NEWS
author wenzelm
Sun Sep 18 15:39:55 2011 +0200 (2011-09-18)
changeset 44973 dfe923d5308d
parent 44968 52744e144432
child 44974 7762718f5e89
permissions -rw-r--r--
separated NEWS for Isabelle2011 from Isabelle2011-1 (cf. e1139e612b55);
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
     5 ------------------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
    10 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
    11 
    12   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
    13     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
    14     files for checking).
    15 
    16   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
    17     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
    18     positions.
    19 
    20   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
    21     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
    22     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
    23 
    24   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
    25     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
    26     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
    27 
    28   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
    29     cores.
    30 
    31   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
    32     versions (garbage collection).
    33 
    34 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
    35 including some remaining limitations.
    36 
    37 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
    38 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
    39 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
    40 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
    41 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
    42 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    43 
    44 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
    45 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
    46 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
    47 
    48 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
    49 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
    50 usedir option -Q.
    51 
    52 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
    53 configuration options, with more conventional names:
    54 
    55   long_names   ~> names_long
    56   short_names  ~> names_short
    57   unique_names ~> names_unique
    58 
    59 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
    60 
    61   declare [[names_unique = false]]
    62 
    63 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
    64 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
    65 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
    66 
    67 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
    68 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
    69 
    70 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
    71   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
    72   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
    73   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
    74     "Classical Reasoner".
    75 
    76 
    77 *** HOL ***
    78 
    79 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
    80 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    81 
    82 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
    83 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
    84 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
    85 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
    86 class complete_linorder.
    87 
    88 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
    89 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
    90 
    91 Redundant lemmas Inf_singleton, Sup_singleton, Inf_binary, Sup_binary,
    92 INF_eq, SUP_eq, INF_UNIV_range, SUP_UNIV_range, Int_eq_Inter,
    93 INTER_eq_Inter_image, Inter_def, INT_eq, Un_eq_Union, INF_subset,
    94 UNION_eq_Union_image, Union_def, UN_singleton, UN_eq have been
    95 discarded.
    96 
    97 More consistent and comprehensive names:
    98 
    99   INFI_def ~> INF_def
   100   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
   101   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
   102   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
   103   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
   104   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
   105   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
   106   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
   107   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
   108   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
   109   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
   110   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
   111   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
   112   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
   113 
   114 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   115 
   116 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
   117 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   118 
   119 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
   120 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
   121 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
   122 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   123 
   124 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
   125 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
   126 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
   127 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   128 
   129 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
   130 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
   131 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
   132 
   133 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
   134 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
   135 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   136 
   137 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
   138 separate type class floor_ceiling.
   139 
   140 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
   141 
   142     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
   143     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
   144 
   145 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
   146 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   147 
   148 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
   149 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   150 
   151 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
   152 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
   153 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
   154 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   155 
   156   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
   157   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
   158   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
   159   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
   160   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
   161   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
   162   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
   163 
   164 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
   165 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   166 
   167   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
   168   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
   169   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
   170   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
   171   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
   172   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
   173   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
   174   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
   175   expi_add ~> exp_add
   176   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
   177   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
   178   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
   179   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
   180   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
   181   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
   182   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
   183   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
   184   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
   185   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
   186   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
   187   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
   188   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
   189   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
   190   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
   191   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
   192   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
   193   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
   194   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
   195   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
   196   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
   197   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
   198   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
   199   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
   200   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
   201   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
   202   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
   203   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
   204   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
   205   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
   206   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
   207   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
   208   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
   209   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
   210   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
   211   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
   212   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
   213   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
   214   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
   215   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
   216   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
   217   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
   218   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
   219   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
   220   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
   221   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
   222   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
   223   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
   224   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
   225   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
   226   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
   227   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
   228   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
   229 
   230 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
   231 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
   232 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
   233 
   234 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
   235 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
   236 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
   237 
   238 * Code generation:
   239 
   240   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
   241     characters in the target language.
   242 
   243   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
   244     instead.
   245 
   246   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
   247 
   248   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
   249     reactivated by the following theory command:
   250 
   251       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
   252 
   253 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   254 
   255 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
   256 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
   257 
   258 * Nitpick:
   259   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
   260   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
   261   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
   262     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   263 
   264 * Sledgehammer:
   265   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
   266   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
   267     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
   268   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
   269     this can be done within reasonable time.
   270   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
   271     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   272   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
   273     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
   274   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
   275     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   276 
   277 * Metis:
   278   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   279   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
   280     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   281 
   282 * Command 'try':
   283   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
   284     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   285   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
   286     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
   287 
   288 * Quickcheck:
   289   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
   290     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
   291   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
   292     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
   293   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
   294     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
   295     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
   296     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
   297   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
   298     (formly in HOL/Library).
   299 
   300 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
   301 use 'partial_function' instead.
   302 
   303 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
   304 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
   305 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
   306 
   307 * Old 'recdef' package has been moved to theory Library/Old_Recdef,
   308 from where it must be imported explicitly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   309 
   310 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
   311 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   312 
   313 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
   314 arithmetic.
   315 
   316 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
   317 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
   318 and lattice type classes.
   319 
   320 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
   321 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
   322 
   323 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
   324 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
   325 
   326 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
   327 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
   328 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   329 
   330   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
   331   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
   332   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
   333   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
   334 
   335 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
   336 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
   337 constants:
   338 
   339   type inat   ~> type enat
   340   Fin         ~> enat
   341   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
   342   iSuc        ~> eSuc
   343   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
   344 
   345 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
   346 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   347 
   348 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
   349 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
   350 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
   351 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
   352 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
   353 
   354 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
   355 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
   356 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
   357 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
   358 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
   359 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
   360 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
   361 
   362   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
   363   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
   364   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
   365   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
   366 
   367 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
   368 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
   369 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   370 
   371   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
   372   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
   373   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
   374   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
   375   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
   376   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
   377   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
   378   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
   379   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
   380   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
   381   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
   382   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
   383   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
   384   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
   385   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
   386   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
   387   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
   388   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
   389   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
   390   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
   391   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
   392   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
   393   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
   394   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
   395   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
   396   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
   397   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
   398   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
   399   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
   400   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
   401   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
   402   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
   403   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
   404   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
   405   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
   406   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
   407   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
   408   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
   409   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
   410   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
   411   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
   412   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
   413   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
   414   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
   415   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
   416   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
   417   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
   418   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
   419   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
   420   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
   421   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
   422 
   423 * Session HOL-Probability:
   424   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
   425   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
   426   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
   427   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
   428     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   429 
   430 
   431 *** Document preparation ***
   432 
   433 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
   434 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
   435 same.
   436 
   437 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
   438 result.
   439 
   440 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
   441 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
   442 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
   443 
   444 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
   445 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
   446 
   447 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
   448 like this:
   449 
   450   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
   451   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
   452 
   453 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
   454 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
   455 layouts.
   456 
   457 
   458 *** ML ***
   459 
   460 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
   461 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
   462 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
   463 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
   464 under external program control.
   465 
   466 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
   467 data, which requires explicit setup.
   468 
   469 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
   470 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
   471 (better known as Proof General).
   472 
   473 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
   474 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
   475 
   476 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
   477 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
   478 
   479 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
   480 (including quotes etc.).
   481 
   482 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
   483 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
   484 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
   485 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
   486 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
   487 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
   488 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
   489 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
   490 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
   491 
   492 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
   493 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
   494 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
   495 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
   496 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
   497 
   498 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
   499 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
   500 
   501 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
   502 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
   503 
   504 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
   505 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
   506 
   507 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
   508 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
   509 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
   510 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
   511 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
   512 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
   513 proper Proof.context.
   514 
   515 
   516 *** System ***
   517 
   518 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
   519 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
   520 
   521 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
   522 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
   523 
   524 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
   525 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
   526 
   527   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
   528   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
   529   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
   530   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
   531   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
   532 
   533 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
   534 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   535 
   536 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
   537 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
   538 example:
   539 
   540   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
   541 
   542 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
   543 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
   544 
   545 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
   546 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
   547 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
   548 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
   549 
   550 
   551 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
   552 ----------------------------------
   553 
   554 *** General ***
   555 
   556 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
   557 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
   558 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
   559 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
   560 like this:
   561 
   562   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
   563 
   564 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
   565 
   566 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
   567 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
   568 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
   569 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
   570 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
   571 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
   572 
   573 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
   574 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
   575 the following package declarations:
   576 
   577   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
   578   \usepackage{textcomp}
   579 
   580 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
   581 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
   582 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
   583 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
   584 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
   585 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
   586 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
   587 
   588 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
   589 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
   590 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
   591 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
   592 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
   593 
   594 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
   595 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
   596 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
   597 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
   598 
   599 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
   600 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
   601 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
   602 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
   603 
   604   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
   605 
   606   eta_contract                  eta_contract
   607   show_brackets                 show_brackets
   608   show_sorts                    show_sorts
   609   show_types                    show_types
   610   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
   611   show_consts                   show_consts
   612   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
   613 
   614   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
   615   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
   616   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
   617 
   618   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
   619   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
   620 
   621   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
   622 
   623   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
   624   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
   625   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
   626   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
   627   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
   628 
   629 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
   630 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
   631 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
   632 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
   633 
   634 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
   635 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   636 
   637   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
   638   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
   639 
   640 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
   641 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
   642 float_token.
   643 
   644 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
   645 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
   646 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   647 
   648 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
   649 DejaVu Sans.
   650 
   651 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
   652 
   653 
   654 *** Pure ***
   655 
   656 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
   657 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
   658 time.
   659 
   660 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
   661 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   662 
   663 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
   664 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   665 
   666 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
   667 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
   668 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
   669 command already provided this functionality.
   670 
   671 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
   672 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
   673 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
   674 without interpretations.
   675 
   676 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
   677 in addition to interpretations in theories.
   678 
   679 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
   680 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
   681 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
   682 feature is still required for historical reasons.
   683 
   684 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
   685 'definition' instead.
   686 
   687 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
   688 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
   689 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
   690 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
   691 
   692 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
   693 constructors.
   694 
   695 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
   696 the local file system.
   697 
   698 
   699 *** HOL ***
   700 
   701 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
   702 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
   703 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
   704 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
   705 
   706   declare [[coercion f]]
   707 
   708 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
   709 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
   710 
   711   declare [[coercion_map map]]
   712 
   713 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
   714 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
   715 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
   716 other theories like this:
   717 
   718   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
   719 
   720 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
   721 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
   722 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
   723 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
   724 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
   725 for examples.
   726 
   727 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
   728 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   729 
   730 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
   731 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
   732 
   733 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
   734 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
   735 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
   736 
   737 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
   738 functorial structure of types.
   739 
   740 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
   741 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
   742 
   743 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
   744 languages.
   745 
   746 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
   747 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
   748 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   749 
   750 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
   751 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   752 
   753 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
   754 combinators any longer.
   755 
   756 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
   757 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
   758 
   759 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
   760 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
   761 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
   762 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
   763 
   764   record 'a foo = ...
   765   ...
   766   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
   767 
   768 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
   769 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
   770 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   771 
   772 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
   773 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
   774 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
   775 
   776 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
   777 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
   778 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
   779 
   780 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
   781 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   782 
   783 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
   784 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
   785 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
   786 independently.
   787 
   788 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
   789 counter example search.
   790 
   791 * Sledgehammer:
   792   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
   793     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
   794     sledgehammer").
   795   - Renamed commands:
   796     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
   797     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
   798     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
   799     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   800   - Renamed options:
   801     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
   802     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
   803     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
   804     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
   805     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   806 
   807 * Nitpick:
   808   - Renamed options:
   809     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
   810     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
   811     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   812   - Added support for partial quotient types.
   813   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
   814   - Added "whack" option.
   815   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
   816   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
   817   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
   818   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
   819     higher cardinalities.
   820   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
   821 
   822 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
   823 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
   824 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
   825 
   826     using [[metis_trace = true]]
   827 
   828 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
   829 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
   830 
   831 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
   832 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
   833 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
   834 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
   835 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
   836 "smt_solver".
   837 
   838 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
   839 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
   840 
   841 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
   842 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
   843 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
   844 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   845 
   846 * Changed SMT configuration options:
   847   - Renamed:
   848     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
   849     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
   850     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   851   - Added:
   852     smt_verbose
   853     smt_random_seed
   854     smt_datatypes
   855     smt_infer_triggers
   856     smt_monomorph_limit
   857     cvc3_options
   858     remote_cvc3_options
   859     remote_z3_options
   860     yices_options
   861 
   862 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
   863 header.
   864 
   865 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
   866 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
   867 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
   868 
   869   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
   870 
   871 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   872 
   873 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
   874 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   875 
   876 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   877 
   878 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
   879 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   880 
   881 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
   882 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
   883 
   884 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
   885 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   886 
   887 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
   888 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
   889 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   890 
   891 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   892 
   893 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
   894 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   895 
   896 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
   897 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   898 
   899 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
   900 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
   901 for congruent(2)).
   902 
   903 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
   904 
   905   types
   906     bool ~> HOL.bool
   907     nat ~> Nat.nat
   908 
   909   constants
   910     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
   911     True ~> HOL.True
   912     False ~> HOL.False
   913     op & ~> HOL.conj
   914     op | ~> HOL.disj
   915     op --> ~> HOL.implies
   916     op = ~> HOL.eq
   917     Not ~> HOL.Not
   918     The ~> HOL.The
   919     All ~> HOL.All
   920     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
   921     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
   922     Let ~> HOL.Let
   923     If ~> HOL.If
   924     Ball ~> Set.Ball
   925     Bex ~> Set.Bex
   926     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
   927     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
   928     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
   929     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
   930     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
   931     op : ~> Set.member
   932     Collect ~> Set.Collect
   933 
   934 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   935 
   936 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
   937 
   938     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
   939     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
   940     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
   941     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
   942     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
   943     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
   944     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
   945     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
   946 
   947 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   948 
   949 * More stylized fact names:
   950 
   951   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
   952   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
   953   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
   954   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
   955 
   956 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   957 
   958 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
   959 
   960   constants
   961     null ~> List.null
   962 
   963   facts
   964     mem_iff ~> member_def
   965     null_empty ~> null_def
   966 
   967 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
   968 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
   969 generation.
   970 
   971 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
   972 Haskell code.
   973 
   974 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
   975 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
   976 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   977 
   978 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
   979 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   980 
   981 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
   982 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
   983 
   984 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
   985 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
   986 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   987 
   988 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
   989 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   990 
   991 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
   992 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   993 
   994 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
   995 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
   996 referred to by its qualified name.
   997 
   998   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
   999   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  1000   product ~>  Enum.product
  1001 
  1002 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  1003 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  1004 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1005 
  1006 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  1007 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  1008 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  1009 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1010 
  1011 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  1012 sort_key.
  1013 
  1014 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  1015 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1016 
  1017 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  1018 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  1019 instead of finite cartesian products.
  1020 
  1021   types
  1022     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  1023               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  1024               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  1025         (depends on your needs)
  1026 
  1027   constants
  1028      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  1029      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  1030      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  1031 
  1032 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  1033 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  1034 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  1035 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1036 
  1037 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  1038 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  1039 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  1040 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  1041 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1042 
  1043 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  1044 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1045 
  1046 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  1047 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  1048 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  1049 
  1050 
  1051 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  1052 
  1053 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  1054 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  1055 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  1056 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  1057 compatibility.
  1058 
  1059 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  1060 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  1061 
  1062 
  1063 *** HOLCF ***
  1064 
  1065 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  1066 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  1067 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  1068 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1069 
  1070 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  1071 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  1072 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1073 
  1074   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  1075   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  1076   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  1077 
  1078 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  1079 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  1080 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1081 
  1082 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  1083 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  1084 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  1085 domain definition now works:
  1086 
  1087   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  1088 
  1089 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  1090 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  1091 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  1092 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  1093 
  1094   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  1095     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  1096 
  1097   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  1098 
  1099 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  1100 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  1101 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1102 
  1103 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  1104 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1105 
  1106 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  1107 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  1108 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  1109 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  1110 
  1111 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  1112 
  1113 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1114 
  1115 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1116 
  1117 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  1118 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1119 
  1120 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  1121 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  1122 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  1123 
  1124 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  1125 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  1126 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1127 
  1128 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  1129 still supported as an input translation.
  1130 
  1131 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  1132 
  1133   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  1134   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  1135   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1136   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  1137   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  1138   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  1139   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1140 
  1141 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  1142 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1143 
  1144   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  1145   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  1146   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  1147   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  1148   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  1149   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  1150 
  1151 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  1152 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1153 
  1154 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  1155 
  1156   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  1157   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  1158   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  1159   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  1160 
  1161 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1162 
  1163 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  1164 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1165 
  1166 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  1167 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1168 
  1169   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  1170   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  1171   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  1172   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  1173   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  1174   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  1175   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  1176   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  1177   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  1178   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  1179   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  1180   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  1181   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  1182   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  1183   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  1184   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  1185   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  1186   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  1187   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  1188   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  1189 
  1190 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1191 
  1192   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  1193   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  1194   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  1195   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  1196   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  1197   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  1198   box_less             ~> box_below
  1199   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  1200   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  1201   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  1202   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  1203   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  1204   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  1205   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  1206   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  1207   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  1208   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  1209   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  1210   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  1211   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  1212   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  1213   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  1214   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  1215   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  1216   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  1217   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  1218   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  1219   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  1220   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  1221   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  1222   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  1223   up_less              ~> up_below
  1224   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  1225   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  1226   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  1227   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  1228   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  1229   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  1230   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  1231   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  1232   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  1233   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  1234   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  1235   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  1236   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  1237 
  1238 
  1239 *** FOL and ZF ***
  1240 
  1241 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  1242 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1243 
  1244 
  1245 *** ML ***
  1246 
  1247 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  1248 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  1249 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  1250 
  1251 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  1252 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  1253 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  1254 
  1255 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  1256 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  1257 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  1258 
  1259 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  1260 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  1261 
  1262 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  1263 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  1264 
  1265 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  1266 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  1267 
  1268 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  1269 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  1270 
  1271 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  1272 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  1273 almost all situations.
  1274 
  1275 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  1276 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  1277 Isabelle/ML.
  1278 
  1279 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  1280 meaning.
  1281 
  1282 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  1283 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  1284 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  1285 
  1286 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  1287 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  1288 
  1289 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  1290 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  1291 
  1292 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  1293 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  1294 @{thms} for most purposes.
  1295 
  1296 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  1297 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  1298 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  1299 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  1300 configuration options.
  1301 
  1302 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  1303 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  1304 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  1305 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  1306 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  1307 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  1308 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  1309 
  1310 
  1311 
  1312 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  1313 ---------------------------------
  1314 
  1315 *** General ***
  1316 
  1317 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  1318 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  1319 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  1320 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  1321 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  1322 their full internal name.
  1323 
  1324 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  1325 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  1326 Some hints on upgrading:
  1327 
  1328   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  1329     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  1330     which are independent of this issue.
  1331 
  1332   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  1333     provides the following special forms:
  1334 
  1335       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  1336       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  1337       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  1338 
  1339     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  1340     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  1341     extra variables".
  1342 
  1343     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  1344     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  1345     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  1346     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  1347     "logic".
  1348 
  1349   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  1350     antiquotations:
  1351 
  1352       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  1353       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  1354       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  1355       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  1356 
  1357   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  1358     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  1359     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  1360     antiquotations.
  1361 
  1362 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  1363 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  1364 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  1365 diagnose syntax problems.
  1366 
  1367 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  1368 
  1369 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  1370 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  1371 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  1372 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  1373 
  1374 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  1375 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  1376 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  1377 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1378 
  1379 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  1380 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  1381 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  1382 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  1383 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1384 
  1385 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  1386 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  1387 
  1388 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  1389 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  1390 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  1391 
  1392   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  1393 
  1394 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  1395 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  1396 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  1397 
  1398 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  1399 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  1400 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1401 
  1402 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  1403 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  1404 
  1405 
  1406 *** Pure ***
  1407 
  1408 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  1409 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  1410 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  1411 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  1412 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  1413 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  1414 inspect proof terms.
  1415 
  1416 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  1417 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  1418 are added internally.  For example:
  1419 
  1420   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  1421 
  1422 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  1423 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1424 
  1425 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1426 
  1427 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  1428 'class' instead.
  1429 
  1430 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  1431 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  1432 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1433 
  1434 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  1435 invariants.
  1436 
  1437 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  1438 user space functionality any longer.
  1439 
  1440 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  1441 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  1442 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1443 
  1444 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  1445 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  1446 
  1447 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  1448 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  1449 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  1450 
  1451 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  1452 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  1453 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  1454 
  1455 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  1456 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1457 
  1458 
  1459 *** HOL ***
  1460 
  1461 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  1462 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  1463 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  1464 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  1465 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  1466 
  1467 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  1468 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  1469 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  1470 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  1471 
  1472   fun
  1473     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  1474   where
  1475     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  1476 
  1477   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  1478     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  1479 
  1480   quotient_definition
  1481     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  1482 
  1483 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  1484 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  1485 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  1486 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  1487 
  1488 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  1489 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  1490 
  1491 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  1492 separate HOL-SMT session.
  1493 
  1494 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  1495 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1496 
  1497 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  1498 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  1499 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  1500 
  1501 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  1502 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1503 
  1504 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  1505 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1506 
  1507 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  1508 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1509 
  1510 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  1511 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1512 
  1513 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  1514 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  1515 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1516 
  1517   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  1518   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  1519   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  1520   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  1521   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  1522   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  1523   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  1524   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  1525   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  1526   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  1527   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  1528   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  1529   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  1530   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  1531   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  1532   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  1533   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  1534   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  1535   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  1536   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  1537   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  1538   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  1539   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  1540   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  1541   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  1542   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  1543   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  1544   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  1545   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  1546   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  1547 
  1548 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  1549 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  1550 
  1551 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  1552 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  1553 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  1554 
  1555 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  1556 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  1557 
  1558 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  1559 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1560 
  1561 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  1562 
  1563 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  1564 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1565 
  1566 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  1567 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1568 
  1569 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1570 
  1571 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  1572 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  1573 
  1574 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  1575 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  1576 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  1577 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1578 
  1579 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  1580   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  1581   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  1582   - inverse, divide: Rings
  1583 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1584 
  1585 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  1586 lattices):
  1587 
  1588     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  1589     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  1590 
  1591     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  1592 
  1593     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  1594     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  1595     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  1596     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  1597     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  1598     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  1599     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  1600     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  1601     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  1602     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  1603     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  1604     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  1605     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  1606 
  1607     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  1608     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  1609     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  1610     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  1611     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  1612     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  1613     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  1614     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  1615     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  1616     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  1617     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  1618     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  1619     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  1620     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  1621     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  1622     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  1623     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  1624     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  1625 
  1626   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  1627   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  1628 
  1629     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  1630     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  1631     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  1632     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  1633     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  1634 
  1635 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1636 
  1637 * Refined field classes:
  1638   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  1639     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  1640     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  1641   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  1642 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1643 
  1644 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  1645   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  1646   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  1647   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  1648     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  1649   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  1650     equal_neg_zero.
  1651 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1652 
  1653 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  1654 sets to lattices:
  1655 
  1656   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  1657   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  1658   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  1659   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  1660   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  1661   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  1662   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  1663   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  1664   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  1665   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  1666 
  1667 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  1668 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  1669 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  1670 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  1671 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  1672 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1673 
  1674 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  1675 multiset order:
  1676 
  1677   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  1678     <= and <;
  1679   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  1680     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  1681     multiset_order;
  1682   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  1683     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  1684     generation;
  1685   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  1686     if needed.
  1687 
  1688 Renamed:
  1689 
  1690   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  1691   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  1692   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  1693 
  1694 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1695 
  1696 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  1697 
  1698 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  1699 
  1700 * Theory List: added transpose.
  1701 
  1702 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  1703 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  1704 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1705 
  1706   Constants:
  1707   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  1708   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  1709   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  1710   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  1711   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  1712   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  1713   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  1714   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  1715   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  1716   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  1717   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  1718   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  1719   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  1720 
  1721   Lemmas:
  1722   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  1723   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  1724   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  1725   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  1726   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  1727   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  1728   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  1729   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  1730   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  1731   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  1732   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  1733   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  1734   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  1735 
  1736 * Sledgehammer:
  1737   - Renamed ATP commands:
  1738     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  1739     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  1740     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  1741     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  1742     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  1743     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1744   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  1745   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  1746     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  1747   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  1748     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  1749     is still experimental.)
  1750   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  1751     full-typed mode.
  1752   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  1753 
  1754 * Nitpick:
  1755   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  1756   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  1757   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  1758     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  1759   - Added support for quotient types.
  1760   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  1761     constructs.
  1762   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  1763     "termination" proofs).
  1764   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  1765   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  1766   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  1767   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  1768     record getters.
  1769   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  1770   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  1771   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  1772   - Added "atoms" option.
  1773   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  1774     problems.
  1775   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  1776     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  1777     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1778   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  1779     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1780   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1781 
  1782 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  1783   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  1784   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  1785   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  1786   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  1787   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  1788   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  1789   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  1790   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  1791   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1792 
  1793 
  1794 *** HOLCF ***
  1795 
  1796 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  1797 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  1798 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1799 
  1800 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  1801 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  1802 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  1803 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1804 
  1805 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  1806 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  1807 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  1808 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  1809 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1810 
  1811 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  1812 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  1813 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1814 
  1815 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  1816 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1817 
  1818   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  1819   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  1820 
  1821 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  1822 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1823 
  1824   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  1825   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  1826   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  1827   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  1828   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  1829 
  1830 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  1831 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1832 
  1833   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  1834   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  1835   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  1836 
  1837 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  1838 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  1839 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1840 
  1841 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  1842 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1843 
  1844 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1845 
  1846 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  1847 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1848 
  1849 
  1850 *** ML ***
  1851 
  1852 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  1853 
  1854     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  1855     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  1856 
  1857     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  1858     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  1859     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  1860     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  1861 
  1862     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  1863     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  1864     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  1865 
  1866 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  1867 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  1868 
  1869 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  1870 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  1871 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  1872 
  1873 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  1874 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  1875 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  1876 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  1877 
  1878 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  1879 the context or even global references.
  1880 
  1881 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  1882 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  1883 
  1884 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  1885 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  1886 
  1887   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  1888   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  1889   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  1890   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  1891   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  1892   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  1893   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  1894   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  1895   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  1896   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  1897 
  1898 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  1899 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  1900 
  1901 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  1902 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  1903 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  1904 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  1905 pass the proper local context through the code!
  1906 
  1907 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  1908 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  1909 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  1910 Theory_Data version.
  1911 
  1912 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  1913 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  1914 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  1915 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  1916 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  1917 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  1918 explicitly in rare situations.
  1919 
  1920 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  1921 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  1922 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1923 
  1924 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  1925 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1926 
  1927 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  1928 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  1929 quite rare).
  1930 
  1931 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  1932 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1933 
  1934 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  1935 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  1936 terms.
  1937 
  1938 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  1939 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  1940 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  1941 
  1942 
  1943 *** System ***
  1944 
  1945 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  1946 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  1947 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  1948 
  1949 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  1950 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  1951 respectively.
  1952 
  1953 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  1954 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  1955 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  1956 prefers 64 bit if available:
  1957 
  1958   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  1959 
  1960 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  1961 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  1962 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  1963 component.
  1964 
  1965 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  1966 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  1967 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  1968 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  1969 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  1970 the user for manual installation.
  1971 
  1972 
  1973 
  1974 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  1975 -------------------------------------
  1976 
  1977 *** General ***
  1978 
  1979 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  1980 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  1981 
  1982 
  1983 *** Pure ***
  1984 
  1985 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  1986 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  1987 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  1988 
  1989 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  1990 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  1991 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  1992 
  1993 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  1994 interpretation.
  1995 
  1996 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  1997 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1998 
  1999 
  2000 *** Document preparation ***
  2001 
  2002 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  2003 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  2004 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  2005 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  2006 
  2007 
  2008 *** HOL ***
  2009 
  2010 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  2011 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  2012 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  2013 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  2014 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  2015 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  2016 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  2017 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  2018 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  2019 
  2020 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  2021 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  2022 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  2023 
  2024 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  2025 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  2026 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  2027 
  2028 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  2029 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  2030 
  2031 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  2032 
  2033 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  2034 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  2035 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  2036 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  2037 
  2038 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  2039 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  2040 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  2041 "mirabelle" utility.
  2042 
  2043 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  2044 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  2045 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  2046 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  2047 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  2048 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  2049 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  2050 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  2051 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  2052 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  2053 
  2054 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  2055 procedure only.
  2056 
  2057 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  2058 
  2059 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  2060 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  2061 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  2062 that fail later.
  2063 
  2064 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  2065 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  2066 
  2067 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  2068 the same method as the approximation method.
  2069 
  2070 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  2071 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  2072 series expansion.
  2073 
  2074 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  2075 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  2076 
  2077 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  2078 reals.
  2079 
  2080 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  2081 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  2082 
  2083 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  2084 fixpoint theorem.
  2085 
  2086 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  2087   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  2088     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  2089   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  2090     accordingly
  2091   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  2092     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  2093   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  2094     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  2095 
  2096 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  2097 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  2098 lattice.
  2099 
  2100 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  2101 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  2102 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  2103 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  2104 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  2105 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  2106 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2107 
  2108 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  2109   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  2110     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  2111   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  2112     le_inf_iff
  2113   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  2114     sup_aci)
  2115   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  2116   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  2117   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  2118     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  2119     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  2120     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  2121     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  2122     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  2123     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  2124     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  2125     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  2126     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  2127     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  2128   - authentic syntax for
  2129     Set.Pow
  2130     Set.image
  2131   - mere abbreviations:
  2132     Set.empty               (for bot)
  2133     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  2134     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  2135     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  2136     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  2137     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  2138     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  2139     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  2140   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  2141 
  2142 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  2143 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  2144 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  2145 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  2146 
  2147 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  2148 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  2149 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2150 
  2151 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  2152 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2153 
  2154 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  2155 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  2156 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  2157 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2158 
  2159 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  2160 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2161 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  2162 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  2163 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  2164 
  2165 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  2166 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  2167 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2168 
  2169 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  2170 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2171 
  2172 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  2173 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  2174 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  2175 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  2176 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  2177 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  2178 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  2179 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2180 
  2181 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  2182     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  2183     code_post       replaces    code post
  2184     etc.
  2185   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2186 
  2187 * Renamed methods:
  2188     sizechange -> size_change
  2189     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  2190   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2191 
  2192 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  2193 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  2194 
  2195 * Renamed theorems:
  2196     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  2197     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  2198     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  2199     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  2200     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  2201   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2202 
  2203 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  2204 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2205 
  2206 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  2207 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2208 
  2209 
  2210 *** HOLCF ***
  2211 
  2212 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  2213 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  2214 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  2215 
  2216 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  2217 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  2218 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  2219 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  2220 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  2221 
  2222 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  2223 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  2224 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  2225 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  2226 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  2227 
  2228 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  2229 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  2230 constructor are pre-configured.
  2231 
  2232 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  2233 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  2234 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  2235 
  2236 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  2237 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  2238 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  2239 as well.)
  2240 
  2241 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  2242 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  2243 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  2244 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  2245 examples.
  2246 
  2247 
  2248 *** ML ***
  2249 
  2250 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  2251 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  2252 
  2253 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  2254 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  2255 position, logical grouping etc.
  2256 
  2257 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  2258 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  2259 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  2260 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  2261 
  2262 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  2263 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  2264 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  2265 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  2266 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  2267 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  2268 
  2269 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  2270 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  2271 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  2272 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  2273 experiments with references.
  2274 
  2275 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  2276 parallel tactical reasoning.
  2277 
  2278 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  2279 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  2280 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  2281 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  2282 
  2283 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  2284 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  2285 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  2286 
  2287 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  2288 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  2289 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2290 
  2291 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2292 
  2293 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  2294 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2295 
  2296 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  2297 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  2298 
  2299 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  2300 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  2301 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  2302 
  2303 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  2304 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  2305 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2306 
  2307 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  2308 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  2309 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  2310 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2311 
  2312 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2313 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  2314 instead of global theory.
  2315 
  2316 
  2317 *** System ***
  2318 
  2319 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  2320 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  2321 usedir option -q.
  2322 
  2323 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  2324 also the system manual.
  2325 
  2326 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  2327 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  2328 
  2329 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  2330 this is always enabled.
  2331 
  2332 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  2333 
  2334 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  2335 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  2336 currently supported on Linux only.
  2337 
  2338 
  2339 
  2340 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  2341 --------------------------------
  2342 
  2343 *** General ***
  2344 
  2345 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  2346 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  2347 
  2348   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  2349     "isatool."
  2350 
  2351   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  2352     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  2353 
  2354   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  2355     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  2356 
  2357 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  2358 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  2359 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  2360 
  2361 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  2362 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  2363 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  2364 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  2365 via "isabelle emacs".
  2366 
  2367 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  2368 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  2369 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  2370 
  2371 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  2372 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  2373 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  2374 
  2375 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  2376 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  2377 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  2378 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  2379 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  2380 
  2381 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  2382 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  2383 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  2384 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  2385 
  2386 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  2387 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  2388 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  2389 
  2390 
  2391 *** Pure ***
  2392 
  2393 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  2394 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  2395 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  2396 
  2397 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  2398 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  2399 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  2400 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  2401 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  2402 
  2403 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  2404 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  2405 useful in locale declarations.
  2406 
  2407 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  2408 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  2409 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  2410 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  2411 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  2412 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  2413 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  2414 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  2415 no longer generated.
  2416 
  2417 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  2418 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  2419 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  2420 
  2421 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  2422 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  2423 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  2424 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  2425 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  2426 
  2427 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2428 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  2429 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  2430 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  2431 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  2432 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  2433 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  2434 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  2435 
  2436 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  2437 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  2438 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  2439 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  2440 
  2441 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2442 
  2443 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  2444 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  2445 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  2446 
  2447 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  2448 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2449 
  2450 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  2451 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  2452 in HOL, write
  2453 
  2454     class foo = ...
  2455 
  2456 instead of
  2457 
  2458     class foo = type + ...
  2459 
  2460 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  2461 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2462 
  2463 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  2464 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  2465 
  2466 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  2467 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  2468 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  2469 
  2470 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  2471 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  2472 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  2473 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  2474 directly in regular applications.
  2475 
  2476 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  2477 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  2478 
  2479 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  2480 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  2481 
  2482 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  2483 theory context.
  2484 
  2485 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  2486 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2487 
  2488 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  2489 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  2490 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  2491 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  2492 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  2493 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  2494 
  2495   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  2496 
  2497 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  2498 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  2499 normalization.
  2500 
  2501 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  2502 addressing etc.
  2503 
  2504 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  2505 
  2506   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  2507   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  2508 
  2509 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2510 
  2511   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  2512      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  2513      parts of the code generator framework).
  2514 
  2515   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  2516      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  2517      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  2518 
  2519 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2520 
  2521 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  2522 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2523 
  2524 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  2525 patterns, e.g.
  2526 
  2527     find_consts "_ => bool"
  2528 
  2529 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  2530 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  2531 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  2532 hyphen:
  2533 
  2534     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  2535 
  2536 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  2537 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  2538 
  2539 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  2540 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  2541 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  2542 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  2543 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  2544 higher-order unification.
  2545 
  2546 
  2547 *** Document preparation ***
  2548 
  2549 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  2550 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  2551 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  2552 
  2553 
  2554 *** HOL ***
  2555 
  2556 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  2557 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  2558 
  2559 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  2560 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  2561 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  2562 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  2563 Main, as before.
  2564 
  2565 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  2566 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  2567 
  2568 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  2569 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  2570 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  2571 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  2572 
  2573 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  2574 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  2575 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  2576 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  2577 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  2578 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  2579 
  2580 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  2581 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  2582 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  2583 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  2584 
  2585 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  2586 menu.
  2587 
  2588 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  2589 (contains the empty clause).
  2590 
  2591 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  2592 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  2593 
  2594 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  2595 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  2596 
  2597 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  2598 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  2599 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2600 
  2601 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  2602 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  2603 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  2604 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  2605 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  2606 
  2607 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  2608 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  2609 
  2610 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  2611 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  2612 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  2613 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  2614 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  2615 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  2616 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  2617 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  2618 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  2619 
  2620 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  2621 
  2622 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  2623 
  2624 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  2625 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2626 
  2627 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  2628 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  2629 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  2630 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  2631 
  2632 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  2633 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  2634 
  2635     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  2636     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  2637     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  2638     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  2639     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  2640     Union ~>    Set.Union
  2641     {} ~>       Set.empty
  2642     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  2643 
  2644 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  2645 theory Set.
  2646 
  2647 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  2648 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  2649 
  2650 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  2651 
  2652 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  2653 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  2654 
  2655 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  2656 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  2657 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  2658 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  2659 allowed. For examples see
  2660 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  2661 
  2662 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  2663 
  2664 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  2665 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2666 
  2667 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  2668 structure:
  2669 
  2670     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  2671     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2672     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2673     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2674     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2675     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2676     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  2677     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2678     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2679     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2680     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2681     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2682     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2683     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2684     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2685     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2686     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  2687     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  2688     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2689     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2690     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2691     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2692     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2693     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2694     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2695     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2696     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2697     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2698     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2699     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2700     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  2701     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  2702     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2703 
  2704     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2705     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2706     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2707     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  2708     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2709     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2710     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2711     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2712     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2713     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2714 
  2715     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2716     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2717     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2718     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2719     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2720     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2721 
  2722 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  2723 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  2724 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  2725 
  2726 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  2727 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  2728 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  2729 
  2730 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  2731 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2732 
  2733 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  2734 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  2735 
  2736 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  2737 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  2738 proofs, e.g.
  2739 
  2740   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  2741 
  2742 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  2743 
  2744 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  2745 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  2746 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2747 
  2748 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  2749 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  2750 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2751 
  2752 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  2753 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  2754 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  2755 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2756 
  2757 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  2758 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  2759 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  2760 preorder_class.*.
  2761 
  2762 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  2763 "diag" to "Id_on".
  2764 
  2765 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  2766 
  2767   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  2768 
  2769 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  2770 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  2771 fold_image.
  2772 
  2773 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  2774 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  2775 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  2776 the former will disappear at some point.
  2777 
  2778 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  2779 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  2780 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  2781 
  2782 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  2783 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  2784 realpow_0      -> power_0
  2785 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  2786 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  2787 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  2788 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  2789 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  2790 
  2791 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  2792 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  2793 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  2794 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  2795 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  2796 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  2797 
  2798     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  2799     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  2800     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  2801     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  2802     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  2803     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  2804     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  2805 
  2806 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  2807 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2808 rename old lemmas as follows:
  2809 
  2810 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  2811 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  2812 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  2813 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  2814 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  2815 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  2816 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  2817 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  2818 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  2819 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  2820 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  2821 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  2822 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  2823 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  2824 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  2825 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  2826 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  2827 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  2828 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  2829 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  2830 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  2831 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  2832 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  2833 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  2834 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  2835 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  2836 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  2837 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  2838 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  2839 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  2840 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  2841 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  2842 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  2843 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  2844 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  2845 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  2846 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  2847 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  2848 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  2849 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  2850 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  2851 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  2852 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  2853 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  2854 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  2855 
  2856 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2857 
  2858 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  2859 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  2860 
  2861 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  2862 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  2863 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  2864 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  2865 
  2866 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  2867 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  2868 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  2869 theory RealVector.
  2870 
  2871 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  2872 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  2873 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  2874 and inner products are included.
  2875 
  2876 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  2877 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  2878 supported.
  2879 
  2880 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  2881 first diagonalization argument.
  2882 
  2883 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  2884 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  2885 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  2886 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2887 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  2888 
  2889     hide (open) const gcd
  2890     abbreviation gcd where
  2891       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  2892     notation (output)
  2893       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  2894 
  2895 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  2896 
  2897 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  2898 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  2899 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2900 
  2901 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  2902 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  2903 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  2904 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  2905 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  2906 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  2907 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  2908 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  2909 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  2910 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  2911 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  2912 cases.
  2913 
  2914 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  2915 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  2916 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  2917 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  2918 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  2919 
  2920     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  2921     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  2922     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  2923     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  2924     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  2925 
  2926 
  2927 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2928 
  2929 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  2930 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  2931 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  2932 
  2933 * New theory of factorial domains.
  2934 
  2935 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  2936 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  2937 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  2938 
  2939 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  2940 
  2941 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  2942 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  2943 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  2944 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  2945 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  2946 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  2947 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  2948 
  2949 
  2950 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  2951 
  2952 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  2953 
  2954 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  2955 theory targets.
  2956 
  2957 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  2958 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  2959 'inductive' etc.
  2960 
  2961 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  2962 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  2963 
  2964 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  2965 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  2966 
  2967 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  2968 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  2969 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  2970 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  2971 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  2972 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  2973 the algorithm W:
  2974 
  2975  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  2976  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  2977          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  2978 
  2979 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  2980 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  2981 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  2982 
  2983 
  2984 *** HOLCF ***
  2985 
  2986 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  2987 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  2988 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  2989 
  2990 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  2991 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  2992 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  2993 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  2994 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2995 
  2996 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  2997 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  2998 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2999 
  3000 
  3001 *** ZF ***
  3002 
  3003 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  3004 
  3005 
  3006 *** ML ***
  3007 
  3008 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  3009 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  3010 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  3011 5.2.1!
  3012 
  3013 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  3014 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  3015 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  3016 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  3017 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  3018 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  3019 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3020 
  3021 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  3022 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  3023 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  3024 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  3025 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  3026 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  3027 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  3028 
  3029 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  3030 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  3031 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  3032 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  3033 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  3034 
  3035 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  3036 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  3037 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  3038 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  3039 Method.add_method.
  3040 
  3041 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  3042 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  3043 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  3044 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  3045 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  3046 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  3047 
  3048 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  3049 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  3050 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  3051 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  3052 examples.
  3053 
  3054 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  3055 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  3056 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  3057 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  3058 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  3059 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  3060 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  3061 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  3062 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  3063 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  3064 
  3065 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  3066 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  3067 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  3068 
  3069 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  3070 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  3071 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  3072 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  3073 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  3074 resort for legacy applications.
  3075 
  3076 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  3077 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  3078 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  3079 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  3080 explicit runtime argument.
  3081 
  3082 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  3083 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  3084 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  3085 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  3086 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3087 
  3088 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  3089 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  3090 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  3091 theory state.
  3092 
  3093 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  3094 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  3095 
  3096   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  3097   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  3098   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  3099   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  3100   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  3101   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  3102   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  3103   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  3104   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  3105   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  3106 
  3107 
  3108 *** System ***
  3109 
  3110 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  3111 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  3112 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  3113 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  3114 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  3115 
  3116 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  3117 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  3118 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  3119 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  3120 
  3121 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  3122 
  3123 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  3124 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  3125 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  3126 prover operations.
  3127 
  3128 
  3129 
  3130 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  3131 -------------------------------
  3132 
  3133 *** General ***
  3134 
  3135 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  3136 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  3137 
  3138 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  3139 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  3140 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  3141 provides a proper context already.
  3142 
  3143 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  3144 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  3145 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  3146 
  3147 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  3148 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  3149 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  3150 swap theory imports.
  3151 
  3152 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  3153 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  3154 
  3155 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  3156 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3157 white space without escapes.
  3158 
  3159 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  3160 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  3161 "foo_bar".
  3162 
  3163 
  3164 *** Pure ***
  3165 
  3166 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  3167 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  3168 
  3169 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  3170 There are three ways of invoking it:
  3171 
  3172 (1) unused_thms
  3173      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  3174 
  3175 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  3176      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  3177      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  3178 
  3179 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  3180      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  3181      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  3182      their ancestors.
  3183 
  3184 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  3185 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  3186 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  3187 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  3188 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  3189 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  3190 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  3191 
  3192 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  3193 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  3194 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  3195 
  3196 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  3197 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  3198 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  3199 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  3200 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  3201 
  3202 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  3203 
  3204 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  3205 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  3206 update of theories within ML code.
  3207 
  3208 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  3209 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  3210 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  3211 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  3212 
  3213 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  3214 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  3215 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  3216 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3217 
  3218 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  3219 
  3220 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  3221 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  3222 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  3223 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  3224 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  3225 
  3226 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  3227 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  3228 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  3229 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  3230 situations.
  3231 
  3232 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  3233 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  3234 proof text.
  3235 
  3236 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  3237 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  3238 
  3239 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  3240 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  3241 predicates.
  3242 
  3243 
  3244 *** Document preparation ***
  3245 
  3246 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  3247 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  3248 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  3249 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  3250 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  3251 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  3252 
  3253 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  3254 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  3255 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  3256 
  3257 
  3258 *** HOL ***
  3259 
  3260 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  3261 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  3262 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  3263 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  3264 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  3265 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  3266 
  3267 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  3268 with multithreading.
  3269 
  3270 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  3271 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  3272 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  3273 
  3274 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  3275 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  3276 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  3277 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3278 
  3279 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  3280 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  3281 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  3282 and makes them available separately.  See
  3283 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  3284 
  3285 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  3286 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  3287 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  3288 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  3289 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  3290 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  3291 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  3292 the declared rules.
  3293 
  3294 This setup also deals with rules like 
  3295 
  3296   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  3297 
  3298 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  3299 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  3300 
  3301 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  3302 
  3303   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  3304 
  3305   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  3306     definitions on => and bool.
  3307 
  3308   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  3309     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  3310     the following theorems have been renamed:
  3311 
  3312       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  3313       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  3314       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  3315       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  3316       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  3317       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  3318       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  3319       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  3320 
  3321   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  3322     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  3323     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  3324 
  3325   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  3326     The proof pattern
  3327 
  3328       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  3329       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  3330 
  3331     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  3332     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  3333 
  3334       have "EX S. P S"
  3335       proof
  3336         show "P S" <...>
  3337       qed
  3338 
  3339   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  3340     The proof pattern
  3341 
  3342       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  3343       also have "S = T" <...>
  3344       finally have "P T" .
  3345 
  3346     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  3347     must be replaced by something like
  3348 
  3349       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  3350       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  3351       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  3352 
  3353   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  3354     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  3355 
  3356       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  3357 
  3358     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  3359     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  3360     type of the form
  3361 
  3362       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  3363 
  3364     rather than
  3365 
  3366       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  3367 
  3368 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  3369 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  3370 
  3371 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3372 
  3373 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  3374 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  3375 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3376 
  3377 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  3378 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3379 
  3380 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  3381 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3382 
  3383 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  3384 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  3385 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3386 
  3387 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  3388 the same name in theory Orderings:
  3389 
  3390   less_trans
  3391   less_linear
  3392   le_imp_less_or_eq
  3393   le_less_trans
  3394   less_le_trans
  3395   less_not_sym
  3396   less_asym
  3397 
  3398 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  3399 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  3400 and different variable names.
  3401 
  3402 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  3403 
  3404 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  3405 finite maps.
  3406 
  3407 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  3408 
  3409 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  3410 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  3411 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  3412 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  3413 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  3414 accordingly.
  3415 
  3416 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  3417 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  3418 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  3419 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  3420 
  3421 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  3422 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  3423 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  3424 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  3425 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  3426 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3427 
  3428 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  3429 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3430 
  3431 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  3432 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  3433 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  3434 
  3435 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  3436 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3437 
  3438 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  3439 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  3440 
  3441 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  3442 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3443 
  3444 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  3445 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3446 
  3447 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  3448 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  3449 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3450 
  3451 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  3452 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3453 
  3454 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  3455 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  3456 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  3457 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  3458 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  3459 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3460 
  3461 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  3462 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  3463 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  3464 
  3465 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  3466 
  3467 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  3468 
  3469 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  3470 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  3471 well-orders on sets and on types.
  3472 
  3473 
  3474 *** ZF ***
  3475 
  3476 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  3477 same session:
  3478 
  3479   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  3480   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  3481   Int       -> Int_ZF
  3482   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  3483   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  3484   List      -> List_ZF
  3485   Main      -> Main_ZF
  3486 
  3487 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  3488 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  3489 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  3490 
  3491 
  3492 *** ML ***
  3493 
  3494 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  3495 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  3496 
  3497 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  3498 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  3499 
  3500 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  3501 
  3502 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  3503 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  3504 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  3505 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  3506 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3507 
  3508 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  3509 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  3510 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  3511 
  3512 
  3513 *** System ***
  3514 
  3515 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  3516 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  3517 
  3518 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  3519 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  3520 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  3521 
  3522 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  3523 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  3524 
  3525 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  3526 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  3527 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  3528 
  3529 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  3530 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  3531 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  3532 
  3533 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  3534 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  3535 
  3536 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  3537 way of changing the user's settings is via
  3538 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  3539 script.
  3540 
  3541 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  3542 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  3543 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  3544 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  3545 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  3546 
  3547 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  3548 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  3549 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  3550 
  3551 
  3552 
  3553 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  3554 -----------------------------------
  3555 
  3556 *** General ***
  3557 
  3558 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  3559 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  3560 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3561 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  3562 
  3563 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  3564 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  3565 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3566 
  3567 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  3568 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  3569 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  3570 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3571 
  3572 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  3573 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  3574 quotes.
  3575 
  3576 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  3577 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  3578 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  3579 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  3580 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  3581 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  3582 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  3583 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  3584 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  3585 
  3586 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  3587 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  3588 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  3589 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  3590 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  3591 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  3592 
  3593 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  3594 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  3595 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  3596 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  3597 
  3598 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  3599 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  3600 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  3601 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  3602 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  3603 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  3604 
  3605 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  3606 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  3607 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  3608 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  3609 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  3610 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  3611 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  3612 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  3613 
  3614 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  3615 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  3616 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  3617 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  3618 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  3619 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  3620 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  3621 
  3622 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  3623 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  3624 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  3625 
  3626 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  3627 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  3628 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  3629 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  3630 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  3631 limit is imposed.
  3632 
  3633 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  3634 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  3635 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  3636 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  3637 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  3638 and scalability.
  3639 
  3640 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  3641 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  3642 
  3643 
  3644 *** Document preparation ***
  3645 
  3646 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  3647 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  3648 current context.
  3649 
  3650 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  3651 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  3652 
  3653 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  3654 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  3655 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  3656 
  3657 
  3658 *** Pure ***
  3659 
  3660 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  3661 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  3662 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  3663 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  3664 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  3665 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  3666 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  3667 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  3668 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  3669 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  3670 
  3671 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  3672 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  3673 sketch:
  3674 
  3675     internal compilation:
  3676         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  3677     writing SML code to a file:
  3678         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  3679     writing OCaml code to a file:
  3680         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  3681     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  3682         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  3683 
  3684     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  3685         method ``eval''
  3686 
  3687 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  3688 
  3689 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  3690 
  3691     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  3692     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  3693     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  3694     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  3695 
  3696 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  3697 
  3698     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  3699       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  3700 
  3701     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  3702       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  3703 
  3704     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  3705       {(target)}+
  3706         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  3707 
  3708     code_class <and_list of classes>
  3709       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  3710         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  3711 
  3712 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  3713 
  3714 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  3715 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  3716 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  3717 codegen".
  3718 
  3719 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  3720 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  3721 annotations).
  3722 
  3723 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  3724 syntax.
  3725 
  3726 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  3727 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  3728 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  3729 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  3730 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  3731 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  3732 
  3733 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  3734 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  3735 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  3736 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  3737 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  3738 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  3739 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  3740 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  3741 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  3742 equations, see section "definitions".
  3743 
  3744 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  3745 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  3746 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  3747 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  3748 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  3749 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  3750 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  3751 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  3752 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  3753 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  3754 
  3755 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  3756 configuration options:
  3757 
  3758   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  3759   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  3760   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  3761   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  3762   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  3763   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  3764   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  3765   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  3766   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  3767 
  3768 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  3769 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  3770 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  3771 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  3772 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  3773 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  3774 order.
  3775 
  3776 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  3777 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  3778 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  3779 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  3780 context encountered later on.
  3781 
  3782 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  3783 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  3784 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  3785 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  3786 
  3787 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  3788 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  3789 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  3790 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  3791 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  3792 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  3793 
  3794 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  3795 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  3796 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  3797 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  3798 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  3799 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  3800 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  3801 more permissive.
  3802 
  3803 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  3804 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  3805 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  3806 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  3807 maintainability of proof texts.
  3808 
  3809 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  3810 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  3811 
  3812   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  3813   then guess x and y by clarify
  3814 
  3815 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  3816 proof tools being involved here.
  3817 
  3818 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  3819 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  3820 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  3821 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  3822 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  3823 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  3824 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  3825 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  3826 
  3827 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  3828 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  3829 certain special cases of literal facts:
  3830 
  3831   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  3832   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  3833   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  3834   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  3835 
  3836 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  3837 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  3838 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  3839 
  3840 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  3841 both named and unnamed ones.
  3842 
  3843 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  3844 
  3845   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  3846 
  3847 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  3848 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  3849 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  3850 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  3851 
  3852 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  3853 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  3854 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  3855 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  3856 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  3857 
  3858 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  3859 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  3860 
  3861 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  3862 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  3863 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  3864 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  3865 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  3866 originally first one.
  3867 
  3868 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  3869 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  3870 expected.
  3871 
  3872 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  3873 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  3874 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  3875 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  3876 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  3877 
  3878   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  3879     assumes "EX x. P x"
  3880     obtains x where "P x"
  3881 
  3882   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  3883     assumes "A & B"
  3884     obtains A and B
  3885 
  3886   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  3887     assumes "A | B"
  3888     obtains
  3889       A
  3890     | B
  3891 
  3892 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  3893 explicitly:
  3894 
  3895   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  3896     obtains "~ thesis"
  3897 
  3898   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  3899     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  3900 
  3901 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  3902 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  3903 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  3904 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  3905 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  3906 case_names).
  3907 
  3908 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  3909 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  3910 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  3911 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  3912 
  3913 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  3914 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  3915 top-level lemma.
  3916 
  3917 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  3918 introduction rule (default "that").
  3919 
  3920 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3921 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  3922 to occur.
  3923 
  3924 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  3925 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  3926 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  3927 representations independently of name spaces.
  3928 
  3929 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  3930 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  3931 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3932 
  3933 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  3934 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  3935 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  3936 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  3937 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  3938 current context.
  3939 
  3940 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  3941 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  3942 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  3943 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  3944 
  3945   axiomatization
  3946     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  3947     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  3948 
  3949   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  3950   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  3951 
  3952   abbreviation
  3953     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  3954     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  3955 
  3956 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  3957 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  3958 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  3959 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  3960 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  3961 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  3962 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  3963 
  3964 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  3965 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  3966 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  3967 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  3968 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  3969 
  3970 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  3971 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  3972 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  3973 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  3974 
  3975 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  3976 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  3977 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  3978 
  3979   definition "K x _ = x"
  3980 
  3981   inductive conj for A B
  3982   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  3983 
  3984 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  3985 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  3986 abbreviations on output.
  3987 
  3988 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  3989 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  3990 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  3991 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  3992 
  3993 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  3994 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  3995 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  3996 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  3997 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  3998 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  3999 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  4000 
  4001 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  4002 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  4003 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  4004 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  4005 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  4006 
  4007 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  4008 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  4009 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  4010 
  4011 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  4012 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  4013 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  4014 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  4015 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  4016 
  4017   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  4018     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  4019 
  4020 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  4021 definition specification element in the context of locale
  4022 partial_order.
  4023 
  4024 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  4025 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  4026 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  4027 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  4028 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  4029 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  4030 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  4031 examples.
  4032 
  4033 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  4034 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  4035 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  4036 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  4037 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  4038 
  4039 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  4040 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  4041 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  4042 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  4043 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  4044 
  4045   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  4046   (induct set: foo bar)
  4047   (induct pred: foo bar)
  4048   (induct type: foo bar)
  4049 
  4050 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  4051 new format.
  4052 
  4053 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  4054 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  4055 
  4056 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  4057 considered a legacy feature.
  4058 
  4059 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  4060 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4061 
  4062 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  4063 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  4064 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  4065 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  4066   
  4067 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  4068 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  4069 manipulating the claset.
  4070 
  4071 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  4072 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  4073 least one premise.
  4074 
  4075 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  4076 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  4077 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  4078 rule steps.
  4079 
  4080 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  4081 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  4082 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  4083 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  4084 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  4085 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  4086 
  4087 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  4088 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  4089 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  4090 
  4091 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  4092 the graph browser tool.
  4093 
  4094 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  4095 default; use '!' option for full details.
  4096 
  4097 
  4098 *** HOL ***
  4099 
  4100 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  4101 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  4102 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  4103 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  4104 multi-threading.
  4105   
  4106 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  4107 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  4108 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  4109 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  4110 work with multi-threading.
  4111 
  4112 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  4113 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  4114 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  4115 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  4116 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  4117 
  4118 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  4119 
  4120 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  4121 equality.
  4122 
  4123 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  4124 the new 'class' package:
  4125 
  4126     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  4127     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  4128     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  4129     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  4130     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  4131     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  4132     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  4133     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  4134     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  4135     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  4136     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  4137     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  4138     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  4139     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  4140     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  4141     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  4142     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  4143     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  4144     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  4145     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  4146 
  4147 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  4148 
  4149 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  4150 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  4151 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  4152 names.
  4153 
  4154 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  4155 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  4156 
  4157 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  4158 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  4159 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  4160 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  4161 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  4162 
  4163 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  4164 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  4165 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  4166 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  4167 
  4168 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  4169 
  4170 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  4171 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  4172 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  4173 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  4174 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4175 
  4176 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  4177 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4178 
  4179 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  4180 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  4181 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4182 
  4183 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  4184 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  4185 
  4186 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  4187 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  4188 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  4189 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  4190 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  4191 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  4192 in the current context.
  4193 
  4194 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  4195 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  4196 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4197 
  4198 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  4199 with new class dense_linear_order.
  4200 
  4201 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  4202 
  4203     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  4204     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  4205 
  4206     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  4207       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  4208     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  4209     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  4210 
  4211     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  4212     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  4213 
  4214   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  4215 
  4216     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  4217     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  4218     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  4219     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  4220     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  4221     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  4222     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  4223     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  4224     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  4225     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  4226     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  4227     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  4228     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  4229     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  4230     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  4231     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  4232     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  4233     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  4234     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  4235     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  4236     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  4237     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  4238     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  4239     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  4240     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  4241     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  4242     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  4243     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  4244     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  4245     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  4246     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  4247     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  4248     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  4249     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  4250     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  4251 
  4252     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  4253     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  4254     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  4255     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  4256     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  4257     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  4258     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  4259     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  4260     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  4261     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  4262     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  4263     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  4264     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  4265     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  4266     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  4267     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  4268     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  4269 
  4270     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  4271     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  4272     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  4273     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  4274     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  4275     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  4276     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  4277     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  4278     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  4279     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  4280     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  4281     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  4282     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  4283     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  4284     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  4285     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  4286     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  4287     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  4288     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  4289     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  4290     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  4291     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  4292     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  4293     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  4294     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  4295     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  4296     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  4297     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  4298 
  4299     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  4300     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  4301     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  4302     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  4303     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  4304     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  4305 
  4306     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  4307     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  4308     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  4309     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  4310 
  4311     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  4312     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  4313 
  4314     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  4315     join_max                ~> sup_max
  4316 
  4317 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  4318 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  4319 
  4320 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  4321 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  4322 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  4323 "*.size".
  4324 
  4325 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  4326 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4327 
  4328 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  4329 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  4330 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4331 
  4332 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4333 
  4334 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  4335 machine words, with arithemtic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  4336 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  4337 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  4338 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  4339 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  4340 numerals on all operations.
  4341 
  4342 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  4343 
  4344 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  4345 
  4346 * Code generator library theories:
  4347   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  4348     languages.
  4349   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  4350     languages.
  4351   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  4352     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  4353   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  4354   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  4355     denominator).
  4356   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  4357     representable by rational numbers.
  4358   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  4359     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  4360     includes Code_Integer.
  4361   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  4362     target-language built-in integers.
  4363   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  4364     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  4365 
  4366 * New package for inductive predicates
  4367 
  4368   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  4369 
  4370     inductive
  4371       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  4372       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  4373     where
  4374       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  4375     | ...
  4376 
  4377   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  4378 
  4379     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  4380 
  4381     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  4382     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  4383 
  4384     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  4385     intros
  4386       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  4387       ...
  4388 
  4389   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  4390   sets to be defined with the new package via
  4391 
  4392     inductive_set
  4393       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  4394       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  4395     where
  4396       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  4397     | ...
  4398 
  4399   or
  4400 
  4401     inductive_set
  4402       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  4403       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  4404       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  4405     where
  4406       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  4407     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  4408     | ...
  4409 
  4410   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  4411 
  4412   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  4413   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  4414 
  4415   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4416 
  4417   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  4418     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  4419     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  4420     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  4421     than before the actual inductive definition.
  4422 
  4423   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  4424     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  4425     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  4426     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  4427     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  4428     statements of the form
  4429 
  4430       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  4431 
  4432     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  4433     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  4434 
  4435       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  4436 
  4437   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  4438 
  4439       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  4440         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  4441         ==> ... ==> P
  4442 
  4443     for predicates and
  4444 
  4445       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  4446         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  4447         ==> ... ==> P
  4448 
  4449     for sets rather than
  4450 
  4451       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  4452         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  4453         ==> ... ==> P
  4454 
  4455     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  4456     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  4457     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  4458 
  4459   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  4460     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  4461     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  4462 
  4463 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  4464 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  4465 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  4466 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  4467 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  4468 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  4469 
  4470 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  4471 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures. 
  4472 
  4473 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  4474 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  4475 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  4476 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  4477 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  4478 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  4479 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  4480 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  4481 variable.
  4482 
  4483 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  4484 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  4485 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  4486 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4487   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  4488   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  4489 
  4490 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  4491 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  4492 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  4493 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  4494 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  4495 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  4496 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  4497 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  4498 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  4499 
  4500 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  4501 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  4502 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  4503 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  4504 rat, etc.
  4505 
  4506 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  4507 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  4508 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  4509 
  4510 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  4511 
  4512 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  4513 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  4514 
  4515 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  4516 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  4517 
  4518 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  4519 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  4520 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4521 
  4522 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  4523 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  4524 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4525 
  4526 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  4527 
  4528 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  4529 
  4530 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  4531 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  4532 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  4533 positive/negative (in inequations).
  4534 
  4535 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  4536 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  4537 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  4538 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4539 
  4540 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  4541 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  4542 algebraic operations.
  4543 
  4544 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  4545 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4546 
  4547 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  4548 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4549 
  4550 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  4551 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  4552 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  4553 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  4554 adapted.
  4555  
  4556 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  4557 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  4558 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  4559 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  4560 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  4561 
  4562 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  4563 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  4564 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  4565 
  4566 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  4567 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  4568 better use 'abbreviation'.
  4569 
  4570 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4571 
  4572 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  4573 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  4574 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  4575   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  4576       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  4577   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  4578   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  4579   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  4580 
  4581 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  4582 
  4583 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  4584 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  4585 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  4586 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  4587 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  4588 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  4589 
  4590 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  4591 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  4592 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  4593 
  4594 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  4595 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  4596 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  4597 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4598 
  4599 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  4600 
  4601 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  4602 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4603 
  4604 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  4605 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  4606 
  4607 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  4608 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  4609 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  4610 
  4611 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  4612 True/False.
  4613 
  4614 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  4615 
  4616 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  4617 
  4618 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  4619 ``rule'' method.
  4620 
  4621 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  4622 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  4623 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  4624 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  4625 
  4626 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  4627 zChaff is still supported as well.
  4628 
  4629 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  4630 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  4631 
  4632 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  4633 Library.
  4634 
  4635 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  4636 
  4637 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  4638 as greatest fixed-point.
  4639 
  4640 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  4641 association lists.
  4642 
  4643 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  4644 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  4645 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  4646 
  4647 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  4648 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  4649 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4650 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  4651 behavior.
  4652 
  4653 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  4654 
  4655 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  4656 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  4657 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  4658 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  4659 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  4660 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  4661 
  4662 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  4663 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  4664 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
  4665 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
  4666 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
  4667 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
  4668 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
  4669 
  4670 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
  4671 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
  4672 
  4673 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
  4674 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
  4675 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
  4676 HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
  4677 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
  4678 
  4679 
  4680 *** HOL-Complex ***
  4681 
  4682 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
  4683 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
  4684 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
  4685 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
  4686 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4687 
  4688 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
  4689 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
  4690 and norm :: 'a => real.
  4691 
  4692 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
  4693 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
  4694 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4695 
  4696 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
  4697 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
  4698 
  4699 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
  4700 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
  4701 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
  4702 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4703 
  4704   Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  4705   HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  4706   HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  4707   approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
  4708   monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  4709   galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  4710   (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  4711   (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  4712   (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  4713   (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  4714   (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
  4715   is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  4716   deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
  4717   sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
  4718   exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
  4719 
  4720 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
  4721 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
  4722 hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
  4723 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4724 
  4725   approx        <-- capprox
  4726   HFinite       <-- CFinite
  4727   HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
  4728   Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
  4729   monad         <-- cmonad
  4730   galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
  4731   (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
  4732   is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
  4733   (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
  4734 
  4735 
  4736 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4737 
  4738 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
  4739 
  4740 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
  4741 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4742 
  4743 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
  4744 greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4745 
  4746 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see
  4747 Ring.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations
  4748 of algebraic structures.
  4749 
  4750 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.
  4751 
  4752 
  4753 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4754 
  4755 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding
  4756 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic.  See src/HOL/Nominal and
  4757 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples.  Prospective users should consult
  4758 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/
  4759 
  4760 
  4761 *** ML ***
  4762 
  4763 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int
  4764 (even on SML/NJ).
  4765 
  4766 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked
  4767 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at
  4768 compile-time.  For example:
  4769 
  4770 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}
  4771 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}
  4772 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}
  4773 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}
  4774 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}
  4775 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}
  4776 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}
  4777 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}
  4778 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}
  4779 ML {* @{type_name c} *}
  4780 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}
  4781 ML {* @{const_name c} *}
  4782 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}
  4783 ML {* @{context} *}
  4784 ML {* @{theory} *}
  4785 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}
  4786 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}
  4787 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}
  4788 ML {* @{simpset} *}
  4789 ML {* @{claset} *}
  4790 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}
  4791 
  4792 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.
  4793 
  4794 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with
  4795 ML_Context.trace enabled.
  4796 
  4797 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions
  4798 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and
  4799 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.
  4800 
  4801 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now
  4802 use Context.generic instead of just theory.
  4803 
  4804 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and
  4805 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of
  4806 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.
  4807 
  4808 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always
  4809 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.
  4810 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while
  4811 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and
  4812 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure
  4813 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably
  4814 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type
  4815 declarations and definitions.
  4816 
  4817 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed
  4818 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,
  4819 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need
  4820 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)
  4821 
  4822 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in
  4823 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the
  4824 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,
  4825 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4826 
  4827 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with
  4828 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed
  4829 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --
  4830 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and
  4831 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede
  4832 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.
  4833 
  4834 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --
  4835 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been
  4836 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted
  4837 accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for
  4838 attributes, methods, etc.
  4839 
  4840 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."
  4841 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to
  4842 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and
  4843 fold_map combinators.
  4844 
  4845 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional
  4846 comments (tags) are now strictly separate.  Name hints -- which are
  4847 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the
  4848 derivation.
  4849 
  4850 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an
  4851 actual goal state (thm).  Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to
  4852 achieve the old behaviour.
  4853 
  4854 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a
  4855 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule
  4856 statements.
  4857 
  4858 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now
  4859 enforced instead of silently assumed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use
  4860 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.
  4861 
  4862 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating
  4863 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc.  This replaces
  4864 some popular functions from term.ML:
  4865 
  4866   Term.variant		->  Name.variant
  4867   Term.variantlist	->  Name.variant_list
  4868   Term.invent_names	->  Name.invent_list
  4869 
  4870 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations
  4871 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).
  4872 
  4873 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper
  4874 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context.  For example,
  4875 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and
  4876 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces
  4877 various freeze_thaw operations.
  4878 
  4879 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for
  4880 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former
  4881 Tactic.prove).  Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results
  4882 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for
  4883 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard.  Note that
  4884 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is
  4885 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or
  4886 in a locale context).
  4887 
  4888 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)
  4889 and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations
  4890 (Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.
  4891 which are considered legacy and await removal.
  4892 
  4893 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking
  4894 (Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),
  4895 with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term
  4896 etc.).  Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still
  4897 available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using
  4898 a mere theory instead of a full context.
  4899 
  4900 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception
  4901 ERROR of string uniformly.  Function error now merely raises ERROR,
  4902 without any side effect on output channels.  The Isar toplevel takes
  4903 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions.  ML code may use plain
  4904 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:
  4905 
  4906   ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."
  4907 
  4908 Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be
  4909 embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like
  4910 this:
  4911 
  4912   Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)
  4913 
  4914 INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed
  4915 obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,
  4916 Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)
  4917 -- use plain ERROR instead.
  4918 
  4919 * Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a
  4920 list.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.
  4921 
  4922 * Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to
  4923 ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.
  4924 
  4925 * Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the
  4926 theory before entering a proof state.  Transactions now always see a
  4927 quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and
  4928 batch mode.
  4929 
  4930 * Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax.  Renamed
  4931 OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords.  Removed
  4932 OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in
  4933 OuterSyntax.command etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4934 
  4935 * Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now
  4936 contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the
  4937 very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by
  4938 simpset_of/local_simpset_of).  Consequently, all plug-in components
  4939 (solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.
  4940 
  4941 * Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the
  4942 local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc
  4943 etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this!  Removed
  4944 former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --
  4945 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to
  4946 specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.
  4947 
  4948 * Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces
  4949 change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a
  4950 theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --
  4951 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4952 
  4953 * Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired
  4954 "Trueprop" etc.
  4955 
  4956 
  4957 *** System ***
  4958 
  4959 * settings: the default heap location within ISABELLE_HOME_USER now
  4960 includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER.  This simplifies use of multiple
  4961 Isabelle installations.
  4962 
  4963 * isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical
  4964 operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source
  4965 code.
  4966 
  4967 * Basic Isabelle mode for jEdit, see Isabelle/lib/jedit/.
  4968 
  4969 * Support for parallel execution, using native multicore support of
  4970 Poly/ML 5.1.  The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing
  4971 independent theories, according to the given theory header
  4972 specifications. The maximum number of worker threads is specified via
  4973 usedir option -M or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. A
  4974 speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected on a 4-core machine, and up
  4975 to 6 on a 8-core machine.  User-code needs to observe certain
  4976 guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A in the Isar
  4977 Implementation manual.
  4978 
  4979 
  4980 
  4981 New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)
  4982 ----------------------------------
  4983 
  4984 *** General ***
  4985 
  4986 * Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is
  4987 
  4988   theory <name>
  4989   imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>
  4990   uses <file1> ... <fileM>
  4991   begin
  4992 
  4993 where the 'uses' part is optional.  The previous syntax
  4994 
  4995   theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:
  4996 
  4997 will disappear in the next release.  Use isatool fixheaders to convert
  4998 existing theory files.  Note that there is no change in ancient
  4999 non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.
  5000 
  5001 * Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via
  5002 relative and absolute paths.
  5003 
  5004 * Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a
  5005 list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,
  5006 simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select
  5007 theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that
  5008 match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified
  5009 name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose
  5010 lhs match term.  Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects
  5011 all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under
  5012 'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f.  Example:
  5013 
  5014   C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."
  5015 
  5016 prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",
  5017 matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."
  5018 in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).
  5019 
  5020 * Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of
  5021 'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5022 
  5023 * Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that
  5024 Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both
  5025 formal and informal parts).  Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof
  5026 General interface.  Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):
  5027 
  5028   http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html
  5029   http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html
  5030 
  5031 * Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the
  5032 Classical Reasoner.  Typical big applications run around 2 times
  5033 faster.
  5034 
  5035 
  5036 *** Document preparation ***
  5037 
  5038 * Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output
  5039 of raw sources.  Only those symbols that do not require additional
  5040 LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are
  5041 displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim.  isatool display
  5042 and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the
  5043 DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).
  5044 
  5045 * Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,
  5046 notably folding and hiding.  Predefined tags include "theory" (for
  5047 theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for
  5048 commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and
  5049 "invisible" are unused by default.  Users may give explicit tag
  5050 specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''.  The
  5051 interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document
  5052 preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of
  5053 isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,
  5054 \isadroptag.
  5055 
  5056 Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool
  5057 usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them).  Typical
  5058 specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present
  5059 theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold
  5060 proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit
  5061 these parts without any formal replacement text.  The Isabelle site
  5062 default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as
  5063 specified above.
  5064 
  5065 * Several new antiquotations:
  5066 
  5067   @{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;
  5068 
  5069   @{typeof term} prints the type of a term;
  5070 
  5071   @{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the
  5072   argument is a known logical constant;
  5073 
  5074   @{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or
  5075   theorem applying a "style" to it
  5076 
  5077   @{ML text}
  5078 
  5079 Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of
  5080 definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the
  5081 conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem19'
  5082 to print the specified premise.  TermStyle.add_style provides an ML
  5083 interface for introducing further styles.  See also the "LaTeX Sugar"
  5084 document practical applications.  The ML antiquotation prints
  5085 type-checked ML expressions verbatim.
  5086 
  5087 * Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',
  5088 and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which
  5089 specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations.  For
  5090 example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.
  5091 
  5092 * Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative
  5093 context interpreting the subsequent argument.  For example: @{thm
  5094 [locale=lattice] inf_assoc}.
  5095 
  5096 * Proper output of proof terms (@{prf ...} and @{full_prf ...}) within
  5097 a proof context.
  5098 
  5099 * Proper output of antiquotations for theory commands involving a
  5100 proof context (such as 'locale' or 'theorem (in loc) ...').
  5101 
  5102 * Delimiters of outer tokens (string etc.) now produce separate LaTeX
  5103 macros (\isachardoublequoteopen, isachardoublequoteclose etc.).
  5104 
  5105 * isatool usedir: new option -C (default true) controls whether option
  5106 -D should include a copy of the original document directory; -C false
  5107 prevents unwanted effects such as copying of administrative CVS data.
  5108 
  5109 
  5110 *** Pure ***
  5111 
  5112 * Considerably improved version of 'constdefs' command.  Now performs
  5113 automatic type-inference of declared constants; additional support for
  5114 local structure declarations (cf. locales and HOL records), see also
  5115 isar-ref manual.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to observe strictly
  5116 sequential dependencies of definitions within a single 'constdefs'
  5117 section; moreover, the declared name needs to be an identifier.  If
  5118 all fails, consider to fall back on 'consts' and 'defs' separately.
  5119 
  5120 * Improved indexed syntax and implicit structures.  First of all,
  5121 indexed syntax provides a notational device for subscripted
  5122 application, using the new syntax \<^bsub>term\<^esub> for arbitrary
  5123 expressions.  Secondly, in a local context with structure
  5124 declarations, number indexes \<^sub>n or the empty index (default
  5125 number 1) refer to a certain fixed variable implicitly; option
  5126 show_structs controls printing of implicit structures.  Typical
  5127 applications of these concepts involve record types and locales.
  5128 
  5129 * New command 'no_syntax' removes grammar declarations (and
  5130 translations) resulting from the given syntax specification, which is
  5131 interpreted in the same manner as for the 'syntax' command.
  5132 
  5133 * 'Advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) may depend
  5134 on the signature of the theory context being presently used for
  5135 parsing/printing, see also isar-ref manual.
  5136 
  5137 * Improved 'oracle' command provides a type-safe interface to turn an
  5138 ML expression of type theory -> T -> term into a primitive rule of
  5139 type theory -> T -> thm (i.e. the functionality of Thm.invoke_oracle
  5140 is already included here); see also FOL/ex/IffExample.thy;
  5141 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5142 
  5143 * axclass: name space prefix for class "c" is now "c_class" (was "c"
  5144 before); "cI" is no longer bound, use "c.intro" instead.
  5145 INCOMPATIBILITY.  This change avoids clashes of fact bindings for
  5146 axclasses vs. locales.
  5147 
  5148 * Improved internal renaming of symbolic identifiers -- attach primes
  5149 instead of base 26 numbers.
  5150 
  5151 * New flag show_question_marks controls printing of leading question
  5152 marks in schematic variable names.
  5153 
  5154 * In schematic variable names, *any* symbol following \<^isub> or
  5155 \<^isup> is now treated as part of the base name.  For example, the
  5156 following works without printing of awkward ".0" indexes:
  5157 
  5158   lemma "x\<^isub>1 = x\<^isub>2 ==> x\<^isub>2 = x\<^isub>1"
  5159     by simp
  5160 
  5161 * Inner syntax includes (*(*nested*) comments*).
  5162 
  5163 * Pretty printer now supports unbreakable blocks, specified in mixfix
  5164 annotations as "(00...)".
  5165 
  5166 * Clear separation of logical types and nonterminals, where the latter
  5167 may only occur in 'syntax' specifications or type abbreviations.
  5168 Before that distinction was only partially implemented via type class
  5169 "logic" vs. "{}".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare cases of improper
  5170 use of 'types'/'consts' instead of 'nonterminals'/'syntax'.  Some very
  5171 exotic syntax specifications may require further adaption
  5172 (e.g. Cube/Cube.thy).
  5173 
  5174 * Removed obsolete type class "logic", use the top sort {} instead.
  5175 Note that non-logical types should be declared as 'nonterminals'
  5176 rather than 'types'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for new object-logic
  5177 specifications.
  5178 
  5179 * Attributes 'induct' and 'cases': type or set names may now be
  5180 locally fixed variables as well.
  5181 
  5182 * Simplifier: can now control the depth to which conditional rewriting
  5183 is traced via the PG menu Isabelle -> Settings -> Trace Simp Depth
  5184 Limit.
  5185 
  5186 * Simplifier: simplification procedures may now take the current
  5187 simpset into account (cf. Simplifier.simproc(_i) / mk_simproc
  5188 interface), which is very useful for calling the Simplifier
  5189 recursively.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: the 'prems' argument of simprocs
  5190 is gone -- use prems_of_ss on the simpset instead.  Moreover, the
  5191 low-level mk_simproc no longer applies Logic.varify internally, to
  5192 allow for use in a context of fixed variables.
  5193 
  5194 * thin_tac now works even if the assumption being deleted contains !!
  5195 or ==>.  More generally, erule now works even if the major premise of
  5196 the elimination rule contains !! or ==>.
  5197 
  5198 * Method 'rules' has been renamed to 'iprover'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5199 
  5200 * Reorganized bootstrapping of the Pure theories; CPure is now derived
  5201 from Pure, which contains all common declarations already.  Both
  5202 theories are defined via plain Isabelle/Isar .thy files.
  5203 INCOMPATIBILITY: elements of CPure (such as the CPure.intro /
  5204 CPure.elim / CPure.dest attributes) now appear in the Pure name space;
  5205 use isatool fixcpure to adapt your theory and ML sources.
  5206 
  5207 * New syntax 'name(i-j, i-, i, ...)' for referring to specific
  5208 selections of theorems in named facts via index ranges.
  5209 
  5210 * 'print_theorems': in theory mode, really print the difference
  5211 wrt. the last state (works for interactive theory development only),
  5212 in proof mode print all local facts (cf. 'print_facts');
  5213 
  5214 * 'hide': option '(open)' hides only base names.
  5215 
  5216 * More efficient treatment of intermediate checkpoints in interactive
  5217 theory development.
  5218 
  5219 * Code generator is now invoked via code_module (incremental code
  5220 generation) and code_library (modular code generation, ML structures
  5221 for each theory).  INCOMPATIBILITY: new keywords 'file' and 'contains'
  5222 must be quoted when used as identifiers.
  5223 
  5224 * New 'value' command for reading, evaluating and printing terms using
  5225 the code generator.  INCOMPATIBILITY: command keyword 'value' must be
  5226 quoted when used as identifier.
  5227 
  5228 
  5229 *** Locales ***
  5230 
  5231 * New commands for the interpretation of locale expressions in
  5232 theories (1), locales (2) and proof contexts (3).  These generate
  5233 proof obligations from the expression specification.  After the
  5234 obligations have been discharged, theorems of the expression are added
  5235 to the theory, target locale or proof context.  The synopsis of the
  5236 commands is a follows:
  5237 
  5238   (1) interpretation expr inst
  5239   (2) interpretation target < expr
  5240   (3) interpret expr inst
  5241 
  5242 Interpretation in theories and proof contexts require a parameter
  5243 instantiation of terms from the current context.  This is applied to
  5244 specifications and theorems of the interpreted expression.
  5245 Interpretation in locales only permits parameter renaming through the
  5246 locale expression.  Interpretation is smart in that interpretations
  5247 that are active already do not occur in proof obligations, neither are
  5248 instantiated theorems stored in duplicate.  Use 'print_interps' to
  5249 inspect active interpretations of a particular locale.  For details,
  5250 see the Isar Reference manual.  Examples can be found in
  5251 HOL/Finite_Set.thy and HOL/Algebra/UnivPoly.thy.
  5252 
  5253 INCOMPATIBILITY: former 'instantiate' has been withdrawn, use
  5254 'interpret' instead.
  5255 
  5256 * New context element 'constrains' for adding type constraints to
  5257 parameters.
  5258 
  5259 * Context expressions: renaming of parameters with syntax
  5260 redeclaration.
  5261 
  5262 * Locale declaration: 'includes' disallowed.
  5263 
  5264 * Proper static binding of attribute syntax -- i.e. types / terms /
  5265 facts mentioned as arguments are always those of the locale definition
  5266 context, independently of the context of later invocations.  Moreover,
  5267 locale operations (renaming and type / term instantiation) are applied
  5268 to attribute arguments as expected.
  5269 
  5270 INCOMPATIBILITY of the ML interface: always pass Attrib.src instead of
  5271 actual attributes; rare situations may require Attrib.attribute to
  5272 embed those attributes into Attrib.src that lack concrete syntax.
  5273 Attribute implementations need to cooperate properly with the static
  5274 binding mechanism.  Basic parsers Args.XXX_typ/term/prop and
  5275 Attrib.XXX_thm etc. already do the right thing without further
  5276 intervention.  Only unusual applications -- such as "where" or "of"
  5277 (cf. src/Pure/Isar/attrib.ML), which process arguments depending both
  5278 on the context and the facts involved -- may have to assign parsed
  5279 values to argument tokens explicitly.
  5280 
  5281 * Changed parameter management in theorem generation for long goal
  5282 statements with 'includes'.  INCOMPATIBILITY: produces a different
  5283 theorem statement in rare situations.
  5284 
  5285 * Locale inspection command 'print_locale' omits notes elements.  Use
  5286 'print_locale!' to have them included in the output.
  5287 
  5288 
  5289 *** Provers ***
  5290 
  5291 * Provers/hypsubst.ML: improved version of the subst method, for
  5292 single-step rewriting: it now works in bound variable contexts. New is
  5293 'subst (asm)', for rewriting an assumption.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may
  5294 rewrite a different subterm than the original subst method, which is
  5295 still available as 'simplesubst'.
  5296 
  5297 * Provers/quasi.ML: new transitivity reasoners for transitivity only
  5298 and quasi orders.
  5299 
  5300 * Provers/trancl.ML: new transitivity reasoner for transitive and
  5301 reflexive-transitive closure of relations.
  5302 
  5303 * Provers/blast.ML: new reference depth_limit to make blast's depth
  5304 limit (previously hard-coded with a value of 20) user-definable.
  5305 
  5306 * Provers/simplifier.ML has been moved to Pure, where Simplifier.setup
  5307 is peformed already.  Object-logics merely need to finish their
  5308 initial simpset configuration as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5309 
  5310 
  5311 *** HOL ***
  5312 
  5313 * Symbolic syntax of Hilbert Choice Operator is now as follows:
  5314 
  5315   syntax (epsilon)
  5316     "_Eps" :: "[pttrn, bool] => 'a"    ("(3\<some>_./ _)" [0, 10] 10)
  5317 
  5318 The symbol \<some> is displayed as the alternative epsilon of LaTeX
  5319 and x-symbol; use option '-m epsilon' to get it actually printed.
  5320 Moreover, the mathematically important symbolic identifier \<epsilon>
  5321 becomes available as variable, constant etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5322 
  5323 * "x > y" abbreviates "y < x" and "x >= y" abbreviates "y <= x".
  5324 Similarly for all quantifiers: "ALL x > y" etc.  The x-symbol for >=
  5325 is \<ge>. New transitivity rules have been added to HOL/Orderings.thy to
  5326 support corresponding Isar calculations.
  5327 
  5328 * "{x:A. P}" abbreviates "{x. x:A & P}", and similarly for "\<in>"
  5329 instead of ":".
  5330 
  5331 * theory SetInterval: changed the syntax for open intervals:
  5332 
  5333   Old       New
  5334   {..n(}    {..<n}
  5335   {)n..}    {n<..}
  5336   {m..n(}   {m..<n}
  5337   {)m..n}   {m<..n}
  5338   {)m..n(}  {m<..<n}
  5339 
  5340 The old syntax is still supported but will disappear in the next
  5341 release.  For conversion use the following Emacs search and replace
  5342 patterns (these are not perfect but work quite well):
  5343 
  5344   {)\([^\.]*\)\.\.  ->  {\1<\.\.}
  5345   \.\.\([^(}]*\)(}  ->  \.\.<\1}
  5346 
  5347 * Theory Commutative_Ring (in Library): method comm_ring for proving
  5348 equalities in commutative rings; method 'algebra' provides a generic
  5349 interface.
  5350 
  5351 * Theory Finite_Set: changed the syntax for 'setsum', summation over
  5352 finite sets: "setsum (%x. e) A", which used to be "\<Sum>x:A. e", is
  5353 now either "SUM x:A. e" or "\<Sum>x \<in> A. e". The bound variable can
  5354 be a tuple pattern.
  5355 
  5356 Some new syntax forms are available:
  5357 
  5358   "\<Sum>x | P. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {x. P}"
  5359   "\<Sum>x = a..b. e"   for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..b}"
  5360   "\<Sum>x = a..<b. e"  for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..<b}"
  5361   "\<Sum>x < k. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {..<k}"
  5362 
  5363 The latter form "\<Sum>x < k. e" used to be based on a separate
  5364 function "Summation", which has been discontinued.
  5365 
  5366 * theory Finite_Set: in structured induction proofs, the insert case
  5367 is now 'case (insert x F)' instead of the old counterintuitive 'case
  5368 (insert F x)'.
  5369 
  5370 * The 'refute' command has been extended to support a much larger
  5371 fragment of HOL, including axiomatic type classes, constdefs and
  5372 typedefs, inductive datatypes and recursion.
  5373 
  5374 * New tactics 'sat' and 'satx' to prove propositional tautologies.
  5375 Requires zChaff with proof generation to be installed.  See
  5376 HOL/ex/SAT_Examples.thy for examples.
  5377 
  5378 * Datatype induction via method 'induct' now preserves the name of the
  5379 induction variable. For example, when proving P(xs::'a list) by
  5380 induction on xs, the induction step is now P(xs) ==> P(a#xs) rather
  5381 than P(list) ==> P(a#list) as previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  5382 in unstructured proof scripts.
  5383 
  5384 * Reworked implementation of records.  Improved scalability for
  5385 records with many fields, avoiding performance problems for type
  5386 inference. Records are no longer composed of nested field types, but
  5387 of nested extension types. Therefore the record type only grows linear
  5388 in the number of extensions and not in the number of fields.  The
  5389 top-level (users) view on records is preserved.  Potential
  5390 INCOMPATIBILITY only in strange cases, where the theory depends on the
  5391 old record representation. The type generated for a record is called
  5392 <record_name>_ext_type.
  5393 
  5394 Flag record_quick_and_dirty_sensitive can be enabled to skip the
  5395 proofs triggered by a record definition or a simproc (if
  5396 quick_and_dirty is enabled).  Definitions of large records can take
  5397 quite long.
  5398 
  5399 New simproc record_upd_simproc for simplification of multiple record
  5400 updates enabled by default.  Moreover, trivial updates are also
  5401 removed: r(|x := x r|) = r.  INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break
  5402 occasionally, since simplification is more powerful by default.
  5403 
  5404 * typedef: proper support for polymorphic sets, which contain extra
  5405 type-variables in the term.
  5406 
  5407 * Simplifier: automatically reasons about transitivity chains
  5408 involving "trancl" (r^+) and "rtrancl" (r^*) by setting up tactics
  5409 provided by Provers/trancl.ML as additional solvers.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5410 old proofs break occasionally as simplification may now solve more
  5411 goals than previously.
  5412 
  5413 * Simplifier: converts x <= y into x = y if assumption y <= x is
  5414 present.  Works for all partial orders (class "order"), in particular
  5415 numbers and sets.  For linear orders (e.g. numbers) it treats ~ x < y
  5416 just like y <= x.
  5417 
  5418 * Simplifier: new simproc for "let x = a in f x".  If a is a free or
  5419 bound variable or a constant then the let is unfolded.  Otherwise
  5420 first a is simplified to b, and then f b is simplified to g. If
  5421 possible we abstract b from g arriving at "let x = b in h x",
  5422 otherwise we unfold the let and arrive at g.  The simproc can be
  5423 enabled/disabled by the reference use_let_simproc.  Potential
  5424 INCOMPATIBILITY since simplification is more powerful by default.
  5425 
  5426 * Classical reasoning: the meson method now accepts theorems as arguments.
  5427 
  5428 * Prover support: pre-release of the Isabelle-ATP linkup, which runs background
  5429 jobs to provide advice on the provability of subgoals.
  5430 
  5431 * Theory OrderedGroup and Ring_and_Field: various additions and
  5432 improvements to faciliate calculations involving equalities and
  5433 inequalities.
  5434 
  5435 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
  5436 (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5437 
  5438   abs_eq             now named abs_of_nonneg
  5439   abs_of_ge_0        now named abs_of_nonneg
  5440   abs_minus_eq       now named abs_of_nonpos
  5441   imp_abs_id         now named abs_of_nonneg
  5442   imp_abs_neg_id     now named abs_of_nonpos
  5443   mult_pos           now named mult_pos_pos
  5444   mult_pos_le        now named mult_nonneg_nonneg
  5445   mult_pos_neg_le    now named mult_nonneg_nonpos
  5446   mult_pos_neg2_le   now named mult_nonneg_nonpos2
  5447   mult_neg           now named mult_neg_neg
  5448   mult_neg_le        now named mult_nonpos_nonpos
  5449 
  5450 * The following lemmas in Ring_and_Field have been added to the simplifier:
  5451      
  5452      zero_le_square
  5453      not_square_less_zero 
  5454 
  5455   The following lemmas have been deleted from Real/RealPow:
  5456   
  5457      realpow_zero_zero
  5458      realpow_two
  5459      realpow_less
  5460      zero_le_power
  5461      realpow_two_le
  5462      abs_realpow_two
  5463      realpow_two_abs     
  5464 
  5465 * Theory Parity: added rules for simplifying exponents.
  5466 
  5467 * Theory List:
  5468 
  5469 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
  5470 (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5471 
  5472   list_all_Nil       now named list_all.simps(1)
  5473   list_all_Cons      now named list_all.simps(2)
  5474   list_all_conv      now named list_all_iff
  5475   set_mem_eq         now named mem_iff
  5476 
  5477 * Theories SetsAndFunctions and BigO (see HOL/Library) support
  5478 asymptotic "big O" calculations.  See the notes in BigO.thy.
  5479 
  5480 
  5481 *** HOL-Complex ***
  5482 
  5483 * Theory RealDef: better support for embedding natural numbers and
  5484 integers in the reals.
  5485 
  5486 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
  5487 (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5488 
  5489   exp_ge_add_one_self  now requires no hypotheses
  5490   real_of_int_add      reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  5491   real_of_int_minus    reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  5492   real_of_int_diff     reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  5493   real_of_int_mult     reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  5494 
  5495 * Theory RComplete: expanded support for floor and ceiling functions.
  5496 
  5497 * Theory Ln is new, with properties of the natural logarithm
  5498 
  5499 * Hyperreal: There is a new type constructor "star" for making
  5500 nonstandard types.  The old type names are now type synonyms:
  5501 
  5502   hypreal = real star
  5503   hypnat = nat star
  5504   hcomplex = complex star
  5505 
  5506 * Hyperreal: Many groups of similarly-defined constants have been
  5507 replaced by polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5508 
  5509   star_of <-- hypreal_of_real, hypnat_of_nat, hcomplex_of_complex
  5510 
  5511   starset      <-- starsetNat, starsetC
  5512   *s*          <-- *sNat*, *sc*
  5513   starset_n    <-- starsetNat_n, starsetC_n
  5514   *sn*         <-- *sNatn*, *scn*
  5515   InternalSets <-- InternalNatSets, InternalCSets
  5516 
  5517   starfun      <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
  5518   *f*          <-- *fNat*, *fNat2*, *fc*, *fRc*, *fcR*
  5519   starfun_n    <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n
  5520   *fn*         <-- *fNatn*, *fNat2n*, *fcn*, *fRcn*, *fcRn*
  5521   InternalFuns <-- InternalNatFuns, InternalNatFuns2, Internal{C,RC,CR}Funs
  5522 
  5523 * Hyperreal: Many type-specific theorems have been removed in favor of
  5524 theorems specific to various axiomatic type classes (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5525 
  5526   add_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_commute
  5527   add_assoc   <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_assocs
  5528   OrderedGroup.add_0 <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_zero_left
  5529   OrderedGroup.add_0_right <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_zero_right
  5530   right_minus <-- hypreal_add_minus
  5531   left_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_minus_left
  5532   mult_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_commute
  5533   mult_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_assoc
  5534   mult_1_left <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_1, hcomplex_mult_one_left
  5535   mult_1_right <-- hcomplex_mult_one_right
  5536   mult_zero_left <-- hcomplex_mult_zero_left
  5537   left_distrib <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_mult_distrib
  5538   right_distrib <-- hypnat_add_mult_distrib2
  5539   zero_neq_one <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_not_eq_one
  5540   right_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse
  5541   left_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse_left, hcomplex_mult_inv_left
  5542   order_refl <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_refl
  5543   order_trans <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_trans
  5544   order_antisym <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_anti_sym
  5545   order_less_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less_le
  5546   linorder_linear <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_linear
  5547   add_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_add_left_mono
  5548   mult_strict_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_less_mono2
  5549   add_nonneg_nonneg <-- hypreal_le_add_order
  5550 
  5551 * Hyperreal: Separate theorems having to do with type-specific
  5552 versions of constants have been merged into theorems that apply to the
  5553 new polymorphic constants (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5554 
  5555   STAR_UNIV_set <-- {STAR_real,NatStar_real,STARC_complex}_set
  5556   STAR_empty_set <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_empty_set
  5557   STAR_Un <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Un
  5558   STAR_Int <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Int
  5559   STAR_Compl <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Compl
  5560   STAR_subset <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_subset
  5561   STAR_mem <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_mem
  5562   STAR_mem_Compl <-- {STAR,STARC}_mem_Compl
  5563   STAR_diff <-- {STAR,STARC}_diff
  5564   STAR_star_of_image_subset <-- {STAR_hypreal_of_real, NatStar_hypreal_of_real,
  5565     STARC_hcomplex_of_complex}_image_subset
  5566   starset_n_Un <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Un
  5567   starset_n_Int <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Int
  5568   starset_n_Compl <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Compl
  5569   starset_n_diff <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_diff
  5570   InternalSets_Un <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Un
  5571   InternalSets_Int <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Int
  5572   InternalSets_Compl <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Compl
  5573   InternalSets_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_diff
  5574   InternalSets_UNIV_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_UNIV_diff
  5575   InternalSets_starset_n <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_starset{Nat,C}_n
  5576   starset_starset_n_eq <-- starset{Nat,C}_starset{Nat,C}_n_eq
  5577   starset_n_starset <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_starset{Nat,C}
  5578   starfun_n_starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n_starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
  5579   starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
  5580   starfun_mult <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_mult
  5581   starfun_add <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_add
  5582   starfun_minus <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_minus
  5583   starfun_diff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_diff
  5584   starfun_o <-- starfun{NatNat2,Nat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o
  5585   starfun_o2 <-- starfun{NatNat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o2
  5586   starfun_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_const_fun
  5587   starfun_inverse <-- starfun{Nat,C,RC,CR}_inverse
  5588   starfun_eq <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_eq
  5589   starfun_eq_iff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_eq_iff
  5590   starfun_Id <-- starfunC_Id
  5591   starfun_approx <-- starfun{Nat,CR}_approx
  5592   starfun_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_capprox
  5593   starfun_abs <-- starfunNat_rabs
  5594   starfun_lambda_cancel <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel
  5595   starfun_lambda_cancel2 <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel2
  5596   starfun_mult_HFinite_approx <-- starfunCR_mult_HFinite_capprox
  5597   starfun_mult_CFinite_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_mult_CFinite_capprox
  5598   starfun_add_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_add_capprox
  5599   starfun_add_approx <-- starfunCR_add_approx
  5600   starfun_inverse_inverse <-- starfunC_inverse_inverse
  5601   starfun_divide <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_divide
  5602   starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n
  5603   starfun_n_mult <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_mult
  5604   starfun_n_add <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_add
  5605   starfun_n_add_minus <-- starfunNat_n_add_minus
  5606   starfun_n_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_const_fun
  5607   starfun_n_minus <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_minus
  5608   starfun_n_eq <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_eq
  5609 
  5610   star_n_add <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add
  5611   star_n_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_minus
  5612   star_n_diff <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_diff
  5613   star_n_mult <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_mult
  5614   star_n_inverse <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_inverse
  5615   star_n_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le
  5616   star_n_less <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less
  5617   star_n_zero_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_num
  5618   star_n_one_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_one_num
  5619   star_n_abs <-- hypreal_hrabs
  5620   star_n_divide <-- hcomplex_divide
  5621 
  5622   star_of_add <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_add
  5623   star_of_minus <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_minus
  5624   star_of_diff <-- hypreal_of_real_diff
  5625   star_of_mult <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_mult
  5626   star_of_one <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_one
  5627   star_of_zero <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_zero
  5628   star_of_le <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_le_iff
  5629   star_of_less <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_less_iff
  5630   star_of_eq <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_eq_iff
  5631   star_of_inverse <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_inverse
  5632   star_of_divide <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_divide
  5633   star_of_of_nat <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_nat
  5634   star_of_of_int <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_int
  5635   star_of_number_of <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_number_of
  5636   star_of_number_less <-- number_of_less_hypreal_of_real_iff
  5637   star_of_number_le <-- number_of_le_hypreal_of_real_iff
  5638   star_of_eq_number <-- hypreal_of_real_eq_number_of_iff
  5639   star_of_less_number <-- hypreal_of_real_less_number_of_iff
  5640   star_of_le_number <-- hypreal_of_real_le_number_of_iff
  5641   star_of_power <-- hypreal_of_real_power
  5642   star_of_eq_0 <-- hcomplex_of_complex_zero_iff
  5643 
  5644 * Hyperreal: new method "transfer" that implements the transfer
  5645 principle of nonstandard analysis. With a subgoal that mentions
  5646 nonstandard types like "'a star", the command "apply transfer"
  5647 replaces it with an equivalent one that mentions only standard types.
  5648 To be successful, all free variables must have standard types; non-
  5649 standard variables must have explicit universal quantifiers.
  5650 
  5651 * Hyperreal: A theory of Taylor series.
  5652 
  5653 
  5654 *** HOLCF ***
  5655 
  5656 * Discontinued special version of 'constdefs' (which used to support
  5657 continuous functions) in favor of the general Pure one with full
  5658 type-inference.
  5659 
  5660 * New simplification procedure for solving continuity conditions; it
  5661 is much faster on terms with many nested lambda abstractions (cubic
  5662 instead of exponential time).
  5663 
  5664 * New syntax for domain package: selector names are now optional.
  5665 Parentheses should be omitted unless argument is lazy, for example:
  5666 
  5667   domain 'a stream = cons "'a" (lazy "'a stream")
  5668 
  5669 * New command 'fixrec' for defining recursive functions with pattern
  5670 matching; defining multiple functions with mutual recursion is also
  5671 supported.  Patterns may include the constants cpair, spair, up, sinl,
  5672 sinr, or any data constructor defined by the domain package. The given
  5673 equations are proven as rewrite rules. See HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5674 syntax and examples.
  5675 
  5676 * New commands 'cpodef' and 'pcpodef' for defining predicate subtypes
  5677 of cpo and pcpo types. Syntax is exactly like the 'typedef' command,
  5678 but the proof obligation additionally includes an admissibility
  5679 requirement. The packages generate instances of class cpo or pcpo,
  5680 with continuity and strictness theorems for Rep and Abs.
  5681 
  5682 * HOLCF: Many theorems have been renamed according to a more standard naming
  5683 scheme (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5684 
  5685   foo_inject:  "foo$x = foo$y ==> x = y"
  5686   foo_eq:      "(foo$x = foo$y) = (x = y)"
  5687   foo_less:    "(foo$x << foo$y) = (x << y)"
  5688   foo_strict:  "foo$UU = UU"
  5689   foo_defined: "... ==> foo$x ~= UU"
  5690   foo_defined_iff: "(foo$x = UU) = (x = UU)"
  5691 
  5692 
  5693 *** ZF ***
  5694 
  5695 * ZF/ex: theories Group and Ring provide examples in abstract algebra,
  5696 including the First Isomorphism Theorem (on quotienting by the kernel
  5697 of a homomorphism).
  5698 
  5699 * ZF/Simplifier: install second copy of type solver that actually
  5700 makes use of TC rules declared to Isar proof contexts (or locales);
  5701 the old version is still required for ML proof scripts.
  5702 
  5703 
  5704 *** Cube ***
  5705 
  5706 * Converted to Isar theory format; use locales instead of axiomatic
  5707 theories.
  5708 
  5709 
  5710 *** ML ***
  5711 
  5712 * Pure/library.ML: added ##>, ##>>, #>> -- higher-order counterparts
  5713 for ||>, ||>>, |>>,
  5714 
  5715 * Pure/library.ML no longer defines its own option datatype, but uses
  5716 that of the SML basis, which has constructors NONE and SOME instead of
  5717 None and Some, as well as exception Option.Option instead of OPTION.
  5718 The functions the, if_none, is_some, is_none have been adapted
  5719 accordingly, while Option.map replaces apsome.
  5720 
  5721 * Pure/library.ML: the exception LIST has been given up in favour of
  5722 the standard exceptions Empty and Subscript, as well as
  5723 Library.UnequalLengths.  Function like Library.hd and Library.tl are
  5724 superceded by the standard hd and tl functions etc.
  5725 
  5726 A number of basic list functions are no longer exported to the ML
  5727 toplevel, as they are variants of predefined functions.  The following
  5728 suggests how one can translate existing code:
  5729 
  5730     rev_append xs ys = List.revAppend (xs, ys)
  5731     nth_elem (i, xs) = List.nth (xs, i)
  5732     last_elem xs = List.last xs
  5733     flat xss = List.concat xss
  5734     seq fs = List.app fs
  5735     partition P xs = List.partition P xs
  5736     mapfilter f xs = List.mapPartial f xs
  5737 
  5738 * Pure/library.ML: several combinators for linear functional
  5739 transformations, notably reverse application and composition:
  5740 
  5741   x |> f                f #> g
  5742   (x, y) |-> f          f #-> g
  5743 
  5744 * Pure/library.ML: introduced/changed precedence of infix operators:
  5745 
  5746   infix 1 |> |-> ||> ||>> |>> |>>> #> #->;
  5747   infix 2 ?;
  5748   infix 3 o oo ooo oooo;
  5749   infix 4 ~~ upto downto;
  5750 
  5751 Maybe INCOMPATIBILITY when any of those is used in conjunction with other
  5752 infix operators.
  5753 
  5754 * Pure/library.ML: natural list combinators fold, fold_rev, and
  5755 fold_map support linear functional transformations and nesting.  For
  5756 example:
  5757 
  5758   fold f [x1, ..., xN] y =
  5759     y |> f x1 |> ... |> f xN
  5760 
  5761   (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] y =
  5762     y |> fold f xs1 |> ... |> fold f xsN
  5763 
  5764   fold f [x1, ..., xN] =
  5765     f x1 #> ... #> f xN
  5766 
  5767   (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] =
  5768     fold f xs1 #> ... #> fold f xsN
  5769 
  5770 * Pure/library.ML: the following selectors on type 'a option are
  5771 available:
  5772 
  5773   the:               'a option -> 'a  (*partial*)
  5774   these:             'a option -> 'a  where 'a = 'b list
  5775   the_default: 'a -> 'a option -> 'a
  5776   the_list:          'a option -> 'a list
  5777 
  5778 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides
  5779 basic operations for association lists, following natural argument
  5780 order; moreover the explicit equality predicate passed here avoids
  5781 potentially expensive polymorphic runtime equality checks.
  5782 The old functions may be expressed as follows:
  5783 
  5784   assoc = uncurry (AList.lookup (op =))
  5785   assocs = these oo AList.lookup (op =)
  5786   overwrite = uncurry (AList.update (op =)) o swap
  5787 
  5788 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides
  5789 
  5790   val make: ('a -> 'b) -> 'a list -> ('a * 'b) list
  5791   val find: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> ('c * 'b) list -> 'a -> 'c list
  5792 
  5793 replacing make_keylist and keyfilter (occassionally used)
  5794 Naive rewrites:
  5795 
  5796   make_keylist = AList.make
  5797   keyfilter = AList.find (op =)
  5798 
  5799 * eq_fst and eq_snd now take explicit equality parameter, thus
  5800   avoiding eqtypes. Naive rewrites:
  5801 
  5802     eq_fst = eq_fst (op =)
  5803     eq_snd = eq_snd (op =)
  5804 
  5805 * Removed deprecated apl and apr (rarely used).
  5806   Naive rewrites:
  5807 
  5808     apl (n, op) =>>= curry op n
  5809     apr (op, m) =>>= fn n => op (n, m)
  5810 
  5811 * Pure/General: structure OrdList (cf. Pure/General/ord_list.ML)
  5812 provides a reasonably efficient light-weight implementation of sets as
  5813 lists.
  5814 
  5815 * Pure/General: generic tables (cf. Pure/General/table.ML) provide a
  5816 few new operations; existing lookup and update are now curried to
  5817 follow natural argument order (for use with fold etc.);
  5818 INCOMPATIBILITY, use (uncurry Symtab.lookup) etc. as last resort.
  5819 
  5820 * Pure/General: output via the Isabelle channels of
  5821 writeln/warning/error etc. is now passed through Output.output, with a
  5822 hook for arbitrary transformations depending on the print_mode
  5823 (cf. Output.add_mode -- the first active mode that provides a output
  5824 function wins).  Already formatted output may be embedded into further
  5825 text via Output.raw; the result of Pretty.string_of/str_of and derived
  5826 functions (string_of_term/cterm/thm etc.) is already marked raw to
  5827 accommodate easy composition of diagnostic messages etc.  Programmers
  5828 rarely need to care about Output.output or Output.raw at all, with
  5829 some notable exceptions: Output.output is required when bypassing the
  5830 standard channels (writeln etc.), or in token translations to produce
  5831 properly formatted results; Output.raw is required when capturing
  5832 already output material that will eventually be presented to the user
  5833 a second time.  For the default print mode, both Output.output and
  5834 Output.raw have no effect.
  5835 
  5836 * Pure/General: Output.time_accumulator NAME creates an operator ('a
  5837 -> 'b) -> 'a -> 'b to measure runtime and count invocations; the
  5838 cumulative results are displayed at the end of a batch session.
  5839 
  5840 * Pure/General: File.sysify_path and File.quote_sysify path have been
  5841 replaced by File.platform_path and File.shell_path (with appropriate
  5842 hooks).  This provides a clean interface for unusual systems where the
  5843 internal and external process view of file names are different.
  5844 
  5845 * Pure: more efficient orders for basic syntactic entities: added
  5846 fast_string_ord, fast_indexname_ord, fast_term_ord; changed sort_ord
  5847 and typ_ord to use fast_string_ord and fast_indexname_ord (term_ord is
  5848 NOT affected); structures Symtab, Vartab, Typtab, Termtab use the fast
  5849 orders now -- potential INCOMPATIBILITY for code that depends on a
  5850 particular order for Symtab.keys, Symtab.dest, etc. (consider using
  5851 Library.sort_strings on result).
  5852 
  5853 * Pure/term.ML: combinators fold_atyps, fold_aterms, fold_term_types,
  5854 fold_types traverse types/terms from left to right, observing natural
  5855 argument order.  Supercedes previous foldl_XXX versions, add_frees,
  5856 add_vars etc. have been adapted as well: INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5857 
  5858 * Pure: name spaces have been refined, with significant changes of the
  5859 internal interfaces -- INCOMPATIBILITY.  Renamed cond_extern(_table)
  5860 to extern(_table).  The plain name entry path is superceded by a
  5861 general 'naming' context, which also includes the 'policy' to produce
  5862 a fully qualified name and external accesses of a fully qualified
  5863 name; NameSpace.extend is superceded by context dependent
  5864 Sign.declare_name.  Several theory and proof context operations modify
  5865 the naming context.  Especially note Theory.restore_naming and
  5866 ProofContext.restore_naming to get back to a sane state; note that
  5867 Theory.add_path is no longer sufficient to recover from
  5868 Theory.absolute_path in particular.
  5869 
  5870 * Pure: new flags short_names (default false) and unique_names
  5871 (default true) for controlling output of qualified names.  If
  5872 short_names is set, names are printed unqualified.  If unique_names is
  5873 reset, the name prefix is reduced to the minimum required to achieve
  5874 the original result when interning again, even if there is an overlap
  5875 with earlier declarations.
  5876 
  5877 * Pure/TheoryDataFun: change of the argument structure; 'prep_ext' is
  5878 now 'extend', and 'merge' gets an additional Pretty.pp argument
  5879 (useful for printing error messages).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5880 
  5881 * Pure: major reorganization of the theory context.  Type Sign.sg and
  5882 Theory.theory are now identified, referring to the universal
  5883 Context.theory (see Pure/context.ML).  Actual signature and theory
  5884 content is managed as theory data.  The old code and interfaces were
  5885 spread over many files and structures; the new arrangement introduces
  5886 considerable INCOMPATIBILITY to gain more clarity:
  5887 
  5888   Context -- theory management operations (name, identity, inclusion,
  5889     parents, ancestors, merge, etc.), plus generic theory data;
  5890 
  5891   Sign -- logical signature and syntax operations (declaring consts,
  5892     types, etc.), plus certify/read for common entities;
  5893 
  5894   Theory -- logical theory operations (stating axioms, definitions,
  5895     oracles), plus a copy of logical signature operations (consts,
  5896     types, etc.); also a few basic management operations (Theory.copy,
  5897     Theory.merge, etc.)
  5898 
  5899 The most basic sign_of operations (Theory.sign_of, Thm.sign_of_thm
  5900 etc.) as well as the sign field in Thm.rep_thm etc. have been retained
  5901 for convenience -- they merely return the theory.
  5902 
  5903 * Pure: type Type.tsig is superceded by theory in most interfaces.
  5904 
  5905 * Pure: the Isar proof context type is already defined early in Pure
  5906 as Context.proof (note that ProofContext.context and Proof.context are
  5907 aliases, where the latter is the preferred name).  This enables other
  5908 Isabelle components to refer to that type even before Isar is present.
  5909 
  5910 * Pure/sign/theory: discontinued named name spaces (i.e. classK,
  5911 typeK, constK, axiomK, oracleK), but provide explicit operations for
  5912 any of these kinds.  For example, Sign.intern typeK is now
  5913 Sign.intern_type, Theory.hide_space Sign.typeK is now
  5914 Theory.hide_types.  Also note that former
  5915 Theory.hide_classes/types/consts are now
  5916 Theory.hide_classes_i/types_i/consts_i, while the non '_i' versions
  5917 internalize their arguments!  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5918 
  5919 * Pure: get_thm interface (of PureThy and ProofContext) expects
  5920 datatype thmref (with constructors Name and NameSelection) instead of
  5921 plain string -- INCOMPATIBILITY;
  5922 
  5923 * Pure: cases produced by proof methods specify options, where NONE
  5924 means to remove case bindings -- INCOMPATIBILITY in
  5925 (RAW_)METHOD_CASES.
  5926 
  5927 * Pure: the following operations retrieve axioms or theorems from a
  5928 theory node or theory hierarchy, respectively:
  5929 
  5930   Theory.axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list
  5931   Theory.all_axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list
  5932   PureThy.thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list
  5933   PureThy.all_thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list
  5934 
  5935 * Pure: print_tac now outputs the goal through the trace channel.
  5936 
  5937 * Isar toplevel: improved diagnostics, mostly for Poly/ML only.
  5938 Reference Toplevel.debug (default false) controls detailed printing
  5939 and tracing of low-level exceptions; Toplevel.profiling (default 0)
  5940 controls execution profiling -- set to 1 for time and 2 for space
  5941 (both increase the runtime).
  5942 
  5943 * Isar session: The initial use of ROOT.ML is now always timed,
  5944 i.e. the log will show the actual process times, in contrast to the
  5945 elapsed wall-clock time that the outer shell wrapper produces.
  5946 
  5947 * Simplifier: improved handling of bound variables (nameless
  5948 representation, avoid allocating new strings).  Simprocs that invoke
  5949 the Simplifier recursively should use Simplifier.inherit_bounds to
  5950 avoid local name clashes.  Failure to do so produces warnings
  5951 "Simplifier: renamed bound variable ..."; set Simplifier.debug_bounds
  5952 for further details.
  5953 
  5954 * ML functions legacy_bindings and use_legacy_bindings produce ML fact
  5955 bindings for all theorems stored within a given theory; this may help
  5956 in porting non-Isar theories to Isar ones, while keeping ML proof
  5957 scripts for the time being.
  5958 
  5959 * ML operator HTML.with_charset specifies the charset begin used for
  5960 generated HTML files.  For example:
  5961 
  5962   HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Hebrew";
  5963   HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Chinese";
  5964 
  5965 
  5966 *** System ***
  5967 
  5968 * Allow symlinks to all proper Isabelle executables (Isabelle,
  5969 isabelle, isatool etc.).
  5970 
  5971 * ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT setting specifies preferred document format (for
  5972 isatool doc, isatool mkdir, display_drafts etc.).
  5973 
  5974 * isatool usedir: option -f allows specification of the ML file to be
  5975 used by Isabelle; default is ROOT.ML.
  5976 
  5977 * New isatool version outputs the version identifier of the Isabelle
  5978 distribution being used.
  5979 
  5980 * HOL: new isatool dimacs2hol converts files in DIMACS CNF format
  5981 (containing Boolean satisfiability problems) into Isabelle/HOL
  5982 theories.
  5983 
  5984 
  5985 
  5986 New in Isabelle2004 (April 2004)
  5987 --------------------------------
  5988 
  5989 *** General ***
  5990 
  5991 * Provers/order.ML:  new efficient reasoner for partial and linear orders.
  5992   Replaces linorder.ML.
  5993 
  5994 * Pure: Greek letters (except small lambda, \<lambda>), as well as Gothic
  5995   (\<aa>...\<zz>\<AA>...\<ZZ>), calligraphic (\<A>...\<Z>), and Euler
  5996   (\<a>...\<z>), are now considered normal letters, and can therefore
  5997   be used anywhere where an ASCII letter (a...zA...Z) has until
  5998   now. COMPATIBILITY: This obviously changes the parsing of some
  5999   terms, especially where a symbol has been used as a binder, say
  6000   '\<Pi>x. ...', which is now a type error since \<Pi>x will be parsed
  6001   as an identifier.  Fix it by inserting a space around former
  6002   symbols.  Call 'isatool fixgreek' to try to fix parsing errors in
  6003   existing theory and ML files.
  6004 
  6005 * Pure: Macintosh and Windows line-breaks are now allowed in theory files.
  6006 
  6007 * Pure: single letter sub/superscripts (\<^isub> and \<^isup>) are now
  6008   allowed in identifiers. Similar to Greek letters \<^isub> is now considered
  6009   a normal (but invisible) letter. For multiple letter subscripts repeat
  6010   \<^isub> like this: x\<^isub>1\<^isub>2.
  6011 
  6012 * Pure: There are now sub-/superscripts that can span more than one
  6013   character. Text between \<^bsub> and \<^esub> is set in subscript in
  6014   ProofGeneral and LaTeX, text between \<^bsup> and \<^esup> in
  6015   superscript. The new control characters are not identifier parts.
  6016 
  6017 * Pure: Control-symbols of the form \<^raw:...> will literally print the
  6018   content of "..." to the latex file instead of \isacntrl... . The "..."
  6019   may consist of any printable characters excluding the end bracket >.
  6020 
  6021 * Pure: Using new Isar command "finalconsts" (or the ML functions
  6022   Theory.add_finals or Theory.add_finals_i) it is now possible to
  6023   declare constants "final", which prevents their being given a definition
  6024   later.  It is useful for constants whose behaviour is fixed axiomatically
  6025   rather than definitionally, such as the meta-logic connectives.
  6026 
  6027 * Pure: 'instance' now handles general arities with general sorts
  6028   (i.e. intersections of classes),
  6029 
  6030 * Presentation: generated HTML now uses a CSS style sheet to make layout
  6031   (somewhat) independent of content. It is copied from lib/html/isabelle.css.
  6032   It can be changed to alter the colors/layout of generated pages.
  6033 
  6034 
  6035 *** Isar ***
  6036 
  6037 * Tactic emulation methods rule_tac, erule_tac, drule_tac, frule_tac,
  6038   cut_tac, subgoal_tac and thin_tac:
  6039   - Now understand static (Isar) contexts.  As a consequence, users of Isar
  6040     locales are no longer forced to write Isar proof scripts.
  6041     For details see Isar Reference Manual, paragraph 4.3.2: Further tactic
  6042     emulations.
  6043   - INCOMPATIBILITY: names of variables to be instantiated may no
  6044     longer be enclosed in quotes.  Instead, precede variable name with `?'.
  6045     This is consistent with the instantiation attribute "where".
  6046 
  6047 * Attributes "where" and "of":
  6048   - Now take type variables of instantiated theorem into account when reading
  6049     the instantiation string.  This fixes a bug that caused instantiated
  6050     theorems to have too special types in some circumstances.
  6051   - "where" permits explicit instantiations of type variables.
  6052 
  6053 * Calculation commands "moreover" and "also" no longer interfere with
  6054   current facts ("this"), admitting arbitrary combinations with "then"
  6055   and derived forms.
  6056 
  6057 * Locales:
  6058   - Goal statements involving the context element "includes" no longer
  6059     generate theorems with internal delta predicates (those ending on
  6060     "_axioms") in the premise.
  6061     Resolve particular premise with <locale>.intro to obtain old form.
  6062   - Fixed bug in type inference ("unify_frozen") that prevented mix of target
  6063     specification and "includes" elements in goal statement.
  6064   - Rule sets <locale>.intro and <locale>.axioms no longer declared as
  6065     [intro?] and [elim?] (respectively) by default.
  6066   - Experimental command for instantiation of locales in proof contexts:
  6067         instantiate <label>[<attrs>]: <loc>
  6068     Instantiates locale <loc> and adds all its theorems to the current context
  6069     taking into account their attributes.  Label and attrs are optional
  6070     modifiers, like in theorem declarations.  If present, names of
  6071     instantiated theorems are qualified with <label>, and the attributes
  6072     <attrs> are applied after any attributes these theorems might have already.
  6073       If the locale has assumptions, a chained fact of the form
  6074     "<loc> t1 ... tn" is expected from which instantiations of the parameters
  6075     are derived.  The command does not support old-style locales declared
  6076     with "locale (open)".
  6077       A few (very simple) examples can be found in FOL/ex/LocaleInst.thy.
  6078 
  6079 * HOL: Tactic emulation methods induct_tac and case_tac understand static
  6080   (Isar) contexts.
  6081 
  6082 
  6083 *** HOL ***
  6084 
  6085 * Proof import: new image HOL4 contains the imported library from
  6086   the HOL4 system with about 2500 theorems. It is imported by
  6087   replaying proof terms produced by HOL4 in Isabelle. The HOL4 image
  6088   can be used like any other Isabelle image.  See
  6089   HOL/Import/HOL/README for more information.
  6090 
  6091 * Simplifier:
  6092   - Much improved handling of linear and partial orders.
  6093     Reasoners for linear and partial orders are set up for type classes
  6094     "linorder" and "order" respectively, and are added to the default simpset
  6095     as solvers.  This means that the simplifier can build transitivity chains
  6096     to solve goals from the assumptions.
  6097   - INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break occasionally.  Typically, applications
  6098     of blast or auto after simplification become unnecessary because the goal
  6099     is solved by simplification already.
  6100 
  6101 * Numerics: new theory Ring_and_Field contains over 250 basic numerical laws,
  6102     all proved in axiomatic type classes for semirings, rings and fields.
  6103 
  6104 * Numerics:
  6105   - Numeric types (nat, int, and in HOL-Complex rat, real, complex, etc.) are
  6106     now formalized using the Ring_and_Field theory mentioned above.
  6107   - INCOMPATIBILITY: simplification and arithmetic behaves somewhat differently
  6108     than before, because now they are set up once in a generic manner.
  6109   - INCOMPATIBILITY: many type-specific arithmetic laws have gone.
  6110     Look for the general versions in Ring_and_Field (and Power if they concern
  6111     exponentiation).
  6112 
  6113 * Type "rat" of the rational numbers is now available in HOL-Complex.
  6114 
  6115 * Records:
  6116   - Record types are now by default printed with their type abbreviation
  6117     instead of the list of all field types. This can be configured via
  6118     the reference "print_record_type_abbr".
  6119   - Simproc "record_upd_simproc" for simplification of multiple updates added
  6120     (not enabled by default).
  6121   - Simproc "record_ex_sel_eq_simproc" to simplify EX x. sel r = x resp.
  6122     EX x. x = sel r to True (not enabled by default).
  6123   - Tactic "record_split_simp_tac" to split and simplify records added.
  6124 
  6125 * 'specification' command added, allowing for definition by
  6126   specification.  There is also an 'ax_specification' command that
  6127   introduces the new constants axiomatically.
  6128 
  6129 * arith(_tac) is now able to generate counterexamples for reals as well.
  6130 
  6131 * HOL-Algebra: new locale "ring" for non-commutative rings.
  6132 
  6133 * HOL-ex: InductiveInvariant_examples illustrates advanced recursive function
  6134   definitions, thanks to Sava Krsti\'{c} and John Matthews.
  6135 
  6136 * HOL-Matrix: a first theory for matrices in HOL with an application of
  6137   matrix theory to linear programming.
  6138 
  6139 * Unions and Intersections:
  6140   The latex output syntax of UN and INT has been changed
  6141   from "\Union x \in A. B" to "\Union_{x \in A} B"
  6142   i.e. the index formulae has become a subscript.
  6143   Similarly for "\Union x. B", and for \Inter instead of \Union.
  6144 
  6145 * Unions and Intersections over Intervals:
  6146   There is new short syntax "UN i<=n. A" for "UN i:{0..n}. A". There is
  6147   also an x-symbol version with subscripts "\<Union>\<^bsub>i <= n\<^esub>. A"
  6148   like in normal math, and corresponding versions for < and for intersection.
  6149 
  6150 * HOL/List: Ordering "lexico" is renamed "lenlex" and the standard
  6151   lexicographic dictonary ordering has been added as "lexord".
  6152 
  6153 * ML: the legacy theory structures Int and List have been removed. They had
  6154   conflicted with ML Basis Library structures having the same names.
  6155 
  6156 * 'refute' command added to search for (finite) countermodels.  Only works
  6157   for a fragment of HOL.  The installation of an external SAT solver is
  6158   highly recommended.  See "HOL/Refute.thy" for details.
  6159 
  6160 * 'quickcheck' command: Allows to find counterexamples by evaluating
  6161   formulae under an assignment of free variables to random values.
  6162   In contrast to 'refute', it can deal with inductive datatypes,
  6163   but cannot handle quantifiers. See "HOL/ex/Quickcheck_Examples.thy"
  6164   for examples.
  6165 
  6166 
  6167 *** HOLCF ***
  6168 
  6169 * Streams now come with concatenation and are part of the HOLCF image
  6170 
  6171 
  6172 
  6173 New in Isabelle2003 (May 2003)
  6174 ------------------------------
  6175 
  6176 *** General ***
  6177 
  6178 * Provers/simplifier:
  6179 
  6180   - Completely reimplemented method simp (ML: Asm_full_simp_tac):
  6181     Assumptions are now subject to complete mutual simplification,
  6182     not just from left to right. The simplifier now preserves
  6183     the order of assumptions.
  6184 
  6185     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  6186 
  6187     -- simp sometimes diverges where the old version did
  6188        not, e.g. invoking simp on the goal
  6189 
  6190         [| P (f x); y = x; f x = f y |] ==> Q
  6191 
  6192        now gives rise to the infinite reduction sequence
  6193 
  6194         P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> P(f y) --(y = x)--> P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> ...
  6195 
  6196        Using "simp (asm_lr)" (ML: Asm_lr_simp_tac) instead often solves this
  6197        kind of problem.
  6198 
  6199     -- Tactics combining classical reasoner and simplification (such as auto)
  6200        are also affected by this change, because many of them rely on
  6201        simp. They may sometimes diverge as well or yield a different numbers
  6202        of subgoals. Try to use e.g. force, fastsimp, or safe instead of auto
  6203        in case of problems. Sometimes subsequent calls to the classical
  6204        reasoner will fail because a preceeding call to the simplifier too
  6205        eagerly simplified the goal, e.g. deleted redundant premises.
  6206 
  6207   - The simplifier trace now shows the names of the applied rewrite rules
  6208 
  6209   - You can limit the number of recursive invocations of the simplifier
  6210     during conditional rewriting (where the simplifie tries to solve the
  6211     conditions before applying the rewrite rule):
  6212     ML "simp_depth_limit := n"
  6213     where n is an integer. Thus you can force termination where previously
  6214     the simplifier would diverge.
  6215 
  6216   - Accepts free variables as head terms in congruence rules.  Useful in Isar.
  6217 
  6218   - No longer aborts on failed congruence proof.  Instead, the
  6219     congruence is ignored.
  6220 
  6221 * Pure: New generic framework for extracting programs from constructive
  6222   proofs. See HOL/Extraction.thy for an example instantiation, as well
  6223   as HOL/Extraction for some case studies.
  6224 
  6225 * Pure: The main goal of the proof state is no longer shown by default, only
  6226 the subgoals. This behaviour is controlled by a new flag.
  6227    PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Settings -> Show Main Goal
  6228 (ML: Proof.show_main_goal).
  6229 
  6230 * Pure: You can find all matching introduction rules for subgoal 1, i.e. all
  6231 rules whose conclusion matches subgoal 1: