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src/Doc/IsarImplementation/Proof.thy

author | wenzelm |

Sat, 05 Apr 2014 15:03:40 +0200 | |

changeset 56421 | 1ffd7eaa778b |

parent 54883 | dd04a8b654fc |

permissions | -rw-r--r-- |

updated to jedit_build-20140405: Code2HTML.jar, CommonControls.jar, Console.jar, kappalayout.jar, Navigator.jar, SideKick.jar, doc with jEdit manuals (ant dist-manuals);

theory Proof imports Base begin chapter {* Structured proofs *} section {* Variables \label{sec:variables} *} text {* Any variable that is not explicitly bound by @{text "\<lambda>"}-abstraction is considered as ``free''. Logically, free variables act like outermost universal quantification at the sequent level: @{text "A\<^sub>1(x), \<dots>, A\<^sub>n(x) \<turnstile> B(x)"} means that the result holds \emph{for all} values of @{text "x"}. Free variables for terms (not types) can be fully internalized into the logic: @{text "\<turnstile> B(x)"} and @{text "\<turnstile> \<And>x. B(x)"} are interchangeable, provided that @{text "x"} does not occur elsewhere in the context. Inspecting @{text "\<turnstile> \<And>x. B(x)"} more closely, we see that inside the quantifier, @{text "x"} is essentially ``arbitrary, but fixed'', while from outside it appears as a place-holder for instantiation (thanks to @{text "\<And>"} elimination). The Pure logic represents the idea of variables being either inside or outside the current scope by providing separate syntactic categories for \emph{fixed variables} (e.g.\ @{text "x"}) vs.\ \emph{schematic variables} (e.g.\ @{text "?x"}). Incidently, a universal result @{text "\<turnstile> \<And>x. B(x)"} has the HHF normal form @{text "\<turnstile> B(?x)"}, which represents its generality without requiring an explicit quantifier. The same principle works for type variables: @{text "\<turnstile> B(?\<alpha>)"} represents the idea of ``@{text "\<turnstile> \<forall>\<alpha>. B(\<alpha>)"}'' without demanding a truly polymorphic framework. \medskip Additional care is required to treat type variables in a way that facilitates type-inference. In principle, term variables depend on type variables, which means that type variables would have to be declared first. For example, a raw type-theoretic framework would demand the context to be constructed in stages as follows: @{text "\<Gamma> = \<alpha>: type, x: \<alpha>, a: A(x\<^sub>\<alpha>)"}. We allow a slightly less formalistic mode of operation: term variables @{text "x"} are fixed without specifying a type yet (essentially \emph{all} potential occurrences of some instance @{text "x\<^sub>\<tau>"} are fixed); the first occurrence of @{text "x"} within a specific term assigns its most general type, which is then maintained consistently in the context. The above example becomes @{text "\<Gamma> = x: term, \<alpha>: type, A(x\<^sub>\<alpha>)"}, where type @{text "\<alpha>"} is fixed \emph{after} term @{text "x"}, and the constraint @{text "x :: \<alpha>"} is an implicit consequence of the occurrence of @{text "x\<^sub>\<alpha>"} in the subsequent proposition. This twist of dependencies is also accommodated by the reverse operation of exporting results from a context: a type variable @{text "\<alpha>"} is considered fixed as long as it occurs in some fixed term variable of the context. For example, exporting @{text "x: term, \<alpha>: type \<turnstile> x\<^sub>\<alpha> \<equiv> x\<^sub>\<alpha>"} produces in the first step @{text "x: term \<turnstile> x\<^sub>\<alpha> \<equiv> x\<^sub>\<alpha>"} for fixed @{text "\<alpha>"}, and only in the second step @{text "\<turnstile> ?x\<^sub>?\<^sub>\<alpha> \<equiv> ?x\<^sub>?\<^sub>\<alpha>"} for schematic @{text "?x"} and @{text "?\<alpha>"}. The following Isar source text illustrates this scenario. *} notepad begin { fix x -- {* all potential occurrences of some @{text "x::\<tau>"} are fixed *} { have "x::'a \<equiv> x" -- {* implicit type assigment by concrete occurrence *} by (rule reflexive) } thm this -- {* result still with fixed type @{text "'a"} *} } thm this -- {* fully general result for arbitrary @{text "?x::?'a"} *} end text {* The Isabelle/Isar proof context manages the details of term vs.\ type variables, with high-level principles for moving the frontier between fixed and schematic variables. The @{text "add_fixes"} operation explictly declares fixed variables; the @{text "declare_term"} operation absorbs a term into a context by fixing new type variables and adding syntactic constraints. The @{text "export"} operation is able to perform the main work of generalizing term and type variables as sketched above, assuming that fixing variables and terms have been declared properly. There @{text "import"} operation makes a generalized fact a genuine part of the context, by inventing fixed variables for the schematic ones. The effect can be reversed by using @{text "export"} later, potentially with an extended context; the result is equivalent to the original modulo renaming of schematic variables. The @{text "focus"} operation provides a variant of @{text "import"} for nested propositions (with explicit quantification): @{text "\<And>x\<^sub>1 \<dots> x\<^sub>n. B(x\<^sub>1, \<dots>, x\<^sub>n)"} is decomposed by inventing fixed variables @{text "x\<^sub>1, \<dots>, x\<^sub>n"} for the body. *} text %mlref {* \begin{mldecls} @{index_ML Variable.add_fixes: " string list -> Proof.context -> string list * Proof.context"} \\ @{index_ML Variable.variant_fixes: " string list -> Proof.context -> string list * Proof.context"} \\ @{index_ML Variable.declare_term: "term -> Proof.context -> Proof.context"} \\ @{index_ML Variable.declare_constraints: "term -> Proof.context -> Proof.context"} \\ @{index_ML Variable.export: "Proof.context -> Proof.context -> thm list -> thm list"} \\ @{index_ML Variable.polymorphic: "Proof.context -> term list -> term list"} \\ @{index_ML Variable.import: "bool -> thm list -> Proof.context -> (((ctyp * ctyp) list * (cterm * cterm) list) * thm list) * Proof.context"} \\ @{index_ML Variable.focus: "term -> Proof.context -> ((string * (string * typ)) list * term) * Proof.context"} \\ \end{mldecls} \begin{description} \item @{ML Variable.add_fixes}~@{text "xs ctxt"} fixes term variables @{text "xs"}, returning the resulting internal names. By default, the internal representation coincides with the external one, which also means that the given variables must not be fixed already. There is a different policy within a local proof body: the given names are just hints for newly invented Skolem variables. \item @{ML Variable.variant_fixes} is similar to @{ML Variable.add_fixes}, but always produces fresh variants of the given names. \item @{ML Variable.declare_term}~@{text "t ctxt"} declares term @{text "t"} to belong to the context. This automatically fixes new type variables, but not term variables. Syntactic constraints for type and term variables are declared uniformly, though. \item @{ML Variable.declare_constraints}~@{text "t ctxt"} declares syntactic constraints from term @{text "t"}, without making it part of the context yet. \item @{ML Variable.export}~@{text "inner outer thms"} generalizes fixed type and term variables in @{text "thms"} according to the difference of the @{text "inner"} and @{text "outer"} context, following the principles sketched above. \item @{ML Variable.polymorphic}~@{text "ctxt ts"} generalizes type variables in @{text "ts"} as far as possible, even those occurring in fixed term variables. The default policy of type-inference is to fix newly introduced type variables, which is essentially reversed with @{ML Variable.polymorphic}: here the given terms are detached from the context as far as possible. \item @{ML Variable.import}~@{text "open thms ctxt"} invents fixed type and term variables for the schematic ones occurring in @{text "thms"}. The @{text "open"} flag indicates whether the fixed names should be accessible to the user, otherwise newly introduced names are marked as ``internal'' (\secref{sec:names}). \item @{ML Variable.focus}~@{text B} decomposes the outermost @{text "\<And>"} prefix of proposition @{text "B"}. \end{description} *} text %mlex {* The following example shows how to work with fixed term and type parameters and with type-inference. *} ML {* (*static compile-time context -- for testing only*) val ctxt0 = @{context}; (*locally fixed parameters -- no type assignment yet*) val ([x, y], ctxt1) = ctxt0 |> Variable.add_fixes ["x", "y"]; (*t1: most general fixed type; t1': most general arbitrary type*) val t1 = Syntax.read_term ctxt1 "x"; val t1' = singleton (Variable.polymorphic ctxt1) t1; (*term u enforces specific type assignment*) val u = Syntax.read_term ctxt1 "(x::nat) \<equiv> y"; (*official declaration of u -- propagates constraints etc.*) val ctxt2 = ctxt1 |> Variable.declare_term u; val t2 = Syntax.read_term ctxt2 "x"; (*x::nat is enforced*) *} text {* In the above example, the starting context is derived from the toplevel theory, which means that fixed variables are internalized literally: @{text "x"} is mapped again to @{text "x"}, and attempting to fix it again in the subsequent context is an error. Alternatively, fixed parameters can be renamed explicitly as follows: *} ML {* val ctxt0 = @{context}; val ([x1, x2, x3], ctxt1) = ctxt0 |> Variable.variant_fixes ["x", "x", "x"]; *} text {* The following ML code can now work with the invented names of @{text x1}, @{text x2}, @{text x3}, without depending on the details on the system policy for introducing these variants. Recall that within a proof body the system always invents fresh ``skolem constants'', e.g.\ as follows: *} notepad begin ML_prf %"ML" {* val ctxt0 = @{context}; val ([x1], ctxt1) = ctxt0 |> Variable.add_fixes ["x"]; val ([x2], ctxt2) = ctxt1 |> Variable.add_fixes ["x"]; val ([x3], ctxt3) = ctxt2 |> Variable.add_fixes ["x"]; val ([y1, y2], ctxt4) = ctxt3 |> Variable.variant_fixes ["y", "y"]; *} end text {* In this situation @{ML Variable.add_fixes} and @{ML Variable.variant_fixes} are very similar, but identical name proposals given in a row are only accepted by the second version. *} section {* Assumptions \label{sec:assumptions} *} text {* An \emph{assumption} is a proposition that it is postulated in the current context. Local conclusions may use assumptions as additional facts, but this imposes implicit hypotheses that weaken the overall statement. Assumptions are restricted to fixed non-schematic statements, i.e.\ all generality needs to be expressed by explicit quantifiers. Nevertheless, the result will be in HHF normal form with outermost quantifiers stripped. For example, by assuming @{text "\<And>x :: \<alpha>. P x"} we get @{text "\<And>x :: \<alpha>. P x \<turnstile> P ?x"} for schematic @{text "?x"} of fixed type @{text "\<alpha>"}. Local derivations accumulate more and more explicit references to hypotheses: @{text "A\<^sub>1, \<dots>, A\<^sub>n \<turnstile> B"} where @{text "A\<^sub>1, \<dots>, A\<^sub>n"} needs to be covered by the assumptions of the current context. \medskip The @{text "add_assms"} operation augments the context by local assumptions, which are parameterized by an arbitrary @{text "export"} rule (see below). The @{text "export"} operation moves facts from a (larger) inner context into a (smaller) outer context, by discharging the difference of the assumptions as specified by the associated export rules. Note that the discharged portion is determined by the difference of contexts, not the facts being exported! There is a separate flag to indicate a goal context, where the result is meant to refine an enclosing sub-goal of a structured proof state. \medskip The most basic export rule discharges assumptions directly by means of the @{text "\<Longrightarrow>"} introduction rule: \[ \infer[(@{text "\<Longrightarrow>\<hyphen>intro"})]{@{text "\<Gamma> - A \<turnstile> A \<Longrightarrow> B"}}{@{text "\<Gamma> \<turnstile> B"}} \] The variant for goal refinements marks the newly introduced premises, which causes the canonical Isar goal refinement scheme to enforce unification with local premises within the goal: \[ \infer[(@{text "#\<Longrightarrow>\<hyphen>intro"})]{@{text "\<Gamma> - A \<turnstile> #A \<Longrightarrow> B"}}{@{text "\<Gamma> \<turnstile> B"}} \] \medskip Alternative versions of assumptions may perform arbitrary transformations on export, as long as the corresponding portion of hypotheses is removed from the given facts. For example, a local definition works by fixing @{text "x"} and assuming @{text "x \<equiv> t"}, with the following export rule to reverse the effect: \[ \infer[(@{text "\<equiv>\<hyphen>expand"})]{@{text "\<Gamma> - (x \<equiv> t) \<turnstile> B t"}}{@{text "\<Gamma> \<turnstile> B x"}} \] This works, because the assumption @{text "x \<equiv> t"} was introduced in a context with @{text "x"} being fresh, so @{text "x"} does not occur in @{text "\<Gamma>"} here. *} text %mlref {* \begin{mldecls} @{index_ML_type Assumption.export} \\ @{index_ML Assumption.assume: "Proof.context -> cterm -> thm"} \\ @{index_ML Assumption.add_assms: "Assumption.export -> cterm list -> Proof.context -> thm list * Proof.context"} \\ @{index_ML Assumption.add_assumes: " cterm list -> Proof.context -> thm list * Proof.context"} \\ @{index_ML Assumption.export: "bool -> Proof.context -> Proof.context -> thm -> thm"} \\ \end{mldecls} \begin{description} \item Type @{ML_type Assumption.export} represents arbitrary export rules, which is any function of type @{ML_type "bool -> cterm list -> thm -> thm"}, where the @{ML_type "bool"} indicates goal mode, and the @{ML_type "cterm list"} the collection of assumptions to be discharged simultaneously. \item @{ML Assumption.assume}~@{text "ctxt A"} turns proposition @{text "A"} into a primitive assumption @{text "A \<turnstile> A'"}, where the conclusion @{text "A'"} is in HHF normal form. \item @{ML Assumption.add_assms}~@{text "r As"} augments the context by assumptions @{text "As"} with export rule @{text "r"}. The resulting facts are hypothetical theorems as produced by the raw @{ML Assumption.assume}. \item @{ML Assumption.add_assumes}~@{text "As"} is a special case of @{ML Assumption.add_assms} where the export rule performs @{text "\<Longrightarrow>\<hyphen>intro"} or @{text "#\<Longrightarrow>\<hyphen>intro"}, depending on goal mode. \item @{ML Assumption.export}~@{text "is_goal inner outer thm"} exports result @{text "thm"} from the the @{text "inner"} context back into the @{text "outer"} one; @{text "is_goal = true"} means this is a goal context. The result is in HHF normal form. Note that @{ML "Proof_Context.export"} combines @{ML "Variable.export"} and @{ML "Assumption.export"} in the canonical way. \end{description} *} text %mlex {* The following example demonstrates how rules can be derived by building up a context of assumptions first, and exporting some local fact afterwards. We refer to @{theory Pure} equality here for testing purposes. *} ML {* (*static compile-time context -- for testing only*) val ctxt0 = @{context}; val ([eq], ctxt1) = ctxt0 |> Assumption.add_assumes [@{cprop "x \<equiv> y"}]; val eq' = Thm.symmetric eq; (*back to original context -- discharges assumption*) val r = Assumption.export false ctxt1 ctxt0 eq'; *} text {* Note that the variables of the resulting rule are not generalized. This would have required to fix them properly in the context beforehand, and export wrt.\ variables afterwards (cf.\ @{ML Variable.export} or the combined @{ML "Proof_Context.export"}). *} section {* Structured goals and results \label{sec:struct-goals} *} text {* Local results are established by monotonic reasoning from facts within a context. This allows common combinations of theorems, e.g.\ via @{text "\<And>/\<Longrightarrow>"} elimination, resolution rules, or equational reasoning, see \secref{sec:thms}. Unaccounted context manipulations should be avoided, notably raw @{text "\<And>/\<Longrightarrow>"} introduction or ad-hoc references to free variables or assumptions not present in the proof context. \medskip The @{text "SUBPROOF"} combinator allows to structure a tactical proof recursively by decomposing a selected sub-goal: @{text "(\<And>x. A(x) \<Longrightarrow> B(x)) \<Longrightarrow> \<dots>"} is turned into @{text "B(x) \<Longrightarrow> \<dots>"} after fixing @{text "x"} and assuming @{text "A(x)"}. This means the tactic needs to solve the conclusion, but may use the premise as a local fact, for locally fixed variables. The family of @{text "FOCUS"} combinators is similar to @{text "SUBPROOF"}, but allows to retain schematic variables and pending subgoals in the resulting goal state. The @{text "prove"} operation provides an interface for structured backwards reasoning under program control, with some explicit sanity checks of the result. The goal context can be augmented by additional fixed variables (cf.\ \secref{sec:variables}) and assumptions (cf.\ \secref{sec:assumptions}), which will be available as local facts during the proof and discharged into implications in the result. Type and term variables are generalized as usual, according to the context. The @{text "obtain"} operation produces results by eliminating existing facts by means of a given tactic. This acts like a dual conclusion: the proof demonstrates that the context may be augmented by parameters and assumptions, without affecting any conclusions that do not mention these parameters. See also \cite{isabelle-isar-ref} for the user-level @{command obtain} and @{command guess} elements. Final results, which may not refer to the parameters in the conclusion, need to exported explicitly into the original context. *} text %mlref {* \begin{mldecls} @{index_ML SUBPROOF: "(Subgoal.focus -> tactic) -> Proof.context -> int -> tactic"} \\ @{index_ML Subgoal.FOCUS: "(Subgoal.focus -> tactic) -> Proof.context -> int -> tactic"} \\ @{index_ML Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS: "(Subgoal.focus -> tactic) -> Proof.context -> int -> tactic"} \\ @{index_ML Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS: "(Subgoal.focus -> tactic) -> Proof.context -> int -> tactic"} \\ @{index_ML Subgoal.focus: "Proof.context -> int -> thm -> Subgoal.focus * thm"} \\ @{index_ML Subgoal.focus_prems: "Proof.context -> int -> thm -> Subgoal.focus * thm"} \\ @{index_ML Subgoal.focus_params: "Proof.context -> int -> thm -> Subgoal.focus * thm"} \\ \end{mldecls} \begin{mldecls} @{index_ML Goal.prove: "Proof.context -> string list -> term list -> term -> ({prems: thm list, context: Proof.context} -> tactic) -> thm"} \\ @{index_ML Goal.prove_multi: "Proof.context -> string list -> term list -> term list -> ({prems: thm list, context: Proof.context} -> tactic) -> thm list"} \\ \end{mldecls} \begin{mldecls} @{index_ML Obtain.result: "(Proof.context -> tactic) -> thm list -> Proof.context -> ((string * cterm) list * thm list) * Proof.context"} \\ \end{mldecls} \begin{description} \item @{ML SUBPROOF}~@{text "tac ctxt i"} decomposes the structure of the specified sub-goal, producing an extended context and a reduced goal, which needs to be solved by the given tactic. All schematic parameters of the goal are imported into the context as fixed ones, which may not be instantiated in the sub-proof. \item @{ML Subgoal.FOCUS}, @{ML Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS}, and @{ML Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS} are similar to @{ML SUBPROOF}, but are slightly more flexible: only the specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables. \item @{ML Subgoal.focus}, @{ML Subgoal.focus_prems}, @{ML Subgoal.focus_params} extract the focus information from a goal state in the same way as the corresponding tacticals above. This is occasionally useful to experiment without writing actual tactics yet. \item @{ML Goal.prove}~@{text "ctxt xs As C tac"} states goal @{text "C"} in the context augmented by fixed variables @{text "xs"} and assumptions @{text "As"}, and applies tactic @{text "tac"} to solve it. The latter may depend on the local assumptions being presented as facts. The result is in HHF normal form. \item @{ML Goal.prove_multi} is simular to @{ML Goal.prove}, but states several conclusions simultaneously. The goal is encoded by means of Pure conjunction; @{ML Goal.conjunction_tac} will turn this into a collection of individual subgoals. \item @{ML Obtain.result}~@{text "tac thms ctxt"} eliminates the given facts using a tactic, which results in additional fixed variables and assumptions in the context. Final results need to be exported explicitly. \end{description} *} text %mlex {* The following minimal example illustrates how to access the focus information of a structured goal state. *} notepad begin fix A B C :: "'a \<Rightarrow> bool" have "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x" ML_val {* val {goal, context = goal_ctxt, ...} = @{Isar.goal}; val (focus as {params, asms, concl, ...}, goal') = Subgoal.focus goal_ctxt 1 goal; val [A, B] = #prems focus; val [(_, x)] = #params focus; *} oops text {* \medskip The next example demonstrates forward-elimination in a local context, using @{ML Obtain.result}. *} notepad begin assume ex: "\<exists>x. B x" ML_prf %"ML" {* val ctxt0 = @{context}; val (([(_, x)], [B]), ctxt1) = ctxt0 |> Obtain.result (fn _ => etac @{thm exE} 1) [@{thm ex}]; *} ML_prf %"ML" {* singleton (Proof_Context.export ctxt1 ctxt0) @{thm refl}; *} ML_prf %"ML" {* Proof_Context.export ctxt1 ctxt0 [Thm.reflexive x] handle ERROR msg => (warning msg; []); *} end end