src/HOL/Lattice/CompleteLattice.thy
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(*  Title:      HOL/Lattice/CompleteLattice.thy
ID:         $Id$
Author:     Markus Wenzel, TU Muenchen
*)

header {* Complete lattices *}

theory CompleteLattice = Lattice:

subsection {* Complete lattice operations *}

text {*
A \emph{complete lattice} is a partial order with general
(infinitary) infimum of any set of elements.  General supremum
exists as well, as a consequence of the connection of infinitary
bounds (see \S\ref{sec:connect-bounds}).
*}

axclass complete_lattice < partial_order
ex_Inf: "\<exists>inf. is_Inf A inf"

theorem ex_Sup: "\<exists>sup::'a::complete_lattice. is_Sup A sup"
proof -
from ex_Inf obtain sup where "is_Inf {b. \<forall>a\<in>A. a \<sqsubseteq> b} sup" by blast
hence "is_Sup A sup" by (rule Inf_Sup)
thus ?thesis ..
qed

text {*
The general @{text \<Sqinter>} (meet) and @{text \<Squnion>} (join) operations select
such infimum and supremum elements.
*}

consts
Meet :: "'a::complete_lattice set \<Rightarrow> 'a"
Join :: "'a::complete_lattice set \<Rightarrow> 'a"
syntax (symbols)
Meet :: "'a::complete_lattice set \<Rightarrow> 'a"    ("\<Sqinter>_" [90] 90)
Join :: "'a::complete_lattice set \<Rightarrow> 'a"    ("\<Squnion>_" [90] 90)
defs
Meet_def: "\<Sqinter>A \<equiv> SOME inf. is_Inf A inf"
Join_def: "\<Squnion>A \<equiv> SOME sup. is_Sup A sup"

text {*
Due to unique existence of bounds, the complete lattice operations
may be exhibited as follows.
*}

lemma Meet_equality [elim?]: "is_Inf A inf \<Longrightarrow> \<Sqinter>A = inf"
proof (unfold Meet_def)
assume "is_Inf A inf"
thus "(SOME inf. is_Inf A inf) = inf"
by (rule some_equality) (rule is_Inf_uniq)
qed

lemma MeetI [intro?]:
"(\<And>a. a \<in> A \<Longrightarrow> inf \<sqsubseteq> a) \<Longrightarrow>
(\<And>b. \<forall>a \<in> A. b \<sqsubseteq> a \<Longrightarrow> b \<sqsubseteq> inf) \<Longrightarrow>
\<Sqinter>A = inf"
by (rule Meet_equality, rule is_InfI) blast+

lemma Join_equality [elim?]: "is_Sup A sup \<Longrightarrow> \<Squnion>A = sup"
proof (unfold Join_def)
assume "is_Sup A sup"
thus "(SOME sup. is_Sup A sup) = sup"
by (rule some_equality) (rule is_Sup_uniq)
qed

lemma JoinI [intro?]:
"(\<And>a. a \<in> A \<Longrightarrow> a \<sqsubseteq> sup) \<Longrightarrow>
(\<And>b. \<forall>a \<in> A. a \<sqsubseteq> b \<Longrightarrow> sup \<sqsubseteq> b) \<Longrightarrow>
\<Squnion>A = sup"
by (rule Join_equality, rule is_SupI) blast+

text {*
\medskip The @{text \<Sqinter>} and @{text \<Squnion>} operations indeed determine
bounds on a complete lattice structure.
*}

lemma is_Inf_Meet [intro?]: "is_Inf A (\<Sqinter>A)"
proof (unfold Meet_def)
from ex_Inf show "is_Inf A (SOME inf. is_Inf A inf)"
by (rule someI_ex)
qed

lemma Meet_greatest [intro?]: "(\<And>a. a \<in> A \<Longrightarrow> x \<sqsubseteq> a) \<Longrightarrow> x \<sqsubseteq> \<Sqinter>A"
by (rule is_Inf_greatest, rule is_Inf_Meet) blast

lemma Meet_lower [intro?]: "a \<in> A \<Longrightarrow> \<Sqinter>A \<sqsubseteq> a"
by (rule is_Inf_lower) (rule is_Inf_Meet)

lemma is_Sup_Join [intro?]: "is_Sup A (\<Squnion>A)"
proof (unfold Join_def)
from ex_Sup show "is_Sup A (SOME sup. is_Sup A sup)"
by (rule someI_ex)
qed

lemma Join_least [intro?]: "(\<And>a. a \<in> A \<Longrightarrow> a \<sqsubseteq> x) \<Longrightarrow> \<Squnion>A \<sqsubseteq> x"
by (rule is_Sup_least, rule is_Sup_Join) blast
lemma Join_lower [intro?]: "a \<in> A \<Longrightarrow> a \<sqsubseteq> \<Squnion>A"
by (rule is_Sup_upper) (rule is_Sup_Join)

subsection {* The Knaster-Tarski Theorem *}

text {*
The Knaster-Tarski Theorem (in its simplest formulation) states that
any monotone function on a complete lattice has a least fixed-point
(see \cite[pages 93--94]{Davey-Priestley:1990} for example).  This
is a consequence of the basic boundary properties of the complete
lattice operations.
*}

theorem Knaster_Tarski:
"(\<And>x y. x \<sqsubseteq> y \<Longrightarrow> f x \<sqsubseteq> f y) \<Longrightarrow> \<exists>a::'a::complete_lattice. f a = a"
proof
assume mono: "\<And>x y. x \<sqsubseteq> y \<Longrightarrow> f x \<sqsubseteq> f y"
let ?H = "{u. f u \<sqsubseteq> u}" let ?a = "\<Sqinter>?H"
have ge: "f ?a \<sqsubseteq> ?a"
proof
fix x assume x: "x \<in> ?H"
hence "?a \<sqsubseteq> x" ..
hence "f ?a \<sqsubseteq> f x" by (rule mono)
also from x have "... \<sqsubseteq> x" ..
finally show "f ?a \<sqsubseteq> x" .
qed
also have "?a \<sqsubseteq> f ?a"
proof
from ge have "f (f ?a) \<sqsubseteq> f ?a" by (rule mono)
thus "f ?a : ?H" ..
qed
finally show "f ?a = ?a" .
qed

subsection {* Bottom and top elements *}

text {*
With general bounds available, complete lattices also have least and
greatest elements.
*}

constdefs
bottom :: "'a::complete_lattice"    ("\<bottom>")
"\<bottom> \<equiv> \<Sqinter>UNIV"
top :: "'a::complete_lattice"    ("\<top>")
"\<top> \<equiv> \<Squnion>UNIV"

lemma bottom_least [intro?]: "\<bottom> \<sqsubseteq> x"
proof (unfold bottom_def)
have "x \<in> UNIV" ..
thus "\<Sqinter>UNIV \<sqsubseteq> x" ..
qed

lemma bottomI [intro?]: "(\<And>a. x \<sqsubseteq> a) \<Longrightarrow> \<bottom> = x"
proof (unfold bottom_def)
assume "\<And>a. x \<sqsubseteq> a"
show "\<Sqinter>UNIV = x"
proof
fix a show "x \<sqsubseteq> a" .
next
fix b :: "'a::complete_lattice"
assume b: "\<forall>a \<in> UNIV. b \<sqsubseteq> a"
have "x \<in> UNIV" ..
with b show "b \<sqsubseteq> x" ..
qed
qed

lemma top_greatest [intro?]: "x \<sqsubseteq> \<top>"
proof (unfold top_def)
have "x \<in> UNIV" ..
thus "x \<sqsubseteq> \<Squnion>UNIV" ..
qed

lemma topI [intro?]: "(\<And>a. a \<sqsubseteq> x) \<Longrightarrow> \<top> = x"
proof (unfold top_def)
assume "\<And>a. a \<sqsubseteq> x"
show "\<Squnion>UNIV = x"
proof
fix a show "a \<sqsubseteq> x" .
next
fix b :: "'a::complete_lattice"
assume b: "\<forall>a \<in> UNIV. a \<sqsubseteq> b"
have "x \<in> UNIV" ..
with b show "x \<sqsubseteq> b" ..
qed
qed

subsection {* Duality *}

text {*
The class of complete lattices is closed under formation of dual
structures.
*}

instance dual :: (complete_lattice) complete_lattice
proof intro_classes
fix A' :: "'a::complete_lattice dual set"
show "\<exists>inf'. is_Inf A' inf'"
proof -
have "\<exists>sup. is_Sup (undual  A') sup" by (rule ex_Sup)
hence "\<exists>sup. is_Inf (dual  undual  A') (dual sup)" by (simp only: dual_Inf)
thus ?thesis by (simp add: dual_ex [symmetric] image_compose [symmetric])
qed
qed

text {*
Apparently, the @{text \<Sqinter>} and @{text \<Squnion>} operations are dual to each
other.
*}

theorem dual_Meet [intro?]: "dual (\<Sqinter>A) = \<Squnion>(dual  A)"
proof -
from is_Inf_Meet have "is_Sup (dual  A) (dual (\<Sqinter>A))" ..
hence "\<Squnion>(dual  A) = dual (\<Sqinter>A)" ..
thus ?thesis ..
qed

theorem dual_Join [intro?]: "dual (\<Squnion>A) = \<Sqinter>(dual  A)"
proof -
from is_Sup_Join have "is_Inf (dual  A) (dual (\<Squnion>A))" ..
hence "\<Sqinter>(dual  A) = dual (\<Squnion>A)" ..
thus ?thesis ..
qed

text {*
Likewise are @{text \<bottom>} and @{text \<top>} duals of each other.
*}

theorem dual_bottom [intro?]: "dual \<bottom> = \<top>"
proof -
have "\<top> = dual \<bottom>"
proof
fix a' have "\<bottom> \<sqsubseteq> undual a'" ..
hence "dual (undual a') \<sqsubseteq> dual \<bottom>" ..
thus "a' \<sqsubseteq> dual \<bottom>" by simp
qed
thus ?thesis ..
qed

theorem dual_top [intro?]: "dual \<top> = \<bottom>"
proof -
have "\<bottom> = dual \<top>"
proof
fix a' have "undual a' \<sqsubseteq> \<top>" ..
hence "dual \<top> \<sqsubseteq> dual (undual a')" ..
thus "dual \<top> \<sqsubseteq> a'" by simp
qed
thus ?thesis ..
qed

subsection {* Complete lattices are lattices *}

text {*
Complete lattices (with general bounds available) are indeed plain
lattices as well.  This holds due to the connection of general
versus binary bounds that has been formally established in
\S\ref{sec:gen-bin-bounds}.
*}

lemma is_inf_binary: "is_inf x y (\<Sqinter>{x, y})"
proof -
have "is_Inf {x, y} (\<Sqinter>{x, y})" ..
thus ?thesis by (simp only: is_Inf_binary)
qed

lemma is_sup_binary: "is_sup x y (\<Squnion>{x, y})"
proof -
have "is_Sup {x, y} (\<Squnion>{x, y})" ..
thus ?thesis by (simp only: is_Sup_binary)
qed

instance complete_lattice < lattice
proof intro_classes
fix x y :: "'a::complete_lattice"
from is_inf_binary show "\<exists>inf. is_inf x y inf" ..
from is_sup_binary show "\<exists>sup. is_sup x y sup" ..
qed

theorem meet_binary: "x \<sqinter> y = \<Sqinter>{x, y}"
by (rule meet_equality) (rule is_inf_binary)

theorem join_binary: "x \<squnion> y = \<Squnion>{x, y}"
by (rule join_equality) (rule is_sup_binary)

subsection {* Complete lattices and set-theory operations *}

text {*
The complete lattice operations are (anti) monotone wrt.\ set
inclusion.
*}

theorem Meet_subset_antimono: "A \<subseteq> B \<Longrightarrow> \<Sqinter>B \<sqsubseteq> \<Sqinter>A"
proof (rule Meet_greatest)
fix a assume "a \<in> A"
also assume "A \<subseteq> B"
finally have "a \<in> B" .
thus "\<Sqinter>B \<sqsubseteq> a" ..
qed

theorem Join_subset_mono: "A \<subseteq> B \<Longrightarrow> \<Squnion>A \<sqsubseteq> \<Squnion>B"
proof -
assume "A \<subseteq> B"
hence "dual  A \<subseteq> dual  B" by blast
hence "\<Sqinter>(dual  B) \<sqsubseteq> \<Sqinter>(dual  A)" by (rule Meet_subset_antimono)
hence "dual (\<Squnion>B) \<sqsubseteq> dual (\<Squnion>A)" by (simp only: dual_Join)
thus ?thesis by (simp only: dual_leq)
qed

text {*
Bounds over unions of sets may be obtained separately.
*}

theorem Meet_Un: "\<Sqinter>(A \<union> B) = \<Sqinter>A \<sqinter> \<Sqinter>B"
proof
fix a assume "a \<in> A \<union> B"
thus "\<Sqinter>A \<sqinter> \<Sqinter>B \<sqsubseteq> a"
proof
assume a: "a \<in> A"
have "\<Sqinter>A \<sqinter> \<Sqinter>B \<sqsubseteq> \<Sqinter>A" ..
also from a have "\<dots> \<sqsubseteq> a" ..
finally show ?thesis .
next
assume a: "a \<in> B"
have "\<Sqinter>A \<sqinter> \<Sqinter>B \<sqsubseteq> \<Sqinter>B" ..
also from a have "\<dots> \<sqsubseteq> a" ..
finally show ?thesis .
qed
next
fix b assume b: "\<forall>a \<in> A \<union> B. b \<sqsubseteq> a"
show "b \<sqsubseteq> \<Sqinter>A \<sqinter> \<Sqinter>B"
proof
show "b \<sqsubseteq> \<Sqinter>A"
proof
fix a assume "a \<in> A"
hence "a \<in>  A \<union> B" ..
with b show "b \<sqsubseteq> a" ..
qed
show "b \<sqsubseteq> \<Sqinter>B"
proof
fix a assume "a \<in> B"
hence "a \<in>  A \<union> B" ..
with b show "b \<sqsubseteq> a" ..
qed
qed
qed

theorem Join_Un: "\<Squnion>(A \<union> B) = \<Squnion>A \<squnion> \<Squnion>B"
proof -
have "dual (\<Squnion>(A \<union> B)) = \<Sqinter>(dual  A \<union> dual  B)"
by (simp only: dual_Join image_Un)
also have "\<dots> = \<Sqinter>(dual  A) \<sqinter> \<Sqinter>(dual  B)"
by (rule Meet_Un)
also have "\<dots> = dual (\<Squnion>A \<squnion> \<Squnion>B)"
by (simp only: dual_join dual_Join)
finally show ?thesis ..
qed

text {*
Bounds over singleton sets are trivial.
*}

theorem Meet_singleton: "\<Sqinter>{x} = x"
proof
fix a assume "a \<in> {x}"
hence "a = x" by simp
thus "x \<sqsubseteq> a" by (simp only: leq_refl)
next
fix b assume "\<forall>a \<in> {x}. b \<sqsubseteq> a"
thus "b \<sqsubseteq> x" by simp
qed

theorem Join_singleton: "\<Squnion>{x} = x"
proof -
have "dual (\<Squnion>{x}) = \<Sqinter>{dual x}" by (simp add: dual_Join)
also have "\<dots> = dual x" by (rule Meet_singleton)
finally show ?thesis ..
qed

text {*
Bounds over the empty and universal set correspond to each other.
*}

theorem Meet_empty: "\<Sqinter>{} = \<Squnion>UNIV"
proof
fix a :: "'a::complete_lattice"
assume "a \<in> {}"
hence False by simp
thus "\<Squnion>UNIV \<sqsubseteq> a" ..
next
fix b :: "'a::complete_lattice"
have "b \<in> UNIV" ..
thus "b \<sqsubseteq> \<Squnion>UNIV" ..
qed

theorem Join_empty: "\<Squnion>{} = \<Sqinter>UNIV"
proof -
have "dual (\<Squnion>{}) = \<Sqinter>{}" by (simp add: dual_Join)
also have "\<dots> = \<Squnion>UNIV" by (rule Meet_empty)
also have "\<dots> = dual (\<Sqinter>UNIV)" by (simp add: dual_Meet)
finally show ?thesis ..
qed

end