: "embed_spmf (\<lambda>_. 0) = return_pmf None" (is "?lhs = ?rhs")
+by(rule spmf_eqI)(simp add: zero_ereal_def[symmetric])
+
+subsection {* Ordering on spmfs *}
+
+text {*
+  @{const rel_pmf} does not preserve a ccpo structure. Counterexample by Saheb-Djahromi:
+  Take prefix order over @{text "bool llist"} and
+  the set @{text "range (\<lambda>n :: nat. uniform (llist_n n))"} where @{text "llist_n"} is the set
+  of all @{text llist}s of length @{text n} and @{text uniform} returns a uniform distribution over
+  the given set. The set forms a chain in @{text "ord_pmf lprefix"}, but it has not an upper bound.
+  Any upper bound may contain only infinite lists in its support because otherwise it is not greater
+  than the @{text "n+1"}-st element in the chain where @{text n} is the length of the finite list.
+  Moreover its support must contain all infinite lists, because otherwise there is a finite list
+  all of whose finite extensions are not in the support - a contradiction to the upper bound property.
+  Hence, the support is uncountable, but pmf's only have countable support.
+
+  However, if all chains in the ccpo are finite, then it should preserve the ccpo structure.
+*}
+
+abbreviation ord_spmf :: "('a \<Rightarrow> 'a \<Rightarrow> bool) \<Rightarrow> 'a spmf \<Rightarrow> 'a spmf \<Rightarrow> bool"
+where "ord_spmf ord \<equiv> rel_pmf (ord_option ord)"
+
+locale ord_spmf_syntax begin
+notation ord_spmf (infix "\<sqsubseteq>\<index>" 60)
+end
+
+lemma ord_spmf_map_spmf1: "ord_spmf R (map_spmf f p) = ord_spmf (\<lambda>x. R (f x)) p"
+by(simp add: pmf.rel_map[abs_def] ord_option_map1[abs_def])
+
+lemma ord_spmf_map_spmf2: "ord_spmf R p (map_spmf f q) = ord_spmf (\<lambda>x y. R x (f y)) p q"
+by(simp add: pmf.rel_map ord_option_map2)
+
+lemma ord_spmf_map_spmf12: "ord_spmf R (map_spmf f p) (map_spmf f q) = ord_spmf (\<lambda>x y. R (f x) (f y)) p q"
+by(simp add: pmf.rel_map ord_option_map1[abs_def] ord_option_map2)
+
+lemmas ord_spmf_map_spmf = ord_spmf_map_spmf1 ord_spmf_map_spmf2 ord_spmf_map_spmf12
+
+context fixes ord :: "'a \<Rightarrow> 'a \<Rightarrow> bool" (structure) begin
+interpretation ord_spmf_syntax .
+
+lemma ord_spmfI:
+  "\<lbrakk> \<And>x y. (x, y) \<in> set_spmf pq \<Longrightarrow> ord x y; map_spmf fst pq = p; map_spmf snd pq = q \<rbrakk>
+  \<Longrightarrow> p \<sqsubseteq> q"
+by(rule rel_pmf.intros[where pq="map_pmf (\<lambda>x. case x of None \<Rightarrow> (None, None) | Some (a, b) \<Rightarrow> (Some a, Some b)) pq"])
+  (auto simp add: pmf.map_comp o_def in_set_spmf split: option.splits intro: pmf.map_cong)
+
+lemma ord_spmf_None [simp]: "return_pmf None \<sqsubseteq> x"
+by(rule rel_pmf.intros[where pq="map_pmf (Pair None) x"])(auto simp add: pmf.map_comp o_def)
+
+lemma ord_spmf_reflI: "(\<And>x. x \<in> set_spmf p \<Longrightarrow> ord x x) \<Longrightarrow> p \<sqsubseteq> p"
+by(rule rel_pmf_reflI ord_option_reflI)+(auto simp add: in_set_spmf)
+
+lemma rel_spmf_inf:
+  assumes "p \<sqsubseteq> q"
+  and "q \<sqsubseteq> p"
+  and refl: "reflp ord"
+  and trans: "transp ord"
+  shows "rel_spmf (inf ord ord\<inverse>\<inverse>) p q"
+proof -
+  from \<open>p \<sqsubseteq> q\<close> \<open>q \<sqsubseteq> p\<close>
+  have "rel_pmf (inf (ord_option ord) (ord_option ord)\<inverse>\<inverse>) p q"
+    by(rule rel_pmf_inf)(blast intro: reflp_ord_option transp_ord_option refl trans)+
+  also have "inf (ord_option ord) (ord_option ord)\<inverse>\<inverse> = rel_option (inf ord ord\<inverse>\<inverse>)"
+    by(auto simp add: fun_eq_iff elim: ord_option.cases option.rel_cases)
+  finally show ?thesis .
+qed
+
+end
+
+lemma ord_spmf_return_spmf2: "ord_spmf R p (return_spmf y) \<longleftrightarrow> (\<forall>x\<in>set_spmf p. R x y)"
+by(auto simp add: rel_pmf_return_pmf2 in_set_spmf ord_option.simps intro: ccontr)
+
+lemma ord_spmf_mono: "\<lbrakk> ord_spmf A p q; \<And>x y. A x y \<Longrightarrow> B x y \<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> ord_spmf B p q"
+by(erule rel_pmf_mono)(erule ord_option_mono)
+
+lemma ord_spmf_compp: "ord_spmf (A OO B) = ord_spmf A OO ord_spmf B"
+by(simp add: ord_option_compp pmf.rel_compp)
+
+lemma ord_spmf_bindI:
+  assumes pq: "ord_spmf R p q"
+  and fg: "\<And>x y. R x y \<Longrightarrow> ord_spmf P (f x) (g y)"
+  shows "ord_spmf P (p \<bind> f) (q \<bind> g)"
+unfolding bind_spmf_def using pq
+by(rule rel_pmf_bindI)(auto split: option.split intro: fg)
+
+lemma ord_spmf_bind_reflI:
+  "(\<And>x. x \<in> set_spmf p \<Longrightarrow> ord_spmf R (f x) (g x))
+  \<Longrightarrow> ord_spmf R (p \<bind> f) (p \<bind> g)"
+by(rule ord_spmf_bindI[where R="\<lambda>x y. x = y \<and> x \<in> set_spmf p"])(auto intro: ord_spmf_reflI)
+
+lemma ord_pmf_increaseI:
+  assumes le: "\<And>x. spmf p x \<le> spmf q x"
+  and refl: "\<And>x. x \<in> set_spmf p \<Longrightarrow> R x x"
+  shows "ord_spmf R p q"
+proof(rule rel_pmf.intros)
+  define pq where "pq = embed_pmf 
+    (\<lambda>(x, y). case x of Some x' \<Rightarrow> (case y of Some y' \<Rightarrow> if x' = y' then spmf p x' else 0 | None \<Rightarrow> 0)
+      | None \<Rightarrow> (case y of None \<Rightarrow> pmf q None | Some y' \<Rightarrow> spmf q y' - spmf p y'))"
+     (is "_ = embed_pmf ?f")
+  have nonneg: "\<And>xy. ?f xy \<ge> 0"
+    by(clarsimp simp add: le field_simps split: option.split)
+  have integral: "(\<integral>\<^sup>+ xy. ?f xy \<partial>count_space UNIV) = 1" (is "nn_integral ?M _ = _")
+  proof -
+    have "(\<integral>\<^sup>+ xy. ?f xy \<partial>count_space UNIV) =
+      \<integral>\<^sup>+ xy. ennreal (?f xy) * indicator {(None, None)} xy + 
+             ennreal (?f xy) * indicator (range (\<lambda>x. (None, Some x))) xy + 
+             ennreal (?f xy) * indicator (range (\<lambda>x. (Some x, Some x))) xy \<partial>?M"
+      by(rule nn_integral_cong)(auto split: split_indicator option.splits if_split_asm)
+    also have "\<dots> = (\<integral>\<^sup>+ xy. ?f xy * indicator {(None, None)} xy \<partial>?M) +
+        (\<integral>\<^sup>+ xy. ennreal (?f xy) * indicator (range (\<lambda>x. (None, Some x))) xy \<partial>?M) +
+        (\<integral>\<^sup>+ xy. ennreal (?f xy) * indicator (range (\<lambda>x. (Some x, Some x))) xy \<partial>?M)"
+      (is "_ = ?None + ?Some2 + ?Some")
+      by(subst nn_integral_add)(simp_all add: nn_integral_add AE_count_space le_diff_eq le split: option.split)
+    also have "?None = pmf q None" by simp
+    also have "?Some2 = \<integral>\<^sup>+ x. ennreal (spmf q x) - spmf p x \<partial>count_space UNIV"
+      by(simp add: nn_integral_count_space_indicator[symmetric] embed_measure_count_space[symmetric] inj_on_def nn_integral_embed_measure measurable_embed_measure1 ennreal_minus)
+    also have "\<dots> = (\<integral>\<^sup>+ x. spmf q x \<partial>count_space UNIV) - (\<integral>\<^sup>+ x. spmf p x \<partial>count_space UNIV)"
+      (is "_ = ?Some2' - ?Some2''")
+      by(subst nn_integral_diff)(simp_all add: le nn_integral_spmf_neq_top)
+    also have "?Some = \<integral>\<^sup>+ x. spmf p x \<partial>count_space UNIV"
+      by(simp add: nn_integral_count_space_indicator[symmetric] embed_measure_count_space[symmetric] inj_on_def nn_integral_embed_measure measurable_embed_measure1)
+    also have "pmf q None + (?Some2' - ?Some2'') + \<dots> = pmf q None + ?Some2'"
+      by(auto simp add: diff_add_self_ennreal le intro!: nn_integral_mono)
+    also have "\<dots> = \<integral>\<^sup>+ x. ennreal (pmf q x) * indicator {None} x + ennreal (pmf q x) * indicator (range Some) x \<partial>count_space UNIV"
+      by(subst nn_integral_add)(simp_all add: nn_integral_count_space_indicator[symmetric] embed_measure_count_space[symmetric] nn_integral_embed_measure measurable_embed_measure1)
+    also have "\<dots> = \<integral>\<^sup>+ x. pmf q x \<partial>count_space UNIV"
+      by(rule nn_integral_cong)(auto split: split_indicator)
+    also have "\<dots> = 1" by(simp add: nn_integral_pmf)
+    finally show ?thesis .
+  qed
+  note f = nonneg integral
+
+  { fix x y
+    assume "(x, y) \<in> set_pmf pq"
+    hence "?f (x, y) \<noteq> 0" unfolding pq_def by(simp add: set_embed_pmf[OF f])
+    then show "ord_option R x y"
+      by(simp add: spmf_eq_0_set_spmf refl split: option.split_asm if_split_asm) }
+
+  have weight_le: "weight_spmf p \<le> weight_spmf q"
+    by(subst ennreal_le_iff[symmetric])(auto simp add: weight_spmf_eq_nn_integral_spmf intro!: nn_integral_mono le)
+
+  show "map_pmf fst pq = p"
+  proof(rule pmf_eqI)
+    fix i
+    have "ennreal (pmf (map_pmf fst pq) i) = (\<integral>\<^sup>+ y. pmf pq (i, y) \<partial>count_space UNIV)"
+      unfolding pq_def ennreal_pmf_map
+      apply(simp add: embed_pmf.rep_eq[OF f] o_def emeasure_density nn_integral_count_space_indicator[symmetric])
+      apply(subst pmf_embed_pmf[OF f])
+      apply(rule nn_integral_bij_count_space[symmetric])
+      apply(auto simp add: bij_betw_def inj_on_def)
+      done
+    also have "\<dots> = pmf p i"
+    proof(cases i)
+      case (Some x)
+      have "(\<integral>\<^sup>+ y. pmf pq (Some x, y) \<partial>count_space UNIV) = \<integral>\<^sup>+ y. pmf p (Some x) * indicator {Some x} y \<partial>count_space UNIV"
+        by(rule nn_integral_cong)(simp add: pq_def pmf_embed_pmf[OF f] split: option.split)
+      then show ?thesis using Some by simp
+    next
+      case None
+      have "(\<integral>\<^sup>+ y. pmf pq (None, y) \<partial>count_space UNIV) = 
+            (\<integral>\<^sup>+ y. ennreal (pmf pq (None, Some (the y))) * indicator (range Some) y + 
+                   ennreal (pmf pq (None, None)) * indicator {None} y \<partial>count_space UNIV)"
+        by(rule nn_integral_cong)(auto split: split_indicator)
+      also have "\<dots> = (\<integral>\<^sup>+ y. ennreal (pmf pq (None, Some (the y))) \<partial>count_space (range Some)) + pmf pq (None, None)"
+        by(subst nn_integral_add)(simp_all add: nn_integral_count_space_indicator)
+      also have "\<dots> = (\<integral>\<^sup>+ y. ennreal (spmf q y) - ennreal (spmf p y) \<partial>count_space UNIV) + pmf q None"
+        by(simp add: pq_def pmf_embed_pmf[OF f] embed_measure_count_space[symmetric] nn_integral_embed_measure measurable_embed_measure1 ennreal_minus)
+      also have "(\<integral>\<^sup>+ y. ennreal (spmf q y) - ennreal (spmf p y) \<partial>count_space UNIV) =
+                 (\<integral>\<^sup>+ y. spmf q y \<partial>count_space UNIV) - (\<integral>\<^sup>+ y. spmf p y \<partial>count_space UNIV)"
+        by(subst nn_integral_diff)(simp_all add: AE_count_space le nn_integral_spmf_neq_top split: split_indicator)
+      also have "\<dots> = pmf p None - pmf q None"
+        by(simp add: pmf_None_eq_weight_spmf weight_spmf_eq_nn_integral_spmf[symmetric] ennreal_minus)
+      also have "\<dots> = ennreal (pmf p None) - ennreal (pmf q None)" by(simp add: ennreal_minus)
+      finally show ?thesis using None weight_le
+        by(auto simp add: diff_add_self_ennreal pmf_None_eq_weight_spmf intro: ennreal_leI)
+    qed
+    finally show "pmf (map_pmf fst pq) i = pmf p i" by simp
+  qed
+
+  show "map_pmf snd pq = q"
+  proof(rule pmf_eqI)
+    fix i
+    have "ennreal (pmf (map_pmf snd pq) i) = (\<integral>\<^sup>+ x. pmf pq (x, i) \<partial>count_space UNIV)"
+      unfolding pq_def ennreal_pmf_map
+      apply(simp add: embed_pmf.rep_eq[OF f] o_def emeasure_density nn_integral_count_space_indicator[symmetric])
+      apply(subst pmf_embed_pmf[OF f])
+      apply(rule nn_integral_bij_count_space[symmetric])
+      apply(auto simp add: bij_betw_def inj_on_def)
+      done
+    also have "\<dots> = ennreal (pmf q i)"
+    proof(cases i)
+      case None
+      have "(\<integral>\<^sup>+ x. pmf pq (x, None) \<partial>count_space UNIV) = \<integral>\<^sup>+ x. pmf q None * indicator {None :: 'a option} x \<partial>count_space UNIV"
+        by(rule nn_integral_cong)(simp add: pq_def pmf_embed_pmf[OF f] split: option.split)
+      then show ?thesis using None by simp
+    next
+      case (Some y)
+      have "(\<integral>\<^sup>+ x. pmf pq (x, Some y) \<partial>count_space UNIV) = 
+        (\<integral>\<^sup>+ x. ennreal (pmf pq (x, Some y)) * indicator (range Some) x + 
+               ennreal (pmf pq (None, Some y)) * indicator {None} x \<partial>count_space UNIV)"
+        by(rule nn_integral_cong)(auto split: split_indicator)
+      also have "\<dots> = (\<integral>\<^sup>+ x. ennreal (pmf pq (x, Some y)) * indicator (range Some) x \<partial>count_space UNIV) + pmf pq (None, Some y)"
+        by(subst nn_integral_add)(simp_all)
+      also have "\<dots> = (\<integral>\<^sup>+ x. ennreal (spmf p y) * indicator {Some y} x \<partial>count_space UNIV) + (spmf q y - spmf p y)"
+        by(auto simp add: pq_def pmf_embed_pmf[OF f] one_ereal_def[symmetric] simp del: nn_integral_indicator_singleton intro!: arg_cong2[where f="op +"] nn_integral_cong split: option.split)
+      also have "\<dots> = spmf q y" by(simp add: ennreal_minus[symmetric] le)
+      finally show ?thesis using Some by simp
+    qed
+    finally show "pmf (map_pmf snd pq) i = pmf q i" by simp
+  qed
+qed
+
+lemma ord_spmf_eq_leD:
+  assumes "ord_spmf op = p q"
+  shows "spmf p x \<le> spmf q x"
+proof(cases "x \<in> set_spmf p")
+  case False
+  thus ?thesis by(simp add: in_set_spmf_iff_spmf)
+next
+  case True
+  from assms obtain pq
+    where pq: "\<And>x y. (x, y) \<in> set_pmf pq \<Longrightarrow> ord_option op = x y"
+    and p: "p = map_pmf fst pq"
+    and q: "q = map_pmf snd pq" by cases auto
+  have "ennreal (spmf p x) = integral\<^sup>N pq (indicator (fst -` {Some x}))"
+    using p by(simp add: ennreal_pmf_map)
+  also have "\<dots> = integral\<^sup>N pq (indicator {(Some x, Some x)})"
+    by(rule nn_integral_cong_AE)(auto simp add: AE_measure_pmf_iff split: split_indicator dest: pq)
+  also have "\<dots> \<le> integral\<^sup>N pq (indicator (snd -` {Some x}))"
+    by(rule nn_integral_mono) simp
+  also have "\<dots> = ennreal (spmf q x)" using q by(simp add: ennreal_pmf_map)
+  finally show ?thesis by simp
+qed
+
+lemma ord_spmf_eqD_set_spmf: "ord_spmf op = p q \<Longrightarrow> set_spmf p \<subseteq> set_spmf q"
+by(rule subsetI)(drule_tac x=x in ord_spmf_eq_leD, auto simp add: in_set_spmf_iff_spmf)
+
+lemma ord_spmf_eqD_emeasure:
+  "ord_spmf op = p q \<Longrightarrow> emeasure (measure_spmf p) A \<le> emeasure (measure_spmf q) A"
+by(auto intro!: nn_integral_mono split: split_indicator dest: ord_spmf_eq_leD simp add: nn_integral_measure_spmf nn_integral_indicator[symmetric])
+
+lemma ord_spmf_eqD_measure_spmf: "ord_spmf op = p q \<Longrightarrow> measure_spmf p \<le> measure_spmf q"
+by(rule less_eq_measure.intros)(simp_all add: ord_spmf_eqD_emeasure)
+
+
+subsection {* CCPO structure for the flat ccpo @{term "ord_option op ="} *}
+
+context fixes Y :: "'a spmf set" begin
+
+definition lub_spmf :: "'a spmf"
+where "lub_spmf = embed_spmf (\<lambda>x. enn2real (SUP p : Y. ennreal (spmf p x)))"
+  -- \<open>We go through @{typ ennreal} to have a sensible definition even if @{term Y} is empty.\<close> 
+
+lemma lub_spmf_empty [simp]: "SPMF.lub_spmf {} = return_pmf None"
+by(simp add: SPMF.lub_spmf_def bot_ereal_def)
+
+context assumes chain: "Complete_Partial_Order.chain (ord_spmf op =) Y" begin
+
+lemma chain_ord_spmf_eqD: "Complete_Partial_Order.chain (op \<le>) ((\<lambda>p x. ennreal (spmf p x)) ` Y)"
+  (is "Complete_Partial_Order.chain _ (?f ` _)")
+proof(rule chainI)
+  fix f g
+  assume "f \<in> ?f ` Y" "g \<in> ?f ` Y"
+  then obtain p q where f: "f = ?f p" "p \<in> Y" and g: "g = ?f q" "q \<in> Y" by blast
+  from chain \<open>p \<in> Y\<close> \<open>q \<in> Y\<close> have "ord_spmf op = p q \<or> ord_spmf op = q p" by(rule chainD)
+  thus "f \<le> g \<or> g \<le> f"
+  proof
+    assume "ord_spmf op = p q"
+    hence "\<And>x. spmf p x \<le> spmf q x" by(rule ord_spmf_eq_leD)
+    hence "f \<le> g" unfolding f g by(auto intro: le_funI)
+    thus ?thesis ..
+  next
+    assume "ord_spmf op = q p"
+    hence "\<And>x. spmf q x \<le> spmf p x" by(rule ord_spmf_eq_leD)
+    hence "g \<le> f" unfolding f g by(auto intro: le_funI)
+    thus ?thesis ..
+  qed
+qed
+
+lemma ord_spmf_eq_pmf_None_eq:
+  assumes le: "ord_spmf op = p q"
+  and None: "pmf p None = pmf q None"
+  shows "p = q"
+proof(rule spmf_eqI)
+  fix i
+  from le have le': "\<And>x. spmf p x \<le> spmf q x" by(rule ord_spmf_eq_leD)
+  have "(\<integral>\<^sup>+ x. ennreal (spmf q x) - spmf p x \<partial>count_space UNIV) = 
+     (\<integral>\<^sup>+ x. spmf q x \<partial>count_space UNIV) - (\<integral>\<^sup>+ x. spmf p x \<partial>count_space UNIV)"
+    by(subst nn_integral_diff)(simp_all add: AE_count_space le' nn_integral_spmf_neq_top)
+  also have "\<dots> = (1 - pmf q None) - (1 - pmf p None)" unfolding pmf_None_eq_weight_spmf
+    by(simp add: weight_spmf_eq_nn_integral_spmf[symmetric] ennreal_minus)
+  also have "\<dots> = 0" using None by simp
+  finally have "\<And>x. spmf q x \<le> spmf p x" 
+    by(simp add: nn_integral_0_iff_AE AE_count_space ennreal_minus ennreal_eq_0_iff)
+  with le' show "spmf p i = spmf q i" by(rule antisym)
+qed
+
+lemma ord_spmf_eqD_pmf_None: 
+  assumes "ord_spmf op = x y"
+  shows "pmf x None \<ge> pmf y None"
+using assms
+apply cases
+apply(clarsimp simp only: ennreal_le_iff[symmetric, OF pmf_nonneg] ennreal_pmf_map)
+apply(fastforce simp add: AE_measure_pmf_iff intro!: nn_integral_mono_AE)
+done
+
+text \<open>
+  Chains on @{typ "'a spmf"} maintain countable support.
+  Thanks to Johannes Hölzl for the proof idea.
+\<close>
+lemma spmf_chain_countable: "countable (\<Union>p\<in>Y. set_spmf p)" 
+proof(cases "Y = {}")
+  case Y: False
+  show ?thesis
+  proof(cases "\<exists>x\<in>Y. \<forall>y\<in>Y. ord_spmf op = y x")
+    case True
+    then obtain x where x: "x \<in> Y" and upper: "\<And>y. y \<in> Y \<Longrightarrow> ord_spmf op = y x" by blast
+    hence "(\<Union>x\<in>Y. set_spmf x) \<subseteq> set_spmf x" by(auto dest: ord_spmf_eqD_set_spmf)
+    thus ?thesis by(rule countable_subset) simp
+  next
+    case False
+    define N :: "'a option pmf \<Rightarrow> real" where "N p = pmf p None" for p
+  
+    have N_less_imp_le_spmf: "\<lbrakk> x \<in> Y; y \<in> Y; N y < N x \<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> ord_spmf op = x y" for x y
+      using chainD[OF chain, of x y] ord_spmf_eqD_pmf_None[of x y] ord_spmf_eqD_pmf_None[of y x]
+      by (auto simp: N_def)
+    have N_eq_imp_eq: "\<lbrakk> x \<in> Y; y \<in> Y; N y = N x \<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> x = y" for x y
+      using chainD[OF chain, of x y] by(auto simp add: N_def dest: ord_spmf_eq_pmf_None_eq)
+    
+    have NC: "N ` Y \<noteq> {}" "bdd_below (N ` Y)"
+      using \<open>Y \<noteq> {}\<close> by(auto intro!: bdd_belowI[of _ 0] simp: N_def)
+    have NC_less: "Inf (N ` Y) < N x" if "x \<in> Y" for x unfolding cInf_less_iff[OF NC]
+    proof(rule ccontr)
+      assume **: "\<not> (\<exists>y\<in>N ` Y. y < N x)"
+      { fix y
+        assume "y \<in> Y"
+        with ** consider "N x < N y" | "N x = N y" by(auto simp add: not_less le_less)
+        hence "ord_spmf op = y x" using \<open>y \<in> Y\<close> \<open>x \<in> Y\<close>
+          by cases(auto dest: N_less_imp_le_spmf N_eq_imp_eq intro: ord_spmf_reflI) }
+      with False \<open>x \<in> Y\<close> show False by blast
+    qed
+  
+    from NC have "Inf (N ` Y) \<in> closure (N ` Y)" by (intro closure_contains_Inf)
+    then obtain X' where "\<And>n. X' n \<in> N ` Y" and X': "X' \<longlonglongrightarrow> Inf (N ` Y)"
+      unfolding closure_sequential by auto
+    then obtain X where X: "\<And>n. X n \<in> Y" and "X' = (\<lambda>n. N (X n))" unfolding image_iff Bex_def by metis
+  
+    with X' have seq: "(\<lambda>n. N (X n)) \<longlonglongrightarrow> Inf (N ` Y)" by simp
+    have "(\<Union>x \<in> Y. set_spmf x) \<subseteq> (\<Union>n. set_spmf (X n))"
+    proof(rule UN_least)
+      fix x
+      assume "x \<in> Y"
+      from order_tendstoD(2)[OF seq NC_less[OF \<open>x \<in> Y\<close>]]
+      obtain i where "N (X i) < N x" by (auto simp: eventually_sequentially)
+      thus "set_spmf x \<subseteq> (\<Union>n. set_spmf (X n))" using X \<open>x \<in> Y\<close>
+        by(blast dest: N_less_imp_le_spmf ord_spmf_eqD_set_spmf)
+    qed
+    thus ?thesis by(rule countable_subset) simp
+  qed
+qed simp
+
+lemma lub_spmf_subprob: "(\<integral>\<^sup>+ x. (SUP p : Y. ennreal (spmf p x)) \<partial>count_space UNIV) \<le> 1"
+proof(cases "Y = {}")
+  case True
+  thus ?thesis by(simp add: bot_ennreal)
+next
+  case False
+  let ?B = "\<Union>p\<in>Y. set_spmf p"
+  have countable: "countable ?B" by(rule spmf_chain_countable)
+
+  have "(\<integral>\<^sup>+ x. (SUP p:Y. ennreal (spmf p x)) \<partial>count_space UNIV) = 
+        (\<integral>\<^sup>+ x. (SUP p:Y. ennreal (spmf p x) * indicator ?B x) \<partial>count_space UNIV)"
+    by(intro nn_integral_cong SUP_cong)(auto split: split_indicator simp add: spmf_eq_0_set_spmf)
+  also have "\<dots> = (\<integral>\<^sup>+ x. (SUP p:Y. ennreal (spmf p x)) \<partial>count_space ?B)"
+    unfolding ennreal_indicator[symmetric] using False
+    by(subst SUP_mult_right_ennreal[symmetric])(simp add: ennreal_indicator nn_integral_count_space_indicator)
+  also have "\<dots> = (SUP p:Y. \<integral>\<^sup>+ x. spmf p x \<partial>count_space ?B)" using False _ countable
+    by(rule nn_integral_monotone_convergence_SUP_countable)(rule chain_ord_spmf_eqD)
+  also have "\<dots> \<le> 1"
+  proof(rule SUP_least)
+    fix p
+    assume "p \<in> Y"
+    have "(\<integral>\<^sup>+ x. spmf p x \<partial>count_space ?B) = \<integral>\<^sup>+ x. ennreal (spmf p x) * indicator ?B x \<partial>count_space UNIV"
+      by(simp add: nn_integral_count_space_indicator)
+    also have "\<dots> = \<integral>\<^sup>+ x. spmf p x \<partial>count_space UNIV"
+      by(rule nn_integral_cong)(auto split: split_indicator simp add: spmf_eq_0_set_spmf \<open>p \<in> Y\<close>)
+    also have "\<dots> \<le> 1"
+      by(simp add: weight_spmf_eq_nn_integral_spmf[symmetric] weight_spmf_le_1)
+    finally show "(\<integral>\<^sup>+ x. spmf p x \<partial>count_space ?B) \<le> 1" .
+  qed
+  finally show ?thesis .
+qed
+
+lemma spmf_lub_spmf:
+  assumes "Y \<noteq> {}"
+  shows "spmf lub_spmf x = (SUP p : Y. spmf p x)"
+proof -
+  from assms obtain p where "p \<in> Y" by auto
+  have "spmf lub_spmf x = max 0 (enn2real (SUP p:Y. ennreal (spmf p x)))" unfolding lub_spmf_def
+    by(rule spmf_embed_spmf)(simp del: SUP_eq_top_iff Sup_eq_top_iff add: ennreal_enn2real_if SUP_spmf_neq_top' lub_spmf_subprob)
+  also have "\<dots> = enn2real (SUP p:Y. ennreal (spmf p x))"
+    by(rule max_absorb2)(simp)
+  also have "\<dots> = enn2real (ennreal (SUP p : Y. spmf p x))" using assms
+    by(subst ennreal_SUP[symmetric])(simp_all add: SUP_spmf_neq_top' del: SUP_eq_top_iff Sup_eq_top_iff)
+  also have "0 \<le> (\<Squnion>p\<in>Y. spmf p x)" using assms
+    by(auto intro!: cSUP_upper2 bdd_aboveI[where M=1] simp add: pmf_le_1)
+  then have "enn2real (ennreal (SUP p : Y. spmf p x)) = (SUP p : Y. spmf p x)"
+    by(rule enn2real_ennreal)
+  finally show ?thesis .
+qed
+
+lemma ennreal_spmf_lub_spmf: "Y \<noteq> {} \<Longrightarrow> ennreal (spmf lub_spmf x) = (SUP p:Y. ennreal (spmf p x))"
+unfolding spmf_lub_spmf by(subst ennreal_SUP)(simp_all add: SUP_spmf_neq_top' del: SUP_eq_top_iff Sup_eq_top_iff)
+
+lemma lub_spmf_upper:
+  assumes p: "p \<in> Y"
+  shows "ord_spmf op = p lub_spmf"
+proof(rule ord_pmf_increaseI)
+  fix x
+  from p have [simp]: "Y \<noteq> {}" by auto
+  from p have "ennreal (spmf p x) \<le> (SUP p:Y. ennreal (spmf p x))" by(rule SUP_upper)
+  also have "\<dots> = ennreal (spmf lub_spmf x)" using p
+    by(subst spmf_lub_spmf)(auto simp add: ennreal_SUP SUP_spmf_neq_top' simp del: SUP_eq_top_iff Sup_eq_top_iff)
+  finally show "spmf p x \<le> spmf lub_spmf x" by simp
+qed simp
+
+lemma lub_spmf_least:
+  assumes z: "\<And>x. x \<in> Y \<Longrightarrow> ord_spmf op = x z"
+  shows "ord_spmf op = lub_spmf z"
+proof(cases "Y = {}")
+  case nonempty: False
+  show ?thesis
+  proof(rule ord_pmf_increaseI)
+    fix x
+    from nonempty obtain p where p: "p \<in> Y" by auto
+    have "ennreal (spmf lub_spmf x) = (SUP p:Y. ennreal (spmf p x))"
+      by(subst spmf_lub_spmf)(auto simp add: ennreal_SUP SUP_spmf_neq_top' nonempty simp del: SUP_eq_top_iff Sup_eq_top_iff)
+    also have "\<dots> \<le> ennreal (spmf z x)" by(rule SUP_least)(simp add: ord_spmf_eq_leD z)
+    finally show "spmf lub_spmf x \<le> spmf z x" by simp
+  qed simp
+qed simp
+
+lemma set_lub_spmf: "set_spmf lub_spmf = (\<Union>p\<in>Y. set_spmf p)" (is "?lhs = ?rhs")
+proof(cases "Y = {}")
+  case [simp]: False
+  show ?thesis
+  proof(rule set_eqI)
+    fix x
+    have "x \<in> ?lhs \<longleftrightarrow> ennreal (spmf lub_spmf x) > 0"
+      by(simp_all add: in_set_spmf_iff_spmf less_le)
+    also have "\<dots> \<longleftrightarrow> (\<exists>p\<in>Y. ennreal (spmf p x) > 0)"
+      by(simp add: ennreal_spmf_lub_spmf less_SUP_iff)
+    also have "\<dots> \<longleftrightarrow> x \<in> ?rhs"
+      by(auto simp add: in_set_spmf_iff_spmf less_le)
+    finally show "x \<in> ?lhs \<longleftrightarrow> x \<in> ?rhs" .
+  qed
+qed simp
+
+lemma emeasure_lub_spmf:
+  assumes Y: "Y \<noteq> {}"
+  shows "emeasure (measure_spmf lub_spmf) A = (SUP y:Y. emeasure (measure_spmf y) A)"
+  (is "?lhs = ?rhs")
+proof -
+  let ?M = "count_space (set_spmf lub_spmf)"
+  have "?lhs = \<integral>\<^sup>+ x. ennreal (spmf lub_spmf x) * indicator A x \<partial>?M"
+    by(auto simp add: nn_integral_indicator[symmetric] nn_integral_measure_spmf')
+  also have "\<dots> = \<integral>\<^sup>+ x. (SUP y:Y. ennreal (spmf y x) * indicator A x) \<partial>?M"
+    unfolding ennreal_indicator[symmetric]
+    by(simp add: spmf_lub_spmf assms ennreal_SUP[OF SUP_spmf_neq_top'] SUP_mult_right_ennreal)
+  also from assms have "\<dots> = (SUP y:Y. \<integral>\<^sup>+ x. ennreal (spmf y x) * indicator A x \<partial>?M)"
+  proof(rule nn_integral_monotone_convergence_SUP_countable)
+    have "(\<lambda>i x. ennreal (spmf i x) * indicator A x) ` Y = (\<lambda>f x. f x * indicator A x) ` (\<lambda>p x. ennreal (spmf p x)) ` Y"
+      by(simp add: image_image)
+    also have "Complete_Partial_Order.chain op \<le> \<dots>" using chain_ord_spmf_eqD
+      by(rule chain_imageI)(auto simp add: le_fun_def split: split_indicator)
+    finally show "Complete_Partial_Order.chain op \<le> ((\<lambda>i x. ennreal (spmf i x) * indicator A x) ` Y)" .
+  qed simp
+  also have "\<dots> = (SUP y:Y. \<integral>\<^sup>+ x. ennreal (spmf y x) * indicator A x \<partial>count_space UNIV)"
+    by(auto simp add: nn_integral_count_space_indicator set_lub_spmf spmf_eq_0_set_spmf split: split_indicator intro!: SUP_cong nn_integral_cong)
+  also have "\<dots> = ?rhs"
+    by(auto simp add: nn_integral_indicator[symmetric] nn_integral_measure_spmf)
+  finally show ?thesis .
+qed
+
+lemma measure_lub_spmf:
+  assumes Y: "Y \<noteq> {}"
+  shows "measure (measure_spmf lub_spmf) A = (SUP y:Y. measure (measure_spmf y) A)" (is "?lhs = ?rhs")
+proof -
+  have "ennreal ?lhs = ennreal ?rhs"
+    using emeasure_lub_spmf[OF assms] SUP_emeasure_spmf_neq_top[of A Y] Y
+    unfolding measure_spmf.emeasure_eq_measure by(subst ennreal_SUP)
+  moreover have "0 \<le> ?rhs" using Y
+    by(auto intro!: cSUP_upper2 bdd_aboveI[where M=1] measure_spmf.subprob_measure_le_1)
+  ultimately show ?thesis by(simp)
+qed
+
+lemma weight_lub_spmf:
+  assumes Y: "Y \<noteq> {}"
+  shows "weight_spmf lub_spmf = (SUP y:Y. weight_spmf y)"
+unfolding weight_spmf_def by(rule measure_lub_spmf) fact
+
+lemma measure_spmf_lub_spmf:
+  assumes Y: "Y \<noteq> {}"
+  shows "measure_spmf lub_spmf = (SUP p:Y. measure_spmf p)" (is "?lhs = ?rhs")
+proof(rule measure_eqI)
+  from assms obtain p where p: "p \<in> Y" by auto
+  from chain have chain': "Complete_Partial_Order.chain op \<le> (measure_spmf ` Y)"
+    by(rule chain_imageI)(rule ord_spmf_eqD_measure_spmf)
+  show "sets ?lhs = sets ?rhs" and "emeasure ?lhs A = emeasure ?rhs A" for A
+    using chain' Y p by(simp_all add: sets_SUP emeasure_SUP emeasure_lub_spmf)
+qed
+
+end
+
+end
+
+lemma partial_function_definitions_spmf: "partial_function_definitions (ord_spmf op =) lub_spmf"
+  (is "partial_function_definitions ?R _")
+proof
+  fix x show "?R x x" by(simp add: ord_spmf_reflI)
+next
+  fix x y z
+  assume "?R x y" "?R y z"
+  with transp_ord_option[OF transp_equality] show "?R x z" by(rule transp_rel_pmf[THEN transpD])
+next
+  fix x y
+  assume "?R x y" "?R y x"
+  thus "x = y"
+    by(rule rel_pmf_antisym)(simp_all add: reflp_ord_option transp_ord_option antisymP_ord_option)
+next
+  fix Y x
+  assume "Complete_Partial_Order.chain ?R Y" "x \<in> Y"
+  then show "?R x (lub_spmf Y)"
+    by(rule lub_spmf_upper)
+next
+  fix Y z
+  assume "Complete_Partial_Order.chain ?R Y" "\<And>x. x \<in> Y \<Longrightarrow> ?R x z"
+  then show "?R (lub_spmf Y) z"
+    by(cases "Y = {}")(simp_all add: lub_spmf_least)
+qed
+
+lemma ccpo_spmf: "class.ccpo lub_spmf (ord_spmf op =) (mk_less (ord_spmf op =))"
+by(rule ccpo partial_function_definitions_spmf)+
+
+interpretation spmf: partial_function_definitions "ord_spmf op =" "lub_spmf"
+  rewrites "lub_spmf {} \<equiv> return_pmf None"
+by(rule partial_function_definitions_spmf) simp
+
+declaration {* Partial_Function.init "spmf" @{term spmf.fixp_fun}
+  @{term spmf.mono_body} @{thm spmf.fixp_rule_uc} @{thm spmf.fixp_induct_uc}
+  NONE *}
+
+declare spmf.leq_refl[simp]
+declare admissible_leI[OF ccpo_spmf, cont_intro]
+
+abbreviation "mono_spmf \<equiv> monotone (fun_ord (ord_spmf op =)) (ord_spmf op =)"
+
+lemma lub_spmf_const [simp]: "lub_spmf {p} = p"
+by(rule spmf_eqI)(simp add: spmf_lub_spmf[OF ccpo.chain_singleton[OF ccpo_spmf]])
+
+lemma bind_spmf_mono':
+  assumes fg: "ord_spmf op = f g"
+  and hk: "\<And>x :: 'a. ord_spmf op = (h x) (k x)"
+  shows "ord_spmf op = (f \<bind> h) (g \<bind> k)"
+unfolding bind_spmf_def using assms(1)
+by(rule rel_pmf_bindI)(auto split: option.split simp add: hk)
+
+lemma bind_spmf_mono [partial_function_mono]:
+  assumes mf: "mono_spmf B" and mg: "\<And>y. mono_spmf (\<lambda>f. C y f)"
+  shows "mono_spmf (\<lambda>f. bind_spmf (B f) (\<lambda>y. C y f))"
+proof (rule monotoneI)
+  fix f g :: "'a \<Rightarrow> 'b spmf"
+  assume fg: "fun_ord (ord_spmf op =) f g"
+  with mf have "ord_spmf op = (B f) (B g)" by (rule monotoneD[of _ _ _ f g])
+  moreover from mg have "\<And>y'. ord_spmf op = (C y' f) (C y' g)"
+    by (rule monotoneD) (rule fg)
+  ultimately show "ord_spmf op = (bind_spmf (B f) (\<lambda>y. C y f)) (bind_spmf (B g) (\<lambda>y'. C y' g))"
+    by(rule bind_spmf_mono')
+qed
+  
+lemma monotone_bind_spmf1: "monotone (ord_spmf op =) (ord_spmf op =) (\<lambda>y. bind_spmf y g)"
+by(rule monotoneI)(simp add: bind_spmf_mono' ord_spmf_reflI)
+
+lemma monotone_bind_spmf2: 
+  assumes g: "\<And>x. monotone ord (ord_spmf op =) (\<lambda>y. g y x)"
+  shows "monotone ord (ord_spmf op =) (\<lambda>y. bind_spmf p (g y))"
+by(rule monotoneI)(auto intro: bind_spmf_mono' monotoneD[OF g] ord_spmf_reflI)
+
+lemma bind_lub_spmf:
+  assumes chain: "Complete_Partial_Order.chain (ord_spmf op =) Y"
+  shows "bind_spmf (lub_spmf Y) f = lub_spmf ((\<lambda>p. bind_spmf p f) ` Y)" (is "?lhs = ?rhs")
+proof(cases "Y = {}")
+  case Y: False
+  show ?thesis
+  proof(rule spmf_eqI)
+    fix i
+    have chain': "Complete_Partial_Order.chain op \<le> ((\<lambda>p x. ennreal (spmf p x * spmf (f x) i)) ` Y)"
+      using chain by(rule chain_imageI)(auto simp add: le_fun_def dest: ord_spmf_eq_leD intro: mult_right_mono)
+    have chain'': "Complete_Partial_Order.chain (ord_spmf op =) ((\<lambda>p. p \<bind> f) ` Y)"
+      using chain by(rule chain_imageI)(auto intro!: monotoneI bind_spmf_mono' ord_spmf_reflI)
+    let ?M = "count_space (set_spmf (lub_spmf Y))"
+    have "ennreal (spmf ?lhs i) = \<integral>\<^sup>+ x. ennreal (spmf (lub_spmf Y) x) * ennreal (spmf (f x) i) \<partial>?M"
+      by(auto simp add: ennreal_spmf_lub_spmf ennreal_spmf_bind nn_integral_measure_spmf')
+    also have "\<dots> = \<integral>\<^sup>+ x. (SUP p:Y. ennreal (spmf p x * spmf (f x) i)) \<partial>?M"
+      by(subst ennreal_spmf_lub_spmf[OF chain Y])(subst SUP_mult_right_ennreal, simp_all add: ennreal_mult Y)
+    also have "\<dots> = (SUP p:Y. \<integral>\<^sup>+ x. ennreal (spmf p x * spmf (f x) i) \<partial>?M)"
+      using Y chain' by(rule nn_integral_monotone_convergence_SUP_countable) simp
+    also have "\<dots> = (SUP p:Y. ennreal (spmf (bind_spmf p f) i))"
+      by(auto simp add: ennreal_spmf_bind nn_integral_measure_spmf nn_integral_count_space_indicator set_lub_spmf[OF chain] in_set_spmf_iff_spmf ennreal_mult intro!: SUP_cong nn_integral_cong split: split_indicator)
+    also have "\<dots> = ennreal (spmf ?rhs i)" using chain'' by(simp add: ennreal_spmf_lub_spmf Y)
+    finally show "spmf ?lhs i = spmf ?rhs i" by simp
+  qed
+qed simp
+
+lemma map_lub_spmf:
+  "Complete_Partial_Order.chain (ord_spmf op =) Y
+  \<Longrightarrow> map_spmf f (lub_spmf Y) = lub_spmf (map_spmf f ` Y)"
+unfolding map_spmf_conv_bind_spmf[abs_def] by(simp add: bind_lub_spmf o_def)
+
+lemma mcont_bind_spmf1: "mcont lub_spmf (ord_spmf op =) lub_spmf (ord_spmf op =) (\<lambda>y. bind_spmf y f)"
+using monotone_bind_spmf1 by(rule mcontI)(rule contI, simp add: bind_lub_spmf)
+
+lemma bind_lub_spmf2:
+  assumes chain: "Complete_Partial_Order.chain ord Y"
+  and g: "\<And>y. monotone ord (ord_spmf op =) (g y)"
+  shows "bind_spmf x (\<lambda>y. lub_spmf (g y ` Y)) = lub_spmf ((\<lambda>p. bind_spmf x (\<lambda>y. g y p)) ` Y)"
+  (is "?lhs = ?rhs")
+proof(cases "Y = {}")
+  case Y: False
+  show ?thesis
+  proof(rule spmf_eqI)
+    fix i
+    have chain': "\<And>y. Complete_Partial_Order.chain (ord_spmf op =) (g y ` Y)"
+      using chain g[THEN monotoneD] by(rule chain_imageI)
+    have chain'': "Complete_Partial_Order.chain op \<le> ((\<lambda>p y. ennreal (spmf x y * spmf (g y p) i)) ` Y)"
+      using chain by(rule chain_imageI)(auto simp add: le_fun_def dest: ord_spmf_eq_leD monotoneD[OF g] intro!: mult_left_mono)
+    have chain''': "Complete_Partial_Order.chain (ord_spmf op =) ((\<lambda>p. bind_spmf x (\<lambda>y. g y p)) ` Y)"
+      using chain by(rule chain_imageI)(rule monotone_bind_spmf2[OF g, THEN monotoneD])
+  
+    have "ennreal (spmf ?lhs i) = \<integral>\<^sup>+ y. (SUP p:Y. ennreal (spmf x y * spmf (g y p) i)) \<partial>count_space (set_spmf x)"
+      by(simp add: ennreal_spmf_bind ennreal_spmf_lub_spmf[OF chain'] Y nn_integral_measure_spmf' SUP_mult_left_ennreal ennreal_mult)
+    also have "\<dots> = (SUP p:Y. \<integral>\<^sup>+ y. ennreal (spmf x y * spmf (g y p) i) \<partial>count_space (set_spmf x))"
+      unfolding nn_integral_measure_spmf' using Y chain''
+      by(rule nn_integral_monotone_convergence_SUP_countable) simp
+    also have "\<dots> = (SUP p:Y. ennreal (spmf (bind_spmf x (\<lambda>y. g y p)) i))"
+      by(simp add: ennreal_spmf_bind nn_integral_measure_spmf' ennreal_mult)
+    also have "\<dots> = ennreal (spmf ?rhs i)" using chain'''
+      by(auto simp add: ennreal_spmf_lub_spmf Y)
+    finally show "spmf ?lhs i = spmf ?rhs i" by simp
+  qed
+qed simp
+
+lemma mcont_bind_spmf [cont_intro]:
+  assumes f: "mcont luba orda lub_spmf (ord_spmf op =) f"
+  and g: "\<And>y. mcont luba orda lub_spmf (ord_spmf op =) (g y)"
+  shows "mcont luba orda lub_spmf (ord_spmf op =) (\<lambda>x. bind_spmf (f x) (\<lambda>y. g y x))"
+proof(rule spmf.mcont2mcont'[OF _ _ f])
+  fix z
+  show "mcont lub_spmf (ord_spmf op =) lub_spmf (ord_spmf op =) (\<lambda>x. bind_spmf x (\<lambda>y. g y z))"
+    by(rule mcont_bind_spmf1)
+next
+  fix x
+  let ?f = "\<lambda>z. bind_spmf x (\<lambda>y. g y z)"
+  have "monotone orda (ord_spmf op =) ?f" using mcont_mono[OF g] by(rule monotone_bind_spmf2)
+  moreover have "cont luba orda lub_spmf (ord_spmf op =) ?f"
+  proof(rule contI)
+    fix Y
+    assume chain: "Complete_Partial_Order.chain orda Y" and Y: "Y \<noteq> {}"
+    have "bind_spmf x (\<lambda>y. g y (luba Y)) = bind_spmf x (\<lambda>y. lub_spmf (g y ` Y))"
+      by(rule bind_spmf_cong)(simp_all add: mcont_contD[OF g chain Y])
+    also have "\<dots> = lub_spmf ((\<lambda>p. x \<bind> (\<lambda>y. g y p)) ` Y)" using chain
+      by(rule bind_lub_spmf2)(rule mcont_mono[OF g])
+    finally show "bind_spmf x (\<lambda>y. g y (luba Y)) = \<dots>" .
+  qed
+  ultimately show "mcont luba orda lub_spmf (ord_spmf op =) ?f" by(rule mcontI)
+qed
+
+lemma bind_pmf_mono [partial_function_mono]:
+  "(\<And>y. mono_spmf (\<lambda>f. C y f)) \<Longrightarrow> mono_spmf (\<lambda>f. bind_pmf p (\<lambda>x. C x f))"
+using bind_spmf_mono[of "\<lambda>_. spmf_of_pmf p" C] by simp
+
+lemma map_spmf_mono [partial_function_mono]: "mono_spmf B \<Longrightarrow> mono_spmf (\<lambda>g. map_spmf f (B g))"
+unfolding map_spmf_conv_bind_spmf by(rule bind_spmf_mono) simp_all
+
+lemma mcont_map_spmf [cont_intro]:
+  "mcont luba orda lub_spmf (ord_spmf op =) g
+  \<Longrightarrow> mcont luba orda lub_spmf (ord_spmf op =) (\<lambda>x. map_spmf f (g x))"
+unfolding map_spmf_conv_bind_spmf by(rule mcont_bind_spmf) simp_all
+
+lemma monotone_set_spmf: "monotone (ord_spmf op =) op \<subseteq> set_spmf"
+by(rule monotoneI)(rule ord_spmf_eqD_set_spmf)
+
+lemma cont_set_spmf: "cont lub_spmf (ord_spmf op =) Union op \<subseteq> set_spmf"
+by(rule contI)(subst set_lub_spmf; simp)
+
+lemma mcont2mcont_set_spmf[THEN mcont2mcont, cont_intro]:
+  shows mcont_set_spmf: "mcont lub_spmf (ord_spmf op =) Union op \<subseteq> set_spmf"
+by(rule mcontI monotone_set_spmf cont_set_spmf)+
+
+lemma monotone_spmf: "monotone (ord_spmf op =) op \<le> (\<lambda>p. spmf p x)"
+by(rule monotoneI)(simp add: ord_spmf_eq_leD)
+
+lemma cont_spmf: "cont lub_spmf (ord_spmf op =) Sup op \<le> (\<lambda>p. spmf p x)"
+by(rule contI)(simp add: spmf_lub_spmf)
+
+lemma mcont_spmf: "mcont lub_spmf (ord_spmf op =) Sup op \<le> (\<lambda>p. spmf p x)"
+by(rule mcontI monotone_spmf cont_spmf)+
+
+lemma cont_ennreal_spmf: "cont lub_spmf (ord_spmf op =) Sup op \<le> (\<lambda>p. ennreal (spmf p x))"
+by(rule contI)(simp add: ennreal_spmf_lub_spmf)
+
+lemma mcont2mcont_ennreal_spmf [THEN mcont2mcont, cont_intro]:
+  shows mcont_ennreal_spmf: "mcont lub_spmf (ord_spmf op =) Sup op \<le> (\<lambda>p. ennreal (spmf p x))"
+by(rule mcontI mono2mono_ennreal monotone_spmf cont_ennreal_spmf)+
+
+lemma nn_integral_map_spmf [simp]: "nn_integral (measure_spmf (map_spmf f p)) g = nn_integral (measure_spmf p) (g \<circ> f)"
+by(auto 4 3 simp add: measure_spmf_def nn_integral_distr nn_integral_restrict_space intro: nn_integral_cong split: split_indicator)
+
+subsubsection \<open>Admissibility of @{term rel_spmf}\<close>
+
+lemma rel_spmf_measureD:
+  assumes "rel_spmf R p q"
+  shows "measure (measure_spmf p) A \<le> measure (measure_spmf q) {y. \<exists>x\<in>A. R x y}" (is "?lhs \<le> ?rhs")
+proof -
+  have "?lhs = measure (measure_pmf p) (Some ` A)" by(simp add: measure_measure_spmf_conv_measure_pmf)
+  also have "\<dots> \<le> measure (measure_pmf q) {y. \<exists>x\<in>Some ` A. rel_option R x y}"
+    using assms by(rule rel_pmf_measureD)
+  also have "\<dots> = ?rhs" unfolding measure_measure_spmf_conv_measure_pmf
+    by(rule arg_cong2[where f=measure])(auto simp add: option_rel_Some1)
+  finally show ?thesis .
+qed
+
+locale rel_spmf_characterisation =
+  assumes rel_pmf_measureI:
+    "\<And>(R :: 'a option \<Rightarrow> 'b option \<Rightarrow> bool) p q. 
+    (\<And>A. measure (measure_pmf p) A \<le> measure (measure_pmf q) {y. \<exists>x\<in>A. R x y})
+    \<Longrightarrow> rel_pmf R p q"
+  -- \<open>This assumption is shown to hold in general in the AFP entry @{text "MFMC_Countable"}.\<close>
+begin
+
+context fixes R :: "'a \<Rightarrow> 'b \<Rightarrow> bool" begin
+
+lemma rel_spmf_measureI:
+  assumes eq1: "\<And>A. measure (measure_spmf p) A \<le> measure (measure_spmf q) {y. \<exists>x\<in>A. R x y}"
+  assumes eq2: "weight_spmf q \<le> weight_spmf p"
+  shows "rel_spmf R p q"
+proof(rule rel_pmf_measureI)
+  fix A :: "'a option set"
+  define A' where "A' = the ` (A \<inter> range Some)"
+  define A'' where "A'' = A \<inter> {None}"
+  have A: "A = Some ` A' \<union> A''" "Some ` A' \<inter> A'' = {}"
+    unfolding A'_def A''_def by(auto 4 3 intro: rev_image_eqI)
+  have "measure (measure_pmf p) A = measure (measure_pmf p) (Some ` A') + measure (measure_pmf p) A''"
+    by(simp add: A measure_pmf.finite_measure_Union)
+  also have "measure (measure_pmf p) (Some ` A') = measure (measure_spmf p) A'"
+    by(simp add: measure_measure_spmf_conv_measure_pmf)
+  also have "\<dots> \<le> measure (measure_spmf q) {y. \<exists>x\<in>A'. R x y}" by(rule eq1)
+  also (ord_eq_le_trans[OF _ add_right_mono])
+  have "\<dots> = measure (measure_pmf q) {y. \<exists>x\<in>A'. rel_option R (Some x) y}"
+    unfolding measure_measure_spmf_conv_measure_pmf
+    by(rule arg_cong2[where f=measure])(auto simp add: A'_def option_rel_Some1)
+  also
+  { have "weight_spmf p \<le> measure (measure_spmf q) {y. \<exists>x. R x y}"
+      using eq1[of UNIV] unfolding weight_spmf_def by simp
+    also have "\<dots> \<le> weight_spmf q" unfolding weight_spmf_def
+      by(rule measure_spmf.finite_measure_mono) simp_all
+    finally have "weight_spmf p = weight_spmf q" using eq2 by simp }
+  then have "measure (measure_pmf p) A'' = measure (measure_pmf q) (if None \<in> A then {None} else {})"
+    unfolding A''_def by(simp add: pmf_None_eq_weight_spmf measure_pmf_single)
+  also have "measure (measure_pmf q) {y. \<exists>x\<in>A'. rel_option R (Some x) y} + \<dots> = measure (measure_pmf q) {y. \<exists>x\<in>A. rel_option R x y}"
+    by(subst measure_pmf.finite_measure_Union[symmetric])
+      (auto 4 3 intro!: arg_cong2[where f=measure] simp add: option_rel_Some1 option_rel_Some2 A'_def intro: rev_bexI elim: option.rel_cases)
+  finally show "measure (measure_pmf p) A \<le> \<dots>" .
+qed
+
+lemma admissible_rel_spmf:
+  "ccpo.admissible (prod_lub lub_spmf lub_spmf) (rel_prod (ord_spmf op =) (ord_spmf op =)) (case_prod (rel_spmf R))"
+  (is "ccpo.admissible ?lub ?ord ?P")
+proof(rule ccpo.admissibleI)
+  fix Y
+  assume chain: "Complete_Partial_Order.chain ?ord Y"
+    and Y: "Y \<noteq> {}"
+    and R: "\<forall>(p, q) \<in> Y. rel_spmf R p q"
+  from R have R: "\<And>p q. (p, q) \<in> Y \<Longrightarrow> rel_spmf R p q" by auto
+  have chain1: "Complete_Partial_Order.chain (ord_spmf op =) (fst ` Y)"
+    and chain2: "Complete_Partial_Order.chain (ord_spmf op =) (snd ` Y)"
+    using chain by(rule chain_imageI; clarsimp)+
+  from Y have Y1: "fst ` Y \<noteq> {}" and Y2: "snd ` Y \<noteq> {}" by auto
+
+  have "rel_spmf R (lub_spmf (fst ` Y)) (lub_spmf (snd ` Y))"
+  proof(rule rel_spmf_measureI)
+    show "weight_spmf (lub_spmf (snd ` Y)) \<le> weight_spmf (lub_spmf (fst ` Y))"
+      by(auto simp add: weight_lub_spmf chain1 chain2 Y rel_spmf_weightD[OF R, symmetric] intro!: cSUP_least intro: cSUP_upper2[OF bdd_aboveI2[OF weight_spmf_le_1]])
+
+    fix A
+    have "measure (measure_spmf (lub_spmf (fst ` Y))) A = (SUP y:fst ` Y. measure (measure_spmf y) A)"
+      using chain1 Y1 by(rule measure_lub_spmf)
+    also have "\<dots> \<le> (SUP y:snd ` Y. measure (measure_spmf y) {y. \<exists>x\<in>A. R x y})" using Y1
+      by(rule cSUP_least)(auto intro!: cSUP_upper2[OF bdd_aboveI2[OF measure_spmf.subprob_measure_le_1]] rel_spmf_measureD R)
+    also have "\<dots> = measure (measure_spmf (lub_spmf (snd ` Y))) {y. \<exists>x\<in>A. R x y}"
+      using chain2 Y2 by(rule measure_lub_spmf[symmetric])
+    finally show "measure (measure_spmf (lub_spmf (fst ` Y))) A \<le> \<dots>" .
+  qed
+  then show "?P (?lub Y)" by(simp add: prod_lub_def)
+qed
+
+lemma admissible_rel_spmf_mcont [cont_intro]:
+  "\<lbrakk> mcont lub ord lub_spmf (ord_spmf op =) f; mcont lub ord lub_spmf (ord_spmf op =) g \<rbrakk>
+  \<Longrightarrow> ccpo.admissible lub ord (\<lambda>x. rel_spmf R (f x) (g x))"
+by(rule admissible_subst[OF admissible_rel_spmf, where f="\<lambda>x. (f x, g x)", simplified])(rule mcont_Pair)
+
+context begin interpretation lifting_syntax .
+
+lemma fixp_spmf_parametric':
+  assumes f: "\<And>x. monotone (ord_spmf op =) (ord_spmf op =) F"
+  and g: "\<And>x. monotone (ord_spmf op =) (ord_spmf op =) G"
+  and param: "(rel_spmf R ===> rel_spmf R) F G"
+  shows "(rel_spmf R) (ccpo.fixp lub_spmf (ord_spmf op =) F) (ccpo.fixp lub_spmf (ord_spmf op =) G)"
+by(rule parallel_fixp_induct[OF ccpo_spmf ccpo_spmf _ f g])(auto intro: param[THEN rel_funD])
+
+lemma fixp_spmf_parametric:
+  assumes f: "\<And>x. mono_spmf (\<lambda>f. F f x)"
+  and g: "\<And>x. mono_spmf (\<lambda>f. G f x)"
+  and param: "((A ===> rel_spmf R) ===> A ===> rel_spmf R) F G"
+  shows "(A ===> rel_spmf R) (spmf.fixp_fun F) (spmf.fixp_fun G)"
+using f g
+proof(rule parallel_fixp_induct_1_1[OF partial_function_definitions_spmf partial_function_definitions_spmf _ _ reflexive reflexive, where P="(A ===> rel_spmf R)"])
+  show "ccpo.admissible (prod_lub (fun_lub lub_spmf) (fun_lub lub_spmf)) (rel_prod (fun_ord (ord_spmf op =)) (fun_ord (ord_spmf op =))) (\<lambda>x. (A ===> rel_spmf R) (fst x) (snd x))"
+    unfolding rel_fun_def
+    apply(rule admissible_all admissible_imp admissible_rel_spmf_mcont)+
+    apply(rule spmf.mcont2mcont[OF mcont_call])
+     apply(rule mcont_fst)
+    apply(rule spmf.mcont2mcont[OF mcont_call])
+     apply(rule mcont_snd)
+    done
+  show "(A ===> rel_spmf R) (\<lambda>_. lub_spmf {}) (\<lambda>_. lub_spmf {})" by auto
+  show "(A ===> rel_spmf R) (F f) (G g)" if "(A ===> rel_spmf R) f g" for f g
+    using that by(rule rel_funD[OF param])
+qed
+
+end
+
+end
+
+end
+
+subsection {* Restrictions on spmfs *}
+
+definition restrict_spmf :: "'a spmf \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'a spmf" (infixl "\<upharpoonleft>" 110)
+where "p \<upharpoonleft> A = map_pmf (\<lambda>x. x \<bind> (\<lambda>y. if y \<in> A then Some y else None)) p"
+
+lemma set_restrict_spmf [simp]: "set_spmf (p \<upharpoonleft> A) = set_spmf p \<inter> A"
+by(fastforce simp add: restrict_spmf_def set_spmf_def split: bind_splits if_split_asm)
+
+lemma restrict_map_spmf: "map_spmf f p \<upharpoonleft> A = map_spmf f (p \<upharpoonleft> (f -` A))"
+by(simp add: restrict_spmf_def pmf.map_comp o_def map_option_bind bind_map_option if_distrib cong del: if_weak_cong)
+
+lemma restrict_restrict_spmf [simp]: "p \<upharpoonleft> A \<upharpoonleft> B = p \<upharpoonleft> (A \<inter> B)"
+by(auto simp add: restrict_spmf_def pmf.map_comp o_def intro!: pmf.map_cong bind_option_cong)
+
+lemma restrict_spmf_empty [simp]: "p \<upharpoonleft> {} = return_pmf None"
+by(simp add: restrict_spmf_def)
+
+lemma restrict_spmf_UNIV [simp]: "p \<upharpoonleft> UNIV = p"
+by(simp add: restrict_spmf_def)
+
+lemma spmf_restrict_spmf_outside [simp]: "x \<notin> A \<Longrightarrow> spmf (p \<upharpoonleft> A) x = 0"
+by(simp add: spmf_eq_0_set_spmf)
+
+lemma emeasure_restrict_spmf [simp]:
+  "emeasure (measure_spmf (p \<upharpoonleft> A)) X = emeasure (measure_spmf p) (X \<inter> A)"
+by(auto simp add: restrict_spmf_def measure_spmf_def emeasure_distr measurable_restrict_space1 emeasure_restrict_space space_restrict_space intro: arg_cong2[where f=emeasure] split: bind_splits if_split_asm)
+
+lemma measure_restrict_spmf [simp]:
+  "measure (measure_spmf (p \<upharpoonleft> A)) X = measure (measure_spmf p) (X \<inter> A)"
+using emeasure_restrict_spmf[of p A X]
+by(simp only: measure_spmf.emeasure_eq_measure ennreal_inj measure_nonneg)
+
+lemma spmf_restrict_spmf: "spmf (p \<upharpoonleft> A) x = (if x \<in> A then spmf p x else 0)"
+by(simp add: spmf_conv_measure_spmf)
+
+lemma spmf_restrict_spmf_inside [simp]: "x \<in> A \<Longrightarrow> spmf (p \<upharpoonleft> A) x = spmf p x"
+by(simp add: spmf_restrict_spmf)
+
+lemma pmf_restrict_spmf_None: "pmf (p \<upharpoonleft> A) None = pmf p None + measure (measure_spmf p) (- A)"
+proof -
+  have [simp]: "None \<notin> Some ` (- A)" by auto
+  have "(\<lambda>x. x \<bind> (\<lambda>y. if y \<in> A then Some y else None)) -` {None} = {None} \<union> (Some ` (- A))"
+    by(auto split: bind_splits if_split_asm)
+  then show ?thesis unfolding ereal.inject[symmetric]
+    by(simp add: restrict_spmf_def ennreal_pmf_map emeasure_pmf_single del: ereal.inject)
+      (simp add: pmf.rep_eq measure_pmf.finite_measure_Union[symmetric] measure_measure_spmf_conv_measure_pmf measure_pmf.emeasure_eq_measure)
+qed
+
+lemma restrict_spmf_trivial: "(\<And>x. x \<in> set_spmf p \<Longrightarrow> x \<in> A) \<Longrightarrow> p \<upharpoonleft> A = p"
+by(rule spmf_eqI)(auto simp add: spmf_restrict_spmf spmf_eq_0_set_spmf)
+
+lemma restrict_spmf_trivial': "set_spmf p \<subseteq> A \<Longrightarrow> p \<upharpoonleft> A = p"
+by(rule restrict_spmf_trivial) blast
+
+lemma restrict_return_spmf: "return_spmf x \<upharpoonleft> A = (if x \<in> A then return_spmf x else return_pmf None)"
+by(simp add: restrict_spmf_def)
+
+lemma restrict_return_spmf_inside [simp]: "x \<in> A \<Longrightarrow> return_spmf x \<upharpoonleft> A = return_spmf x"
+by(simp add: restrict_return_spmf)
+
+lemma restrict_return_spmf_outside [simp]: "x \<notin> A \<Longrightarrow> return_spmf x \<upharpoonleft> A = return_pmf None"
+by(simp add: restrict_return_spmf)
+
+lemma restrict_spmf_return_pmf_None [simp]: "return_pmf None \<upharpoonleft> A = return_pmf None"
+by(simp add: restrict_spmf_def)
+
+lemma restrict_bind_pmf: "bind_pmf p g \<upharpoonleft> A = p \<bind> (\<lambda>x. g x \<upharpoonleft> A)"
+by(simp add: restrict_spmf_def map_bind_pmf o_def)
+
+lemma restrict_bind_spmf: "bind_spmf p g \<upharpoonleft> A = p \<bind> (\<lambda>x. g x \<upharpoonleft> A)"
+by(auto simp add: bind_spmf_def restrict_bind_pmf cong del: option.case_cong_weak cong: option.case_cong intro!: bind_pmf_cong split: option.split)
+
+lemma bind_restrict_pmf: "bind_pmf (p \<upharpoonleft> A) g = p \<bind> (\<lambda>x. if x \<in> Some ` A then g x else g None)"
+by(auto simp add: restrict_spmf_def bind_map_pmf fun_eq_iff split: bind_split intro: arg_cong2[where f=bind_pmf])
+
+lemma bind_restrict_spmf: "bind_spmf (p \<upharpoonleft> A) g = p \<bind> (\<lambda>x. if x \<in> A then g x else return_pmf None)"
+by(auto simp add: bind_spmf_def bind_restrict_pmf fun_eq_iff intro: arg_cong2[where f=bind_pmf] split: option.split)
+
+lemma spmf_map_restrict: "spmf (map_spmf fst (p \<upharpoonleft> (snd -` {y}))) x = spmf p (x, y)"
+by(subst spmf_map)(auto intro: arg_cong2[where f=measure] simp add: spmf_conv_measure_spmf)
+
+lemma measure_eqI_restrict_spmf:
+  assumes "rel_spmf R (restrict_spmf p A) (restrict_spmf q B)"
+  shows "measure (measure_spmf p) A = measure (measure_spmf q) B"
+proof -
+  from assms have "weight_spmf (restrict_spmf p A) = weight_spmf (restrict_spmf q B)" by(rule rel_spmf_weightD)
+  thus ?thesis by(simp add: weight_spmf_def)
+qed
+
+subsection {* Subprobability distributions of sets *}
+
+definition spmf_of_set :: "'a set \<Rightarrow> 'a spmf"
+where 
+  "spmf_of_set A = (if finite A \<and> A \<noteq> {} then spmf_of_pmf (pmf_of_set A) else return_pmf None)"
+
+lemma spmf_of_set: "spmf (spmf_of_set A) x = indicator A x / card A"
+by(auto simp add: spmf_of_set_def)
+
+lemma pmf_spmf_of_set_None [simp]: "pmf (spmf_of_set A) None = indicator {A. infinite A \<or> A = {}} A"
+by(simp add: spmf_of_set_def)
+
+lemma set_spmf_of_set: "set_spmf (spmf_of_set A) = (if finite A then A else {})"
+by(simp add: spmf_of_set_def)
+
+lemma set_spmf_of_set_finite [simp]: "finite A \<Longrightarrow> set_spmf (spmf_of_set A) = A"
+by(simp add: set_spmf_of_set)
+
+lemma spmf_of_set_singleton: "spmf_of_set {x} = return_spmf x"
+by(simp add: spmf_of_set_def pmf_of_set_singleton)
+
+lemma map_spmf_of_set_inj_on [simp]:
+  "inj_on f A \<Longrightarrow> map_spmf f (spmf_of_set A) = spmf_of_set (f ` A)"
+by(auto simp add: spmf_of_set_def map_pmf_of_set_inj dest: finite_imageD)
+
+lemma spmf_of_pmf_pmf_of_set [simp]: 
+  "\<lbrakk> finite A; A \<noteq> {} \<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> spmf_of_pmf (pmf_of_set A) = spmf_of_set A"
+by(simp add: spmf_of_set_def)
+
+lemma weight_spmf_of_set:
+  "weight_spmf (spmf_of_set A) = (if finite A \<and> A \<noteq> {} then 1 else 0)"
+by(auto simp only: spmf_of_set_def weight_spmf_of_pmf weight_return_pmf_None split: if_split)
+
+lemma weight_spmf_of_set_finite [simp]: "\<lbrakk> finite A; A \<noteq> {} \<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> weight_spmf (spmf_of_set A) = 1"
+by(simp add: weight_spmf_of_set)
+
+lemma weight_spmf_of_set_infinite [simp]: "infinite A \<Longrightarrow> weight_spmf (spmf_of_set A) = 0"
+by(simp add: weight_spmf_of_set)
+
+lemma measure_spmf_spmf_of_set:
+  "measure_spmf (spmf_of_set A) = (if finite A \<and> A \<noteq> {} then measure_pmf (pmf_of_set A) else null_measure (count_space UNIV))"
+by(simp add: spmf_of_set_def del: spmf_of_pmf_pmf_of_set)
+
+lemma emeasure_spmf_of_set:
+  "emeasure (measure_spmf (spmf_of_set S)) A = card (S \<inter> A) / card S"
+by(auto simp add: measure_spmf_spmf_of_set emeasure_pmf_of_set)
+
+lemma measure_spmf_of_set:
+  "measure (measure_spmf (spmf_of_set S)) A = card (S \<inter> A) / card S"
+by(auto simp add: measure_spmf_spmf_of_set measure_pmf_of_set)
+
+lemma nn_integral_spmf_of_set: "nn_integral (measure_spmf (spmf_of_set A)) f = setsum f A / card A"
+by(cases "finite A")(auto simp add: spmf_of_set_def nn_integral_pmf_of_set card_gt_0_iff simp del: spmf_of_pmf_pmf_of_set)
+
+lemma integral_spmf_of_set: "integral\<^sup>L (measure_spmf (spmf_of_set A)) f = setsum f A / card A"
+by(clarsimp simp add: spmf_of_set_def integral_pmf_of_set card_gt_0_iff simp del: spmf_of_pmf_pmf_of_set)
+
+notepad begin -- \<open>@{const pmf_of_set} is not fully parametric.\<close>
+  define R :: "nat \<Rightarrow> nat \<Rightarrow> bool" where "R x y \<longleftrightarrow> (x \<noteq> 0 \<longrightarrow> y = 0)" for x y
+  define A :: "nat set" where "A = {0, 1}"
+  define B :: "nat set" where "B = {0, 1, 2}"
+  have "rel_set R A B" unfolding R_def[abs_def] A_def B_def rel_set_def by auto
+  have "\<not> rel_pmf R (pmf_of_set A) (pmf_of_set B)"
+  proof
+    assume "rel_pmf R (pmf_of_set A) (pmf_of_set B)"
+    then obtain pq where pq: "\<And>x y. (x, y) \<in> set_pmf pq \<Longrightarrow> R x y"
+      and 1: "map_pmf fst pq = pmf_of_set A"
+      and 2: "map_pmf snd pq = pmf_of_set B"
+      by cases auto
+    have "pmf (pmf_of_set B) 1 = 1 / 3" by(simp add: B_def)
+    have "pmf (pmf_of_set B) 2 = 1 / 3" by(simp add: B_def)
+
+    have "2 / 3 = pmf (pmf_of_set B) 1 + pmf (pmf_of_set B) 2" by(simp add: B_def)
+    also have "\<dots> = measure (measure_pmf (pmf_of_set B)) ({1} \<union> {2})"
+      by(subst measure_pmf.finite_measure_Union)(simp_all add: measure_pmf_single)
+    also have "\<dots> = emeasure (measure_pmf pq) (snd -` {2, 1})"
+      unfolding 2[symmetric] measure_pmf.emeasure_eq_measure[symmetric] by(simp)
+    also have "\<dots> = emeasure (measure_pmf pq) {(0, 2), (0, 1)}"
+      by(rule emeasure_eq_AE)(auto simp add: AE_measure_pmf_iff R_def dest!: pq)
+    also have "\<dots> \<le> emeasure (measure_pmf pq) (fst -` {0})"
+      by(rule emeasure_mono) auto
+    also have "\<dots> = emeasure (measure_pmf (pmf_of_set A)) {0}"
+      unfolding 1[symmetric] by simp
+    also have "\<dots> = pmf (pmf_of_set A) 0"
+      by(simp add: measure_pmf_single measure_pmf.emeasure_eq_measure)
+    also have "pmf (pmf_of_set A) 0 = 1 / 2" by(simp add: A_def)
+    finally show False by(subst (asm) ennreal_le_iff; simp)
+  qed
+end
+
+lemma rel_pmf_of_set_bij:
+  assumes f: "bij_betw f A B"
+  and A: "A \<noteq> {}" "finite A"
+  and B: "B \<noteq> {}" "finite B" 
+  and R: "\<And>x. x \<in> A \<Longrightarrow> R x (f x)"
+  shows "rel_pmf R (pmf_of_set A) (pmf_of_set B)"
+proof(rule pmf.rel_mono_strong)
+  define AB where "AB = (\<lambda>x. (x, f x)) ` A"
+  define R' where "R' x y \<longleftrightarrow> (x, y) \<in> AB" for x y
+  have "(x, y) \<in> AB" if "(x, y) \<in> set_pmf (pmf_of_set AB)" for x y
+    using that by(auto simp add: AB_def A)
+  moreover have "map_pmf fst (pmf_of_set AB) = pmf_of_set A"
+    by(simp add: AB_def map_pmf_of_set_inj[symmetric] inj_on_def A pmf.map_comp o_def)
+  moreover
+  from f have [simp]: "inj_on f A" by(rule bij_betw_imp_inj_on)
+  from f have [simp]: "f ` A = B" by(rule bij_betw_imp_surj_on)
+  have "map_pmf snd (pmf_of_set AB) = pmf_of_set B"
+    by(simp add: AB_def map_pmf_of_set_inj[symmetric] inj_on_def A pmf.map_comp o_def)
+      (simp add: map_pmf_of_set_inj A)
+  ultimately show "rel_pmf (\<lambda>x y. (x, y) \<in> AB) (pmf_of_set A) (pmf_of_set B)" ..
+qed(auto intro: R)
+
+lemma rel_spmf_of_set_bij:
+  assumes f: "bij_betw f A B"
+  and R: "\<And>x. x \<in> A \<Longrightarrow> R x (f x)"
+  shows "rel_spmf R (spmf_of_set A) (spmf_of_set B)"
+proof -
+  have "finite A \<longleftrightarrow> finite B" using f by(rule bij_betw_finite)
+  moreover have "A = {} \<longleftrightarrow> B = {}" using f by(auto dest: bij_betw_empty2 bij_betw_empty1)
+  ultimately show ?thesis using assms
+    by(auto simp add: spmf_of_set_def simp del: spmf_of_pmf_pmf_of_set intro: rel_pmf_of_set_bij)
+qed
+
+context begin interpretation lifting_syntax .
+lemma rel_spmf_of_set:
+  assumes "bi_unique R"
+  shows "(rel_set R ===> rel_spmf R) spmf_of_set spmf_of_set"
+proof
+  fix A B
+  assume R: "rel_set R A B"
+  with assms obtain f where "bij_betw f A B" and f: "\<And>x. x \<in> A \<Longrightarrow> R x (f x)"
+    by(auto dest: bi_unique_rel_set_bij_betw)
+  then show "rel_spmf R (spmf_of_set A) (spmf_of_set B)" by(rule rel_spmf_of_set_bij)
+qed
+end
+
+lemma map_mem_spmf_of_set:
+  assumes "finite B" "B \<noteq> {}"
+  shows "map_spmf (\<lambda>x. x \<in> A) (spmf_of_set B) = spmf_of_pmf (bernoulli_pmf (card (A \<inter> B) / card B))"
+  (is "?lhs = ?rhs")
+proof(rule spmf_eqI)
+  fix i
+  have "ennreal (spmf ?lhs i) = card (B \<inter> (\<lambda>x. x \<in> A) -` {i}) / (card B)"
+    by(subst ennreal_spmf_map)(simp add: measure_spmf_spmf_of_set assms emeasure_pmf_of_set)
+  also have "\<dots> = (if i then card (B \<inter> A) / card B else card (B - A) / card B)"
+    by(auto intro: arg_cong[where f=card])
+  also have "\<dots> = (if i then card (B \<inter> A) / card B else (card B - card (B \<inter> A)) / card B)"
+    by(auto simp add: card_Diff_subset_Int assms)
+  also have "\<dots> = ennreal (spmf ?rhs i)"                               
+    by(simp add: assms card_gt_0_iff field_simps card_mono Int_commute of_nat_diff)
+  finally show "spmf ?lhs i = spmf ?rhs i" by simp
+qed
+
+abbreviation coin_spmf :: "bool spmf"
+where "coin_spmf \<equiv> spmf_of_set UNIV"
+
+lemma map_eq_const_coin_spmf: "map_spmf (op = c) coin_spmf = coin_spmf"
+proof -
+  have "inj (op \<longleftrightarrow> c)" "range (op \<longleftrightarrow> c) = UNIV" by(auto intro: inj_onI)
+  then show ?thesis by simp
+qed
+
+lemma bind_coin_spmf_eq_const: "coin_spmf \<bind> (\<lambda>x :: bool. return_spmf (b = x)) = coin_spmf"
+using map_eq_const_coin_spmf unfolding map_spmf_conv_bind_spmf by simp
+
+lemma bind_coin_spmf_eq_const': "coin_spmf \<bind> (\<lambda>x :: bool. return_spmf (x = b)) = coin_spmf"
+by(rewrite in "_ = \<hole>" bind_coin_spmf_eq_const[symmetric, of b])(auto intro: bind_spmf_cong)
+
+subsection {* Losslessness *}
+
+definition lossless_spmf :: "'a spmf \<Rightarrow> bool"
+where "lossless_spmf p \<longleftrightarrow> weight_spmf p = 1"
+
+lemma lossless_iff_pmf_None: "lossless_spmf p \<longleftrightarrow> pmf p None = 0"
+by(simp add: lossless_spmf_def pmf_None_eq_weight_spmf)
+
+lemma lossless_return_spmf [iff]: "lossless_spmf (return_spmf x)"
+by(simp add: lossless_iff_pmf_None)
+
+lemma lossless_return_pmf_None [iff]: "\<not> lossless_spmf (return_pmf None)"
+by(simp add: lossless_iff_pmf_None)
+
+lemma lossless_map_spmf [simp]: "lossless_spmf (map_spmf f p) \<longleftrightarrow> lossless_spmf p"
+by(auto simp add: lossless_iff_pmf_None pmf_eq_0_set_pmf)
+
+lemma lossless_bind_spmf [simp]:
+  "lossless_spmf (p \<bind> f) \<longleftrightarrow> lossless_spmf p \<and> (\<forall>x\<in>set_spmf p. lossless_spmf (f x))"
+by(simp add: lossless_iff_pmf_None pmf_bind_spmf_None add_nonneg_eq_0_iff integral_nonneg_AE integral_nonneg_eq_0_iff_AE measure_spmf.integrable_const_bound[where B=1] pmf_le_1)
+
+lemma lossless_weight_spmfD: "lossless_spmf p \<Longrightarrow> weight_spmf p = 1"
+by(simp add: lossless_spmf_def)
+
+lemma lossless_iff_set_pmf_None:
+  "lossless_spmf p \<longleftrightarrow> None \<notin> set_pmf p"
+by (simp add: lossless_iff_pmf_None pmf_eq_0_set_pmf)
+
+lemma lossless_spmf_of_set [simp]: "lossless_spmf (spmf_of_set A) \<longleftrightarrow> finite A \<and> A \<noteq> {}"
+by(auto simp add: lossless_spmf_def weight_spmf_of_set)
+
+lemma lossless_spmf_spmf_of_spmf [simp]: "lossless_spmf (spmf_of_pmf p)"
+by(simp add: lossless_spmf_def)
+
+lemma lossless_spmf_bind_pmf [simp]:
+  "lossless_spmf (bind_pmf p f) \<longleftrightarrow> (\<forall>x\<in>set_pmf p. lossless_spmf (f x))"
+by(simp add: lossless_iff_pmf_None pmf_bind integral_nonneg_AE integral_nonneg_eq_0_iff_AE measure_pmf.integrable_const_bound[where B=1] AE_measure_pmf_iff pmf_le_1)
+
+lemma lossless_spmf_conv_spmf_of_pmf: "lossless_spmf p \<longleftrightarrow> (\<exists>p'. p = spmf_of_pmf p')"
+proof
+  assume "lossless_spmf p"
+  hence *: "\<And>y. y \<in> set_pmf p \<Longrightarrow> \<exists>x. y = Some x"
+    by(case_tac y)(simp_all add: lossless_iff_set_pmf_None)
+
+  let ?p = "map_pmf the p"
+  have "p = spmf_of_pmf ?p"
+  proof(rule spmf_eqI)
+    fix i
+    have "ennreal (pmf (map_pmf the p) i) = \<integral>\<^sup>+ x. indicator (the -` {i}) x \<partial>p" by(simp add: ennreal_pmf_map)
+    also have "\<dots> = \<integral>\<^sup>+ x. indicator {i} x \<partial>measure_spmf p" unfolding measure_spmf_def
+      by(subst nn_integral_distr)(auto simp add: nn_integral_restrict_space AE_measure_pmf_iff simp del: nn_integral_indicator intro!: nn_integral_cong_AE split: split_indicator dest!: * )
+    also have "\<dots> = spmf p i" by(simp add: emeasure_spmf_single)
+    finally show "spmf p i = spmf (spmf_of_pmf ?p) i" by simp
+  qed
+  thus "\<exists>p'. p = spmf_of_pmf p'" ..
+qed auto
+
+lemma spmf_False_conv_True: "lossless_spmf p \<Longrightarrow> spmf p False = 1 - spmf p True"
+by(clarsimp simp add: lossless_spmf_conv_spmf_of_pmf pmf_False_conv_True)
+
+lemma spmf_True_conv_False: "lossless_spmf p \<Longrightarrow> spmf p True = 1 - spmf p False"
+by(simp add: spmf_False_conv_True)
+
+lemma bind_eq_return_spmf:
+  "bind_spmf p f = return_spmf x \<longleftrightarrow> (\<forall>y\<in>set_spmf p. f y = return_spmf x) \<and> lossless_spmf p"
+by(auto simp add: bind_spmf_def bind_eq_return_pmf in_set_spmf lossless_iff_pmf_None pmf_eq_0_set_pmf iff del: not_None_eq split: option.split)
+
+lemma rel_spmf_return_spmf2:
+  "rel_spmf R p (return_spmf x) \<longleftrightarrow> lossless_spmf p \<and> (\<forall>a\<in>set_spmf p. R a x)"
+by(auto simp add: lossless_iff_set_pmf_None rel_pmf_return_pmf2 option_rel_Some2 in_set_spmf, metis in_set_spmf not_None_eq)
+
+lemma rel_spmf_return_spmf1:
+  "rel_spmf R (return_spmf x) p \<longleftrightarrow> lossless_spmf p \<and> (\<forall>a\<in>set_spmf p. R x a)"
+using rel_spmf_return_spmf2[of "R\<inverse>\<inverse>"] by(simp add: spmf_rel_conversep)
+
+lemma rel_spmf_bindI1:
+  assumes f: "\<And>x. x \<in> set_spmf p \<Longrightarrow> rel_spmf R (f x) q"
+  and p: "lossless_spmf p"
+  shows "rel_spmf R (bind_spmf p f) q"
+proof -
+  fix x :: 'a
+  have "rel_spmf R (bind_spmf p f) (bind_spmf (return_spmf x) (\<lambda>_. q))"
+    by(rule rel_spmf_bindI[where R="\<lambda>x _. x \<in> set_spmf p"])(simp_all add: rel_spmf_return_spmf2 p f)
+  then show ?thesis by simp
+qed
+
+lemma rel_spmf_bindI2:
+  "\<lbrakk> \<And>x. x \<in> set_spmf q \<Longrightarrow> rel_spmf R p (f x); lossless_spmf q \<rbrakk>
+  \<Longrightarrow> rel_spmf R p (bind_spmf q f)"
+using rel_spmf_bindI1[of q "conversep R" f p] by(simp add: spmf_rel_conversep)
+
+subsection {* Scaling *}
+
+definition scale_spmf :: "real \<Rightarrow> 'a spmf \<Rightarrow> 'a spmf"
+where
+  "scale_spmf r p = embed_spmf (\<lambda>x. min (inverse (weight_spmf p)) (max 0 r) * spmf p x)"
+
+lemma scale_spmf_le_1:
+  "(\<integral>\<^sup>+ x. min (inverse (weight_spmf p)) (max 0 r) * spmf p x \<partial>count_space UNIV) \<le> 1" (is "?lhs \<le> _")
+proof -
+  have "?lhs = min (inverse (weight_spmf p)) (max 0 r) * \<integral>\<^sup>+ x. spmf p x \<partial>count_space UNIV"
+    by(subst nn_integral_cmult[symmetric])(simp_all add: weight_spmf_nonneg max_def min_def ennreal_mult)
+  also have "\<dots> \<le> 1" unfolding weight_spmf_eq_nn_integral_spmf[symmetric]
+    by(simp add: min_def max_def weight_spmf_nonneg order.strict_iff_order field_simps ennreal_mult[symmetric])
+  finally show ?thesis .
+qed
+
+lemma spmf_scale_spmf: "spmf (scale_spmf r p) x = max 0 (min (inverse (weight_spmf p)) r) * spmf p x" (is "?lhs = ?rhs")
+unfolding scale_spmf_def
+apply(subst spmf_embed_spmf[OF scale_spmf_le_1])
+apply(simp add: max_def min_def weight_spmf_le_0 field_simps weight_spmf_nonneg not_le order.strict_iff_order)
+apply(metis antisym_conv order_trans weight_spmf_nonneg zero_le_mult_iff zero_le_one)
+done
+
+lemma real_inverse_le_1_iff: fixes x :: real
+  shows "\<lbrakk> 0 \<le> x; x \<le> 1 \<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> 1 / x \<le> 1 \<longleftrightarrow> x = 1 \<or> x = 0"
+by auto
+
+lemma spmf_scale_spmf': "r \<le> 1 \<Longrightarrow> spmf (scale_spmf r p) x = max 0 r * spmf p x"
+using real_inverse_le_1_iff[OF weight_spmf_nonneg weight_spmf_le_1, of p]
+by(auto simp add: spmf_scale_spmf max_def min_def field_simps)(metis pmf_le_0_iff spmf_le_weight)
+
+lemma scale_spmf_neg: "r \<le> 0 \<Longrightarrow> scale_spmf r p = return_pmf None"
+by(rule spmf_eqI)(simp add: spmf_scale_spmf' max_def)
+
+lemma scale_spmf_return_None [simp]: "scale_spmf r (return_pmf None) = return_pmf None"
+by(rule spmf_eqI)(simp add: spmf_scale_spmf)
+
+lemma scale_spmf_conv_bind_bernoulli:
+  assumes "r \<le> 1"
+  shows "scale_spmf r p = bind_pmf (bernoulli_pmf r) (\<lambda>b. if b then p else return_pmf None)" (is "?lhs = ?rhs")
+proof(rule spmf_eqI)
+  fix x
+  have "ennreal (spmf ?lhs x) = ennreal (spmf ?rhs x)" using assms
+    unfolding spmf_scale_spmf ennreal_pmf_bind nn_integral_measure_pmf UNIV_bool bernoulli_pmf.rep_eq
+    apply(auto simp add: nn_integral_count_space_finite max_def min_def field_simps real_inverse_le_1_iff[OF weight_spmf_nonneg weight_spmf_le_1] weight_spmf_lt_0 not_le ennreal_mult[symmetric])
+    apply (metis pmf_le_0_iff spmf_le_weight)
+    apply (metis pmf_le_0_iff spmf_le_weight)
+    apply (meson le_divide_eq_1_pos measure_spmf.subprob_measure_le_1 not_less order_trans weight_spmf_le_0)
+    by (meson divide_le_0_1_iff less_imp_le order_trans weight_spmf_le_0)
+  thus "spmf ?lhs x = spmf ?rhs x" by simp
+qed
+
+lemma nn_integral_spmf: "(\<integral>\<^sup>+ x. spmf p x \<partial>count_space A) = emeasure (measure_spmf p) A"
+apply(simp add: measure_spmf_def emeasure_distr emeasure_restrict_space space_restrict_space nn_integral_pmf[symmetric])
+apply(rule nn_integral_bij_count_space[where g=Some])
+apply(auto simp add: bij_betw_def)
+done
+
+lemma measure_spmf_scale_spmf: "measure_spmf (scale_spmf r p) = scale_measure (min (inverse (weight_spmf p)) r) (measure_spmf p)"
+apply(rule measure_eqI)
+ apply simp
+apply(simp add: nn_integral_spmf[symmetric] spmf_scale_spmf)
+apply(subst nn_integral_cmult[symmetric])
+apply(auto simp add: max_def min_def ennreal_mult[symmetric] not_le ennreal_lt_0)
+done
+
+lemma measure_spmf_scale_spmf': 
+  "r \<le> 1 \<Longrightarrow> measure_spmf (scale_spmf r p) = scale_measure r (measure_spmf p)"
+unfolding measure_spmf_scale_spmf
+apply(cases "weight_spmf p > 0")
+ apply(simp add: min.absorb2 field_simps weight_spmf_le_1 mult_le_one)
+apply(clarsimp simp add: weight_spmf_le_0 min_def scale_spmf_neg weight_spmf_eq_0 not_less)
+done
+
+lemma scale_spmf_1 [simp]: "scale_spmf 1 p = p"
+apply(rule spmf_eqI)
+apply(simp add: spmf_scale_spmf max_def min_def order.strict_iff_order field_simps weight_spmf_nonneg)
+apply(metis antisym_conv divide_le_eq_1 less_imp_le pmf_nonneg spmf_le_weight weight_spmf_nonneg weight_spmf_le_1)
+done
+
+lemma scale_spmf_0 [simp]: "scale_spmf 0 p = return_pmf None"
+by(rule spmf_eqI)(simp add: spmf_scale_spmf min_def max_def weight_spmf_le_0)
+
+lemma bind_scale_spmf: 
+  assumes r: "r \<le> 1"
+  shows "bind_spmf (scale_spmf r p) f = bind_spmf p (\<lambda>x. scale_spmf r (f x))"
+  (is "?lhs = ?rhs")
+proof(rule spmf_eqI)
+  fix x
+  have "ennreal (spmf ?lhs x) = ennreal (spmf ?rhs x)" using r
+    by(simp add: ennreal_spmf_bind measure_spmf_scale_spmf' nn_integral_scale_measure spmf_scale_spmf')
+      (simp add: ennreal_mult ennreal_lt_0 nn_integral_cmult max_def min_def)
+  thus "spmf ?lhs x = spmf ?rhs x" by simp
+qed
+
+lemma scale_bind_spmf: 
+  assumes "r \<le> 1"
+  shows "scale_spmf r (bind_spmf p f) = bind_spmf p (\<lambda>x. scale_spmf r (f x))"
+  (is "?lhs = ?rhs")
+proof(rule spmf_eqI)
+  fix x
+  have "ennreal (spmf ?lhs x) = ennreal (spmf ?rhs x)" using assms
+    unfolding spmf_scale_spmf'[OF assms]
+    by(simp add: ennreal_mult ennreal_spmf_bind spmf_scale_spmf' nn_integral_cmult max_def min_def)
+  thus "spmf ?lhs x = spmf ?rhs x" by simp
+qed
+
+lemma bind_spmf_const: "bind_spmf p (\<lambda>x. q) = scale_spmf (weight_spmf p) q" (is "?lhs = ?rhs")
+proof(rule spmf_eqI)
+  fix x
+  have "ennreal (spmf ?lhs x) = ennreal (spmf ?rhs x)"
+    using measure_spmf.subprob_measure_le_1[of p "space (measure_spmf p)"]
+    by(subst ennreal_spmf_bind)(simp add: spmf_scale_spmf' weight_spmf_le_1 ennreal_mult mult.commute max_def min_def measure_spmf.emeasure_eq_measure)
+  thus "spmf ?lhs x = spmf ?rhs x" by simp
+qed
+
+lemma map_scale_spmf: "map_spmf f (scale_spmf r p) = scale_spmf r (map_spmf f p)" (is "?lhs = ?rhs")
+proof(rule spmf_eqI)
+  fix i
+  show "spmf ?lhs i = spmf ?rhs i" unfolding spmf_scale_spmf
+    by(subst (1 2) spmf_map)(auto simp add: measure_spmf_scale_spmf max_def min_def ennreal_lt_0)
+qed
+
+lemma set_scale_spmf: "set_spmf (scale_spmf r p) = (if r > 0 then set_spmf p else {})"
+apply(auto simp add: in_set_spmf_iff_spmf spmf_scale_spmf)
+apply(simp add: max_def min_def not_le weight_spmf_lt_0 weight_spmf_eq_0 split: if_split_asm)
+done
+
+lemma set_scale_spmf' [simp]: "0 < r \<Longrightarrow> set_spmf (scale_spmf r p) = set_spmf p"
+by(simp add: set_scale_spmf)
+
+lemma rel_spmf_scaleI: 
+  assumes "r > 0 \<Longrightarrow> rel_spmf A p q"
+  shows "rel_spmf A (scale_spmf r p) (scale_spmf r q)"
+proof(cases "r > 0")
+  case True
+  from assms[OF this] show ?thesis
+    by(rule rel_spmfE)(auto simp add: map_scale_spmf[symmetric] spmf_rel_map True intro: rel_spmf_reflI)
+qed(simp add: not_less scale_spmf_neg)
+
+lemma weight_scale_spmf: "weight_spmf (scale_spmf r p) = min 1 (max 0 r * weight_spmf p)"
+proof -
+  have "ennreal (weight_spmf (scale_spmf r p)) = min 1 (max 0 r * ennreal (weight_spmf p))"
+    unfolding weight_spmf_eq_nn_integral_spmf
+    apply(simp add: spmf_scale_spmf ennreal_mult zero_ereal_def[symmetric] nn_integral_cmult)
+    apply(auto simp add: weight_spmf_eq_nn_integral_spmf[symmetric] field_simps min_def max_def not_le weight_spmf_lt_0 ennreal_mult[symmetric])
+    subgoal by(subst (asm) ennreal_mult[symmetric], meson divide_less_0_1_iff le_less_trans not_le weight_spmf_lt_0, simp+, meson not_le pos_divide_le_eq weight_spmf_le_0)
+    subgoal by(cases "r \<ge> 0")(simp_all add: ennreal_mult[symmetric] weight_spmf_nonneg ennreal_lt_0, meson le_less_trans not_le pos_divide_le_eq zero_less_divide_1_iff)
+    done
+  thus ?thesis by(auto simp add: min_def max_def ennreal_mult[symmetric] split: if_split_asm)
+qed
+
+lemma weight_scale_spmf' [simp]: 
+  "\<lbrakk> 0 \<le> r; r \<le> 1 \<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> weight_spmf (scale_spmf r p) = r * weight_spmf p"
+by(simp add: weight_scale_spmf max_def min_def)(metis antisym_conv mult_left_le order_trans weight_spmf_le_1)
+
+lemma pmf_scale_spmf_None:
+  "pmf (scale_spmf k p) None = 1 - min 1 (max 0 k * (1 - pmf p None))"
+unfolding pmf_None_eq_weight_spmf by(simp add: weight_scale_spmf)
+
+lemma scale_scale_spmf: 
+  "scale_spmf r (scale_spmf r' p) = scale_spmf (r * max 0 (min (inverse (weight_spmf p)) r')) p"
+  (is "?lhs = ?rhs")
+proof(rule spmf_eqI)
+  fix i
+  have "max 0 (min (1 / weight_spmf p) r') *
+    max 0 (min (1 / min 1 (weight_spmf p * max 0 r')) r) =
+    max 0 (min (1 / weight_spmf p) (r * max 0 (min (1 / weight_spmf p) r')))"
+  proof(cases "weight_spmf p > 0")
+    case False
+    thus ?thesis by(simp add: not_less weight_spmf_le_0)
+  next
+    case True
+    thus ?thesis by(simp add: field_simps max_def min.absorb_iff2[symmetric])(auto simp add: min_def field_simps zero_le_mult_iff)
+  qed
+  then show "spmf ?lhs i = spmf ?rhs i"
+    by(simp add: spmf_scale_spmf field_simps weight_scale_spmf)
+qed
+
+lemma scale_scale_spmf' [simp]:
+  "\<lbrakk> 0 \<le> r; r \<le> 1; 0 \<le> r'; r' \<le> 1 \<rbrakk>
+  \<Longrightarrow> scale_spmf r (scale_spmf r' p) = scale_spmf (r * r') p"
+apply(cases "weight_spmf p > 0")
+apply(auto simp add: scale_scale_spmf min_def max_def field_simps not_le weight_spmf_lt_0 weight_spmf_eq_0 not_less weight_spmf_le_0)
+apply(subgoal_tac "1 = r'")
+ apply (metis (no_types) divide_1 eq_iff measure_spmf.subprob_measure_le_1 mult.commute mult_cancel_right1)
+apply(meson eq_iff le_divide_eq_1_pos measure_spmf.subprob_measure_le_1 mult_imp_div_pos_le order.trans)
+done
+
+lemma scale_spmf_eq_same: "scale_spmf r p = p \<longleftrightarrow> weight_spmf p = 0 \<or> r = 1 \<or> r \<ge> 1 \<and> weight_spmf p = 1"
+  (is "?lhs \<longleftrightarrow> ?rhs")
+proof
+  assume ?lhs
+  hence "weight_spmf (scale_spmf r p) = weight_spmf p" by simp
+  hence *: "min 1 (max 0 r * weight_spmf p) = weight_spmf p" by(simp add: weight_scale_spmf)
+  hence **: "weight_spmf p = 0 \<or> r \<ge> 1" by(auto simp add: min_def max_def split: if_split_asm)
+  show ?rhs
+  proof(cases "weight_spmf p = 0")
+    case False
+    with ** have "r \<ge> 1" by simp
+    with * False have "r = 1 \<or> weight_spmf p = 1" by(simp add: max_def min_def not_le split: if_split_asm)
+    with \<open>r \<ge> 1\<close> show ?thesis by simp
+  qed simp
+qed(auto intro!: spmf_eqI simp add: spmf_scale_spmf, metis pmf_le_0_iff spmf_le_weight)
+
+lemma map_const_spmf_of_set:
+  "\<lbrakk> finite A; A \<noteq> {} \<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> map_spmf (\<lambda>_. c) (spmf_of_set A) = return_spmf c"
+by(simp add: map_spmf_conv_bind_spmf bind_spmf_const)
+
+subsection {* Conditional spmfs *}
+
+lemma set_pmf_Int_Some: "set_pmf p \<inter> Some ` A = {} \<longleftrightarrow> set_spmf p \<inter> A = {}"
+by(auto simp add: in_set_spmf)
+
+lemma measure_spmf_zero_iff: "measure (measure_spmf p) A = 0 \<longleftrightarrow> set_spmf p \<inter> A = {}"
+unfolding measure_measure_spmf_conv_measure_pmf by(simp add: measure_pmf_zero_iff set_pmf_Int_Some)
+
+definition cond_spmf :: "'a spmf \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'a spmf"
+where "cond_spmf p A = (if set_spmf p \<inter> A = {} then return_pmf None else cond_pmf p (Some ` A))"
+
+lemma set_cond_spmf [simp]: "set_spmf (cond_spmf p A) = set_spmf p \<inter> A"
+by(auto 4 4 simp add: cond_spmf_def in_set_spmf iff: set_cond_pmf[THEN set_eq_iff[THEN iffD1], THEN spec, rotated])
+
+lemma cond_map_spmf [simp]: "cond_spmf (map_spmf f p) A = map_spmf f (cond_spmf p (f -` A))"
+proof -
+  have "map_option f -` Some ` A = Some ` f -` A" by auto
+  moreover have "set_pmf p \<inter> map_option f -` Some ` A \<noteq> {}" if "Some x \<in> set_pmf p" "f x \<in> A" for x
+    using that by auto
+  ultimately show ?thesis by(auto simp add: cond_spmf_def in_set_spmf cond_map_pmf)
+qed
+
+lemma spmf_cond_spmf [simp]:
+  "spmf (cond_spmf p A) x = (if x \<in> A then spmf p x / measure (measure_spmf p) A else 0)"
+by(auto simp add: cond_spmf_def pmf_cond set_pmf_Int_Some[symmetric] measure_measure_spmf_conv_measure_pmf measure_pmf_zero_iff)
+
+lemma bind_eq_return_pmf_None:
+  "bind_spmf p f = return_pmf None \<longleftrightarrow> (\<forall>x\<in>set_spmf p. f x = return_pmf None)"
+by(auto simp add: bind_spmf_def bind_eq_return_pmf in_set_spmf split: option.splits)
+
+lemma return_pmf_None_eq_bind:
+  "return_pmf None = bind_spmf p f \<longleftrightarrow> (\<forall>x\<in>set_spmf p. f x = return_pmf None)"
+using bind_eq_return_pmf_None[of p f] by auto
+
+(* Conditional probabilities do not seem to interact nicely with bind. *)
+
+subsection {* Product spmf *}
+
+definition pair_spmf :: "'a spmf \<Rightarrow> 'b spmf \<Rightarrow> ('a \<times> 'b) spmf"
+where "pair_spmf p q = bind_pmf (pair_pmf p q) (\<lambda>xy. case xy of (Some x, Some y) \<Rightarrow> return_spmf (x, y) | _ \<Rightarrow> return_pmf None)"
+
+lemma map_fst_pair_spmf [simp]: "map_spmf fst (pair_spmf p q) = scale_spmf (weight_spmf q) p"
+unfolding bind_spmf_const[symmetric]
+apply(simp add: pair_spmf_def map_bind_pmf pair_pmf_def bind_assoc_pmf option.case_distrib)
+apply(subst bind_commute_pmf)
+apply(auto intro!: bind_pmf_cong[OF refl] simp add: bind_return_pmf bind_spmf_def bind_return_pmf' case_option_collapse option.case_distrib[where h="map_spmf _"] option.case_distrib[symmetric] case_option_id split: option.split cong del: option.case_cong)
+done
+
+lemma map_snd_pair_spmf [simp]: "map_spmf snd (pair_spmf p q) = scale_spmf (weight_spmf p) q"
+unfolding bind_spmf_const[symmetric]
+apply(simp add: pair_spmf_def map_bind_pmf pair_pmf_def bind_assoc_pmf option.case_distrib cong del: option.case_cong)
+apply(auto intro!: bind_pmf_cong[OF refl] simp add: bind_return_pmf bind_spmf_def bind_return_pmf' case_option_collapse option.case_distrib[where h="map_spmf _"] option.case_distrib[symmetric] case_option_id split: option.split cong del: option.case_cong)
+done
+
+lemma set_pair_spmf [simp]: "set_spmf (pair_spmf p q) = set_spmf p \<times> set_spmf q"
+by(auto 4 3 simp add: pair_spmf_def set_spmf_bind_pmf bind_UNION in_set_spmf intro: rev_bexI split: option.splits)
+                                                 
+lemma spmf_pair [simp]: "spmf (pair_spmf p q) (x, y) = spmf p x * spmf q y" (is "?lhs = ?rhs")
+proof -
+  have "ennreal ?lhs = \<integral>\<^sup>+ a. \<integral>\<^sup>+ b. indicator {(x, y)} (a, b) \<partial>measure_spmf q \<partial>measure_spmf p"
+    unfolding measure_spmf_def pair_spmf_def ennreal_pmf_bind nn_integral_pair_pmf'
+    by(auto simp add: zero_ereal_def[symmetric] nn_integral_distr nn_integral_restrict_space nn_integral_multc[symmetric] intro!: nn_integral_cong split: option.split split_indicator)
+  also have "\<dots> = \<integral>\<^sup>+ a. (\<integral>\<^sup>+ b. indicator {y} b \<partial>measure_spmf q) * indicator {x} a \<partial>measure_spmf p"
+    by(subst nn_integral_multc[symmetric])(auto intro!: nn_integral_cong split: split_indicator)
+  also have "\<dots> = ennreal ?rhs" by(simp add: emeasure_spmf_single max_def ennreal_mult mult.commute)
+  finally show ?thesis by simp
+qed
+
+lemma pair_map_spmf2: "pair_spmf p (map_spmf f q) = map_spmf (apsnd f) (pair_spmf p q)"
+by(auto simp add: pair_spmf_def pair_map_pmf2 bind_map_pmf map_bind_pmf intro: bind_pmf_cong split: option.split)
+
+lemma pair_map_spmf1: "pair_spmf (map_spmf f p) q = map_spmf (apfst f) (pair_spmf p q)"
+by(auto simp add: pair_spmf_def pair_map_pmf1 bind_map_pmf map_bind_pmf intro: bind_pmf_cong split: option.split)
+
+lemma pair_map_spmf: "pair_spmf (map_spmf f p) (map_spmf g q) = map_spmf (map_prod f g) (pair_spmf p q)"
+unfolding pair_map_spmf2 pair_map_spmf1 spmf.map_comp by(simp add: apfst_def apsnd_def o_def prod.map_comp)
+
+lemma pair_spmf_alt_def: "pair_spmf p q = bind_spmf p (\<lambda>x. bind_spmf q (\<lambda>y. return_spmf (x, y)))"
+by(auto simp add: pair_spmf_def pair_pmf_def bind_spmf_def bind_assoc_pmf bind_return_pmf split: option.split intro: bind_pmf_cong)
+
+lemma weight_pair_spmf [simp]: "weight_spmf (pair_spmf p q) = weight_spmf p * weight_spmf q"
+unfolding pair_spmf_alt_def by(simp add: weight_bind_spmf o_def)
+
+lemma pair_scale_spmf1: (* FIXME: generalise to arbitrary r *)
+  "r \<le> 1 \<Longrightarrow> pair_spmf (scale_spmf r p) q = scale_spmf r (pair_spmf p q)"
+by(simp add: pair_spmf_alt_def scale_bind_spmf bind_scale_spmf)
+
+lemma pair_scale_spmf2: (* FIXME: generalise to arbitrary r *)
+  "r \<le> 1 \<Longrightarrow> pair_spmf p (scale_spmf r q) = scale_spmf r (pair_spmf p q)"
+by(simp add: pair_spmf_alt_def scale_bind_spmf bind_scale_spmf)
+
+lemma pair_spmf_return_None1 [simp]: "pair_spmf (return_pmf None) p = return_pmf None"
+by(rule spmf_eqI)(clarsimp)
+
+lemma pair_spmf_return_None2 [simp]: "pair_spmf p (return_pmf None) = return_pmf None"
+by(rule spmf_eqI)(clarsimp)
+
+lemma pair_spmf_return_spmf1: "pair_spmf (return_spmf x) q = map_spmf (Pair x) q"
+by(rule spmf_eqI)(auto split: split_indicator simp add: spmf_map_inj' inj_on_def intro: spmf_map_outside)
+
+lemma pair_spmf_return_spmf2: "pair_spmf p (return_spmf y) = map_spmf (\<lambda>x. (x, y)) p"
+by(rule spmf_eqI)(auto split: split_indicator simp add: inj_on_def intro!: spmf_map_outside spmf_map_inj'[symmetric])
+
+lemma pair_spmf_return_spmf [simp]: "pair_spmf (return_spmf x) (return_spmf y) = return_spmf (x, y)"
+by(simp add: pair_spmf_return_spmf1)
+
+lemma rel_pair_spmf_prod:
+  "rel_spmf (rel_prod A B) (pair_spmf p q) (pair_spmf p' q') \<longleftrightarrow> 
+   rel_spmf A (scale_spmf (weight_spmf q) p) (scale_spmf (weight_spmf q') p') \<and> 
+   rel_spmf B (scale_spmf (weight_spmf p) q) (scale_spmf (weight_spmf p') q')"
+  (is "?lhs \<longleftrightarrow> ?rhs" is "_ \<longleftrightarrow> ?A \<and> ?B" is "_ \<longleftrightarrow> rel_spmf _ ?p ?p' \<and> rel_spmf _ ?q ?q'")
+proof(intro iffI conjI)
+  assume ?rhs
+  then obtain pq pq' where p: "map_spmf fst pq = ?p" and p': "map_spmf snd pq = ?p'"
+    and q: "map_spmf fst pq' = ?q" and q': "map_spmf snd pq' = ?q'"
+    and *: "\<And>x x'. (x, x') \<in> set_spmf pq \<Longrightarrow> A x x'"
+    and **: "\<And>y y'. (y, y') \<in> set_spmf pq' \<Longrightarrow> B y y'" by(auto elim!: rel_spmfE)
+  let ?f = "\<lambda>((x, x'), (y, y')). ((x, y), (x', y'))"
+  let ?r = "1 / (weight_spmf p * weight_spmf q)"
+  let ?pq = "scale_spmf ?r (map_spmf ?f (pair_spmf pq pq'))"
+
+  { fix p :: "'x spmf" and q :: "'y spmf"
+    assume "weight_spmf q \<noteq> 0"
+      and "weight_spmf p \<noteq> 0"
+      and "1 / (weight_spmf p * weight_spmf q) \<le> weight_spmf p * weight_spmf q"
+    hence "1 \<le> (weight_spmf p * weight_spmf q) * (weight_spmf p * weight_spmf q)"
+      by(simp add: pos_divide_le_eq order.strict_iff_order weight_spmf_nonneg)
+    moreover have "(weight_spmf p * weight_spmf q) * (weight_spmf p * weight_spmf q) \<le> (1 * 1) * (1 * 1)"
+      by(intro mult_mono)(simp_all add: weight_spmf_nonneg weight_spmf_le_1)
+    ultimately have "(weight_spmf p * weight_spmf q) * (weight_spmf p * weight_spmf q) = 1" by simp
+    hence *: "weight_spmf p * weight_spmf q = 1" 
+      by(metis antisym_conv less_le mult_less_cancel_left1 weight_pair_spmf weight_spmf_le_1 weight_spmf_nonneg)
+    hence "weight_spmf p = 1" by(metis antisym_conv mult_left_le weight_spmf_le_1 weight_spmf_nonneg)
+    moreover with * have "weight_spmf q = 1" by simp
+    moreover note calculation }
+  note full = this
+
+  show ?lhs
+  proof
+    have [simp]: "fst \<circ> ?f = map_prod fst fst" by(simp add: fun_eq_iff)
+    have "map_spmf fst ?pq = scale_spmf ?r (pair_spmf ?p ?q)"
+      by(simp add: pair_map_spmf[symmetric] p q map_scale_spmf spmf.map_comp)
+    also have "\<dots> = pair_spmf p q" using full[of p q]
+      by(simp add: pair_scale_spmf1 pair_scale_spmf2 weight_spmf_le_1 weight_spmf_nonneg)
+        (auto simp add: scale_scale_spmf max_def min_def field_simps weight_spmf_nonneg weight_spmf_eq_0)
+    finally show "map_spmf fst ?pq = \<dots>" .
+
+    have [simp]: "snd \<circ> ?f = map_prod snd snd" by(simp add: fun_eq_iff)
+    from \<open>?rhs\<close> have eq: "weight_spmf p * weight_spmf q = weight_spmf p' * weight_spmf q'"
+      by(auto dest!: rel_spmf_weightD simp add: weight_spmf_le_1 weight_spmf_nonneg)
+    
+    have "map_spmf snd ?pq = scale_spmf ?r (pair_spmf ?p' ?q')"
+      by(simp add: pair_map_spmf[symmetric] p' q' map_scale_spmf spmf.map_comp)
+    also have "\<dots> = pair_spmf p' q'" using full[of p' q'] eq
+      by(simp add: pair_scale_spmf1 pair_scale_spmf2 weight_spmf_le_1 weight_spmf_nonneg)
+        (auto simp add: scale_scale_spmf max_def min_def field_simps weight_spmf_nonneg weight_spmf_eq_0)
+    finally show "map_spmf snd ?pq = \<dots>" .
+  qed(auto simp add: set_scale_spmf split: if_split_asm dest: * ** )
+next
+  assume ?lhs
+  then obtain pq where pq: "map_spmf fst pq = pair_spmf p q"
+    and pq': "map_spmf snd pq = pair_spmf p' q'"
+    and *: "\<And>x y x' y'. ((x, y), (x', y')) \<in> set_spmf pq \<Longrightarrow> A x x' \<and> B y y'"
+    by(auto elim: rel_spmfE)
+
+  show ?A
+  proof
+    let ?f = "(\<lambda>((x, y), (x', y')). (x, x'))"
+    let ?pq = "map_spmf ?f pq"
+    have [simp]: "fst \<circ> ?f = fst \<circ> fst" by(simp add: split_def o_def)
+    show "map_spmf fst ?pq = scale_spmf (weight_spmf q) p" using pq 
+      by(simp add: spmf.map_comp)(simp add: spmf.map_comp[symmetric])
+
+    have [simp]: "snd \<circ> ?f = fst \<circ> snd" by(simp add: split_def o_def)
+    show "map_spmf snd ?pq = scale_spmf (weight_spmf q') p'" using pq' 
+      by(simp add: spmf.map_comp)(simp add: spmf.map_comp[symmetric])
+  qed(auto dest: * )
+    
+  show ?B
+  proof
+    let ?f = "(\<lambda>((x, y), (x', y')). (y, y'))"
+    let ?pq = "map_spmf ?f pq"
+    have [simp]: "fst \<circ> ?f = snd \<circ> fst" by(simp add: split_def o_def)
+    show "map_spmf fst ?pq = scale_spmf (weight_spmf p) q" using pq 
+      by(simp add: spmf.map_comp)(simp add: spmf.map_comp[symmetric])
+
+    have [simp]: "snd \<circ> ?f = snd \<circ> snd" by(simp add: split_def o_def)
+    show "map_spmf snd ?pq = scale_spmf (weight_spmf p') q'" using pq' 
+      by(simp add: spmf.map_comp)(simp add: spmf.map_comp[symmetric])
+  qed(auto dest: * )
+qed
+
+lemma pair_pair_spmf:
+  "pair_spmf (pair_spmf p q) r = map_spmf (\<lambda>(x, (y, z)). ((x, y), z)) (pair_spmf p (pair_spmf q r))"
+by(simp add: pair_spmf_alt_def map_spmf_conv_bind_spmf)
+
+lemma pair_commute_spmf:
+  "pair_spmf p q = map_spmf (\<lambda>(y, x). (x, y)) (pair_spmf q p)"
+unfolding pair_spmf_alt_def by(subst bind_commute_spmf)(simp add: map_spmf_conv_bind_spmf)
+
+subsection {* Assertions *}
+
+definition assert_spmf :: "bool \<Rightarrow> unit spmf"
+where "assert_spmf b = (if b then return_spmf () else return_pmf None)"
+
+lemma assert_spmf_simps [simp]:
+  "assert_spmf True = return_spmf ()"
+  "assert_spmf False = return_pmf None"
+by(simp_all add: assert_spmf_def)
+
+lemma in_set_assert_spmf [simp]: "x \<in> set_spmf (assert_spmf p) \<longleftrightarrow> p"
+by(cases p) simp_all
+
+lemma set_spmf_assert_spmf_eq_empty [simp]: "set_spmf (assert_spmf b) = {} \<longleftrightarrow> \<not> b"
+by(cases b) simp_all
+
+lemma lossless_assert_spmf [iff]: "lossless_spmf (assert_spmf b) \<longleftrightarrow> b"
+by(cases b) simp_all
+
+subsection {* Try *}
+
+definition try_spmf :: "'a spmf \<Rightarrow> 'a spmf \<Rightarrow> 'a spmf" ("TRY _ ELSE _" [0,60] 59)
+where "try_spmf p q = bind_pmf p (\<lambda>x. case x of None \<Rightarrow> q | Some y \<Rightarrow> return_spmf y)"
+
+lemma try_spmf_lossless [simp]:
+  assumes "lossless_spmf p"
+  shows "TRY p ELSE q = p"
+proof -
+  have "TRY p ELSE q = bind_pmf p return_pmf" unfolding try_spmf_def using assms
+    by(auto simp add: lossless_iff_set_pmf_None split: option.split intro: bind_pmf_cong)
+  thus ?thesis by(simp add: bind_return_pmf')
+qed
+
+lemma try_spmf_return_spmf1: "TRY return_spmf x ELSE q = return_spmf x"
+by(simp add: try_spmf_def bind_return_pmf)
+
+lemma try_spmf_return_None [simp]: "TRY return_pmf None ELSE q = q"
+by(simp add: try_spmf_def bind_return_pmf)
+
+lemma try_spmf_return_pmf_None2 [simp]: "TRY p ELSE return_pmf None = p"
+by(simp add: try_spmf_def option.case_distrib[symmetric] bind_return_pmf' case_option_id)
+
+lemma map_try_spmf: "map_spmf f (try_spmf p q) = try_spmf (map_spmf f p) (map_spmf f q)"
+by(simp add: try_spmf_def map_bind_pmf bind_map_pmf option.case_distrib[where h="map_spmf f"] o_def cong del: option.case_cong_weak)
+
+lemma try_spmf_bind_pmf: "TRY (bind_pmf p f) ELSE q = bind_pmf p (\<lambda>x. TRY (f x) ELSE q)"
+by(simp add: try_spmf_def bind_assoc_pmf)
+
+lemma try_spmf_bind_spmf_lossless:
+  "lossless_spmf p \<Longrightarrow> TRY (bind_spmf p f) ELSE q = bind_spmf p (\<lambda>x. TRY (f x) ELSE q)"
+by(auto simp add: try_spmf_def bind_spmf_def bind_assoc_pmf bind_return_pmf lossless_iff_set_pmf_None intro!: bind_pmf_cong split: option.split)
+
+lemma try_spmf_bind_out:
+  "lossless_spmf p \<Longrightarrow> bind_spmf p (\<lambda>x. TRY (f x) ELSE q) = TRY (bind_spmf p f) ELSE q"
+by(simp add: try_spmf_bind_spmf_lossless)
+
+lemma lossless_try_spmf [simp]:
+  "lossless_spmf (TRY p ELSE q) \<longleftrightarrow> lossless_spmf p \<or> lossless_spmf q"
+by(auto simp add: try_spmf_def in_set_spmf lossless_iff_set_pmf_None split: option.splits)
+
+context begin interpretation lifting_syntax .
+lemma try_spmf_parametric [transfer_rule]:
+  "(rel_spmf A ===> rel_spmf A ===> rel_spmf A) try_spmf try_spmf"
+unfolding try_spmf_def[abs_def] by transfer_prover
+end
+
+lemma try_spmf_cong:
+  "\<lbrakk> p = p'; \<not> lossless_spmf p' \<Longrightarrow> q = q' \<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> TRY p ELSE q = TRY p' ELSE q'"
+unfolding try_spmf_def
+by(rule bind_pmf_cong)(auto split: option.split simp add: lossless_iff_set_pmf_None)
+
+lemma rel_spmf_try_spmf:
+  "\<lbrakk> rel_spmf R p p'; \<not> lossless_spmf p' \<Longrightarrow> rel_spmf R q q' \<rbrakk>
+  \<Longrightarrow> rel_spmf R (TRY p ELSE q) (TRY p' ELSE q')"
+unfolding try_spmf_def 
+apply(rule rel_pmf_bindI[where R="\<lambda>x y. rel_option R x y \<and> x \<in> set_pmf p \<and> y \<in> set_pmf p'"])
+ apply(erule pmf.rel_mono_strong; simp)
+apply(auto split: option.split simp add: lossless_iff_set_pmf_None)
+done
+
+lemma spmf_try_spmf:
+  "spmf (TRY p ELSE q) x = spmf p x + pmf p None * spmf q x"
+proof -
+  have "ennreal (spmf (TRY p ELSE q) x) = \<integral>\<^sup>+ y. ennreal (spmf q x) * indicator {None} y + indicator {Some x} y \<partial>measure_pmf p"
+    unfolding try_spmf_def ennreal_pmf_bind by(rule nn_integral_cong)(simp split: option.split split_indicator)
+  also have "\<dots> = (\<integral>\<^sup>+ y. ennreal (spmf q x) * indicator {None} y \<partial>measure_pmf p) + \<integral>\<^sup>+ y. indicator {Some x} y \<partial>measure_pmf p"
+    by(simp add: nn_integral_add)
+  also have "\<dots> = ennreal (spmf q x) * pmf p None + spmf p x" by(simp add: emeasure_pmf_single)
+  finally show ?thesis by(simp add: ennreal_mult[symmetric] ennreal_plus[symmetric] del: ennreal_plus)
+qed
+
+lemma try_scale_spmf_same [simp]: "lossless_spmf p \<Longrightarrow> TRY scale_spmf k p ELSE p = p"
+by(rule spmf_eqI)(auto simp add: spmf_try_spmf spmf_scale_spmf pmf_scale_spmf_None lossless_iff_pmf_None weight_spmf_conv_pmf_None min_def max_def field_simps)
+
+lemma pmf_try_spmf_None [simp]: "pmf (TRY p ELSE q) None = pmf p None * pmf q None" (is "?lhs = ?rhs")
+proof -
+  have "?lhs = \<integral> x. pmf q None * indicator {None} x \<partial>measure_pmf p"
+    unfolding try_spmf_def pmf_bind by(rule integral_cong)(simp_all split: option.split)
+  also have "\<dots> = ?rhs" by(simp add: measure_pmf_single)
+  finally show ?thesis .
+qed
+
+lemma try_bind_spmf_lossless2:
+  "lossless_spmf q \<Longrightarrow> TRY (bind_spmf p f) ELSE q = TRY (p \<bind> (\<lambda>x. TRY (f x) ELSE q)) ELSE q"
+by(rule spmf_eqI)(simp add: spmf_try_spmf pmf_bind_spmf_None spmf_bind field_simps measure_spmf.integrable_const_bound[where B=1] pmf_le_1 lossless_iff_pmf_None)
+
+lemma try_bind_spmf_lossless2':
+  fixes f :: "'a \<Rightarrow> 'b spmf" shows
+  "\<lbrakk> NO_MATCH (\<lambda>x :: 'a. try_spmf (g x :: 'b spmf) (h x)) f; lossless_spmf q \<rbrakk>
+  \<Longrightarrow> TRY (bind_spmf p f) ELSE q = TRY (p \<bind> (\<lambda>x :: 'a. TRY (f x) ELSE q)) ELSE q"
+by(rule try_bind_spmf_lossless2)
+
+lemma try_bind_assert_spmf:
+  "TRY (assert_spmf b \<bind> f) ELSE q = (if b then TRY (f ()) ELSE q else q)"
+by simp
+
+subsection \<open>Miscellaneous\<close>
+
+lemma assumes "rel_spmf (\<lambda>x y. bad1 x = bad2 y \<and> (\<not> bad2 y \<longrightarrow> A x \<longleftrightarrow> B y)) p q" (is "rel_spmf ?A _ _")
+  shows fundamental_lemma_bad: "measure (measure_spmf p) {x. bad1 x} = measure (measure_spmf q) {y. bad2 y}" (is "?bad")
+  and fundamental_lemma: "\<bar>measure (measure_spmf p) {x. A x} - measure (measure_spmf q) {y. B y}\<bar> \<le>
+    measure (measure_spmf p) {x. bad1 x}" (is ?fundamental)
+proof -
+  have good: "rel_fun ?A op = (\<lambda>x. A x \<and> \<not> bad1 x) (\<lambda>y. B y \<and> \<not> bad2 y)" by(auto simp add: rel_fun_def)
+  from assms have 1: "measure (measure_spmf p) {x. A x \<and> \<not> bad1 x} = measure (measure_spmf q) {y. B y \<and> \<not> bad2 y}"
+    by(rule measure_spmf_parametric[THEN rel_funD, THEN rel_funD])(rule Collect_parametric[THEN rel_funD, OF good])
+
+  have bad: "rel_fun ?A op = bad1 bad2" by(simp add: rel_fun_def)
+  show 2: ?bad using assms
+    by(rule measure_spmf_parametric[THEN rel_funD, THEN rel_funD])(rule Collect_parametric[THEN rel_funD, OF bad])
+
+  let ?\<mu>p = "measure (measure_spmf p)" and ?\<mu>q = "measure (measure_spmf q)"
+  have "{x. A x \<and> bad1 x} \<union> {x. A x \<and> \<not> bad1 x} = {x. A x}"
+    and "{y. B y \<and> bad2 y} \<union> {y. B y \<and> \<not> bad2 y} = {y. B y}" by auto
+  then have "\<bar>?\<mu>p {x. A x} - ?\<mu>q {x. B x}\<bar> = \<bar>?\<mu>p ({x. A x \<and> bad1 x} \<union> {x. A x \<and> \<not> bad1 x}) - ?\<mu>q ({y. B y \<and> bad2 y} \<union> {y. B y \<and> \<not> bad2 y})\<bar>"
+    by simp
+  also have "\<dots> = \<bar>?\<mu>p {x. A x \<and> bad1 x} + ?\<mu>p {x. A x \<and> \<not> bad1 x} - ?\<mu>q {y. B y \<and> bad2 y} - ?\<mu>q {y. B y \<and> \<not> bad2 y}\<bar>"
+    by(subst (1 2) measure_Union)(auto)
+  also have "\<dots> = \<bar>?\<mu>p {x. A x \<and> bad1 x} - ?\<mu>q {y. B y \<and> bad2 y}\<bar>" using 1 by simp
+  also have "\<dots> \<le> max (?\<mu>p {x. A x \<and> bad1 x}) (?\<mu>q {y. B y \<and> bad2 y})"
+    by(rule abs_leI)(auto simp add: max_def not_le, simp_all only: add_increasing measure_nonneg mult_2)
+  also have "\<dots> \<le> max (?\<mu>p {x. bad1 x}) (?\<mu>q {y. bad2 y})"
+    by(rule max.mono; rule measure_spmf.finite_measure_mono; auto)
+  also note 2[symmetric]
+  finally show ?fundamental by simp
+qed
+
+end
--- a/src/HOL/Probability/document/root.tex	Mon Jun 06 22:22:05 2016 +0200
+++ b/src/HOL/Probability/document/root.tex	Wed Jun 08 09:05:32 2016 +0200
@@ -2,6 +2,7 @@
 \usepackage{graphicx,isabelle,isabellesym,latexsym,textcomp}
 \usepackage{amsmath}
 \usepackage{amssymb}
+\usepackage{wasysym}
 \usepackage[only,bigsqcap]{stmaryrd}
 \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
 \usepackage{pdfsetup}