src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy
author wenzelm
Mon, 11 Sep 2006 21:35:19 +0200
changeset 20503 503ac4c5ef91
parent 18204 c3caf13f621d
child 31758 3edd5f813f01
permissions -rw-r--r--
induct method: renamed 'fixing' to 'arbitrary';


header {* An old chestnut *}

theory Puzzle imports Main begin

text_raw {*
  \footnote{A question from ``Bundeswettbewerb Mathematik''.  Original
  pen-and-paper proof due to Herbert Ehler; Isabelle tactic script by
  Tobias Nipkow.}
*}

text {*
  \textbf{Problem.}  Given some function $f\colon \Nat \to \Nat$ such
  that $f \ap (f \ap n) < f \ap (\idt{Suc} \ap n)$ for all $n$.
  Demonstrate that $f$ is the identity.
*}

theorem
  assumes f_ax: "\<And>n. f (f n) < f (Suc n)"
  shows "f n = n"
proof (rule order_antisym)
  {
    fix n show "n \<le> f n"
    proof (induct k \<equiv> "f n" arbitrary: n rule: less_induct)
      case (less k n)
      then have hyp: "\<And>m. f m < f n \<Longrightarrow> m \<le> f m" by (simp only:)
      show "n \<le> f n"
      proof (cases n)
	case (Suc m)
	from f_ax have "f (f m) < f n" by (simp only: Suc)
	with hyp have "f m \<le> f (f m)" .
	also from f_ax have "\<dots> < f n" by (simp only: Suc)
	finally have "f m < f n" .
	with hyp have "m \<le> f m" .
	also note `\<dots> < f n`
	finally have "m < f n" .
	then have "n \<le> f n" by (simp only: Suc)
	then show ?thesis .
      next
	case 0
	then show ?thesis by simp
      qed
    qed
  } note ge = this

  {
    fix m n :: nat
    assume "m \<le> n"
    then have "f m \<le> f n"
    proof (induct n)
      case 0
      then have "m = 0" by simp
      then show ?case by simp
    next
      case (Suc n)
      from Suc.prems show "f m \<le> f (Suc n)"
      proof (rule le_SucE)
        assume "m \<le> n"
        with Suc.hyps have "f m \<le> f n" .
        also from ge f_ax have "\<dots> < f (Suc n)"
          by (rule le_less_trans)
        finally show ?thesis by simp
      next
        assume "m = Suc n"
        then show ?thesis by simp
      qed
    qed
  } note mono = this

  show "f n \<le> n"
  proof -
    have "\<not> n < f n"
    proof
      assume "n < f n"
      then have "Suc n \<le> f n" by simp
      then have "f (Suc n) \<le> f (f n)" by (rule mono)
      also have "\<dots> < f (Suc n)" by (rule f_ax)
      finally have "\<dots> < \<dots>" . then show False ..
    qed
    then show ?thesis by simp
  qed
qed

end