NEWS
author eberlm
Tue Jan 05 15:38:37 2016 +0100 (2016-01-05)
changeset 62060 b75764fc4c35
parent 62034 91fcb3bc28bb
child 62064 d9874039786e
permissions -rw-r--r--
Added summability/Gamma/etc. to NEWS and CONTRIBUTORS
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history of user-relevant changes
     2 =================================================
     3 
     4 (Note: Isabelle/jEdit shows a tree-view of this file in Sidekick.)
     5 
     6 
     7 New in Isabelle2016 (February 2016)
     8 -----------------------------------
     9 
    10 *** General ***
    11 
    12 * Former "xsymbols" syntax with Isabelle symbols is used by default,
    13 without any special print mode. Important ASCII replacement syntax
    14 remains available under print mode "ASCII", but less important syntax
    15 has been removed (see below).
    16 
    17 * Support for more arrow symbols, with rendering in LaTeX and
    18 Isabelle fonts: \<Lleftarrow> \<Rrightarrow> \<longlongleftarrow> \<longlongrightarrow> \<longlonglongleftarrow> \<longlonglongrightarrow>
    19 
    20 * Syntax for formal comments "-- text" now also supports the symbolic
    21 form "\<comment> text". Command-line tool "isabelle update_cartouches -c" helps
    22 to update old sources.
    23 
    24 * Toplevel theorem statements have been simplified as follows:
    25 
    26   theorems             ~>  lemmas
    27   schematic_lemma      ~>  schematic_goal
    28   schematic_theorem    ~>  schematic_goal
    29   schematic_corollary  ~>  schematic_goal
    30 
    31 Command-line tool "isabelle update_theorems" updates theory sources
    32 accordingly.
    33 
    34 * Toplevel theorem statement 'proposition' is another alias for
    35 'theorem'.
    36 
    37 
    38 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    39 
    40 * IDE support for the source-level debugger of Poly/ML, to work with
    41 Isabelle/ML and official Standard ML. Configuration option "ML_debugger"
    42 and commands 'ML_file_debug', 'ML_file_no_debug', 'SML_file_debug',
    43 'SML_file_no_debug' control compilation of sources with debugging
    44 information. The Debugger panel allows to set breakpoints (via context
    45 menu), step through stopped threads, evaluate local ML expressions etc.
    46 At least one Debugger view needs to be active to have any effect on the
    47 running ML program.
    48 
    49 * The State panel manages explicit proof state output, with dynamic
    50 auto-update according to cursor movement. Alternatively, the jEdit
    51 action "isabelle.update-state" (shortcut S+ENTER) triggers manual
    52 update.
    53 
    54 * The Output panel no longer shows proof state output by default, to
    55 avoid GUI overcrowding. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the State panel instead or
    56 enable option "editor_output_state".
    57 
    58 * The text overview column (status of errors, warnings etc.) is updated
    59 asynchronously, leading to much better editor reactivity. Moreover, the
    60 full document node content is taken into account. The width of the
    61 column is scaled according to the main text area font, for improved
    62 visibility.
    63 
    64 * The main text area no longer changes its color hue in outdated
    65 situations. The text overview column takes over the role to indicate
    66 unfinished edits in the PIDE pipeline. This avoids flashing text display
    67 due to ad-hoc updates by auxiliary GUI components, such as the State
    68 panel.
    69 
    70 * Improved scheduling for urgent print tasks (e.g. command state output,
    71 interactive queries) wrt. long-running background tasks.
    72 
    73 * Completion of symbols via prefix of \<name> or \<^name> or \name is
    74 always possible, independently of the language context. It is never
    75 implicit: a popup will show up unconditionally.
    76 
    77 * Additional abbreviations for syntactic completion may be specified in
    78 $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/abbrevs and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs, with
    79 support for simple templates using ASCII 007 (bell) as placeholder.
    80 
    81 * Action "isabelle-emph" (with keyboard shortcut C+e LEFT) controls
    82 emphasized text style; the effect is visible in document output, not in
    83 the editor.
    84 
    85 * Action "isabelle-reset" now uses keyboard shortcut C+e BACK_SPACE,
    86 instead of former C+e LEFT.
    87 
    88 * The command-line tool "isabelle jedit" and the isabelle.Main
    89 application wrapper treat the default $USER_HOME/Scratch.thy more
    90 uniformly, and allow the dummy file argument ":" to open an empty buffer
    91 instead.
    92 
    93 * New command-line tool "isabelle jedit_client" allows to connect to an
    94 already running Isabelle/jEdit process. This achieves the effect of
    95 single-instance applications seen on common GUI desktops.
    96 
    97 * The default look-and-feel for Linux is the traditional "Metal", which
    98 works better with GUI scaling for very high-resolution displays (e.g.
    99 4K). Moreover, it is generally more robust than "Nimbus".
   100 
   101 * The main Isabelle executable is managed as single-instance Desktop
   102 application uniformly on all platforms: Linux, Windows, Mac OS X.
   103 
   104 * Update to jedit-5.3.0, with improved GUI scaling and support of
   105 high-resolution displays (e.g. 4K).
   106 
   107 
   108 *** Document preparation ***
   109 
   110 * Commands 'paragraph' and 'subparagraph' provide additional section
   111 headings. Thus there are 6 levels of standard headings, as in HTML.
   112 
   113 * Command 'text_raw' has been clarified: input text is processed as in
   114 'text' (with antiquotations and control symbols). The key difference is
   115 the lack of the surrounding isabelle markup environment in output.
   116 
   117 * Text is structured in paragraphs and nested lists, using notation that
   118 is similar to Markdown. The control symbols for list items are as
   119 follows:
   120 
   121   \<^item>  itemize
   122   \<^enum>  enumerate
   123   \<^descr>  description
   124 
   125 * There is a new short form for antiquotations with a single argument
   126 that is a cartouche: \<^name>\<open>...\<close> is equivalent to @{name \<open>...\<close>} and
   127 \<open>...\<close> without control symbol is equivalent to @{cartouche \<open>...\<close>}.
   128 \<^name> without following cartouche is equivalent to @{name}. The
   129 standard Isabelle fonts provide glyphs to render important control
   130 symbols, e.g. "\<^verbatim>", "\<^emph>", "\<^bold>".
   131 
   132 * Antiquotations @{noindent}, @{smallskip}, @{medskip}, @{bigskip} with
   133 corresponding control symbols \<^noindent>, \<^smallskip>, \<^medskip>, \<^bigskip> specify spacing formally, using
   134 standard LaTeX macros of the same names.
   135 
   136 * Antiquotation @{cartouche} in Isabelle/Pure is the same as @{text}.
   137 Consequently, \<open>...\<close> without any decoration prints literal quasi-formal
   138 text. Command-line tool "isabelle update_cartouches -t" helps to update
   139 old sources, by approximative patching of the content of string and
   140 cartouche tokens seen in theory sources.
   141 
   142 * The @{text} antiquotation now ignores the antiquotation option
   143 "source". The given text content is output unconditionally, without any
   144 surrounding quotes etc. Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, put quotes into the
   145 argument where they are really intended, e.g. @{text \<open>"foo"\<close>}. Initial
   146 or terminal spaces are ignored.
   147 
   148 * Antiquotations @{emph} and @{bold} output LaTeX source recursively,
   149 adding appropriate text style markup. These may be used in the short
   150 form \<^emph>\<open>...\<close> and \<^bold>\<open>...\<close>.
   151 
   152 * Document antiquotation @{footnote} outputs LaTeX source recursively,
   153 marked as \footnote{}. This may be used in the short form \<^footnote>\<open>...\<close>.
   154 
   155 * Antiquotation @{verbatim [display]} supports option "indent".
   156 
   157 * Antiquotation @{theory_text} prints uninterpreted theory source text
   158 (outer syntax with command keywords etc.). This may be used in the short
   159 form \<^theory_text>\<open>...\<close>. @{theory_text [display]} supports option "indent".
   160 
   161 * Antiquotation @{doc ENTRY} provides a reference to the given
   162 documentation, with a hyperlink in the Prover IDE.
   163 
   164 * Antiquotations @{command}, @{method}, @{attribute} print checked
   165 entities of the Isar language.
   166 
   167 * HTML presentation uses the standard IsabelleText font and Unicode
   168 rendering of Isabelle symbols like Isabelle/Scala/jEdit.  The former
   169 print mode "HTML" loses its special meaning.
   170 
   171 
   172 *** Isar ***
   173 
   174 * Local goals ('have', 'show', 'hence', 'thus') allow structured
   175 rule statements like fixes/assumes/shows in theorem specifications, but
   176 the notation is postfix with keywords 'if' (or 'when') and 'for'. For
   177 example:
   178 
   179   have result: "C x y"
   180     if "A x" and "B y"
   181     for x :: 'a and y :: 'a
   182     <proof>
   183 
   184 The local assumptions are bound to the name "that". The result is
   185 exported from context of the statement as usual. The above roughly
   186 corresponds to a raw proof block like this:
   187 
   188   {
   189     fix x :: 'a and y :: 'a
   190     assume that: "A x" "B y"
   191     have "C x y" <proof>
   192   }
   193   note result = this
   194 
   195 The keyword 'when' may be used instead of 'if', to indicate 'presume'
   196 instead of 'assume' above.
   197 
   198 * Assumptions ('assume', 'presume') allow structured rule statements
   199 using 'if' and 'for', similar to 'have' etc. above. For example:
   200 
   201   assume result: "C x y"
   202     if "A x" and "B y"
   203     for x :: 'a and y :: 'a
   204 
   205 This assumes "\<And>x y::'a. A x \<Longrightarrow> B y \<Longrightarrow> C x y" and produces a general
   206 result as usual: "A ?x \<Longrightarrow> B ?y \<Longrightarrow> C ?x ?y".
   207 
   208 Vacuous quantification in assumptions is omitted, i.e. a for-context
   209 only effects propositions according to actual use of variables. For
   210 example:
   211 
   212   assume "A x" and "B y" for x and y
   213 
   214 is equivalent to:
   215 
   216   assume "\<And>x. A x" and "\<And>y. B y"
   217 
   218 * The meaning of 'show' with Pure rule statements has changed: premises
   219 are treated in the sense of 'assume', instead of 'presume'. This means,
   220 a goal like "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x" can be solved completely as follows:
   221 
   222   show "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
   223 
   224 or:
   225 
   226   show "C x" if "A x" "B x" for x
   227 
   228 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, the old behaviour may be recovered as follows:
   229 
   230   show "C x" when "A x" "B x" for x
   231 
   232 * New command 'consider' states rules for generalized elimination and
   233 case splitting. This is like a toplevel statement "theorem obtains" used
   234 within a proof body; or like a multi-branch 'obtain' without activation
   235 of the local context elements yet.
   236 
   237 * Proof method "cases" allows to specify the rule as first entry of
   238 chained facts.  This is particularly useful with 'consider':
   239 
   240   consider (a) A | (b) B | (c) C <proof>
   241   then have something
   242   proof cases
   243     case a
   244     then show ?thesis <proof>
   245   next
   246     case b
   247     then show ?thesis <proof>
   248   next
   249     case c
   250     then show ?thesis <proof>
   251   qed
   252 
   253 * Command 'case' allows fact name and attribute specification like this:
   254 
   255   case a: (c xs)
   256   case a [attributes]: (c xs)
   257 
   258 Facts that are introduced by invoking the case context are uniformly
   259 qualified by "a"; the same name is used for the cumulative fact. The old
   260 form "case (c xs) [attributes]" is no longer supported. Rare
   261 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt uses of case facts in exotic situations,
   262 and always put attributes in front.
   263 
   264 * The standard proof method of commands 'proof' and '..' is now called
   265 "standard" to make semantically clear what it is; the old name "default"
   266 is still available as legacy for some time. Documentation now explains
   267 '..' more accurately as "by standard" instead of "by rule".
   268 
   269 * Nesting of Isar goal structure has been clarified: the context after
   270 the initial backwards refinement is retained for the whole proof, within
   271 all its context sections (as indicated via 'next'). This is e.g.
   272 relevant for 'using', 'including', 'supply':
   273 
   274   have "A \<and> A" if a: A for A
   275     supply [simp] = a
   276   proof
   277     show A by simp
   278   next
   279     show A by simp
   280   qed
   281 
   282 * Command 'obtain' binds term abbreviations (via 'is' patterns) in the
   283 proof body as well, abstracted over relevant parameters.
   284 
   285 * Improved type-inference for theorem statement 'obtains': separate
   286 parameter scope for of each clause.
   287 
   288 * Term abbreviations via 'is' patterns also work for schematic
   289 statements: result is abstracted over unknowns.
   290 
   291 * Command 'subgoal' allows to impose some structure on backward
   292 refinements, to avoid proof scripts degenerating into long of 'apply'
   293 sequences. Further explanations and examples are given in the isar-ref
   294 manual.
   295 
   296 * Command 'supply' supports fact definitions during goal refinement
   297 ('apply' scripts).
   298 
   299 * Proof method "goal_cases" turns the current subgoals into cases within
   300 the context; the conclusion is bound to variable ?case in each case. For
   301 example:
   302 
   303 lemma "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
   304   and "\<And>y z. U y \<Longrightarrow> V z \<Longrightarrow> W y z"
   305 proof goal_cases
   306   case (1 x)
   307   then show ?case using \<open>A x\<close> \<open>B x\<close> sorry
   308 next
   309   case (2 y z)
   310   then show ?case using \<open>U y\<close> \<open>V z\<close> sorry
   311 qed
   312 
   313 lemma "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
   314   and "\<And>y z. U y \<Longrightarrow> V z \<Longrightarrow> W y z"
   315 proof goal_cases
   316   case prems: 1
   317   then show ?case using prems sorry
   318 next
   319   case prems: 2
   320   then show ?case using prems sorry
   321 qed
   322 
   323 * The undocumented feature of implicit cases goal1, goal2, goal3, etc.
   324 is marked as legacy, and will be removed eventually. The proof method
   325 "goals" achieves a similar effect within regular Isar; often it can be
   326 done more adequately by other means (e.g. 'consider').
   327 
   328 * The vacuous fact "TERM x" may be established "by fact" or as `TERM x`
   329 as well, not just "by this" or "." as before.
   330 
   331 * Method "sleep" succeeds after a real-time delay (in seconds). This is
   332 occasionally useful for demonstration and testing purposes.
   333 
   334 
   335 *** Pure ***
   336 
   337 * Qualifiers in locale expressions default to mandatory ('!') regardless
   338 of the command. Previously, for 'locale' and 'sublocale' the default was
   339 optional ('?'). The old synatx '!' has been discontinued.
   340 INCOMPATIBILITY, remove '!' and add '?' as required.
   341 
   342 * Keyword 'rewrites' identifies rewrite morphisms in interpretation
   343 commands. Previously, the keyword was 'where'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   344 
   345 * More gentle suppression of syntax along locale morphisms while
   346 printing terms. Previously 'abbreviation' and 'notation' declarations
   347 would be suppressed for morphisms except term identity. Now
   348 'abbreviation' is also kept for morphims that only change the involved
   349 parameters, and only 'notation' is suppressed. This can be of great help
   350 when working with complex locale hierarchies, because proof states are
   351 displayed much more succinctly. It also means that only notation needs
   352 to be redeclared if desired, as illustrated by this example:
   353 
   354   locale struct = fixes composition :: "'a => 'a => 'a" (infixl "\<cdot>" 65)
   355   begin
   356     definition derived (infixl "\<odot>" 65) where ...
   357   end
   358 
   359   locale morphism =
   360     left: struct composition + right: struct composition'
   361     for composition (infix "\<cdot>" 65) and composition' (infix "\<cdot>''" 65)
   362   begin
   363     notation right.derived ("\<odot>''")
   364   end
   365 
   366 * Command 'global_interpretation' issues interpretations into global
   367 theories, with optional rewrite definitions following keyword 'defines'.
   368 
   369 * Command 'sublocale' accepts optional rewrite definitions after keyword
   370 'defines'.
   371 
   372 * Command 'permanent_interpretation' has been discontinued. Use
   373 'global_interpretation' or 'sublocale' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   374 
   375 * Command 'print_definitions' prints dependencies of definitional
   376 specifications. This functionality used to be part of 'print_theory'.
   377 
   378 * Configuration option rule_insts_schematic has been discontinued
   379 (intermediate legacy feature in Isabelle2015). INCOMPATIBILITY.
   380 
   381 * Abbreviations in type classes now carry proper sort constraint.
   382 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY in situations where the previous misbehaviour
   383 has been exploited.
   384 
   385 * Refinement of user-space type system in type classes: pseudo-local
   386 operations behave more similar to abbreviations.  Potential
   387 INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
   388 
   389 
   390 *** HOL ***
   391 
   392 * The 'typedef' command has been upgraded from a partially checked
   393 "axiomatization", to a full definitional specification that takes the
   394 global collection of overloaded constant / type definitions into
   395 account. Type definitions with open dependencies on overloaded
   396 definitions need to be specified as "typedef (overloaded)". This
   397 provides extra robustness in theory construction. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   398 
   399 * Qualification of various formal entities in the libraries is done more
   400 uniformly via "context begin qualified definition ... end" instead of
   401 old-style "hide_const (open) ...". Consequently, both the defined
   402 constant and its defining fact become qualified, e.g. Option.is_none and
   403 Option.is_none_def. Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY in applications.
   404 
   405 * Some old and rarely used ASCII replacement syntax has been removed.
   406 INCOMPATIBILITY, standard syntax with symbols should be used instead.
   407 The subsequent commands help to reproduce the old forms, e.g. to
   408 simplify porting old theories:
   409 
   410   notation iff  (infixr "<->" 25)
   411 
   412   notation Times  (infixr "<*>" 80)
   413 
   414   type_notation Map.map  (infixr "~=>" 0)
   415   notation Map.map_comp  (infixl "o'_m" 55)
   416 
   417   type_notation FinFun.finfun ("(_ =>f /_)" [22, 21] 21)
   418 
   419   notation FuncSet.funcset  (infixr "->" 60)
   420   notation FuncSet.extensional_funcset  (infixr "->\<^sub>E" 60)
   421 
   422   notation Omega_Words_Fun.conc (infixr "conc" 65)
   423 
   424   notation Preorder.equiv ("op ~~")
   425     and Preorder.equiv ("(_/ ~~ _)" [51, 51] 50)
   426 
   427   notation (in topological_space) tendsto (infixr "--->" 55)
   428   notation (in topological_space) LIMSEQ ("((_)/ ----> (_))" [60, 60] 60)
   429   notation LIM ("((_)/ -- (_)/ --> (_))" [60, 0, 60] 60)
   430 
   431   notation NSA.approx (infixl "@=" 50)
   432   notation NSLIMSEQ ("((_)/ ----NS> (_))" [60, 60] 60)
   433   notation NSLIM ("((_)/ -- (_)/ --NS> (_))" [60, 0, 60] 60)
   434 
   435 * The alternative notation "\<Colon>" for type and sort constraints has been
   436 removed: in LaTeX document output it looks the same as "::".
   437 INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain "::" instead.
   438 
   439 * Commands 'inductive' and 'inductive_set' work better when names for
   440 intro rules are omitted: the "cases" and "induct" rules no longer
   441 declare empty case_names, but no case_names at all. This allows to use
   442 numbered cases in proofs, without requiring method "goal_cases".
   443 
   444 * Inductive definitions ('inductive', 'coinductive', etc.) expose
   445 low-level facts of the internal construction only if the option
   446 "inductive_defs" is enabled. This refers to the internal predicate
   447 definition and its monotonicity result. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   448 
   449 * Recursive function definitions ('fun', 'function', 'partial_function')
   450 expose low-level facts of the internal construction only if the option
   451 "function_defs" is enabled. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   452 
   453 * Combinator to represent case distinction on products is named
   454 "case_prod", uniformly, discontinuing any input aliasses. Very popular
   455 theorem aliasses have been retained.
   456 
   457 Consolidated facts:
   458   PairE ~> prod.exhaust
   459   Pair_eq ~> prod.inject
   460   pair_collapse ~> prod.collapse
   461   Pair_fst_snd_eq ~> prod_eq_iff
   462   split_twice ~> prod.case_distrib
   463   split_weak_cong ~> prod.case_cong_weak
   464   split_split ~> prod.split
   465   split_split_asm ~> prod.split_asm
   466   splitI ~> case_prodI
   467   splitD ~> case_prodD
   468   splitI2 ~> case_prodI2
   469   splitI2' ~> case_prodI2'
   470   splitE ~> case_prodE
   471   splitE' ~> case_prodE'
   472   split_pair ~> case_prod_Pair
   473   split_eta ~> case_prod_eta
   474   split_comp ~> case_prod_comp
   475   mem_splitI ~> mem_case_prodI
   476   mem_splitI2 ~> mem_case_prodI2
   477   mem_splitE ~> mem_case_prodE
   478   The_split ~> The_case_prod
   479   cond_split_eta ~> cond_case_prod_eta
   480   Collect_split_in_rel_leE ~> Collect_case_prod_in_rel_leE
   481   Collect_split_in_rel_leI ~> Collect_case_prod_in_rel_leI
   482   in_rel_Collect_split_eq ~> in_rel_Collect_case_prod_eq
   483   Collect_split_Grp_eqD ~> Collect_case_prod_Grp_eqD
   484   Collect_split_Grp_inD ~> Collect_case_prod_Grp_in
   485   Domain_Collect_split ~> Domain_Collect_case_prod
   486   Image_Collect_split ~> Image_Collect_case_prod
   487   Range_Collect_split ~> Range_Collect_case_prod
   488   Eps_split ~> Eps_case_prod
   489   Eps_split_eq ~> Eps_case_prod_eq
   490   split_rsp ~> case_prod_rsp
   491   curry_split ~> curry_case_prod
   492   split_curry ~> case_prod_curry
   493 
   494 Changes in structure HOLogic:
   495   split_const ~> case_prod_const
   496   mk_split ~> mk_case_prod
   497   mk_psplits ~> mk_ptupleabs
   498   strip_psplits ~> strip_ptupleabs
   499 
   500 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   501 
   502 * The coercions to type 'real' have been reorganised. The function
   503 'real' is no longer overloaded, but has type 'nat => real' and
   504 abbreviates of_nat for that type. Also 'real_of_int :: int => real'
   505 abbreviates of_int for that type. Other overloaded instances of 'real'
   506 have been replaced by 'real_of_ereal' and 'real_of_float'.
   507 
   508 Consolidated facts (among others):
   509   real_of_nat_le_iff -> of_nat_le_iff
   510   real_of_nat_numeral of_nat_numeral
   511   real_of_int_zero of_int_0
   512   real_of_nat_zero of_nat_0
   513   real_of_one of_int_1
   514   real_of_int_add of_int_add
   515   real_of_nat_add of_nat_add
   516   real_of_int_diff of_int_diff
   517   real_of_nat_diff of_nat_diff
   518   floor_subtract floor_diff_of_int
   519   real_of_int_inject of_int_eq_iff
   520   real_of_int_gt_zero_cancel_iff of_int_0_less_iff
   521   real_of_int_ge_zero_cancel_iff of_int_0_le_iff
   522   real_of_nat_ge_zero of_nat_0_le_iff
   523   real_of_int_ceiling_ge le_of_int_ceiling
   524   ceiling_less_eq ceiling_less_iff
   525   ceiling_le_eq ceiling_le_iff
   526   less_floor_eq less_floor_iff
   527   floor_less_eq floor_less_iff
   528   floor_divide_eq_div floor_divide_of_int_eq
   529   real_of_int_zero_cancel of_nat_eq_0_iff
   530   ceiling_real_of_int ceiling_of_int
   531 
   532 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   533 
   534 * Theory Map: lemma map_of_is_SomeD was a clone of map_of_SomeD and has
   535 been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   536 
   537 * Quickcheck setup for finite sets.
   538 
   539 * Discontinued simp_legacy_precond. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   540 
   541 * Sledgehammer:
   542   - The MaSh relevance filter has been sped up.
   543   - Proof reconstruction has been improved, to minimize the incidence of
   544     cases where Sledgehammer gives a proof that does not work.
   545   - Auto Sledgehammer now minimizes and preplays the results.
   546   - Handle Vampire 4.0 proof output without raising exception.
   547   - Eliminated "MASH" environment variable. Use the "MaSh" option in
   548     Isabelle/jEdit instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   549   - Eliminated obsolete "blocking" option and related subcommands.
   550 
   551 * Nitpick:
   552   - Fixed soundness bug in translation of "finite" predicate.
   553   - Fixed soundness bug in "destroy_constrs" optimization.
   554   - Removed "check_potential" and "check_genuine" options.
   555   - Eliminated obsolete "blocking" option.
   556 
   557 * (Co)datatype package:
   558   - New commands "lift_bnf" and "copy_bnf" for lifting (copying) a BNF
   559     structure on the raw type to an abstract type defined using typedef.
   560   - Always generate "case_transfer" theorem.
   561   - Allow discriminators and selectors with the same name as the type
   562     being defined.
   563   - Avoid various internal name clashes (e.g., 'datatype f = f').
   564 
   565 * Transfer:
   566   - new methods for interactive debugging of 'transfer' and
   567     'transfer_prover': 'transfer_start', 'transfer_step', 'transfer_end',
   568     'transfer_prover_start' and 'transfer_prover_end'.
   569 
   570 * Division on integers is bootstrapped directly from division on
   571 naturals and uses generic numeral algorithm for computations. Slight
   572 INCOMPATIBILITY, simproc numeral_divmod replaces and generalizes former
   573 simprocs binary_int_div and binary_int_mod
   574 
   575 * Tightened specification of class semiring_no_zero_divisors. Minor
   576 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   577 
   578 * Class algebraic_semidom introduces common algebraic notions of
   579 integral (semi)domains, particularly units. Although logically subsumed
   580 by fields, is is not a super class of these in order not to burden
   581 fields with notions that are trivial there.
   582 
   583 * Class normalization_semidom specifies canonical representants for
   584 equivalence classes of associated elements in an integral (semi)domain.
   585 This formalizes associated elements as well.
   586 
   587 * Abstract specification of gcd/lcm operations in classes semiring_gcd,
   588 semiring_Gcd, semiring_Lcd. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: facts gcd_nat.commute
   589 and gcd_int.commute are subsumed by gcd.commute, as well as
   590 gcd_nat.assoc and gcd_int.assoc by gcd.assoc.
   591 
   592 * Former constants Fields.divide (_ / _) and Divides.div (_ div _) are
   593 logically unified to Rings.divide in syntactic type class Rings.divide,
   594 with infix syntax (_ div _). Infix syntax (_ / _) for field division is
   595 added later as abbreviation in class Fields.inverse. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   596 instantiations must refer to Rings.divide rather than the former
   597 separate constants, hence infix syntax (_ / _) is usually not available
   598 during instantiation.
   599 
   600 * New cancellation simprocs for boolean algebras to cancel complementary
   601 terms for sup and inf. For example, "sup x (sup y (- x))" simplifies to
   602 "top". INCOMPATIBILITY.
   603 
   604 * Library/Monad_Syntax: notation uses symbols \<bind> and \<then>. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   605 
   606 * Library/Multiset:
   607   - Renamed multiset inclusion operators:
   608       < ~> <#
   609       \<subset> ~> \<subset>#
   610       <= ~> <=#
   611       \<le> ~> \<le>#
   612       \<subseteq> ~> \<subseteq>#
   613     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   614   - "'a multiset" is no longer an instance of the "order",
   615     "ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le", "ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_diff",
   616     "semilattice_inf", and "semilattice_sup" type classes. The theorems
   617     previously provided by these type classes (directly or indirectly)
   618     are now available through the "subset_mset" interpretation
   619     (e.g. add_mono ~> subset_mset.add_mono).
   620     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   621   - Renamed conversions:
   622       multiset_of ~> mset
   623       multiset_of_set ~> mset_set
   624       set_of ~> set_mset
   625     INCOMPATIBILITY
   626   - Renamed lemmas:
   627       mset_le_def ~> subseteq_mset_def
   628       mset_less_def ~> subset_mset_def
   629       less_eq_multiset.rep_eq ~> subseteq_mset_def
   630     INCOMPATIBILITY
   631   - Removed lemmas generated by lift_definition:
   632     less_eq_multiset.abs_eq, less_eq_multiset.rsp less_eq_multiset.transfer
   633     less_eq_multiset_def
   634     INCOMPATIBILITY
   635 
   636 * Library/Omega_Words_Fun: Infinite words modeled as functions nat \<Rightarrow> 'a.
   637 
   638 * Library/Bourbaki_Witt_Fixpoint: Added formalisation of the
   639 Bourbaki-Witt fixpoint theorem for increasing functions in
   640 chain-complete partial orders.
   641 
   642 * Library/Old_Recdef: discontinued obsolete 'defer_recdef' command.
   643 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'function' instead.
   644 
   645 * Library/Periodic_Fun: a locale that provides convenient lemmas for periodic functions
   646 
   647 * Multivariate_Analysis/Cauchy_Integral_Thm: Contour integrals (=
   648 complex path integrals), Cauchy's integral theorem, winding numbers and
   649 Cauchy's integral formula, Liouville theorem, Fundamental Theorem of
   650 Algebra. Ported from HOL Light
   651 
   652 * Multivariate_Analysis: Added topological concepts such as connected
   653 components, homotopic paths and the inside or outside of a set.
   654 
   655 * Multivariate_Analysis: radius of convergence of power series and 
   656   various summability tests; Harmonic numbers and the Euler–Mascheroni constant;
   657   the Generalised Binomial Theorem; the complex and real Gamma/log-Gamma/Digamma/
   658   Polygamma functions and their most important properties;
   659 
   660 * Data_Structures: new and growing session of standard data structures.
   661 
   662 * Imperative_HOL: obsolete theory Legacy_Mrec has been removed.
   663 
   664 * HOL-Statespace: command 'statespace' uses mandatory qualifier for
   665 import of parent, as for general 'locale' expressions. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   666 remove '!' and add '?' as required.
   667 
   668 
   669 *** ML ***
   670 
   671 * The following combinators for low-level profiling of the ML runtime
   672 system are available:
   673 
   674   profile_time          (*CPU time*)
   675   profile_time_thread   (*CPU time on this thread*)
   676   profile_allocations   (*overall heap allocations*)
   677 
   678 * Antiquotation @{undefined} or \<^undefined> inlines (raise Match).
   679 
   680 * Pretty printing of Poly/ML compiler output in Isabelle has been
   681 improved: proper treatment of break offsets and blocks with consistent
   682 breaks.
   683 
   684 * The auxiliary module Pure/display.ML has been eliminated. Its
   685 elementary thm print operations are now in Pure/more_thm.ML and thus
   686 called Thm.pretty_thm, Thm.string_of_thm etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   687 
   688 * Simproc programming interfaces have been simplified:
   689 Simplifier.make_simproc and Simplifier.define_simproc supersede various
   690 forms of Simplifier.mk_simproc, Simplifier.simproc_global etc. Note that
   691 term patterns for the left-hand sides are specified with implicitly
   692 fixed variables, like top-level theorem statements. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   693 
   694 * Instantiation rules have been re-organized as follows:
   695 
   696   Thm.instantiate  (*low-level instantiation with named arguments*)
   697   Thm.instantiate' (*version with positional arguments*)
   698 
   699   Drule.infer_instantiate  (*instantiation with type inference*)
   700   Drule.infer_instantiate'  (*version with positional arguments*)
   701 
   702 The LHS only requires variable specifications, instead of full terms.
   703 Old cterm_instantiate is superseded by infer_instantiate.
   704 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to re-adjust some ML names and types accordingly.
   705 
   706 * Old tactic shorthands atac, rtac, etac, dtac, ftac have been
   707 discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular assume_tac, resolve_tac etc.
   708 instead (with proper context).
   709 
   710 * Thm.instantiate (and derivatives) no longer require the LHS of the
   711 instantiation to be certified: plain variables are given directly.
   712 
   713 * Subgoal.SUBPROOF and Subgoal.FOCUS combinators use anonymous
   714 quasi-bound variables (like the Simplifier), instead of accidentally
   715 named local fixes. This has the potential to improve stability of proof
   716 tools, but can also cause INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that don't observe
   717 the proof context discipline.
   718 
   719 * Isar proof methods are based on a slightly more general type
   720 context_tactic, which allows to change the proof context dynamically
   721 (e.g. to update cases) and indicate explicit Seq.Error results. Former
   722 METHOD_CASES is superseded by CONTEXT_METHOD; further combinators are
   723 provided in src/Pure/Isar/method.ML for convenience. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   724 
   725 
   726 *** System ***
   727 
   728 * Command-line tool "isabelle console" enables print mode "ASCII".
   729 
   730 * Command-line tool "isabelle update_then" expands old Isar command
   731 conflations:
   732 
   733     hence  ~>  then have
   734     thus   ~>  then show
   735 
   736 This syntax is more orthogonal and improves readability and
   737 maintainability of proofs.
   738 
   739 * Global session timeout is multiplied by timeout_scale factor. This
   740 allows to adjust large-scale tests (e.g. AFP) to overall hardware
   741 performance.
   742 
   743 * Property values in etc/symbols may contain spaces, if written with the
   744 replacement character "␣" (Unicode point 0x2324).  For example:
   745 
   746     \<star>  code: 0x0022c6  group: operator  font: Deja␣Vu␣Sans␣Mono
   747 
   748 * Java runtime environment for x86_64-windows allows to use larger heap
   749 space.
   750 
   751 * Java runtime options are determined separately for 32bit vs. 64bit
   752 platforms as follows.
   753 
   754   - Isabelle desktop application: platform-specific files that are
   755     associated with the main app bundle
   756 
   757   - isabelle jedit: settings
   758     JEDIT_JAVA_SYSTEM_OPTIONS
   759     JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS32 vs. JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS64
   760 
   761   - isabelle build: settings
   762     ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS32 vs. ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS64
   763 
   764 * Bash shell function "jvmpath" has been renamed to "platform_path": it
   765 is relevant both for Poly/ML and JVM processes.
   766 
   767 * Heap images are 10-15% smaller due to less wasteful persistent theory
   768 content (using ML type theory_id instead of theory);
   769 
   770 * Poly/ML default platform architecture may be changed from 32bit to
   771 64bit via system option ML_system_64. A system restart (and rebuild)
   772 is required after change.
   773 
   774 * Poly/ML 5.6 runs natively on x86-windows and x86_64-windows, which
   775 both allow larger heap space than former x86-cygwin.
   776 
   777 
   778 
   779 New in Isabelle2015 (May 2015)
   780 ------------------------------
   781 
   782 *** General ***
   783 
   784 * Local theory specification commands may have a 'private' or
   785 'qualified' modifier to restrict name space accesses to the local scope,
   786 as provided by some "context begin ... end" block. For example:
   787 
   788   context
   789   begin
   790 
   791   private definition ...
   792   private lemma ...
   793 
   794   qualified definition ...
   795   qualified lemma ...
   796 
   797   lemma ...
   798   theorem ...
   799 
   800   end
   801 
   802 * Command 'experiment' opens an anonymous locale context with private
   803 naming policy.
   804 
   805 * Command 'notepad' requires proper nesting of begin/end and its proof
   806 structure in the body: 'oops' is no longer supported here. Minor
   807 INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'sorry' instead.
   808 
   809 * Command 'named_theorems' declares a dynamic fact within the context,
   810 together with an attribute to maintain the content incrementally. This
   811 supersedes functor Named_Thms in Isabelle/ML, but with a subtle change
   812 of semantics due to external visual order vs. internal reverse order.
   813 
   814 * 'find_theorems': search patterns which are abstractions are
   815 schematically expanded before search. Search results match the naive
   816 expectation more closely, particularly wrt. abbreviations.
   817 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   818 
   819 * Commands 'method_setup' and 'attribute_setup' now work within a local
   820 theory context.
   821 
   822 * Outer syntax commands are managed authentically within the theory
   823 context, without implicit global state. Potential for accidental
   824 INCOMPATIBILITY, make sure that required theories are really imported.
   825 
   826 * Historical command-line terminator ";" is no longer accepted (and
   827 already used differently in Isar). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle
   828 update_semicolons" to remove obsolete semicolons from old theory
   829 sources.
   830 
   831 * Structural composition of proof methods (meth1; meth2) in Isar
   832 corresponds to (tac1 THEN_ALL_NEW tac2) in ML.
   833 
   834 * The Eisbach proof method language allows to define new proof methods
   835 by combining existing ones with their usual syntax. The "match" proof
   836 method provides basic fact/term matching in addition to
   837 premise/conclusion matching through Subgoal.focus, and binds fact names
   838 from matches as well as term patterns within matches. The Isabelle
   839 documentation provides an entry "eisbach" for the Eisbach User Manual.
   840 Sources and various examples are in ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/.
   841 
   842 
   843 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   844 
   845 * Improved folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax. Alternatively,
   846 the "sidekick" mode may be used for document structure.
   847 
   848 * Extended bracket matching based on Isar language structure. System
   849 option jedit_structure_limit determines maximum number of lines to scan
   850 in the buffer.
   851 
   852 * Support for BibTeX files: context menu, context-sensitive token
   853 marker, SideKick parser.
   854 
   855 * Document antiquotation @{cite} provides formal markup, which is
   856 interpreted semi-formally based on .bib files that happen to be open in
   857 the editor (hyperlinks, completion etc.).
   858 
   859 * Less waste of vertical space via negative line spacing (see Global
   860 Options / Text Area).
   861 
   862 * Improved graphview panel with optional output of PNG or PDF, for
   863 display of 'thy_deps', 'class_deps' etc.
   864 
   865 * The commands 'thy_deps' and 'class_deps' allow optional bounds to
   866 restrict the visualized hierarchy.
   867 
   868 * Improved scheduling for asynchronous print commands (e.g. provers
   869 managed by the Sledgehammer panel) wrt. ongoing document processing.
   870 
   871 
   872 *** Document preparation ***
   873 
   874 * Document markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection',
   875 'subsubsection', 'text', 'txt', 'text_raw' work uniformly in any
   876 context, even before the initial 'theory' command. Obsolete proof
   877 commands 'sect', 'subsect', 'subsubsect', 'txt_raw' have been
   878 discontinued, use 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection', 'text_raw'
   879 instead. The old 'header' command is still retained for some time, but
   880 should be replaced by 'chapter', 'section' etc. (using "isabelle
   881 update_header"). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   882 
   883 * Official support for "tt" style variants, via \isatt{...} or
   884 \begin{isabellett}...\end{isabellett}. The somewhat fragile \verb or
   885 verbatim environment of LaTeX is no longer used. This allows @{ML} etc.
   886 as argument to other macros (such as footnotes).
   887 
   888 * Document antiquotation @{verbatim} prints ASCII text literally in "tt"
   889 style.
   890 
   891 * Discontinued obsolete option "document_graph": session_graph.pdf is
   892 produced unconditionally for HTML browser_info and PDF-LaTeX document.
   893 
   894 * Diagnostic commands and document markup commands within a proof do not
   895 affect the command tag for output. Thus commands like 'thm' are subject
   896 to proof document structure, and no longer "stick out" accidentally.
   897 Commands 'text' and 'txt' merely differ in the LaTeX style, not their
   898 tags. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
   899 
   900 * System option "pretty_margin" is superseded by "thy_output_margin",
   901 which is also accessible via document antiquotation option "margin".
   902 Only the margin for document output may be changed, but not the global
   903 pretty printing: that is 76 for plain console output, and adapted
   904 dynamically in GUI front-ends. Implementations of document
   905 antiquotations need to observe the margin explicitly according to
   906 Thy_Output.string_of_margin. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   907 
   908 * Specification of 'document_files' in the session ROOT file is
   909 mandatory for document preparation. The legacy mode with implicit
   910 copying of the document/ directory is no longer supported. Minor
   911 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   912 
   913 
   914 *** Pure ***
   915 
   916 * Proof methods with explicit instantiation ("rule_tac", "subgoal_tac"
   917 etc.) allow an optional context of local variables ('for' declaration):
   918 these variables become schematic in the instantiated theorem; this
   919 behaviour is analogous to 'for' in attributes "where" and "of".
   920 Configuration option rule_insts_schematic (default false) controls use
   921 of schematic variables outside the context. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY,
   922 declare rule_insts_schematic = true temporarily and update to use local
   923 variable declarations or dummy patterns instead.
   924 
   925 * Explicit instantiation via attributes "where", "of", and proof methods
   926 "rule_tac" with derivatives like "subgoal_tac" etc. admit dummy patterns
   927 ("_") that stand for anonymous local variables.
   928 
   929 * Generated schematic variables in standard format of exported facts are
   930 incremented to avoid material in the proof context. Rare
   931 INCOMPATIBILITY, explicit instantiation sometimes needs to refer to
   932 different index.
   933 
   934 * Lexical separation of signed and unsigned numerals: categories "num"
   935 and "float" are unsigned. INCOMPATIBILITY: subtle change in precedence
   936 of numeral signs, particularly in expressions involving infix syntax
   937 like "(- 1) ^ n".
   938 
   939 * Old inner token category "xnum" has been discontinued.  Potential
   940 INCOMPATIBILITY for exotic syntax: may use mixfix grammar with "num"
   941 token category instead.
   942 
   943 
   944 *** HOL ***
   945 
   946 * New (co)datatype package:
   947   - The 'datatype_new' command has been renamed 'datatype'. The old
   948     command of that name is now called 'old_datatype' and is provided
   949     by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
   950     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
   951     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   952   - Renamed theorems:
   953       disc_corec ~> corec_disc
   954       disc_corec_iff ~> corec_disc_iff
   955       disc_exclude ~> distinct_disc
   956       disc_exhaust ~> exhaust_disc
   957       disc_map_iff ~> map_disc_iff
   958       sel_corec ~> corec_sel
   959       sel_exhaust ~> exhaust_sel
   960       sel_map ~> map_sel
   961       sel_set ~> set_sel
   962       sel_split ~> split_sel
   963       sel_split_asm ~> split_sel_asm
   964       strong_coinduct ~> coinduct_strong
   965       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
   966     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   967   - The "no_code" option to "free_constructors", "datatype_new", and
   968     "codatatype" has been renamed "plugins del: code".
   969     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   970   - The rules "set_empty" have been removed. They are easy
   971     consequences of other set rules "by auto".
   972     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   973   - The rule "set_cases" is now registered with the "[cases set]"
   974     attribute. This can influence the behavior of the "cases" proof
   975     method when more than one case rule is applicable (e.g., an
   976     assumption is of the form "w : set ws" and the method "cases w"
   977     is invoked). The solution is to specify the case rule explicitly
   978     (e.g. "cases w rule: widget.exhaust").
   979     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   980   - Renamed theories:
   981       BNF_Comp ~> BNF_Composition
   982       BNF_FP_Base ~> BNF_Fixpoint_Base
   983       BNF_GFP ~> BNF_Greatest_Fixpoint
   984       BNF_LFP ~> BNF_Least_Fixpoint
   985       BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> BNF_Wellorder_Constructions
   986       Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> Cardinals/Wellorder_Constructions
   987     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   988   - Lifting and Transfer setup for basic HOL types sum and prod (also
   989     option) is now performed by the BNF package. Theories Lifting_Sum,
   990     Lifting_Product and Lifting_Option from Main became obsolete and
   991     were removed. Changed definitions of the relators rel_prod and
   992     rel_sum (using inductive).
   993     INCOMPATIBILITY: use rel_prod.simps and rel_sum.simps instead
   994     of rel_prod_def and rel_sum_def.
   995     Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: (rarely used by name) transfer theorem names
   996     changed (e.g. map_prod_transfer ~> prod.map_transfer).
   997   - Parametricity theorems for map functions, relators, set functions,
   998     constructors, case combinators, discriminators, selectors and
   999     (co)recursors are automatically proved and registered as transfer
  1000     rules.
  1001 
  1002 * Old datatype package:
  1003   - The old 'datatype' command has been renamed 'old_datatype', and
  1004     'rep_datatype' has been renamed 'old_rep_datatype'. They are
  1005     provided by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
  1006     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
  1007     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1008   - Renamed theorems:
  1009       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
  1010     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1011   - Renamed theory:
  1012       ~~/src/HOL/Datatype.thy ~> ~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy
  1013     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1014 
  1015 * Nitpick:
  1016   - Fixed soundness bug related to the strict and non-strict subset
  1017     operations.
  1018 
  1019 * Sledgehammer:
  1020   - CVC4 is now included with Isabelle instead of CVC3 and run by
  1021     default.
  1022   - Z3 is now always enabled by default, now that it is fully open
  1023     source. The "z3_non_commercial" option is discontinued.
  1024   - Minimization is now always enabled by default.
  1025     Removed sub-command:
  1026       min
  1027   - Proof reconstruction, both one-liners and Isar, has been
  1028     dramatically improved.
  1029   - Improved support for CVC4 and veriT.
  1030 
  1031 * Old and new SMT modules:
  1032   - The old 'smt' method has been renamed 'old_smt' and moved to
  1033     'src/HOL/Library/Old_SMT.thy'. It is provided for compatibility,
  1034     until applications have been ported to use the new 'smt' method. For
  1035     the method to work, an older version of Z3 (e.g. Z3 3.2 or 4.0) must
  1036     be installed, and the environment variable "OLD_Z3_SOLVER" must
  1037     point to it.
  1038     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1039   - The 'smt2' method has been renamed 'smt'.
  1040     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1041   - New option 'smt_reconstruction_step_timeout' to limit the
  1042     reconstruction time of Z3 proof steps in the new 'smt' method.
  1043   - New option 'smt_statistics' to display statistics of the new 'smt'
  1044     method, especially runtime statistics of Z3 proof reconstruction.
  1045 
  1046 * Lifting: command 'lift_definition' allows to execute lifted constants
  1047 that have as a return type a datatype containing a subtype. This
  1048 overcomes long-time limitations in the area of code generation and
  1049 lifting, and avoids tedious workarounds.
  1050 
  1051 * Command and antiquotation "value" provide different evaluation slots
  1052 (again), where the previous strategy (NBE after ML) serves as default.
  1053 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1054 
  1055 * Add NO_MATCH-simproc, allows to check for syntactic non-equality.
  1056 
  1057 * field_simps: Use NO_MATCH-simproc for distribution rules, to avoid
  1058 non-termination in case of distributing a division. With this change
  1059 field_simps is in some cases slightly less powerful, if it fails try to
  1060 add algebra_simps, or use divide_simps. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1061 
  1062 * Separate class no_zero_divisors has been given up in favour of fully
  1063 algebraic semiring_no_zero_divisors. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1064 
  1065 * Class linordered_semidom really requires no zero divisors.
  1066 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1067 
  1068 * Classes division_ring, field and linordered_field always demand
  1069 "inverse 0 = 0". Given up separate classes division_ring_inverse_zero,
  1070 field_inverse_zero and linordered_field_inverse_zero. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1071 
  1072 * Classes cancel_ab_semigroup_add / cancel_monoid_add specify explicit
  1073 additive inverse operation. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1074 
  1075 * Complex powers and square roots. The functions "ln" and "powr" are now
  1076 overloaded for types real and complex, and 0 powr y = 0 by definition.
  1077 INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be necessary.
  1078 
  1079 * The functions "sin" and "cos" are now defined for any type of sort
  1080 "{real_normed_algebra_1,banach}" type, so in particular on "real" and
  1081 "complex" uniformly. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be
  1082 needed.
  1083 
  1084 * New library of properties of the complex transcendental functions sin,
  1085 cos, tan, exp, Ln, Arctan, Arcsin, Arccos. Ported from HOL Light.
  1086 
  1087 * The factorial function, "fact", now has type "nat => 'a" (of a sort
  1088 that admits numeric types including nat, int, real and complex.
  1089 INCOMPATIBILITY: an expression such as "fact 3 = 6" may require a type
  1090 constraint, and the combination "real (fact k)" is likely to be
  1091 unsatisfactory. If a type conversion is still necessary, then use
  1092 "of_nat (fact k)" or "real_of_nat (fact k)".
  1093 
  1094 * Removed functions "natfloor" and "natceiling", use "nat o floor" and
  1095 "nat o ceiling" instead. A few of the lemmas have been retained and
  1096 adapted: in their names "natfloor"/"natceiling" has been replaced by
  1097 "nat_floor"/"nat_ceiling".
  1098 
  1099 * Qualified some duplicated fact names required for boostrapping the
  1100 type class hierarchy:
  1101   ab_add_uminus_conv_diff ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  1102   field_inverse_zero ~> inverse_zero
  1103   field_divide_inverse ~> divide_inverse
  1104   field_inverse ~> left_inverse
  1105 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1106 
  1107 * Eliminated fact duplicates:
  1108   mult_less_imp_less_right ~> mult_right_less_imp_less
  1109   mult_less_imp_less_left ~> mult_left_less_imp_less
  1110 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1111 
  1112 * Fact consolidation: even_less_0_iff is subsumed by
  1113 double_add_less_zero_iff_single_add_less_zero (simp by default anyway).
  1114 
  1115 * Generalized and consolidated some theorems concerning divsibility:
  1116   dvd_reduce ~> dvd_add_triv_right_iff
  1117   dvd_plus_eq_right ~> dvd_add_right_iff
  1118   dvd_plus_eq_left ~> dvd_add_left_iff
  1119 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1120 
  1121 * "even" and "odd" are mere abbreviations for "2 dvd _" and "~ 2 dvd _"
  1122 and part of theory Main.
  1123   even_def ~> even_iff_mod_2_eq_zero
  1124 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1125 
  1126 * Lemma name consolidation: divide_Numeral1 ~> divide_numeral_1. Minor
  1127 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1128 
  1129 * Bootstrap of listsum as special case of abstract product over lists.
  1130 Fact rename:
  1131     listsum_def ~> listsum.eq_foldr
  1132 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1133 
  1134 * Product over lists via constant "listprod".
  1135 
  1136 * Theory List: renamed drop_Suc_conv_tl and nth_drop' to
  1137 Cons_nth_drop_Suc.
  1138 
  1139 * New infrastructure for compiling, running, evaluating and testing
  1140 generated code in target languages in HOL/Library/Code_Test. See
  1141 HOL/Codegenerator_Test/Code_Test* for examples.
  1142 
  1143 * Library/Multiset:
  1144   - Introduced "replicate_mset" operation.
  1145   - Introduced alternative characterizations of the multiset ordering in
  1146     "Library/Multiset_Order".
  1147   - Renamed multiset ordering:
  1148       <# ~> #<#
  1149       <=# ~> #<=#
  1150       \<subset># ~> #\<subset>#
  1151       \<subseteq># ~> #\<subseteq>#
  1152     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1153   - Introduced abbreviations for ill-named multiset operations:
  1154       <#, \<subset># abbreviate < (strict subset)
  1155       <=#, \<le>#, \<subseteq># abbreviate <= (subset or equal)
  1156     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1157   - Renamed
  1158       in_multiset_of ~> in_multiset_in_set
  1159       Multiset.fold ~> fold_mset
  1160       Multiset.filter ~> filter_mset
  1161     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1162   - Removed mcard, is equal to size.
  1163   - Added attributes:
  1164       image_mset.id [simp]
  1165       image_mset_id [simp]
  1166       elem_multiset_of_set [simp, intro]
  1167       comp_fun_commute_plus_mset [simp]
  1168       comp_fun_commute.fold_mset_insert [OF comp_fun_commute_plus_mset, simp]
  1169       in_mset_fold_plus_iff [iff]
  1170       set_of_Union_mset [simp]
  1171       in_Union_mset_iff [iff]
  1172     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1173 
  1174 * Library/Sum_of_Squares: simplified and improved "sos" method. Always
  1175 use local CSDP executable, which is much faster than the NEOS server.
  1176 The "sos_cert" functionality is invoked as "sos" with additional
  1177 argument. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1178 
  1179 * HOL-Decision_Procs: New counterexample generator quickcheck
  1180 [approximation] for inequalities of transcendental functions. Uses
  1181 hardware floating point arithmetic to randomly discover potential
  1182 counterexamples. Counterexamples are certified with the "approximation"
  1183 method. See HOL/Decision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Quickcheck_Ex.thy for
  1184 examples.
  1185 
  1186 * HOL-Probability: Reworked measurability prover
  1187   - applies destructor rules repeatedly
  1188   - removed application splitting (replaced by destructor rule)
  1189   - added congruence rules to rewrite measure spaces under the sets
  1190     projection
  1191 
  1192 * New proof method "rewrite" (in theory ~~/src/HOL/Library/Rewrite) for
  1193 single-step rewriting with subterm selection based on patterns.
  1194 
  1195 
  1196 *** ML ***
  1197 
  1198 * Subtle change of name space policy: undeclared entries are now
  1199 considered inaccessible, instead of accessible via the fully-qualified
  1200 internal name. This mainly affects Name_Space.intern (and derivatives),
  1201 which may produce an unexpected Long_Name.hidden prefix. Note that
  1202 contemporary applications use the strict Name_Space.check (and
  1203 derivatives) instead, which is not affected by the change. Potential
  1204 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare applications of Name_Space.intern.
  1205 
  1206 * Subtle change of error semantics of Toplevel.proof_of: regular user
  1207 ERROR instead of internal Toplevel.UNDEF.
  1208 
  1209 * Basic combinators map, fold, fold_map, split_list, apply are available
  1210 as parameterized antiquotations, e.g. @{map 4} for lists of quadruples.
  1211 
  1212 * Renamed "pairself" to "apply2", in accordance to @{apply 2}.
  1213 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1214 
  1215 * Former combinators NAMED_CRITICAL and CRITICAL for central critical
  1216 sections have been discontinued, in favour of the more elementary
  1217 Multithreading.synchronized and its high-level derivative
  1218 Synchronized.var (which is usually sufficient in applications). Subtle
  1219 INCOMPATIBILITY: synchronized access needs to be atomic and cannot be
  1220 nested.
  1221 
  1222 * Synchronized.value (ML) is actually synchronized (as in Scala): subtle
  1223 change of semantics with minimal potential for INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1224 
  1225 * The main operations to certify logical entities are Thm.ctyp_of and
  1226 Thm.cterm_of with a local context; old-style global theory variants are
  1227 available as Thm.global_ctyp_of and Thm.global_cterm_of.
  1228 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1229 
  1230 * Elementary operations in module Thm are no longer pervasive.
  1231 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use qualified Thm.prop_of, Thm.cterm_of,
  1232 Thm.term_of etc.
  1233 
  1234 * Proper context for various elementary tactics: assume_tac,
  1235 resolve_tac, eresolve_tac, dresolve_tac, forward_tac, match_tac,
  1236 compose_tac, Splitter.split_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1237 
  1238 * Tactical PARALLEL_ALLGOALS is the most common way to refer to
  1239 PARALLEL_GOALS.
  1240 
  1241 * Goal.prove_multi is superseded by the fully general Goal.prove_common,
  1242 which also allows to specify a fork priority.
  1243 
  1244 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "COMMAND"} is superseded by
  1245 @{command_keyword COMMAND} (usually without quotes and with PIDE
  1246 markup). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1247 
  1248 * Cartouches within ML sources are turned into values of type
  1249 Input.source (with formal position information).
  1250 
  1251 
  1252 *** System ***
  1253 
  1254 * The Isabelle tool "update_cartouches" changes theory files to use
  1255 cartouches instead of old-style {* verbatim *} or `alt_string` tokens.
  1256 
  1257 * The Isabelle tool "build" provides new options -X, -k, -x.
  1258 
  1259 * Discontinued old-fashioned "codegen" tool. Code generation can always
  1260 be externally triggered using an appropriate ROOT file plus a
  1261 corresponding theory. Parametrization is possible using environment
  1262 variables, or ML snippets in the most extreme cases. Minor
  1263 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1264 
  1265 * JVM system property "isabelle.threads" determines size of Scala thread
  1266 pool, like Isabelle system option "threads" for ML.
  1267 
  1268 * JVM system property "isabelle.laf" determines the default Swing
  1269 look-and-feel, via internal class name or symbolic name as in the jEdit
  1270 menu Global Options / Appearance.
  1271 
  1272 * Support for Proof General and Isar TTY loop has been discontinued.
  1273 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use standard PIDE infrastructure instead.
  1274 
  1275 
  1276 
  1277 New in Isabelle2014 (August 2014)
  1278 ---------------------------------
  1279 
  1280 *** General ***
  1281 
  1282 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
  1283 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
  1284 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
  1285 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
  1286 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
  1287 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
  1288 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
  1289 some examples.
  1290 
  1291 * Standard tactics and proof methods such as "clarsimp", "auto" and
  1292 "safe" now preserve equality hypotheses "x = expr" where x is a free
  1293 variable.  Locale assumptions and chained facts containing "x"
  1294 continue to be useful.  The new method "hypsubst_thin" and the
  1295 configuration option "hypsubst_thin" (within the attribute name space)
  1296 restore the previous behavior.  INCOMPATIBILITY, especially where
  1297 induction is done after these methods or when the names of free and
  1298 bound variables clash.  As first approximation, old proofs may be
  1299 repaired by "using [[hypsubst_thin = true]]" in the critical spot.
  1300 
  1301 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
  1302 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
  1303 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
  1304 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
  1305 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
  1306 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
  1307 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
  1308 proof tools.
  1309 
  1310 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
  1311 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
  1312 supports input via ` (backquote).
  1313 
  1314 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
  1315 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
  1316 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
  1317 
  1318 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
  1319 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
  1320 string token.  General renovation of its syntax using text cartouches.
  1321 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1322 
  1323 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary workaround for
  1324 Isabelle/ML in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
  1325 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.  Potential
  1326 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1327 
  1328 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
  1329 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
  1330 
  1331 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
  1332 not check existence within the file-system.
  1333 
  1334 * Updated and extended manuals: codegen, datatypes, implementation,
  1335 isar-ref, jedit, system.
  1336 
  1337 
  1338 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1339 
  1340 * Improved Document panel: simplified interaction where every single
  1341 mouse click (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit
  1342 buffer.
  1343 
  1344 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons), with connection
  1345 to PIDE hyperlinks.
  1346 
  1347 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
  1348 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
  1349 
  1350 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
  1351 auxiliary ML files.
  1352 
  1353 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism, with simple
  1354 templates, completion language context, name-space completion,
  1355 file-name completion, spell-checker completion.
  1356 
  1357 * Refined GUI popup for completion: more robust key/mouse event
  1358 handling and propagation to enclosing text area -- avoid loosing
  1359 keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
  1360 
  1361 * Completion popup supports both ENTER and TAB (default) to select an
  1362 item, depending on Isabelle options.
  1363 
  1364 * Refined insertion of completion items wrt. jEdit text: multiple
  1365 selections, rectangular selections, rectangular selection as "tall
  1366 caret".
  1367 
  1368 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
  1369 completion popup and context-menu.
  1370 
  1371 * More general "Query" panel supersedes "Find" panel, with GUI access
  1372 to commands 'find_theorems' and 'find_consts', as well as print
  1373 operations for the context.  Minor incompatibility in keyboard
  1374 shortcuts etc.: replace action isabelle-find by isabelle-query.
  1375 
  1376 * Search field for all output panels ("Output", "Query", "Info" etc.)
  1377 to highlight text via regular expression.
  1378 
  1379 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
  1380 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
  1381 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
  1382 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
  1383 
  1384 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
  1385 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
  1386 
  1387 * Empty editors buffers that are no longer required (e.g.\ via theory
  1388 imports) are automatically removed from the document model.
  1389 
  1390 * Improved monitor panel.
  1391 
  1392 * Improved Console/Scala plugin: more uniform scala.Console output,
  1393 more robust treatment of threads and interrupts.
  1394 
  1395 * Improved management of dockable windows: clarified keyboard focus
  1396 and window placement wrt. main editor view; optional menu item to
  1397 "Detach" a copy where this makes sense.
  1398 
  1399 * New Simplifier Trace panel provides an interactive view of the
  1400 simplification process, enabled by the "simp_trace_new" attribute
  1401 within the context.
  1402 
  1403 
  1404 *** Pure ***
  1405 
  1406 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
  1407 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
  1408 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
  1409 'instance' command with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem
  1410 might be postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof
  1411 finished trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous
  1412 (without any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
  1413 Axclass.class_axiomatization, Axclass.classrel_axiomatization,
  1414 Axclass.arity_axiomatization.
  1415 
  1416 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
  1417 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
  1418 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
  1419 renaming needs to be applied:
  1420 
  1421   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
  1422   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
  1423   all            ~>  Pure.all
  1424   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
  1425   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
  1426 
  1427 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
  1428 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
  1429 old constants:
  1430 
  1431 setup {*
  1432   fn thy => thy
  1433     |> Sign.root_path
  1434     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
  1435     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
  1436     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
  1437     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
  1438 *}
  1439 
  1440 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
  1441 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
  1442 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
  1443 
  1444 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
  1445 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
  1446 instantiated theorem.
  1447 
  1448 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
  1449 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
  1450 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
  1451 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
  1452 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
  1453 
  1454   attribute_setup standard =
  1455     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
  1456 
  1457 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
  1458 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
  1459 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
  1460 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
  1461 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
  1462 
  1463 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
  1464 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
  1465 differently, e.g. via cartouches).
  1466 
  1467 * Command 'print_term_bindings' supersedes 'print_binds' for clarity,
  1468 but the latter is retained some time as Proof General legacy.
  1469 
  1470 * Code generator preprocessor: explicit control of simp tracing on a
  1471 per-constant basis.  See attribute "code_preproc".
  1472 
  1473 
  1474 *** HOL ***
  1475 
  1476 * Code generator: enforce case of identifiers only for strict target
  1477 language requirements.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1478 
  1479 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
  1480 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1481 
  1482 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.  Minor
  1483 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1484 
  1485 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures"
  1486 option.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1487 
  1488 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
  1489 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1490 
  1491 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
  1492 with the given constants.
  1493 
  1494 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
  1495 operations on records.
  1496 
  1497 * Command and antiquotation "value" are now hardcoded against nbe and
  1498 ML.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1499 
  1500 * Renamed command 'enriched_type' to 'functor'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1501 
  1502 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
  1503 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
  1504 
  1505 * Qualified String.implode and String.explode.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1506 
  1507 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules can
  1508 now deal with conjunctions.  For help with converting proofs, the old
  1509 behaviour of the simplifier can be restored like this: declare/using
  1510 [[simp_legacy_precond]].  This configuration option will disappear
  1511 again in the future.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1512 
  1513 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
  1514 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1515 
  1516 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from session
  1517   "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".  The commands 'bnf', 'wrap_free_constructors',
  1518   'datatype_new', 'codatatype', 'primcorec', 'primcorecursive' are now
  1519   part of theory "Main".
  1520 
  1521   Theory renamings:
  1522     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
  1523     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
  1524     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
  1525     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
  1526     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
  1527     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
  1528     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
  1529     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
  1530     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
  1531     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
  1532     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
  1533     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
  1534     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
  1535     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
  1536     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
  1537     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
  1538     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
  1539     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
  1540     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
  1541     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
  1542     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
  1543     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
  1544 
  1545   New theories:
  1546     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
  1547     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
  1548     Library/BNF_Axomatization.thy
  1549     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
  1550     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
  1551 
  1552   Discontinued theories:
  1553     BNF/BNF.thy
  1554     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
  1555 
  1556 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1557 
  1558 * New (co)datatype package:
  1559   - Command 'primcorec' is fully implemented.
  1560   - Command 'datatype_new' generates size functions ("size_xxx" and
  1561     "size") as required by 'fun'.
  1562   - BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style
  1563     (co)datatypes with Transfer.
  1564   - Renamed commands:
  1565       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
  1566       primrec_new ~> primrec
  1567       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
  1568     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1569   - The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
  1570     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
  1571     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1572   - The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer
  1573     generated.  Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually
  1574     using "prim(co)rec".
  1575     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1576   - No discriminators are generated for nullary constructors by
  1577     default, eliminating the need for the odd "=:" syntax.
  1578     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1579   - No discriminators or selectors are generated by default by
  1580     "datatype_new", unless custom names are specified or the new
  1581     "discs_sels" option is passed.
  1582     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1583 
  1584 * Old datatype package:
  1585   - The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been
  1586     renamed "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" ->
  1587     "sum.case").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1588   - The generated constants "xxx_case", "xxx_rec", and "xxx_size" have
  1589     been renamed "case_xxx", "rec_xxx", and "size_xxx" (e.g.,
  1590     "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1591 
  1592 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions,
  1593   their relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new
  1594   BNF-based datatype package.
  1595 
  1596   Renamed constants:
  1597     Option.set ~> set_option
  1598     Option.map ~> map_option
  1599     option_rel ~> rel_option
  1600 
  1601   Renamed theorems:
  1602     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
  1603     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
  1604     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
  1605     option.recs ~> option.rec
  1606     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
  1607     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
  1608     map.simps ~> list.map
  1609     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
  1610     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
  1611     the.simps ~> option.sel
  1612 
  1613 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1614 
  1615 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
  1616     sum_map ~> map_sum
  1617     map_pair ~> map_prod
  1618     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
  1619     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
  1620     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
  1621     set_rel ~> rel_set
  1622     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
  1623     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "src/HOL/Library/FSet.thy")
  1624     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "src/HOL/Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
  1625     vset ~> rel_vset (in "src/HOL/Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
  1626 
  1627 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1628 
  1629 * Lifting and Transfer:
  1630   - a type variable as a raw type is supported
  1631   - stronger reflexivity prover
  1632   - rep_eq is always generated by lift_definition
  1633   - setup for Lifting/Transfer is now automated for BNFs
  1634     + holds for BNFs that do not contain a dead variable
  1635     + relator_eq, relator_mono, relator_distr, relator_domain,
  1636       relator_eq_onp, quot_map, transfer rules for bi_unique, bi_total,
  1637       right_unique, right_total, left_unique, left_total are proved
  1638       automatically
  1639     + definition of a predicator is generated automatically
  1640     + simplification rules for a predicator definition are proved
  1641       automatically for datatypes
  1642   - consolidation of the setup of Lifting/Transfer
  1643     + property that a relator preservers reflexivity is not needed any
  1644       more
  1645       Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1646     + left_total and left_unique rules are now transfer rules
  1647       (reflexivity_rule attribute not needed anymore)
  1648       INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1649     + Domainp does not have to be a separate assumption in
  1650       relator_domain theorems (=> more natural statement)
  1651       INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1652   - registration of code equations is more robust
  1653     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1654   - respectfulness proof obligation is preprocessed to a more readable
  1655     form
  1656     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1657   - eq_onp is always unfolded in respectfulness proof obligation
  1658     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1659   - unregister lifting setup for Code_Numeral.integer and
  1660     Code_Numeral.natural
  1661     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1662   - Lifting.invariant -> eq_onp
  1663     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1664 
  1665 * New internal SAT solver "cdclite" that produces models and proof
  1666 traces.  This solver replaces the internal SAT solvers "enumerate" and
  1667 "dpll".  Applications that explicitly used one of these two SAT
  1668 solvers should use "cdclite" instead. In addition, "cdclite" is now
  1669 the default SAT solver for the "sat" and "satx" proof methods and
  1670 corresponding tactics; the old default can be restored using "declare
  1671 [[sat_solver = zchaff_with_proofs]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1672 
  1673 * SMT module: A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called
  1674 "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2 and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g.,
  1675 4.3). The new proof method is called "smt2". CVC3 and CVC4 are also
  1676 supported as oracles. Yices is no longer supported, because no version
  1677 of the solver can handle both SMT-LIB 2 and quantifiers.
  1678 
  1679 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
  1680 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
  1681 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
  1682 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
  1683 
  1684 * Sledgehammer:
  1685   - Z3 can now produce Isar proofs.
  1686   - MaSh overhaul:
  1687     . New SML-based learning algorithms eliminate the dependency on
  1688       Python and increase performance and reliability.
  1689     . MaSh and MeSh are now used by default together with the
  1690       traditional MePo (Meng-Paulson) relevance filter. To disable
  1691       MaSh, set the "MaSh" system option in Isabelle/jEdit Plugin
  1692       Options / Isabelle / General to "none".
  1693   - New option:
  1694       smt_proofs
  1695   - Renamed options:
  1696       isar_compress ~> compress
  1697       isar_try0 ~> try0
  1698 
  1699 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1700 
  1701 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
  1702 
  1703 * Nitpick:
  1704   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could
  1705     take infinite values.
  1706   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as
  1707     "Abs_Integ" and "Rep_Integ".
  1708   - Removed "std" option.
  1709   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
  1710     "hide_types".
  1711 
  1712 * Metis: Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis
  1713 (full_types)' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1714 
  1715 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
  1716 
  1717 * Adjustion of INF and SUP operations:
  1718   - Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
  1719   - Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF and
  1720     SUP instead uniformly.
  1721   - More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
  1722     or SUP and Sup.
  1723   - INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
  1724   - Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.
  1725   - Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong, with
  1726     simplifier implication in premises.  Generalize and replace former
  1727     INT_cong, SUP_cong
  1728 
  1729 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1730 
  1731 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice.
  1732 
  1733 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
  1734 
  1735   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
  1736   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
  1737   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
  1738   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
  1739 
  1740 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1741 
  1742 * Theory reorganization: split of Big_Operators.thy into
  1743 Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy.
  1744 
  1745 * Consolidated some facts about big group operators:
  1746 
  1747     setsum_0' ~> setsum.neutral
  1748     setsum_0 ~> setsum.neutral_const
  1749     setsum_addf ~> setsum.distrib
  1750     setsum_cartesian_product ~> setsum.cartesian_product
  1751     setsum_cases ~> setsum.If_cases
  1752     setsum_commute ~> setsum.commute
  1753     setsum_cong ~> setsum.cong
  1754     setsum_delta ~> setsum.delta
  1755     setsum_delta' ~> setsum.delta'
  1756     setsum_diff1' ~> setsum.remove
  1757     setsum_empty ~> setsum.empty
  1758     setsum_infinite ~> setsum.infinite
  1759     setsum_insert ~> setsum.insert
  1760     setsum_inter_restrict'' ~> setsum.inter_filter
  1761     setsum_mono_zero_cong_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_left
  1762     setsum_mono_zero_cong_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_right
  1763     setsum_mono_zero_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_left
  1764     setsum_mono_zero_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_right
  1765     setsum_reindex ~> setsum.reindex
  1766     setsum_reindex_cong ~> setsum.reindex_cong
  1767     setsum_reindex_nonzero ~> setsum.reindex_nontrivial
  1768     setsum_restrict_set ~> setsum.inter_restrict
  1769     setsum_Plus ~> setsum.Plus
  1770     setsum_setsum_restrict ~> setsum.commute_restrict
  1771     setsum_Sigma ~> setsum.Sigma
  1772     setsum_subset_diff ~> setsum.subset_diff
  1773     setsum_Un_disjoint ~> setsum.union_disjoint
  1774     setsum_UN_disjoint ~> setsum.UNION_disjoint
  1775     setsum_Un_Int ~> setsum.union_inter
  1776     setsum_Union_disjoint ~> setsum.Union_disjoint
  1777     setsum_UNION_zero ~> setsum.Union_comp
  1778     setsum_Un_zero ~> setsum.union_inter_neutral
  1779     strong_setprod_cong ~> setprod.strong_cong
  1780     strong_setsum_cong ~> setsum.strong_cong
  1781     setprod_1' ~> setprod.neutral
  1782     setprod_1 ~> setprod.neutral_const
  1783     setprod_cartesian_product ~> setprod.cartesian_product
  1784     setprod_cong ~> setprod.cong
  1785     setprod_delta ~> setprod.delta
  1786     setprod_delta' ~> setprod.delta'
  1787     setprod_empty ~> setprod.empty
  1788     setprod_infinite ~> setprod.infinite
  1789     setprod_insert ~> setprod.insert
  1790     setprod_mono_one_cong_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_left
  1791     setprod_mono_one_cong_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_right
  1792     setprod_mono_one_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_left
  1793     setprod_mono_one_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_right
  1794     setprod_reindex ~> setprod.reindex
  1795     setprod_reindex_cong ~> setprod.reindex_cong
  1796     setprod_reindex_nonzero ~> setprod.reindex_nontrivial
  1797     setprod_Sigma ~> setprod.Sigma
  1798     setprod_subset_diff ~> setprod.subset_diff
  1799     setprod_timesf ~> setprod.distrib
  1800     setprod_Un2 ~> setprod.union_diff2
  1801     setprod_Un_disjoint ~> setprod.union_disjoint
  1802     setprod_UN_disjoint ~> setprod.UNION_disjoint
  1803     setprod_Un_Int ~> setprod.union_inter
  1804     setprod_Union_disjoint ~> setprod.Union_disjoint
  1805     setprod_Un_one ~> setprod.union_inter_neutral
  1806 
  1807   Dropped setsum_cong2 (simple variant of setsum.cong).
  1808   Dropped setsum_inter_restrict' (simple variant of setsum.inter_restrict)
  1809   Dropped setsum_reindex_id, setprod_reindex_id
  1810     (simple variants of setsum.reindex [symmetric], setprod.reindex [symmetric]).
  1811 
  1812 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1813 
  1814 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
  1815 
  1816   Fact consolidations:
  1817     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
  1818     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
  1819     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
  1820     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
  1821     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
  1822     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
  1823     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
  1824     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
  1825     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
  1826     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
  1827     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
  1828     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
  1829     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
  1830     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
  1831     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
  1832     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
  1833     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
  1834     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
  1835     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
  1836     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
  1837     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
  1838     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
  1839     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
  1840     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
  1841     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
  1842     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
  1843     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
  1844     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
  1845     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
  1846     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
  1847     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
  1848     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
  1849     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
  1850     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
  1851     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
  1852     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
  1853     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
  1854     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
  1855     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
  1856     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
  1857 
  1858 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
  1859 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
  1860 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
  1861 
  1862 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1,
  1863 min.cobounded2, max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
  1864 
  1865 For min_ac or max_ac, prefer more general collection ac_simps.
  1866 
  1867 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1868 
  1869 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~>
  1870 Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1871 
  1872 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
  1873 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1874 
  1875 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
  1876     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
  1877 
  1878 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1879 
  1880 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and
  1881   consolidation:
  1882     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
  1883     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
  1884 
  1885 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1886 
  1887 * Abolished neg_numeral.
  1888   - Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
  1889   - Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
  1890   - When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
  1891     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
  1892   - HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
  1893     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
  1894   - Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
  1895 
  1896 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1897 
  1898 * Reduced name variants for rules on associativity and commutativity:
  1899 
  1900     add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  1901     add_commute ~> add.commute
  1902     add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  1903     mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  1904     mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  1905     mult_left_commute ~> mult.left_commute
  1906     nat_add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  1907     nat_add_commute ~> add.commute
  1908     nat_add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  1909     nat_mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  1910     nat_mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  1911     eq_assoc ~> iff_assoc
  1912     eq_left_commute ~> iff_left_commute
  1913 
  1914 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1915 
  1916 * Fact collections add_ac and mult_ac are considered old-fashioned.
  1917 Prefer ac_simps instead, or specify rules
  1918 (add|mult).(assoc|commute|left_commute) individually.
  1919 
  1920 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
  1921     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
  1922     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
  1923     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
  1924     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
  1925 
  1926 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1927 
  1928 * Fact name consolidation:
  1929     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  1930     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
  1931     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
  1932     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
  1933     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
  1934 
  1935 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1936 
  1937 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
  1938 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
  1939 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
  1940 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
  1941 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
  1942 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly have
  1943 been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and field_simps.
  1944 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1945 
  1946 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
  1947 
  1948 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
  1949 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
  1950 
  1951 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
  1952 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
  1953 
  1954 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
  1955 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
  1956 or the brute way with
  1957 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
  1958 
  1959 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in theory
  1960 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them instead of explicitly
  1961 stating boundedness of sets.
  1962 
  1963 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow more
  1964 syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain shows up as
  1965 additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1966 
  1967 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
  1968   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
  1969   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
  1970   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
  1971   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
  1972   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
  1973   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
  1974   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
  1975   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
  1976   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
  1977   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
  1978   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
  1979 
  1980   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
  1981 
  1982   removed auxiliary lemmas:
  1983 
  1984     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
  1985     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr,
  1986     real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded, summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2,
  1987     sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom, sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero,
  1988     summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
  1989 
  1990 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1991 
  1992 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
  1993   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
  1994 
  1995   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
  1996 
  1997   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
  1998 
  1999   - removed constant isDiff
  2000 
  2001   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as
  2002     input syntax.
  2003 
  2004   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed.
  2005 
  2006   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
  2007 
  2008   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
  2009 
  2010   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
  2011 
  2012   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which
  2013     includes now rules for DERIV, has_derivative and
  2014     has_vector_derivative.
  2015 
  2016   - Other renamings:
  2017     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
  2018     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
  2019     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
  2020     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
  2021     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
  2022     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
  2023     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
  2024 
  2025 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2026 
  2027 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the
  2028 continuous_on_intros, isCont_intros collections, these facts are now
  2029 in continuous_intros.
  2030 
  2031 * Theorems about complex numbers are now stated only using Re and Im,
  2032 the Complex constructor is not used anymore. It is possible to use
  2033 primcorec to defined the behaviour of a complex-valued function.
  2034 
  2035 Removed theorems about the Complex constructor from the simpset, they
  2036 are available as the lemma collection legacy_Complex_simps. This
  2037 especially removes
  2038 
  2039     i_complex_of_real: "ii * complex_of_real r = Complex 0 r".
  2040 
  2041 Instead the reverse direction is supported with
  2042     Complex_eq: "Complex a b = a + \<i> * b"
  2043 
  2044 Moved csqrt from Fundamental_Algebra_Theorem to Complex.
  2045 
  2046   Renamings:
  2047     Re/Im                  ~>  complex.sel
  2048     complex_Re/Im_zero     ~>  zero_complex.sel
  2049     complex_Re/Im_add      ~>  plus_complex.sel
  2050     complex_Re/Im_minus    ~>  uminus_complex.sel
  2051     complex_Re/Im_diff     ~>  minus_complex.sel
  2052     complex_Re/Im_one      ~>  one_complex.sel
  2053     complex_Re/Im_mult     ~>  times_complex.sel
  2054     complex_Re/Im_inverse  ~>  inverse_complex.sel
  2055     complex_Re/Im_scaleR   ~>  scaleR_complex.sel
  2056     complex_Re/Im_i        ~>  ii.sel
  2057     complex_Re/Im_cnj      ~>  cnj.sel
  2058     Re/Im_cis              ~>  cis.sel
  2059 
  2060     complex_divide_def   ~>  divide_complex_def
  2061     complex_norm_def     ~>  norm_complex_def
  2062     cmod_def             ~>  norm_complex_de
  2063 
  2064   Removed theorems:
  2065     complex_zero_def
  2066     complex_add_def
  2067     complex_minus_def
  2068     complex_diff_def
  2069     complex_one_def
  2070     complex_mult_def
  2071     complex_inverse_def
  2072     complex_scaleR_def
  2073 
  2074 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2075 
  2076 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
  2077 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2078 
  2079 * HOL-Library: new theory src/HOL/Library/Tree.thy.
  2080 
  2081 * HOL-Library: removed theory src/HOL/Library/Kleene_Algebra.thy; it
  2082 is subsumed by session Kleene_Algebra in AFP.
  2083 
  2084 * HOL-Library / theory RBT: various constants and facts are hidden;
  2085 lifting setup is unregistered.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2086 
  2087 * HOL-Cardinals: new theory src/HOL/Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy.
  2088 
  2089 * HOL-Word: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
  2090 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2091 
  2092 * HOL-Word:
  2093   - Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a duplicate
  2094     of "word_arith_wis".
  2095   - Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
  2096     "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
  2097     "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
  2098 
  2099 * HOL-Number_Theory:
  2100   - consolidated the proofs of the binomial theorem
  2101   - the function fib is again of type nat => nat and not overloaded
  2102   - no more references to Old_Number_Theory in the HOL libraries
  2103     (except the AFP)
  2104 
  2105 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2106 
  2107 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
  2108   - Type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces.
  2109   - New theory Complex_Basic_Analysis defining complex derivatives,
  2110     holomorphic functions, etc., ported from HOL Light's canal.ml.
  2111   - Changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
  2112     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
  2113     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
  2114     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
  2115     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-)open
  2116     intervals.
  2117   - removed dependencies on type class ordered_euclidean_space with
  2118     introduction of "cbox" on euclidean_space
  2119     - renamed theorems:
  2120         interval ~> box
  2121         mem_interval ~> mem_box
  2122         interval_eq_empty ~> box_eq_empty
  2123         interval_ne_empty ~> box_ne_empty
  2124         interval_sing(1) ~> cbox_sing
  2125         interval_sing(2) ~> box_sing
  2126         subset_interval_imp ~> subset_box_imp
  2127         subset_interval ~> subset_box
  2128         open_interval ~> open_box
  2129         closed_interval ~> closed_cbox
  2130         interior_closed_interval ~> interior_cbox
  2131         bounded_closed_interval ~> bounded_cbox
  2132         compact_interval ~> compact_cbox
  2133         bounded_subset_closed_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_cbox_symmetric
  2134         bounded_subset_closed_interval ~> bounded_subset_cbox
  2135         mem_interval_componentwiseI ~> mem_box_componentwiseI
  2136         convex_box ~> convex_prod
  2137         rel_interior_real_interval ~> rel_interior_real_box
  2138         convex_interval ~> convex_box
  2139         convex_hull_eq_real_interval ~> convex_hull_eq_real_cbox
  2140         frechet_derivative_within_closed_interval ~> frechet_derivative_within_cbox
  2141         content_closed_interval' ~> content_cbox'
  2142         elementary_subset_interval ~> elementary_subset_box
  2143         diameter_closed_interval ~> diameter_cbox
  2144         frontier_closed_interval ~> frontier_cbox
  2145         frontier_open_interval ~> frontier_box
  2146         bounded_subset_open_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_box_symmetric
  2147         closure_open_interval ~> closure_box
  2148         open_closed_interval_convex ~> open_cbox_convex
  2149         open_interval_midpoint ~> box_midpoint
  2150         content_image_affinity_interval ~> content_image_affinity_cbox
  2151         is_interval_interval ~> is_interval_cbox + is_interval_box + is_interval_closed_interval
  2152         bounded_interval ~> bounded_closed_interval + bounded_boxes
  2153 
  2154     - respective theorems for intervals over the reals:
  2155         content_closed_interval + content_cbox
  2156         has_integral + has_integral_real
  2157         fine_division_exists + fine_division_exists_real
  2158         has_integral_null + has_integral_null_real
  2159         tagged_division_union_interval + tagged_division_union_interval_real
  2160         has_integral_const + has_integral_const_real
  2161         integral_const + integral_const_real
  2162         has_integral_bound + has_integral_bound_real
  2163         integrable_continuous + integrable_continuous_real
  2164         integrable_subinterval + integrable_subinterval_real
  2165         has_integral_reflect_lemma + has_integral_reflect_lemma_real
  2166         integrable_reflect + integrable_reflect_real
  2167         integral_reflect + integral_reflect_real
  2168         image_affinity_interval + image_affinity_cbox
  2169         image_smult_interval + image_smult_cbox
  2170         integrable_const + integrable_const_ivl
  2171         integrable_on_subinterval + integrable_on_subcbox
  2172 
  2173   - renamed theorems:
  2174     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
  2175     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
  2176     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
  2177 
  2178 * HOL-Probability:
  2179   - Renamed positive_integral to nn_integral:
  2180 
  2181     . Renamed all lemmas "*positive_integral*" to *nn_integral*"
  2182       positive_integral_positive ~> nn_integral_nonneg
  2183 
  2184     . Renamed abbreviation integral\<^sup>P to integral\<^sup>N.
  2185 
  2186   - replaced the Lebesgue integral on real numbers by the more general
  2187     Bochner integral for functions into a real-normed vector space.
  2188 
  2189     integral_zero               ~>  integral_zero / integrable_zero
  2190     integral_minus              ~>  integral_minus / integrable_minus
  2191     integral_add                ~>  integral_add / integrable_add
  2192     integral_diff               ~>  integral_diff / integrable_diff
  2193     integral_setsum             ~>  integral_setsum / integrable_setsum
  2194     integral_multc              ~>  integral_mult_left / integrable_mult_left
  2195     integral_cmult              ~>  integral_mult_right / integrable_mult_right
  2196     integral_triangle_inequality~>  integral_norm_bound
  2197     integrable_nonneg           ~>  integrableI_nonneg
  2198     integral_positive           ~>  integral_nonneg_AE
  2199     integrable_abs_iff          ~>  integrable_abs_cancel
  2200     positive_integral_lim_INF   ~>  nn_integral_liminf
  2201     lebesgue_real_affine        ~>  lborel_real_affine
  2202     borel_integral_has_integral ~>  has_integral_lebesgue_integral
  2203     integral_indicator          ~>
  2204          integral_real_indicator / integrable_real_indicator
  2205     positive_integral_fst       ~>  nn_integral_fst'
  2206     positive_integral_fst_measurable ~> nn_integral_fst
  2207     positive_integral_snd_measurable ~> nn_integral_snd
  2208 
  2209     integrable_fst_measurable   ~>
  2210          integral_fst / integrable_fst / AE_integrable_fst
  2211 
  2212     integrable_snd_measurable   ~>
  2213          integral_snd / integrable_snd / AE_integrable_snd
  2214 
  2215     integral_monotone_convergence  ~>
  2216          integral_monotone_convergence / integrable_monotone_convergence
  2217 
  2218     integral_monotone_convergence_at_top  ~>
  2219          integral_monotone_convergence_at_top /
  2220          integrable_monotone_convergence_at_top
  2221 
  2222     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lebesgue  ~>
  2223          has_integral_iff_has_bochner_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  2224 
  2225     lebesgue_integral_has_integral  ~>
  2226          has_integral_integrable_lebesgue_nonneg
  2227 
  2228     positive_integral_lebesgue_has_integral  ~>
  2229          integral_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg /
  2230          integrable_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  2231 
  2232     lebesgue_integral_real_affine  ~>
  2233          nn_integral_real_affine
  2234 
  2235     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lborel  ~>
  2236          integral_has_integral_nonneg / integrable_has_integral_nonneg
  2237 
  2238     The following theorems where removed:
  2239 
  2240     lebesgue_integral_nonneg
  2241     lebesgue_integral_uminus
  2242     lebesgue_integral_cmult
  2243     lebesgue_integral_multc
  2244     lebesgue_integral_cmult_nonneg
  2245     integral_cmul_indicator
  2246     integral_real
  2247 
  2248   - Formalized properties about exponentially, Erlang, and normal
  2249     distributed random variables.
  2250 
  2251 * HOL-Decision_Procs: Separate command 'approximate' for approximative
  2252 computation in src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation.  Minor
  2253 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2254 
  2255 
  2256 *** Scala ***
  2257 
  2258 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
  2259 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
  2260 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
  2261 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
  2262 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2263 
  2264 * Substantial reworking of internal PIDE protocol communication
  2265 channels.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2266 
  2267 
  2268 *** ML ***
  2269 
  2270 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
  2271 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
  2272 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
  2273 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
  2274 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
  2275 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
  2276 
  2277 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
  2278 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
  2279 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
  2280 actually belongs to it).
  2281 
  2282 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
  2283 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
  2284 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
  2285 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
  2286 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
  2287 of schematic variables.
  2288 
  2289 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
  2290 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2291 
  2292 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
  2293 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context
  2294 via "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2295 
  2296 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
  2297 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2298 
  2299 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
  2300 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
  2301 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
  2302 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2303 
  2304 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
  2305 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2306 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
  2307 formal context.
  2308 
  2309 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
  2310 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2311 
  2312 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
  2313 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
  2314 
  2315 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
  2316 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
  2317 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
  2318 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
  2319 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
  2320 
  2321 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
  2322 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
  2323 purposes.
  2324 
  2325 
  2326 *** System ***
  2327 
  2328 * Proof General with its traditional helper scripts is now an optional
  2329 Isabelle component, e.g. see ProofGeneral-4.2-2 from the Isabelle
  2330 component repository http://isabelle.in.tum.de/components/.  Note that
  2331 the "system" manual provides general explanations about add-on
  2332 components, especially those that are not bundled with the release.
  2333 
  2334 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
  2335 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
  2336 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
  2337 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
  2338 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the ISABELLE_PROCESS
  2339 settings variable.
  2340 
  2341 * Former "isabelle tty" has been superseded by "isabelle console",
  2342 with implicit build like "isabelle jedit", and without the mostly
  2343 obsolete Isar TTY loop.
  2344 
  2345 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
  2346 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
  2347 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
  2348 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
  2349 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
  2350 
  2351 * Removed obsolete "isabelle unsymbolize".  Note that the usual format
  2352 for email communication is the Unicode rendering of Isabelle symbols,
  2353 as produced by Isabelle/jEdit, for example.
  2354 
  2355 * Removed obsolete tool "wwwfind". Similar functionality may be
  2356 integrated into Isabelle/jEdit eventually.
  2357 
  2358 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
  2359 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
  2360 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
  2361 
  2362 * Session ROOT specifications require explicit 'document_files' for
  2363 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
  2364 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
  2365 processing is started.
  2366 
  2367 * Windows: support for regular TeX installation (e.g. MiKTeX) instead
  2368 of TeX Live from Cygwin.
  2369 
  2370 
  2371 
  2372 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
  2373 -------------------------------------
  2374 
  2375 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  2376 
  2377 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
  2378 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
  2379 
  2380 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
  2381 after edits surrounding the command location.
  2382 
  2383 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
  2384 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
  2385 e.g. out-of-memory).
  2386 
  2387 
  2388 *** System ***
  2389 
  2390 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
  2391 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
  2392 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
  2393 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
  2394 
  2395 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
  2396 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
  2397 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
  2398 
  2399 
  2400 
  2401 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
  2402 -------------------------------------
  2403 
  2404 *** General ***
  2405 
  2406 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
  2407 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
  2408 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2409 
  2410 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
  2411 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2412 
  2413 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
  2414 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
  2415 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
  2416 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
  2417 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
  2418 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
  2419 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
  2420 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
  2421 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
  2422 syntax.
  2423 
  2424 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
  2425 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2426 
  2427 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
  2428 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
  2429 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
  2430 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
  2431 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
  2432 
  2433 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
  2434 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2435 
  2436 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
  2437 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
  2438 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
  2439 
  2440 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
  2441 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
  2442 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
  2443 
  2444 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
  2445 eliminated old "ref" manual.
  2446 
  2447 
  2448 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  2449 
  2450 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
  2451 Documentation panel.
  2452 
  2453 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
  2454 documentation.
  2455 
  2456 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
  2457 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
  2458 
  2459 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
  2460 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
  2461 normal editing and checking process.
  2462 
  2463 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
  2464 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
  2465 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
  2466 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
  2467 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
  2468 
  2469 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
  2470 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
  2471 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
  2472 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
  2473 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
  2474 
  2475 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
  2476 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
  2477 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
  2478 
  2479 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
  2480 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
  2481 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
  2482 to resolve conflict.
  2483 
  2484 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
  2485 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
  2486 
  2487 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
  2488 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
  2489 such command executions while editing.
  2490 
  2491 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
  2492 document content.
  2493 
  2494 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
  2495 toplevel theorem statements.
  2496 
  2497 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
  2498 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
  2499 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
  2500 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
  2501 
  2502 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
  2503 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
  2504 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
  2505 
  2506 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
  2507 / Global Options / Appearance".
  2508 
  2509 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
  2510 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
  2511 
  2512 
  2513 *** Pure ***
  2514 
  2515 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
  2516 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
  2517 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
  2518 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
  2519 details.
  2520 
  2521 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
  2522 
  2523 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
  2524 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
  2525 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
  2526 
  2527 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
  2528 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2529 
  2530 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
  2531 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
  2532 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
  2533 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2534 
  2535 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
  2536 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
  2537 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2538 
  2539 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
  2540 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
  2541 
  2542 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
  2543 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
  2544 situations.
  2545 
  2546 
  2547 *** HOL ***
  2548 
  2549 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
  2550 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
  2551 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2552 
  2553 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
  2554 
  2555 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
  2556 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
  2557 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
  2558 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
  2559 
  2560   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
  2561 
  2562 * Code generator:
  2563   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
  2564     'code_instance'.
  2565   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
  2566     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
  2567 
  2568 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
  2569 examples.
  2570 
  2571 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
  2572 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
  2573 to distinguish both when desired.
  2574 
  2575 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
  2576 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
  2577 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
  2578 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2579 
  2580 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
  2581 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
  2582 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
  2583 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
  2584 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
  2585 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2586 
  2587 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
  2588 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
  2589 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2590 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
  2591 
  2592 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
  2593 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
  2594 
  2595 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
  2596 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
  2597 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
  2598 
  2599 * Lifting:
  2600   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
  2601     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
  2602       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
  2603       transfer rules
  2604     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
  2605       correspondence relation can be generated
  2606     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
  2607       parametricity
  2608     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
  2609   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
  2610   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
  2611     copies
  2612   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
  2613     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
  2614     anonymous context)
  2615   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
  2616     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  2617   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
  2618     lifting_forget, lifting_update
  2619   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
  2620     INCOMPATIBILITY
  2621 
  2622 * Transfer:
  2623   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
  2624     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
  2625   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
  2626   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
  2627     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
  2628   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
  2629 
  2630 * Reification and reflection:
  2631   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
  2632     "Reification".
  2633   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
  2634   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
  2635 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2636 
  2637 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
  2638   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
  2639     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  2640     This is now identity on infinite sets.
  2641   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
  2642     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
  2643   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
  2644     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
  2645     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
  2646     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
  2647     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
  2648     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
  2649     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
  2650     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
  2651   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
  2652     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
  2653   - Fact renames:
  2654       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
  2655       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
  2656 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2657 
  2658 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
  2659 
  2660 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
  2661 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
  2662 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
  2663 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2664 
  2665 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
  2666 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
  2667 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
  2668 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
  2669 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
  2670 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
  2671 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
  2672 lemmas.
  2673 
  2674 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
  2675 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
  2676 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2677 
  2678 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
  2679 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  2680 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  2681 
  2682 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  2683 top and bottom elements.
  2684 
  2685 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  2686 
  2687 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  2688 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  2689 
  2690  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  2691    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  2692    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  2693 
  2694  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  2695    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  2696    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  2697 
  2698    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  2699    arbitrary filter.
  2700 
  2701  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  2702    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  2703    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  2704    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  2705    on a compact set.
  2706 
  2707  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  2708    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  2709    linear_continuum_topology).
  2710 
  2711  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  2712    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  2713    on all sequences converging to x.
  2714 
  2715  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  2716    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  2717    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  2718    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  2719    left or right.
  2720 
  2721  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  2722 
  2723      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  2724 
  2725  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  2726    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  2727 
  2728  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  2729    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  2730    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  2731    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  2732    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  2733    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  2734 
  2735  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  2736 
  2737    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  2738 
  2739    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  2740      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  2741 
  2742    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  2743 
  2744    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  2745      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  2746 
  2747    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  2748 
  2749    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  2750 
  2751  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  2752 
  2753 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2754 
  2755 * Nitpick:
  2756   - Added option "spy".
  2757   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  2758 
  2759 * Sledgehammer:
  2760   - Renamed option:
  2761       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  2762     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2763   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  2764   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  2765   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  2766 
  2767 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  2768 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  2769 
  2770 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  2771   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  2772   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  2773     generated code.
  2774   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  2775   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  2776   - Fact renames:
  2777     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  2778     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  2779     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  2780 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  2781 
  2782 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  2783 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  2784 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  2785 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  2786 
  2787 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  2788 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  2789 
  2790 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2791 
  2792 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  2793 
  2794     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  2795     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  2796 
  2797 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2798 
  2799 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  2800 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  2801 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  2802 
  2803 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  2804 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  2805 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  2806 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2807 
  2808 * HOL-BNF:
  2809   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  2810     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  2811     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  2812     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  2813   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  2814     coinduct).
  2815   - Renamed keywords:
  2816     data ~> datatype_new
  2817     codata ~> codatatype
  2818     bnf_def ~> bnf
  2819   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  2820     discs ~> disc
  2821     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  2822     map_id' ~> map_id
  2823     sels ~> sel
  2824     set_map' ~> set_map
  2825     sets ~> set
  2826 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  2827 
  2828 
  2829 *** ML ***
  2830 
  2831 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  2832 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  2833 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  2834 Examples.thy in particular.
  2835 
  2836 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  2837 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  2838 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  2839 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  2840 
  2841 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  2842 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  2843 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  2844 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  2845 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2846 
  2847 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  2848 
  2849     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  2850     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  2851 
  2852 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2853 
  2854 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  2855 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  2856 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  2857 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  2858 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  2859 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  2860 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  2861 
  2862 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  2863 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  2864 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  2865 clasets separately from the context.
  2866 
  2867 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  2868 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  2869 
  2870 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  2871 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  2872 
  2873 
  2874 *** System ***
  2875 
  2876 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  2877 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2878 
  2879 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  2880 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2881 
  2882 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  2883 settings variable.
  2884 
  2885 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  2886 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  2887 always pdf.
  2888 
  2889 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  2890 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  2891 
  2892 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  2893 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  2894 
  2895 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  2896 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  2897 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  2898 
  2899 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  2900 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  2901 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  2902 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  2903 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  2904 for HTML presentation of theories.
  2905 
  2906 
  2907 
  2908 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  2909 -----------------------------------
  2910 
  2911 *** General ***
  2912 
  2913 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  2914 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  2915 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  2916 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  2917 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  2918 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  2919 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  2920 
  2921 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  2922 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  2923 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  2924 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  2925 
  2926 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  2927 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  2928 
  2929 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  2930 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  2931 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  2932 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  2933 dependencies properly.
  2934 
  2935 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  2936 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  2937 
  2938 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  2939 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  2940 
  2941 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  2942 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  2943 and "class ... context ...".
  2944 
  2945 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  2946 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  2947 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  2948 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  2949 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  2950 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  2951 
  2952 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  2953 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  2954 
  2955 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  2956 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  2957 
  2958 
  2959 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  2960 
  2961 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  2962 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  2963 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  2964 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  2965 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  2966 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  2967 
  2968 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  2969 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  2970 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  2971 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  2972 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  2973 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  2974 
  2975 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  2976 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  2977 browser on demand.
  2978 
  2979 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  2980 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  2981 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  2982 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  2983 
  2984 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  2985 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  2986 
  2987 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  2988 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  2989 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  2990 potentially infinite message streams.
  2991 
  2992 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  2993 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  2994 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  2995 schemes.
  2996 
  2997 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  2998 symbols.
  2999 
  3000 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  3001 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  3002 
  3003 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  3004 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  3005 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  3006 
  3007 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  3008 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  3009 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  3010 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  3011 
  3012 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  3013 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  3014 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  3015 
  3016 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  3017 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  3018 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  3019 Isabelle distribution.
  3020 
  3021 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  3022 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  3023 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  3024 
  3025 
  3026 *** Pure ***
  3027 
  3028 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  3029 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  3030 
  3031 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  3032 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  3033 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3034 
  3035 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3036 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  3037 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  3038 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  3039 with some care where this is really required.
  3040 
  3041 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  3042 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  3043 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  3044 
  3045   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  3046 
  3047 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  3048 a Hasse diagram.
  3049 
  3050 
  3051 *** HOL ***
  3052 
  3053 * Sledgehammer:
  3054 
  3055   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  3056     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  3057   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  3058   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  3059   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  3060   - Renamed options:
  3061       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  3062       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  3063       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  3064       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  3065 
  3066 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  3067 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  3068 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  3069 
  3070 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  3071 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3072 
  3073 * Lifting:
  3074   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  3075   - quot_del attribute
  3076   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  3077 
  3078 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  3079 expressions.
  3080 
  3081 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  3082 pointfree expressions.
  3083 
  3084 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  3085 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  3086 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  3087 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  3088 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3089 
  3090 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  3091 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  3092 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  3093 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  3094 accordingly.
  3095 
  3096 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  3097 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3098 
  3099 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  3100 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3101 
  3102 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3103 
  3104 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  3105 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  3106 
  3107 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  3108 
  3109 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  3110 
  3111   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  3112   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  3113 
  3114 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3115 
  3116 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  3117 
  3118   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  3119   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  3120 
  3121 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3122 
  3123 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  3124 
  3125   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  3126     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  3127     output f x converges to G.
  3128 
  3129   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  3130     infinity (at_bot).
  3131 
  3132   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  3133     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  3134 
  3135   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  3136     at_top".
  3137 
  3138 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3139 
  3140 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  3141 lattice type classes.
  3142 
  3143 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  3144 
  3145     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  3146     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  3147 
  3148 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3149 
  3150 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  3151 changes as follows.
  3152 
  3153   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  3154 
  3155       prefix ~> prefixeq
  3156       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  3157 
  3158   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  3159     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  3160     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  3161     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  3162 
  3163   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  3164     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  3165     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  3166 
  3167   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  3168     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  3169     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  3170     Library/Prefix_Order.
  3171 
  3172   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  3173     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  3174 
  3175       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  3176       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  3177       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  3178       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  3179       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  3180       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  3181       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  3182       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  3183       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  3184       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  3185       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  3186       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  3187       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  3188       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  3189       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  3190       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  3191 
  3192 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3193 
  3194 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  3195 
  3196 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  3197 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  3198 
  3199 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  3200 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  3201 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  3202 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  3203 
  3204   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  3205   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  3206   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  3207   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  3208   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  3209   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  3210   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  3211   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  3212   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  3213   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  3214 
  3215 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3216 
  3217 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  3218 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  3219 Data").
  3220 
  3221 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  3222 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  3223 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  3224 code.
  3225 
  3226 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  3227 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  3228 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  3229 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3230 
  3231 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  3232 
  3233 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  3234 
  3235 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  3236 
  3237   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  3238   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  3239 
  3240 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  3241 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  3242 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  3243 
  3244   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  3245 
  3246     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  3247     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  3248     cart_base i  removed
  3249     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  3250 
  3251   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  3252 
  3253   Renamed lemmas:
  3254 
  3255     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  3256     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  3257     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  3258     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  3259     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  3260     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  3261     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  3262     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  3263     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  3264     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  3265 
  3266 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3267 
  3268 * HOL/Probability:
  3269 
  3270   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  3271 
  3272   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  3273     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  3274     (borel_measurable_induct).
  3275 
  3276   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  3277     projective family).
  3278 
  3279 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  3280 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  3281 
  3282 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  3283 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  3284 datatypes.
  3285 
  3286 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  3287 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  3288 
  3289 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  3290 trees for the code generator.
  3291 
  3292 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  3293 Lifting/Transfer.
  3294 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3295 
  3296 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  3297 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3298 
  3299 
  3300 *** Document preparation ***
  3301 
  3302 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  3303 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  3304 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  3305 
  3306 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  3307 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  3308 
  3309 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  3310 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  3311 document/root.tex.
  3312 
  3313 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  3314 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3315 
  3316 
  3317 *** ML ***
  3318 
  3319 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  3320 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  3321 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  3322 
  3323 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  3324 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  3325 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  3326 
  3327 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  3328 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  3329 necessarily printing visible text.
  3330 
  3331 
  3332 *** System ***
  3333 
  3334 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  3335 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  3336 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  3337 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  3338 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  3339 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  3340 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  3341 
  3342 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  3343 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  3344 
  3345   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  3346 
  3347 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  3348 
  3349 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  3350 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  3351 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  3352 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  3353 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  3354 
  3355 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  3356 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  3357 
  3358 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  3359 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  3360 
  3361 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  3362 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3363 
  3364 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  3365 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  3366 version of Isabelle.
  3367 
  3368 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  3369 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  3370 
  3371 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  3372 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  3373 for home-made settings.
  3374 
  3375 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  3376 
  3377 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  3378 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  3379 configuration.
  3380 
  3381 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  3382 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  3383 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  3384 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  3385 bundled as Isabelle component.
  3386 
  3387 
  3388 
  3389 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  3390 ------------------------------
  3391 
  3392 *** General ***
  3393 
  3394 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  3395 
  3396   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  3397     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  3398   - markup for bound variables
  3399   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  3400   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  3401   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  3402     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  3403 
  3404 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  3405 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  3406 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  3407 
  3408 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  3409 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  3410 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  3411 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  3412 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  3413 
  3414   context
  3415     fixes x y z :: 'a
  3416     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  3417   begin
  3418 
  3419   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  3420 
  3421   end
  3422 
  3423   thm my_trans
  3424 
  3425 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  3426 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  3427 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  3428 
  3429 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  3430 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  3431 
  3432 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  3433 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  3434 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  3435 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  3436 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  3437 
  3438 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  3439 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  3440 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  3441 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  3442 indices of schematic variables.
  3443 
  3444 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  3445 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  3446 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  3447 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  3448 etc. was exploited.
  3449 
  3450 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  3451 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  3452 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  3453 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  3454 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  3455 of the material of that old tutorial.
  3456 
  3457 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  3458 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  3459 manual.
  3460 
  3461 
  3462 *** Pure ***
  3463 
  3464 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  3465 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  3466 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  3467 
  3468 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  3469 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  3470 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  3471 undocumented feature.)
  3472 
  3473 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  3474 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  3475 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  3476 
  3477   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  3478 
  3479   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  3480     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  3481 
  3482 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  3483 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  3484 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  3485 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  3486 
  3487 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  3488 
  3489     num ~> num_token
  3490     xnum ~> xnum_token
  3491     xstr ~> str_token
  3492 
  3493 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  3494 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  3495 position information via constraints).
  3496 
  3497 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  3498 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  3499 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3500 
  3501 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  3502 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  3503 
  3504 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  3505 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  3506 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3507 
  3508 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  3509 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3510 
  3511 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  3512 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  3513 
  3514   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  3515 
  3516 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3517 
  3518 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  3519 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3520 
  3521 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  3522 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  3523 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  3524 
  3525 
  3526 *** HOL ***
  3527 
  3528 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  3529 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  3530 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  3531 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  3532 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  3533 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  3534 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  3535 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  3536 possible.
  3537 
  3538 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  3539 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  3540 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  3541 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  3542 
  3543 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  3544 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3545 
  3546 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  3547 
  3548 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  3549 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  3550 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  3551 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  3552 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  3553 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  3554 
  3555   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  3556     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  3557 
  3558   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  3559     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  3560     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  3561 
  3562   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  3563     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  3564 
  3565   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  3566     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  3567     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  3568 
  3569   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  3570     Redefine using other integer operations.
  3571 
  3572 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  3573 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  3574 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  3575 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  3576 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  3577 
  3578   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  3579     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  3580     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  3581     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  3582     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  3583 
  3584     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  3585     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  3586 
  3587   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  3588     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  3589     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  3590     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  3591     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  3592     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  3593     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  3594     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  3595 
  3596   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  3597     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  3598     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  3599     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  3600 
  3601   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  3602     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  3603     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  3604     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  3605 
  3606   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  3607     from type nat to type int.
  3608 
  3609 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  3610 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  3611 
  3612   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  3613     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  3614     type.  Example syntax:
  3615 
  3616     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  3617       is List.insert
  3618 
  3619     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  3620     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  3621     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  3622     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  3623     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  3624     by the package.
  3625 
  3626   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  3627     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  3628     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  3629     code generation for each constant.
  3630 
  3631   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  3632     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  3633     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  3634     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  3635     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  3636 
  3637   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  3638     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  3639     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  3640 
  3641 * Quotient package:
  3642 
  3643   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  3644     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  3645 
  3646   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  3647     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  3648 
  3649   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  3650     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  3651     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3652 
  3653   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  3654     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3655 
  3656 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  3657 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  3658 
  3659 * Quickcheck:
  3660 
  3661   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  3662     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  3663     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  3664     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  3665     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  3666 
  3667     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  3668     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  3669     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  3670 
  3671     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  3672     continues searching for genuine ones.
  3673 
  3674     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  3675     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  3676     show genuine counterexamples.
  3677 
  3678   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  3679     value generators for a given type and operations.
  3680 
  3681     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  3682     constructors of that type.
  3683 
  3684   - Support for multisets.
  3685 
  3686   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  3687 
  3688   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  3689     conjectures in a locale context.
  3690 
  3691 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  3692 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  3693 
  3694 * Sledgehammer:
  3695   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  3696     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  3697   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  3698   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  3699     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  3700   - Sped up the minimizer.
  3701   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  3702   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  3703   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  3704 
  3705 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  3706 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  3707 
  3708 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  3709 
  3710 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3711 
  3712 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  3713 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  3714 
  3715   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  3716 
  3717 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  3718 a list and a nat.
  3719 
  3720 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  3721 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  3722 
  3723 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  3724 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  3725 default.
  3726 
  3727 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  3728 
  3729   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  3730 
  3731 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  3732 
  3733 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  3734 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  3735 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  3736 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  3737 one_case.
  3738 
  3739 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  3740 the result of the fact expression.
  3741 
  3742 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  3743 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  3744 of some relation theorems:
  3745 
  3746   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  3747   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  3748   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  3749   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  3750   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  3751   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  3752 
  3753 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  3754 
  3755 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  3756 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  3757 
  3758 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3759 
  3760 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  3761 to match the constant's name:
  3762 
  3763   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  3764   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  3765   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  3766   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  3767   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  3768   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  3769   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  3770   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  3771   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  3772   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  3773   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  3774   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  3775   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  3776   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  3777   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  3778   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  3779   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  3780   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  3781   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  3782   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  3783   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  3784   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  3785   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  3786   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  3787 
  3788 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3789 
  3790 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  3791 and corresponding theorem names:
  3792 
  3793   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  3794 
  3795   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  3796 
  3797   - Renamed theorems:
  3798 
  3799     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  3800     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  3801     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  3802     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  3803     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  3804     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  3805     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  3806     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  3807     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  3808     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  3809     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  3810     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  3811     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  3812     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  3813     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  3814     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  3815     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  3816     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  3817     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  3818     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  3819     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  3820     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  3821     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  3822 
  3823     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  3824 
  3825     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  3826 
  3827 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3828 
  3829 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  3830 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  3831 
  3832   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  3833   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  3834   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  3835   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  3836   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  3837   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  3838   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  3839   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  3840   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  3841   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  3842   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  3843   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  3844   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  3845   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  3846   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  3847   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  3848   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  3849   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  3850   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  3851   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  3852   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  3853 
  3854 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  3855 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3856 
  3857 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3858 
  3859 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  3860 
  3861   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  3862   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  3863   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  3864   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  3865   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  3866   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  3867   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  3868   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  3869   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  3870   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  3871   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  3872   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  3873   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  3874   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  3875   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  3876   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  3877   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  3878   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  3879 
  3880 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3881 
  3882 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  3883 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  3884 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  3885 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  3886 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  3887 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  3888 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  3889 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  3890 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  3891 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  3892 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  3893 
  3894 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  3895 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  3896 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  3897 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  3898 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  3899 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  3900 
  3901 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  3902 through option types.
  3903 
  3904 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  3905 relations.
  3906 
  3907 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3908 
  3909 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  3910 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  3911 
  3912   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  3913   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  3914   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  3915   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  3916   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  3917   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  3918   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  3919   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  3920   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  3921   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  3922   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  3923   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  3924   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  3925   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  3926   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  3927   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  3928   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  3929   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  3930   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  3931   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  3932   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  3933   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  3934   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  3935   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  3936   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  3937   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  3938   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  3939   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  3940   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  3941   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  3942   zless_le ~> less_le
  3943   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  3944   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  3945   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  3946 
  3947 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  3948 
  3949   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  3950 
  3951 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  3952 
  3953 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  3954 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  3955 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  3956 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  3957 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3958 
  3959 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3960 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  3961 
  3962 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  3963 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  3964 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  3965 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  3966 follows:
  3967 
  3968   Operations:
  3969   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  3970   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  3971   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  3972   del -> rbt_del
  3973   delete -> rbt_delete
  3974   ins -> rbt_ins
  3975   insert -> rbt_insert
  3976   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  3977   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  3978   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  3979   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  3980   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  3981   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  3982   tree_less -> rbt_less
  3983   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  3984   union -> rbt_union
  3985   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  3986   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  3987 
  3988   Lemmas:
  3989   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  3990   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  3991   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  3992   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  3993   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  3994   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  3995   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  3996   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  3997   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  3998   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  3999   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  4000   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  4001   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  4002   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  4003   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  4004   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  4005   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  4006   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  4007   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  4008   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  4009   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  4010   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  4011   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  4012   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  4013   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  4014   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  4015   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  4016   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  4017   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  4018   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  4019   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  4020   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  4021   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  4022   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  4023   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  4024   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  4025   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  4026   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  4027   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  4028   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  4029   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  4030   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  4031   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  4032   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  4033   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  4034   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  4035   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  4036   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  4037   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  4038   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  4039   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  4040   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  4041   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  4042   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  4043   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  4044   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  4045   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  4046   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  4047   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  4048   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  4049   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  4050   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  4051   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  4052   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  4053   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  4054   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  4055   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  4056   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  4057   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  4058   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  4059   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  4060   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  4061   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  4062   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  4063   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  4064   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  4065   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  4066   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  4067   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  4068   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  4069   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  4070   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  4071   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  4072 
  4073 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  4074 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  4075 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4076 
  4077   Changed Operations:
  4078   float_abs -> abs
  4079   float_nprt -> nprt
  4080   float_pprt -> pprt
  4081   pow2 -> use powr
  4082   round_down -> float_round_down
  4083   round_up -> float_round_up
  4084   scale -> exponent
  4085 
  4086   Removed Operations:
  4087   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  4088 
  4089   Renamed Lemmas:
  4090   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  4091   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  4092   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  4093   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  4094   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  4095   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  4096   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  4097   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  4098   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  4099   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  4100   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  4101   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  4102   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  4103   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  4104   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  4105   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  4106   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  4107   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  4108   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  4109   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  4110   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  4111   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  4112   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  4113   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  4114   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  4115   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  4116   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  4117   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  4118   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  4119   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  4120   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  4121   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  4122   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  4123   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  4124   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  4125   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  4126 
  4127   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  4128   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  4129   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  4130   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  4131   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  4132   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  4133   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  4134   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  4135   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  4136   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  4137 
  4138 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  4139 association lists with distinct keys.
  4140 
  4141 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  4142 annotated commands.
  4143 
  4144 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  4145 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  4146 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  4147 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4148 
  4149 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  4150 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  4151 instead.
  4152 
  4153   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  4154   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  4155   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  4156   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  4157   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  4158   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  4159   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  4160   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  4161   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  4162   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  4163   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  4164   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  4165   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  4166   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  4167   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  4168   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  4169   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  4170   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  4171   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  4172   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  4173   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  4174   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  4175   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  4176   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  4177   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  4178   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  4179   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  4180   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  4181   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  4182   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  4183   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  4184   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  4185   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  4186   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  4187   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  4188   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  4189   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  4190   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  4191   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  4192   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  4193   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  4194 
  4195 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  4196 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  4197 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  4198 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  4199 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  4200 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  4201 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  4202 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  4203 
  4204 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  4205 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  4206 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  4207 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  4208 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  4209 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  4210 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  4211 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  4212 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  4213 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  4214 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  4215 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4216 
  4217   Renamed constants:
  4218   measure -> emeasure
  4219   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  4220   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  4221   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  4222   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  4223 
  4224   Removed locales:
  4225   completeable_measure_space
  4226   finite_measure_space
  4227   finite_prob_space
  4228   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  4229   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  4230   finite_sigma_algebra
  4231   measure_space
  4232   pair_finite_prob_space
  4233   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  4234   pair_finite_space
  4235   pair_sigma_algebra
  4236   product_sigma_algebra
  4237 
  4238   Removed constants:
  4239   conditional_space
  4240   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  4241   image_space
  4242   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  4243   pair_measure_generator
  4244   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  4245   subvimage
  4246 
  4247   Replacement theorems:
  4248   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  4249   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  4250   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  4251   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  4252   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  4253   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  4254   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  4255   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  4256   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  4257   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  4258   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  4259   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  4260   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  4261   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  4262   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  4263   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  4264   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  4265   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  4266   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  4267   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  4268   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  4269   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  4270   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  4271   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  4272   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  4273   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  4274   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  4275   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  4276   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  4277   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  4278   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  4279   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  4280   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  4281   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  4282   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  4283   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  4284   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  4285   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  4286   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  4287   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  4288   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  4289   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  4290   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  4291   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  4292   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  4293   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  4294   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  4295   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  4296   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  4297   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  4298   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  4299   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  4300   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  4301   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  4302   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  4303   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  4304   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  4305   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  4306   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  4307   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  4308   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  4309   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  4310   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  4311   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  4312   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  4313   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  4314   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  4315   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  4316   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  4317   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  4318   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  4319   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  4320   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  4321   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  4322   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  4323   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  4324   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  4325   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  4326   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  4327   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  4328   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  4329   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  4330   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  4331   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  4332   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  4333   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  4334   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  4335   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  4336   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  4337   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  4338   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  4339   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  4340   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  4341   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  4342   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  4343   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  4344   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  4345   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  4346   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  4347   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  4348   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  4349   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  4350   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  4351   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  4352   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  4353   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  4354   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  4355   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  4356   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  4357   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  4358   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  4359   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  4360   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  4361   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  4362   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  4363   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  4364   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  4365   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  4366   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  4367   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  4368   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  4369   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  4370   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  4371   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  4372   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  4373   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  4374   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  4375   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  4376 
  4377 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  4378 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  4379 
  4380 
  4381 *** FOL ***
  4382 
  4383 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  4384 
  4385 
  4386 *** ZF ***
  4387 
  4388 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  4389 analysis.
  4390 
  4391 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  4392 
  4393 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4394 
  4395 
  4396 *** ML ***
  4397 
  4398 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  4399 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  4400 
  4401 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  4402 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  4403 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  4404 
  4405 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  4406 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  4407 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  4408 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  4409 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  4410 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  4411 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  4412 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  4413 
  4414 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  4415 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  4416 
  4417 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  4418 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  4419 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  4420 
  4421 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  4422 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4423 
  4424 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  4425 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  4426 context as well.
  4427 
  4428 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  4429 
  4430   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  4431   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  4432   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  4433   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  4434   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  4435   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  4436   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  4437   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  4438   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  4439   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  4440   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  4441   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  4442 
  4443 
  4444 *** System ***
  4445 
  4446 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  4447 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  4448 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  4449 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  4450 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  4451 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  4452 the generic user home was intended.
  4453 
  4454 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  4455 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  4456 
  4457 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  4458 (not just JRE).
  4459 
  4460 
  4461 
  4462 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  4463 ------------------------------------
  4464 
  4465 *** General ***
  4466 
  4467 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  4468 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  4469 
  4470   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  4471     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  4472     files for checking).
  4473 
  4474   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  4475     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  4476     positions.
  4477 
  4478   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  4479     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  4480     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  4481 
  4482   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  4483     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  4484     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  4485 
  4486   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  4487     cores.
  4488 
  4489   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  4490     versions (garbage collection).
  4491 
  4492 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  4493 including some remaining limitations.
  4494 
  4495 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  4496 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  4497 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  4498 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  4499 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  4500 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4501 
  4502 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  4503 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  4504 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  4505 
  4506 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  4507 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  4508 usedir option -Q.
  4509 
  4510 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  4511 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  4512 
  4513   long_names   ~> names_long
  4514   short_names  ~> names_short
  4515   unique_names ~> names_unique
  4516 
  4517 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  4518 
  4519   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  4520 
  4521 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  4522 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  4523 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  4524 
  4525 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  4526 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  4527 
  4528 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  4529   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  4530   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  4531   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  4532     "Classical Reasoner".
  4533 
  4534 
  4535 *** HOL ***
  4536 
  4537 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  4538 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4539 
  4540 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  4541 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  4542 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  4543 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  4544 class complete_linorder.
  4545 
  4546 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  4547 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  4548 
  4549 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  4550 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  4551 
  4552   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  4553   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  4554   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  4555   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  4556   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  4557   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  4558   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  4559   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  4560   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  4561   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  4562   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  4563 
  4564 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  4565 
  4566   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  4567   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  4568   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  4569   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  4570   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  4571   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  4572   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  4573   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  4574   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  4575   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  4576   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  4577   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  4578   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  4579   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  4580   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  4581   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  4582 
  4583 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4584 
  4585 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  4586 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4587 
  4588 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  4589 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  4590 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  4591 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4592 
  4593 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  4594 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  4595 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  4596 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4597 
  4598 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  4599 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  4600 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  4601 
  4602 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  4603 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  4604 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4605 
  4606 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  4607 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  4608 
  4609 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  4610 
  4611     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  4612     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  4613 
  4614 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  4615 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4616 
  4617 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  4618 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4619 
  4620 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  4621 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  4622 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  4623 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4624 
  4625   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  4626   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  4627   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  4628   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  4629   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  4630   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  4631   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  4632 
  4633 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  4634 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4635 
  4636   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  4637   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  4638   real_less_def ~> less_le
  4639   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  4640   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  4641   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  4642   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  4643   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  4644   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  4645   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  4646   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  4647   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  4648   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  4649   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  4650   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  4651   real_le_linear ~> linear
  4652   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  4653   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  4654   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  4655   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  4656   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  4657   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  4658   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  4659   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  4660   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  4661   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  4662   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  4663   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  4664   expi_add ~> exp_add
  4665   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  4666   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  4667   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  4668   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  4669   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  4670   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  4671   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  4672   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  4673   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  4674   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  4675   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  4676   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  4677   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  4678   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  4679   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  4680   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  4681   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  4682   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  4683   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  4684   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  4685   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  4686   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  4687   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  4688   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  4689   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  4690   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  4691   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  4692   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  4693   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  4694   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  4695   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  4696   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  4697   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  4698   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  4699   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  4700   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  4701   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  4702   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  4703   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  4704   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  4705   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  4706   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  4707   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  4708   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  4709   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  4710   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  4711   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  4712   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  4713   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  4714   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  4715   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  4716   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  4717   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  4718 
  4719 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  4720 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  4721 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  4722 
  4723 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  4724 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  4725 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  4726 
  4727 * Code generation:
  4728 
  4729   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  4730     characters in the target language.
  4731 
  4732   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  4733     instead.
  4734 
  4735   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  4736 
  4737   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  4738     reactivated by the following theory command:
  4739 
  4740       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  4741 
  4742 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4743 
  4744 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  4745 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  4746 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  4747 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  4748 syntax.
  4749 
  4750 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  4751 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  4752 
  4753 * Nitpick:
  4754   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  4755   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  4756   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  4757     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4758 
  4759 * Sledgehammer:
  4760   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  4761   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  4762     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  4763   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  4764     this can be done within reasonable time.
  4765   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  4766     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4767   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  4768     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  4769   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  4770     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4771 
  4772 * Metis:
  4773   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4774   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  4775     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4776 
  4777 * Command 'try':
  4778   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  4779     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4780   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  4781     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  4782 
  4783 * Quickcheck:
  4784   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  4785     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  4786   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  4787     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  4788   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  4789     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  4790     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  4791     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  4792   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  4793     (formly in HOL/Library).
  4794 
  4795 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4796 use 'partial_function' instead.
  4797 
  4798 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  4799 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  4800 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  4801 
  4802 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  4803 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  4804 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4805 
  4806 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  4807 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4808 
  4809 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  4810 arithmetic.
  4811 
  4812 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  4813 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  4814 and lattice type classes.
  4815 
  4816 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  4817 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  4818 
  4819 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  4820 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  4821 
  4822 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  4823 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  4824 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4825 
  4826   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  4827   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  4828   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  4829   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  4830 
  4831 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  4832 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  4833 constants:
  4834 
  4835   type inat   ~> type enat
  4836   Fin         ~> enat
  4837   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  4838   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  4839   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  4840 
  4841 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  4842 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4843 
  4844 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  4845 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  4846 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  4847 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  4848 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  4849 
  4850 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  4851 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  4852 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  4853 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  4854 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  4855 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  4856 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4857 
  4858   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  4859   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  4860   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  4861   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  4862 
  4863 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  4864 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  4865 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4866 
  4867   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  4868   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  4869   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  4870   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  4871   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  4872   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  4873   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  4874   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  4875   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  4876   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  4877   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  4878   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  4879   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  4880   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  4881   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  4882   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  4883   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  4884   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  4885   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  4886   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  4887   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  4888   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  4889   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  4890   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  4891   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  4892   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  4893   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  4894   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  4895   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  4896   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  4897   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  4898   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  4899   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  4900   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  4901   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  4902   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  4903   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  4904   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  4905   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  4906   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  4907   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  4908   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  4909   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  4910   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  4911   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  4912   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  4913   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  4914   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  4915   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  4916   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  4917   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  4918 
  4919 * Session HOL-Probability:
  4920   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  4921   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  4922   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  4923   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  4924     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4925 
  4926 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4927 
  4928   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  4929   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  4930   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  4931   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  4932   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  4933   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  4934   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  4935   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  4936   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  4937   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  4938   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  4939   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  4940   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  4941   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  4942   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  4943   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  4944   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  4945   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  4946   UU_I ~> bottomI
  4947   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  4948   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  4949   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  4950   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  4951   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  4952   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  4953 
  4954 
  4955 *** Document preparation ***
  4956 
  4957 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  4958 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  4959 same.
  4960 
  4961 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  4962 result.
  4963 
  4964 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  4965 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  4966 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  4967 
  4968 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  4969 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  4970 
  4971 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  4972 like this:
  4973 
  4974   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  4975   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  4976 
  4977 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  4978 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  4979 layouts.
  4980 
  4981 
  4982 *** ML ***
  4983 
  4984 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  4985 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  4986 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  4987 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  4988 under external program control.
  4989 
  4990 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  4991 data, which requires explicit setup.
  4992 
  4993 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  4994 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  4995 (better known as Proof General).
  4996 
  4997 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  4998 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  4999 
  5000 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  5001 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  5002 
  5003 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  5004 (including quotes etc.).
  5005 
  5006 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  5007 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  5008 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  5009 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  5010 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  5011 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  5012 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  5013 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  5014 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  5015 
  5016 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  5017 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  5018 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5019 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  5020 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  5021 
  5022 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  5023 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  5024 
  5025 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  5026 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  5027 
  5028 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  5029 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  5030 
  5031 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  5032 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  5033 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  5034 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  5035 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  5036 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  5037 proper Proof.context.
  5038 
  5039 
  5040 *** System ***
  5041 
  5042 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  5043 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  5044 
  5045 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  5046 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  5047 
  5048 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  5049 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  5050 
  5051   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  5052   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  5053   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  5054   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  5055   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  5056 
  5057 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  5058 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5059 
  5060 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  5061 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  5062 example:
  5063 
  5064   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  5065 
  5066 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  5067 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  5068 
  5069 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  5070 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  5071 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  5072 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  5073 
  5074 
  5075 
  5076 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  5077 ----------------------------------
  5078 
  5079 *** General ***
  5080 
  5081 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  5082 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  5083 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  5084 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  5085 like this:
  5086 
  5087   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  5088 
  5089 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  5090 
  5091 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  5092 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  5093 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  5094 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  5095 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  5096 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  5097 
  5098 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  5099 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  5100 the following package declarations:
  5101 
  5102   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  5103   \usepackage{textcomp}
  5104 
  5105 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  5106 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  5107 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  5108 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  5109 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  5110 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  5111 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  5112 
  5113 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  5114 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  5115 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  5116 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  5117 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  5118 
  5119 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  5120 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  5121 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  5122 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5123 
  5124 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  5125 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  5126 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  5127 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  5128 
  5129   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  5130 
  5131   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  5132   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  5133   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  5134   show_types                    show_types
  5135   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  5136   show_consts                   show_consts
  5137   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  5138 
  5139   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  5140   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  5141   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  5142 
  5143   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  5144   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  5145 
  5146   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  5147 
  5148   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  5149   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  5150   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  5151   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  5152   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  5153 
  5154 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  5155 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  5156 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  5157 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  5158 
  5159 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  5160 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5161 
  5162   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  5163   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  5164 
  5165 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  5166 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  5167 float_token.
  5168 
  5169 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  5170 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  5171 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5172 
  5173 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  5174 DejaVu Sans.
  5175 
  5176 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  5177 
  5178 
  5179 *** Pure ***
  5180 
  5181 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  5182 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  5183 time.
  5184 
  5185 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  5186 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5187 
  5188 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  5189 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5190 
  5191 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  5192 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  5193 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  5194 command already provided this functionality.
  5195 
  5196 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  5197 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  5198 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  5199 without interpretations.
  5200 
  5201 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  5202 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  5203 
  5204 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  5205 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  5206 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  5207 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  5208 
  5209 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5210 'definition' instead.
  5211 
  5212 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  5213 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  5214 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  5215 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  5216 
  5217 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  5218 constructors.
  5219 
  5220 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  5221 the local file system.
  5222 
  5223 
  5224 *** HOL ***
  5225 
  5226 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  5227 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  5228 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  5229 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  5230 
  5231   declare [[coercion f]]
  5232 
  5233 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  5234 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  5235 
  5236   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  5237 
  5238 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  5239 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  5240 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  5241 other theories like this:
  5242 
  5243   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  5244 
  5245 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  5246 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  5247 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  5248 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  5249 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  5250 for examples.
  5251 
  5252 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  5253 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5254 
  5255 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  5256 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  5257 
  5258 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  5259 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  5260 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  5261 
  5262 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  5263 functorial structure of types.
  5264 
  5265 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  5266 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  5267 
  5268 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  5269 languages.
  5270 
  5271 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  5272 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  5273 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5274 
  5275 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  5276 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5277 
  5278 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  5279 combinators any longer.
  5280 
  5281 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  5282 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  5283 
  5284 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  5285 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  5286 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  5287 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  5288 
  5289   record 'a foo = ...
  5290   ...
  5291   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  5292 
  5293 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  5294 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  5295 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5296 
  5297 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  5298 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  5299 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  5300 
  5301 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  5302 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  5303 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  5304 
  5305 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  5306 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5307 
  5308 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  5309 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  5310 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  5311 independently.
  5312 
  5313 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  5314 counter example search.
  5315 
  5316 * Sledgehammer:
  5317   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  5318     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  5319     sledgehammer").
  5320   - Renamed commands:
  5321     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  5322     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  5323     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  5324     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5325   - Renamed options:
  5326     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  5327     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  5328     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  5329     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  5330     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5331 
  5332 * Nitpick:
  5333   - Renamed options:
  5334     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  5335     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  5336     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5337   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  5338   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  5339   - Added "whack" option.
  5340   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  5341   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  5342   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  5343   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  5344     higher cardinalities.
  5345   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  5346 
  5347 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  5348 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  5349 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  5350 
  5351     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  5352 
  5353 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  5354 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  5355 
  5356 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  5357 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  5358 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  5359 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  5360 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  5361 "smt_solver".
  5362 
  5363 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  5364 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  5365 
  5366 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  5367 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  5368 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  5369 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5370 
  5371 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  5372   - Renamed:
  5373     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  5374     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  5375     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5376   - Added:
  5377     smt_verbose
  5378     smt_random_seed
  5379     smt_datatypes
  5380     smt_infer_triggers
  5381     smt_monomorph_limit
  5382     cvc3_options
  5383     remote_cvc3_options
  5384     remote_z3_options
  5385     yices_options
  5386 
  5387 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  5388 header.
  5389 
  5390 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  5391 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  5392 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  5393 
  5394   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  5395 
  5396 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5397 
  5398 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  5399 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5400 
  5401 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5402 
  5403 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  5404 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5405 
  5406 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  5407 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  5408 
  5409 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  5410 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5411 
  5412 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  5413 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  5414 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5415 
  5416 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5417 
  5418 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  5419 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5420 
  5421 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  5422 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5423 
  5424 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  5425 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  5426 for congruent(2)).
  5427 
  5428 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  5429 
  5430   types
  5431     bool ~> HOL.bool
  5432     nat ~> Nat.nat
  5433 
  5434   constants
  5435     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  5436     True ~> HOL.True
  5437     False ~> HOL.False
  5438     op & ~> HOL.conj
  5439     op | ~> HOL.disj
  5440     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  5441     op = ~> HOL.eq
  5442     Not ~> HOL.Not
  5443     The ~> HOL.The
  5444     All ~> HOL.All
  5445     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  5446     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  5447     Let ~> HOL.Let
  5448     If ~> HOL.If
  5449     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  5450     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  5451     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  5452     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  5453     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  5454     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  5455     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  5456     op : ~> Set.member
  5457     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  5458 
  5459 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5460 
  5461 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  5462 
  5463     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  5464     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  5465     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  5466     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  5467     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  5468     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  5469     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  5470     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  5471 
  5472 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5473 
  5474 * More stylized fact names:
  5475 
  5476   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  5477   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  5478   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  5479   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  5480 
  5481 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5482 
  5483 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  5484 
  5485   constants
  5486     null ~> List.null
  5487 
  5488   facts
  5489     mem_iff ~> member_def
  5490     null_empty ~> null_def
  5491 
  5492 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  5493 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  5494 generation.
  5495 
  5496 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  5497 Haskell code.
  5498 
  5499 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  5500 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  5501 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5502 
  5503 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  5504 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5505 
  5506 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  5507 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  5508 
  5509 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  5510 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  5511 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5512 
  5513 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  5514 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5515 
  5516 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  5517 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5518 
  5519 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  5520 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  5521 referred to by its qualified name.
  5522 
  5523   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  5524   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  5525   product ~>  Enum.product
  5526 
  5527 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  5528 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  5529 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5530 
  5531 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  5532 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  5533 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  5534 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5535 
  5536 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  5537 sort_key.
  5538 
  5539 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  5540 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5541 
  5542 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  5543 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  5544 instead of finite cartesian products.
  5545 
  5546   types
  5547     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  5548               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  5549               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  5550         (depends on your needs)
  5551 
  5552   constants
  5553      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  5554      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  5555      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  5556 
  5557 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  5558 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  5559 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  5560 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5561 
  5562 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  5563 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  5564 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  5565 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  5566 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5567 
  5568 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  5569 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5570 
  5571 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  5572 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  5573 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  5574 
  5575 
  5576 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5577 
  5578 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  5579 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  5580 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  5581 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  5582 compatibility.
  5583 
  5584 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  5585 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  5586 
  5587 
  5588 *** HOLCF ***
  5589 
  5590 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  5591 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  5592 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  5593 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5594 
  5595 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  5596 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  5597 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5598 
  5599   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  5600   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  5601   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  5602 
  5603 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  5604 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  5605 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5606 
  5607 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  5608 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  5609 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  5610 domain definition now works:
  5611 
  5612   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  5613 
  5614 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  5615 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  5616 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  5617 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  5618 
  5619   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  5620     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  5621 
  5622   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  5623 
  5624 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  5625 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  5626 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5627 
  5628 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  5629 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5630 
  5631 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  5632 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  5633 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  5634 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  5635 
  5636 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  5637 
  5638 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5639 
  5640 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5641 
  5642 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  5643 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5644 
  5645 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  5646 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  5647 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  5648 
  5649 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  5650 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  5651 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5652 
  5653 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  5654 still supported as an input translation.
  5655 
  5656 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  5657 
  5658   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  5659   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  5660   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  5661   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  5662   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  5663   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  5664   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  5665 
  5666 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  5667 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5668 
  5669   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  5670   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  5671   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  5672   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  5673   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  5674   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  5675 
  5676 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  5677 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5678 
  5679 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  5680 
  5681   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  5682   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  5683   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  5684   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  5685 
  5686 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5687 
  5688 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  5689 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5690 
  5691 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  5692 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5693 
  5694   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  5695   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  5696   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  5697   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  5698   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  5699   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  5700   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  5701   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  5702   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  5703   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  5704   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  5705   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  5706   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  5707   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  5708   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  5709   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  5710   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  5711   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  5712   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  5713   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  5714 
  5715 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5716 
  5717   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  5718   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  5719   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  5720   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  5721   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  5722   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  5723   box_less             ~> box_below
  5724   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  5725   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  5726   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  5727   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  5728   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  5729   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  5730   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  5731   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  5732   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  5733   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  5734   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  5735   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  5736   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  5737   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  5738   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  5739   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  5740   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  5741   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  5742   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  5743   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  5744   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  5745   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  5746   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  5747   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  5748   up_less              ~> up_below
  5749   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  5750   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  5751   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  5752   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  5753   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  5754   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  5755   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  5756   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  5757   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  5758   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  5759   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  5760   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  5761   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  5762 
  5763 
  5764 *** FOL and ZF ***
  5765 
  5766 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  5767 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5768 
  5769 
  5770 *** ML ***
  5771 
  5772 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  5773 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  5774 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  5775 
  5776 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  5777 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  5778 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  5779 
  5780 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  5781 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  5782 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  5783 
  5784 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  5785 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  5786 
  5787 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  5788 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  5789 
  5790 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  5791 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  5792 
  5793 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  5794 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  5795 
  5796 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  5797 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  5798 almost all situations.
  5799 
  5800 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  5801 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  5802 Isabelle/ML.
  5803 
  5804 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  5805 meaning.
  5806 
  5807 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  5808 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  5809 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  5810 
  5811 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  5812 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  5813 
  5814 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  5815 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  5816 
  5817 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  5818 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  5819 @{thms} for most purposes.
  5820 
  5821 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  5822 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  5823 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  5824 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  5825 configuration options.
  5826 
  5827 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  5828 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  5829 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  5830 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  5831 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  5832 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  5833 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  5834 
  5835 
  5836 
  5837 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  5838 ---------------------------------
  5839 
  5840 *** General ***
  5841 
  5842 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  5843 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  5844 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  5845 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  5846 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  5847 their full internal name.
  5848 
  5849 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  5850 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  5851 Some hints on upgrading:
  5852 
  5853   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  5854     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  5855     which are independent of this issue.
  5856 
  5857   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  5858     provides the following special forms:
  5859 
  5860       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  5861       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  5862       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  5863 
  5864     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  5865     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  5866     extra variables".
  5867 
  5868     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  5869     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  5870     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  5871     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  5872     "logic".
  5873 
  5874   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  5875     antiquotations:
  5876 
  5877       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  5878       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  5879       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  5880       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  5881 
  5882   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  5883     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  5884     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  5885     antiquotations.
  5886 
  5887 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  5888 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  5889 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  5890 diagnose syntax problems.
  5891 
  5892 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  5893 
  5894 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  5895 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  5896 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  5897 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  5898 
  5899 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  5900 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  5901 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  5902 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5903 
  5904 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  5905 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  5906 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  5907 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  5908 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5909 
  5910 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  5911 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  5912 
  5913 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  5914 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  5915 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  5916 
  5917   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  5918 
  5919 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  5920 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  5921 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  5922 
  5923 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  5924 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  5925 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5926 
  5927 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  5928 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  5929 
  5930 
  5931 *** Pure ***
  5932 
  5933 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  5934 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  5935 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  5936 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  5937 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  5938 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  5939 inspect proof terms.
  5940 
  5941 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  5942 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  5943 are added internally.  For example:
  5944 
  5945   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  5946 
  5947 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  5948 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5949 
  5950 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5951 
  5952 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5953 'class' instead.
  5954 
  5955 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  5956 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  5957 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5958 
  5959 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  5960 invariants.
  5961 
  5962 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  5963 user space functionality any longer.
  5964 
  5965 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  5966 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  5967 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5968 
  5969 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  5970 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  5971 
  5972 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  5973 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  5974 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  5975 
  5976 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  5977 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  5978 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  5979 
  5980 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  5981 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5982 
  5983 
  5984 *** HOL ***
  5985 
  5986 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  5987 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  5988 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  5989 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  5990 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  5991 
  5992 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  5993 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  5994 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  5995 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  5996 
  5997   fun
  5998     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  5999   where
  6000     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  6001 
  6002   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  6003     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  6004 
  6005   quotient_definition
  6006     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  6007 
  6008 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  6009 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  6010 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  6011 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  6012 
  6013 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  6014 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  6015 
  6016 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  6017 separate HOL-SMT session.
  6018 
  6019 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  6020 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6021 
  6022 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  6023 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  6024 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  6025 
  6026 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  6027 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6028 
  6029 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  6030 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6031 
  6032 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  6033 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6034 
  6035 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  6036 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6037 
  6038 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  6039 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  6040 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6041 
  6042   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  6043   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  6044   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  6045   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  6046   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  6047   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  6048   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  6049   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  6050   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  6051   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  6052   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  6053   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  6054   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  6055   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  6056   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  6057   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  6058   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  6059   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  6060   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  6061   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  6062   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  6063   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  6064   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  6065   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  6066   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  6067   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  6068   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  6069   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  6070   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  6071   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  6072 
  6073 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  6074 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  6075 
  6076 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  6077 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  6078 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6079 
  6080 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  6081 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  6082 
  6083 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  6084 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6085 
  6086 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  6087 
  6088 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  6089 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6090 
  6091 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  6092 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6093 
  6094 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6095 
  6096 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  6097 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  6098 
  6099 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  6100 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  6101 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  6102 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6103 
  6104 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  6105   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  6106   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  6107   - inverse, divide: Rings
  6108 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6109 
  6110 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  6111 lattices):
  6112 
  6113     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  6114     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  6115 
  6116     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  6117 
  6118     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  6119     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  6120     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  6121     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  6122     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  6123     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  6124     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  6125     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  6126     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  6127     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  6128     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  6129     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  6130     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  6131 
  6132     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  6133     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  6134     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  6135     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  6136     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  6137     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  6138     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  6139     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  6140     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  6141     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  6142     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  6143     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  6144     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  6145     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  6146     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  6147     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  6148     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  6149     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  6150 
  6151   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  6152   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  6153 
  6154     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  6155     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  6156     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  6157     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  6158     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  6159 
  6160 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6161 
  6162 * Refined field classes:
  6163   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  6164     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  6165     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  6166   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  6167 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6168 
  6169 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  6170   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  6171   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  6172   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  6173     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  6174   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  6175     equal_neg_zero.
  6176 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6177 
  6178 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  6179 sets to lattices:
  6180 
  6181   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  6182   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  6183   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  6184   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  6185   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  6186   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  6187   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  6188   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  6189   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  6190   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  6191 
  6192 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  6193 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  6194 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  6195 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  6196 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  6197 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6198 
  6199 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  6200 multiset order:
  6201 
  6202   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  6203     <= and <;
  6204   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  6205     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  6206     multiset_order;
  6207   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  6208     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  6209     generation;
  6210   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  6211     if needed.
  6212 
  6213 Renamed:
  6214 
  6215   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  6216   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  6217   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  6218 
  6219 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6220 
  6221 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  6222 
  6223 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  6224 
  6225 * Theory List: added transpose.
  6226 
  6227 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  6228 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  6229 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6230 
  6231   Constants:
  6232   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  6233   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  6234   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  6235   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  6236   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  6237   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  6238   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  6239   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  6240   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  6241   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  6242   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  6243   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  6244   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  6245 
  6246   Lemmas:
  6247   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  6248   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  6249   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  6250   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  6251   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  6252   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  6253   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  6254   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  6255   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  6256   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  6257   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  6258   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  6259   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  6260 
  6261 * Sledgehammer:
  6262   - Renamed ATP commands:
  6263     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  6264     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  6265     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  6266     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  6267     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  6268     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6269   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  6270   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  6271     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  6272   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  6273     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  6274     is still experimental.)
  6275   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in