Specifying Revisions

Mercurial supports several ways to specify revisions.

Specifying single revisions

Eine einfache Ganzzahl wird als Revisionsnummer behandelt. Negative Zahlen beschreiben den topologischen Abstand von der Spitze (tip), wobei -1 die Spitze selbst, und -2 dessen direkter Vorfahr ist.

A 40-digit hexadecimal string is treated as a unique revision identifier. A hexadecimal string less than 40 characters long is treated as a unique revision identifier and is referred to as a short-form identifier. A short-form identifier is only valid if it is the prefix of exactly one full-length identifier.

Any other string is treated as a bookmark, tag, or branch name. A bookmark is a movable pointer to a revision. A tag is a permanent name associated with a revision. A branch name denotes the tipmost open branch head of that branch - or if they are all closed, the tipmost closed head of the branch. Bookmark, tag, and branch names must not contain the ":" character.

Der reservierte Name "tip" identifiziert immer die neueste Revision.

Der reservierte Name "null" bezeichnet die null-Revision. Sie ist die Revision eines leeren Projektarchivs und der Vorgänger der Revision 0.

The reserved name "." indicates the working directory parent. If no working directory is checked out, it is equivalent to null. If an uncommitted merge is in progress, "." is the revision of the first parent.

Finally, commands that expect a single revision (like "hg update") also accept revsets (see below for details). When given a revset, they use the last revision of the revset. A few commands accept two single revisions (like "hg diff"). When given a revset, they use the first and the last revisions of the revset.

Specifying multiple revisions

Mercurial supports a functional language for selecting a set of revisions. Expressions in this language are called revsets.

Die Sprache unterstützt eine Reihe von Prädikaten, die über Infix- Operatoren miteinander verbunden werden. Klammern können zur Gruppierung verwendet werden.

Bezeichner wie Zweignamen müssen mit einfachen oder doppelten Anführungszeichen umgeben werden, wenn sie Zeichen wie "-" enthalten oder wenn sie einem der vordefinierten Prädikateņ entsprechen.

Special characters can be used in quoted identifiers by escaping them, e.g., "\n" is interpreted as a newline. To prevent them from being interpreted, strings can be prefixed with "r", e.g. "r'...'".

Operators

Es gibt einen einzigen Präfix-Operator:

"not x"
Änderungssätze, die nicht in x enthalten sind. Kurzform von "! x".

Dies sind die unterstützten Infix-Operatoren:

"x::y"
Ein DAG-Bereich, d.h. alle Änderungssätze, die Nachkommen von X und Vorfahren von y sind, inklusive x und y selbst. Wenn der erste Enpunkt ausgelassen wird, ist dies äquivalent zu "ancestors(y)", wenn der zweite ausgelassen wird, entspricht dies "descendants(x)".

Eine alternative Syntax ist "x..y".

"x:y"
Alle Änderungssätze mit Revisionsnummern zwischen x und y, beide jeweils inklusive. Jede der beiden Begrenzung kann ausgelassen werden, sie entsprechen 0 und tip.
"x and y"
Die Schnittmenge der Änderungssätze aus x und y. Kurzform ist "x & y".
"x or y"
Die Vereinigung der Änderungssätze aus x und y. Es gibt zwei alternative Kurzformen: "x | y" und "x + y".
"x - y"
Änderungssätze in x, aber nicht in y.
"x % y"
Changesets that are ancestors of x but not ancestors of y (i.e. ::x - ::y). This is shorthand notation for "only(x, y)" (see below). The second argument is optional and, if left out, is equivalent to "only(x)".
"x^n"
The nth parent of x, n == 0, 1, or 2. For n == 0, x; for n == 1, the first parent of each changeset in x; for n == 2, the second parent of changeset in x.
"x~n"
The nth first ancestor of x; "x~0" is x; "x~3" is "x^^^". For n < 0, the nth unambiguous descendent of x.
"x ## y"
Concatenate strings and identifiers into one string.

All other prefix, infix and postfix operators have lower priority than "##". For example, "a1 ## a2~2" is equivalent to "(a1 ## a2)~2".

For example:

[revsetalias]
issue(a1) = grep(r'\bissue[ :]?' ## a1 ## r'\b|\bbug\(' ## a1 ## r'\)')

"issue(1234)" is equivalent to "grep(r'\bissue[ :]?1234\b|\bbug\(1234\)')" in this case. This matches against all of "issue 1234", "issue:1234", "issue1234" and "bug(1234)".

Es gibt einen einzigen Postfix-Operator:

"x^"
Equivalent to "x^1", the first parent of each changeset in x.

Patterns

Where noted, predicates that perform string matching can accept a pattern string. The pattern may be either a literal, or a regular expression. If the pattern starts with "re:", the remainder of the pattern is treated as a regular expression. Otherwise, it is treated as a literal. To match a pattern that actually starts with "re:", use the prefix "literal:".

Matching is case-sensitive, unless otherwise noted. To perform a case- insensitive match on a case-sensitive predicate, use a regular expression, prefixed with "(?i)".

For example, "tag(r're:(?i)release')" matches "release" or "RELEASE" or "Release", etc.

Predicates

Die folgenden Prädikate werden unterstützt:

"adds(muster)"
Änderungssätze, die auf das Muster passende Dateien hinzufügen.

The pattern without explicit kind like "glob:" is expected to be relative to the current directory and match against a file or a directory.

"all()"
Alle Änderungssätze, entspricht "0:tip".
"ancestor(*changeset)"
A greatest common ancestor of the changesets.

Accepts 0 or more changesets. Will return empty list when passed no args. Greatest common ancestor of a single changeset is that changeset.

"ancestors(set[, depth])"
Changesets that are ancestors of changesets in set, including the given changesets themselves.

If depth is specified, the result only includes changesets up to the specified generation.

"author(zeichenkette)"
Alias für "user(zeichenkette)".
"bisect(zeichenkette)"
Änderungssätze im gegebenen bisect-Status:
  • "good", "bad", "skip": csets explicitly marked as good/bad/skip
  • "goods", "bads" : csets topologically good/bad
  • "range" : csets taking part in the bisection
  • "pruned" : csets that are goods, bads or skipped
  • "untested" : csets whose fate is yet unknown
  • "ignored" : csets ignored due to DAG topology
  • "current" : the cset currently being bisected
"bookmark([name])"
The named bookmark or all bookmarks.

Pattern matching is supported for 'name'. See 'hg help revisions.patterns'.

"branch(zeichenkette oder liste)"
Alle Änderungssätze des gegebenen Zweigs oder den Zweigen der gegebenen Liste von Änderungssätzen.

Pattern matching is supported for 'string'. See 'hg help revisions.patterns'.

"branchpoint()"
Änderungssätze mit mehr als einem Kind.
"bundle()"
Änderungssätze im Bündelarchiv.

Das Bündelarchiv muss mit der Option -R angegenen werden.

"children(liste)"
Direkte Nachfahren der Änderungssätze in der Liste.
"closed()"
Änderungssatz ist geschlossen.
"commonancestors(set)"
Changesets that are ancestors of every changeset in set.
"conflictlocal()"
The local side of the merge, if currently in an unresolved merge.

"merge" here includes merge conflicts from e.g. 'hg rebase' or 'hg graft'.

"conflictother()"
The other side of the merge, if currently in an unresolved merge.

"merge" here includes merge conflicts from e.g. 'hg rebase' or 'hg graft'.

"contains(pattern)"
The revision's manifest contains a file matching pattern (but might not modify it). See 'hg help patterns' for information about file patterns.

The pattern without explicit kind like "glob:" is expected to be relative to the current directory and match against a file exactly for efficiency.

"contentdivergent()"
Final successors of changesets with an alternative set of final successors. (EXPERIMENTAL)
"converted([id])"
Changesets converted from the given identifier in the old repository if present, or all converted changesets if no identifier is specified.
"date(intervall)"
Änderungssätze innerhalb des Intervalls, siehe auch 'hg help dates'.
"desc(zeichenkette)"
Sucht die Zeichenketten in der Commit-Nachricht (Großschreibung wird ignoriert).

Pattern matching is supported for 'string'. See 'hg help revisions.patterns'.

"descendants(set[, depth])"
Changesets which are descendants of changesets in set, including the given changesets themselves.

If depth is specified, the result only includes changesets up to the specified generation.

"destination([set])"
Changesets that were created by a graft, transplant or rebase operation, with the given revisions specified as the source. Omitting the optional set is the same as passing all().
"draft()"
Änderunssatz ist in der Phase draft (Entwurf).
"expectsize(set[, size])"
Return the given revset if size matches the revset size. Abort if the revset doesn't expect given size. size can either be an integer range or an integer.

For example, "expectsize(0:1, 3:5)" will abort as revset size is 2 and 2 is not between 3 and 5 inclusive.

"extdata(source)"
Changesets in the specified extdata source. (EXPERIMENTAL)
"extinct()"
Obsolete changesets with obsolete descendants only. (EXPERIMENTAL)
"extra(label, [value])"
Changesets with the given label in the extra metadata, with the given optional value.

Pattern matching is supported for 'value'. See 'hg help revisions.patterns'.

"file(muster)"
Änderungssätze, die auf das Muster passende Dateien betreffen.

Ein schnelleres, aber weniger genaueres Resultat liefert "filelog()".

This predicate uses "glob:" as the default kind of pattern.

"filelog(muster)"
Änderungssätze, die das gegebene filelog betreffen.

For performance reasons, visits only revisions mentioned in the file-level filelog, rather than filtering through all changesets (much faster, but doesn't include deletes or duplicate changes). For a slower, more accurate result, use "file()".

The pattern without explicit kind like "glob:" is expected to be relative to the current directory and match against a file exactly for efficiency.

"first(liste, [n])"
Alias für limit().
"follow([file[, startrev]])"
An alias for "::." (ancestors of the working directory's first parent). If file pattern is specified, the histories of files matching given pattern in the revision given by startrev are followed, including copies.
"followlines(file, fromline:toline[, startrev=., descend=False])"
Changesets modifying 'file' in line range ('fromline', 'toline').

Line range corresponds to 'file' content at 'startrev' and should hence be consistent with file size. If startrev is not specified, working directory's parent is used.

By default, ancestors of 'startrev' are returned. If 'descend' is True, descendants of 'startrev' are returned though renames are (currently) not followed in this direction.

"grep(regex)"
Like "keyword(string)" but accepts a regex. Use "grep(r'...')" to ensure special escape characters are handled correctly. Unlike "keyword(string)", the match is case-sensitive.
"head()"
Änderungssatz ist ein Kopf eines benannten Zweigs.
"heads(liste)"
Elemente der Liste, die keine Kinder in der Liste haben.
"hidden()"
Versteckte Änderungssätze
"id(zeichenkette)"
Revision, die eindeutig durch den gegebenen Hex-Wert(-Präfix) identifiziert wird.
"keyword(zeichenkette)"
Sucht die Zeichenketten in der Commit-Nachricht, dem Benutzernamen und der Liste geänderter Dateien. Großschreibung wird ignoriert.

For a regular expression or case sensitive search of these fields, use "grep(regex)".

"last(liste, [n])"
Das letzte, bzw. die letzten n Elemente der Liste.
"limit(set[, n[, offset]])"
First n members of set, defaulting to 1, starting from offset.
"matching(revision [, field])"
Changesets in which a given set of fields match the set of fields in the selected revision or set.

To match more than one field pass the list of fields to match separated by spaces (e.g. "author description").

Valid fields are most regular revision fields and some special fields.

Regular revision fields are "description", "author", "branch", "date", "files", "phase", "parents", "substate", "user" and "diff". Note that "author" and "user" are synonyms. "diff" refers to the contents of the revision. Two revisions matching their "diff" will also match their "files".

Special fields are "summary" and "metadata": "summary" matches the first line of the description. "metadata" is equivalent to matching "description user date" (i.e. it matches the main metadata fields).

"metadata" is the default field which is used when no fields are specified. You can match more than one field at a time.

"max(set)"
Änderungssatz aus set mit der größten Revisionsnummer.
"merge()"
Änderungssatz ist eine Zusammenführung.
"min(liste)"
Änderungssatz aus der Liste mit der kleinsten Revisionsnummer
"modifies(muster)"
Änderungssätze, die auf das Muster passende Dateien verändern.

The pattern without explicit kind like "glob:" is expected to be relative to the current directory and match against a file or a directory.

"named(namespace)"
The changesets in a given namespace.

Pattern matching is supported for 'namespace'. See 'hg help revisions.patterns'.

"none()"
No changesets.
"obsolete()"
Mutable changeset with a newer version. (EXPERIMENTAL)
"only(set, [set])"
Changesets that are ancestors of the first set that are not ancestors of any other head in the repo. If a second set is specified, the result is ancestors of the first set that are not ancestors of the second set (i.e. ::<set1> - ::<set2>).
"origin([set])"
Changesets that were specified as a source for the grafts, transplants or rebases that created the given revisions. Omitting the optional set is the same as passing all(). If a changeset created by these operations is itself specified as a source for one of these operations, only the source changeset for the first operation is selected.
"orphan()"
Non-obsolete changesets with obsolete ancestors. (EXPERIMENTAL)
"outgoing([pfad])"
Änderungssätze, die nicht im angegebenen Ziel-Archiv oder dem Vorgabe-Push-Ziel vorhanden sind.
"p1([liste])"
Erster Vorfahr der Änderungssätze der Liste oder des Arbeits- verzeichnisses.
"p2([liste])"
Zweiter Vorfahr der Änderungssätze der Liste oder des Arbeits- verzeichnisses.
"parents([liste])"
Die Menge aller Eltern für die Änderungssätze der Liste oder des Arbeitverzeichnisses..
"phasedivergent()"
Mutable changesets marked as successors of public changesets.

Only non-public and non-obsolete changesets can be 'phasedivergent'. (EXPERIMENTAL)

"present(liste)"
Die gegebene Liste, wenn alle Revisionen darin gefunden wurden. Wenn ein Eintrag nicht gefunden wird, die leere Menge.

If any of specified revisions is not present in the local repository, the query is normally aborted. But this predicate allows the query to continue even in such cases.

"public()"
Changeset in public phase.
"remote([id [,path]])"
Local revision that corresponds to the given identifier in a remote repository, if present. Here, the '.' identifier is a synonym for the current local branch.
"removes(muster)"
Änderungssätze, die auf das Muster passende Dateien entfernten.

The pattern without explicit kind like "glob:" is expected to be relative to the current directory and match against a file or a directory.

"rev(number)"
Revision with the given numeric identifier.
"reverse(set)"
Kehrt die Liste um.
"revset(set)"
Strictly interpret the content as a revset.

The content of this special predicate will be strictly interpreted as a revset. For example, "revset(id(0))" will be interpreted as "id(0)" without possible ambiguity with a "id(0)" bookmark or tag.

"roots(Menge)"
Änderungssätze in der Menge, die keine Vorgänger in der Menge haben.
"secret()"
Changeset in secret phase.
"sort(set[, [-]key... [, ...]])"
Sort set by keys. The default sort order is ascending, specify a key as "-key" to sort in descending order.

Folgende Schlüssel können verwendet werden:

  • "rev" for the revision number,
  • "branch" for the branch name,
  • "desc" for the commit message (description),
  • "user" for user name ("author" can be used as an alias),
  • "date" for the commit date
  • "topo" for a reverse topographical sort

The "topo" sort order cannot be combined with other sort keys. This sort takes one optional argument, "topo.firstbranch", which takes a revset that specifies what topographical branches to prioritize in the sort.

"stack([revs])"
Experimental revset for the stack of changesets or working directory parent. (EXPERIMENTAL)
"subrepo([pattern])"
Changesets that add, modify or remove the given subrepo. If no subrepo pattern is named, any subrepo changes are returned.
"successors(set)"
All successors for set, including the given set themselves. (EXPERIMENTAL)
"tag([name])"
The specified tag by name, or all tagged revisions if no name is given.

Pattern matching is supported for 'name'. See 'hg help revisions.patterns'.

"unstable()"
Changesets with instabilities. (EXPERIMENTAL)
"user(zeichenkette)"
Der Benutzername enthält die Zeichenkette. Großschreibung wird ignoriert.

Pattern matching is supported for 'string'. See 'hg help revisions.patterns'.

"wdir()"
Working directory. (EXPERIMENTAL)

Aliases

New predicates (known as "aliases") can be defined, using any combination of existing predicates or other aliases. An alias definition looks like:

<alias> = <definition>

in the "revsetalias" section of a Mercurial configuration file. Arguments of the form 'a1', 'a2', etc. are substituted from the alias into the definition.

Zum Beispiel,

[revsetalias]
h = heads()
d(s) = sort(s, date)
rs(s, k) = reverse(sort(s, k))

defines three aliases, "h", "d", and "rs". "rs(0:tip, author)" is exactly equivalent to "reverse(sort(0:tip, author))".

Equivalents

Äquivalente Kommandozeilen-Befehle für 'hg log':

-f    ->  ::.
-d x  ->  date(x)
-k x  ->  keyword(x)
-m    ->  merge()
-u x  ->  user(x)
-b x  ->  branch(x)
-P x  ->  !::x
-l x  ->  limit(expr, x)

Examples

Einige Beispiel-Anfragen: