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src/Doc/Tutorial/Misc/simp.thy

author | nipkow |

Sat, 06 Jan 2018 22:55:52 +0100 | |

changeset 67350 | f061129d891b |

parent 62392 | 747d36865c2c |

child 67406 | 23307fd33906 |

permissions | -rw-r--r-- |

corrected op

(*<*) theory simp imports Main begin (*>*) subsection{*Simplification Rules*} text{*\index{simplification rules} To facilitate simplification, the attribute @{text"[simp]"}\index{*simp (attribute)} declares theorems to be simplification rules, which the simplifier will use automatically. In addition, \isacommand{datatype} and \isacommand{primrec} declarations (and a few others) implicitly declare some simplification rules. Explicit definitions are \emph{not} declared as simplification rules automatically! Nearly any theorem can become a simplification rule. The simplifier will try to transform it into an equation. For example, the theorem @{prop"~P"} is turned into @{prop"P = False"}. The details are explained in \S\ref{sec:SimpHow}. The simplification attribute of theorems can be turned on and off:% \index{*simp del (attribute)} \begin{quote} \isacommand{declare} \textit{theorem-name}@{text"[simp]"}\\ \isacommand{declare} \textit{theorem-name}@{text"[simp del]"} \end{quote} Only equations that really simplify, like \isa{rev\ {\isacharparenleft}rev\ xs{\isacharparenright}\ {\isacharequal}\ xs} and \isa{xs\ {\isacharat}\ {\isacharbrackleft}{\isacharbrackright}\ {\isacharequal}\ xs}, should be declared as default simplification rules. More specific ones should only be used selectively and should not be made default. Distributivity laws, for example, alter the structure of terms and can produce an exponential blow-up instead of simplification. A default simplification rule may need to be disabled in certain proofs. Frequent changes in the simplification status of a theorem may indicate an unwise use of defaults. \begin{warn} Simplification can run forever, for example if both $f(x) = g(x)$ and $g(x) = f(x)$ are simplification rules. It is the user's responsibility not to include simplification rules that can lead to nontermination, either on their own or in combination with other simplification rules. \end{warn} \begin{warn} It is inadvisable to toggle the simplification attribute of a theorem from a parent theory $A$ in a child theory $B$ for good. The reason is that if some theory $C$ is based both on $B$ and (via a different path) on $A$, it is not defined what the simplification attribute of that theorem will be in $C$: it could be either. \end{warn} *} subsection{*The {\tt\slshape simp} Method*} text{*\index{*simp (method)|bold} The general format of the simplification method is \begin{quote} @{text simp} \textit{list of modifiers} \end{quote} where the list of \emph{modifiers} fine tunes the behaviour and may be empty. Specific modifiers are discussed below. Most if not all of the proofs seen so far could have been performed with @{text simp} instead of \isa{auto}, except that @{text simp} attacks only the first subgoal and may thus need to be repeated --- use \methdx{simp_all} to simplify all subgoals. If nothing changes, @{text simp} fails. *} subsection{*Adding and Deleting Simplification Rules*} text{* \index{simplification rules!adding and deleting}% If a certain theorem is merely needed in a few proofs by simplification, we do not need to make it a global simplification rule. Instead we can modify the set of simplification rules used in a simplification step by adding rules to it and/or deleting rules from it. The two modifiers for this are \begin{quote} @{text"add:"} \textit{list of theorem names}\index{*add (modifier)}\\ @{text"del:"} \textit{list of theorem names}\index{*del (modifier)} \end{quote} Or you can use a specific list of theorems and omit all others: \begin{quote} @{text"only:"} \textit{list of theorem names}\index{*only (modifier)} \end{quote} In this example, we invoke the simplifier, adding two distributive laws: \begin{quote} \isacommand{apply}@{text"(simp add: mod_mult_distrib add_mult_distrib)"} \end{quote} *} subsection{*Assumptions*} text{*\index{simplification!with/of assumptions} By default, assumptions are part of the simplification process: they are used as simplification rules and are simplified themselves. For example: *} lemma "\<lbrakk> xs @ zs = ys @ xs; [] @ xs = [] @ [] \<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> ys = zs" apply simp done text{*\noindent The second assumption simplifies to @{term"xs = []"}, which in turn simplifies the first assumption to @{term"zs = ys"}, thus reducing the conclusion to @{term"ys = ys"} and hence to @{term"True"}. In some cases, using the assumptions can lead to nontermination: *} lemma "\<forall>x. f x = g (f (g x)) \<Longrightarrow> f [] = f [] @ []" txt{*\noindent An unmodified application of @{text"simp"} loops. The culprit is the simplification rule @{term"f x = g (f (g x))"}, which is extracted from the assumption. (Isabelle notices certain simple forms of nontermination but not this one.) The problem can be circumvented by telling the simplifier to ignore the assumptions: *} apply(simp (no_asm)) done text{*\noindent Three modifiers influence the treatment of assumptions: \begin{description} \item[@{text"(no_asm)"}]\index{*no_asm (modifier)} means that assumptions are completely ignored. \item[@{text"(no_asm_simp)"}]\index{*no_asm_simp (modifier)} means that the assumptions are not simplified but are used in the simplification of the conclusion. \item[@{text"(no_asm_use)"}]\index{*no_asm_use (modifier)} means that the assumptions are simplified but are not used in the simplification of each other or the conclusion. \end{description} Only one of the modifiers is allowed, and it must precede all other modifiers. %\begin{warn} %Assumptions are simplified in a left-to-right fashion. If an %assumption can help in simplifying one to the left of it, this may get %overlooked. In such cases you have to rotate the assumptions explicitly: %\isacommand{apply}@ {text"("}\methdx{rotate_tac}~$n$@ {text")"} %causes a cyclic shift by $n$ positions from right to left, if $n$ is %positive, and from left to right, if $n$ is negative. %Beware that such rotations make proofs quite brittle. %\end{warn} *} subsection{*Rewriting with Definitions*} text{*\label{sec:Simp-with-Defs}\index{simplification!with definitions} Constant definitions (\S\ref{sec:ConstDefinitions}) can be used as simplification rules, but by default they are not: the simplifier does not expand them automatically. Definitions are intended for introducing abstract concepts and not merely as abbreviations. Of course, we need to expand the definition initially, but once we have proved enough abstract properties of the new constant, we can forget its original definition. This style makes proofs more robust: if the definition has to be changed, only the proofs of the abstract properties will be affected. For example, given *} definition xor :: "bool \<Rightarrow> bool \<Rightarrow> bool" where "xor A B \<equiv> (A \<and> \<not>B) \<or> (\<not>A \<and> B)" text{*\noindent we may want to prove *} lemma "xor A (\<not>A)" txt{*\noindent Typically, we begin by unfolding some definitions: \indexbold{definitions!unfolding} *} apply(simp only: xor_def) txt{*\noindent In this particular case, the resulting goal @{subgoals[display,indent=0]} can be proved by simplification. Thus we could have proved the lemma outright by *}(*<*)oops lemma "xor A (\<not>A)"(*>*) apply(simp add: xor_def) (*<*)done(*>*) text{*\noindent Of course we can also unfold definitions in the middle of a proof. \begin{warn} If you have defined $f\,x\,y~\isasymequiv~t$ then you can only unfold occurrences of $f$ with at least two arguments. This may be helpful for unfolding $f$ selectively, but it may also get in the way. Defining $f$~\isasymequiv~\isasymlambda$x\,y.\;t$ allows to unfold all occurrences of $f$. \end{warn} There is also the special method \isa{unfold}\index{*unfold (method)|bold} which merely unfolds one or several definitions, as in \isacommand{apply}\isa{(unfold xor_def)}. This is can be useful in situations where \isa{simp} does too much. Warning: \isa{unfold} acts on all subgoals! *} subsection{*Simplifying {\tt\slshape let}-Expressions*} text{*\index{simplification!of \isa{let}-expressions}\index{*let expressions}% Proving a goal containing \isa{let}-expressions almost invariably requires the @{text"let"}-con\-structs to be expanded at some point. Since @{text"let"}\ldots\isa{=}\ldots@{text"in"}{\ldots} is just syntactic sugar for the predefined constant @{term"Let"}, expanding @{text"let"}-constructs means rewriting with \tdx{Let_def}: *} lemma "(let xs = [] in xs@ys@xs) = ys" apply(simp add: Let_def) done text{* If, in a particular context, there is no danger of a combinatorial explosion of nested @{text"let"}s, you could even simplify with @{thm[source]Let_def} by default: *} declare Let_def [simp] subsection{*Conditional Simplification Rules*} text{* \index{conditional simplification rules}% So far all examples of rewrite rules were equations. The simplifier also accepts \emph{conditional} equations, for example *} lemma hd_Cons_tl[simp]: "xs \<noteq> [] \<Longrightarrow> hd xs # tl xs = xs" apply(case_tac xs, simp, simp) done text{*\noindent Note the use of ``\ttindexboldpos{,}{$Isar}'' to string together a sequence of methods. Assuming that the simplification rule @{term"(rev xs = []) = (xs = [])"} is present as well, the lemma below is proved by plain simplification: *} lemma "xs \<noteq> [] \<Longrightarrow> hd(rev xs) # tl(rev xs) = rev xs" (*<*) by(simp) (*>*) text{*\noindent The conditional equation @{thm[source]hd_Cons_tl} above can simplify @{term"hd(rev xs) # tl(rev xs)"} to @{term"rev xs"} because the corresponding precondition @{term"rev xs ~= []"} simplifies to @{term"xs ~= []"}, which is exactly the local assumption of the subgoal. *} subsection{*Automatic Case Splits*} text{*\label{sec:AutoCaseSplits}\indexbold{case splits}% Goals containing @{text"if"}-expressions\index{*if expressions!splitting of} are usually proved by case distinction on the boolean condition. Here is an example: *} lemma "\<forall>xs. if xs = [] then rev xs = [] else rev xs \<noteq> []" txt{*\noindent The goal can be split by a special method, \methdx{split}: *} apply(split if_split) txt{*\noindent @{subgoals[display,indent=0]} where \tdx{if_split} is a theorem that expresses splitting of @{text"if"}s. Because splitting the @{text"if"}s is usually the right proof strategy, the simplifier does it automatically. Try \isacommand{apply}@{text"(simp)"} on the initial goal above. This splitting idea generalizes from @{text"if"} to \sdx{case}. Let us simplify a case analysis over lists:\index{*list.split (theorem)} *}(*<*)by simp(*>*) lemma "(case xs of [] \<Rightarrow> zs | y#ys \<Rightarrow> y#(ys@zs)) = xs@zs" apply(split list.split) txt{* @{subgoals[display,indent=0]} The simplifier does not split @{text"case"}-expressions, as it does @{text"if"}-expressions, because with recursive datatypes it could lead to nontermination. Instead, the simplifier has a modifier @{text split}\index{*split (modifier)} for adding splitting rules explicitly. The lemma above can be proved in one step by *} (*<*)oops lemma "(case xs of [] \<Rightarrow> zs | y#ys \<Rightarrow> y#(ys@zs)) = xs@zs" (*>*) apply(simp split: list.split) (*<*)done(*>*) text{*\noindent whereas \isacommand{apply}@{text"(simp)"} alone will not succeed. Every datatype $t$ comes with a theorem $t$@{text".split"} which can be declared to be a \bfindex{split rule} either locally as above, or by giving it the \attrdx{split} attribute globally: *} declare list.split [split] text{*\noindent The @{text"split"} attribute can be removed with the @{text"del"} modifier, either locally *} (*<*) lemma "dummy=dummy" (*>*) apply(simp split del: if_split) (*<*) oops (*>*) text{*\noindent or globally: *} declare list.split [split del] text{* Polished proofs typically perform splitting within @{text simp} rather than invoking the @{text split} method. However, if a goal contains several @{text "if"} and @{text case} expressions, the @{text split} method can be helpful in selectively exploring the effects of splitting. The split rules shown above are intended to affect only the subgoal's conclusion. If you want to split an @{text"if"} or @{text"case"}-expression in the assumptions, you have to apply \tdx{if_split_asm} or $t$@{text".split_asm"}: *} lemma "if xs = [] then ys \<noteq> [] else ys = [] \<Longrightarrow> xs @ ys \<noteq> []" apply(split if_split_asm) txt{*\noindent Unlike splitting the conclusion, this step creates two separate subgoals, which here can be solved by @{text"simp_all"}: @{subgoals[display,indent=0]} If you need to split both in the assumptions and the conclusion, use $t$@{text".splits"} which subsumes $t$@{text".split"} and $t$@{text".split_asm"}. Analogously, there is @{thm[source]if_splits}. \begin{warn} The simplifier merely simplifies the condition of an \isa{if}\index{*if expressions!simplification of} but not the \isa{then} or \isa{else} parts. The latter are simplified only after the condition reduces to \isa{True} or \isa{False}, or after splitting. The same is true for \sdx{case}-expressions: only the selector is simplified at first, until either the expression reduces to one of the cases or it is split. \end{warn} *} (*<*) by(simp_all) (*>*) subsection{*Tracing*} text{*\indexbold{tracing the simplifier} Using the simplifier effectively may take a bit of experimentation. Set the Proof General flag \pgmenu{Isabelle} $>$ \pgmenu{Settings} $>$ \pgmenu{Trace Simplifier} to get a better idea of what is going on: *} lemma "rev [a] = []" apply(simp) (*<*)oops(*>*) text{*\noindent produces the following trace in Proof General's \pgmenu{Trace} buffer: \begin{ttbox}\makeatother [1]Applying instance of rewrite rule "List.rev.simps_2": rev (?x1 # ?xs1) \(\equiv\) rev ?xs1 @ [?x1] [1]Rewriting: rev [a] \(\equiv\) rev [] @ [a] [1]Applying instance of rewrite rule "List.rev.simps_1": rev [] \(\equiv\) [] [1]Rewriting: rev [] \(\equiv\) [] [1]Applying instance of rewrite rule "List.append.append_Nil": [] @ ?y \(\equiv\) ?y [1]Rewriting: [] @ [a] \(\equiv\) [a] [1]Applying instance of rewrite rule ?x2 # ?t1 = ?t1 \(\equiv\) False [1]Rewriting: [a] = [] \(\equiv\) False \end{ttbox} The trace lists each rule being applied, both in its general form and the instance being used. The \texttt{[}$i$\texttt{]} in front (where above $i$ is always \texttt{1}) indicates that we are inside the $i$th invocation of the simplifier. Each attempt to apply a conditional rule shows the rule followed by the trace of the (recursive!) simplification of the conditions, the latter prefixed by \texttt{[}$i+1$\texttt{]} instead of \texttt{[}$i$\texttt{]}. Another source of recursive invocations of the simplifier are proofs of arithmetic formulae. By default, recursive invocations are not shown, you must increase the trace depth via \pgmenu{Isabelle} $>$ \pgmenu{Settings} $>$ \pgmenu{Trace Simplifier Depth}. Many other hints about the simplifier's actions may appear. In more complicated cases, the trace can be very lengthy. Thus it is advisable to reset the \pgmenu{Trace Simplifier} flag after having obtained the desired trace. Since this is easily forgotten (and may have the unpleasant effect of swamping the interface with trace information), here is how you can switch the trace on locally in a proof: *} (*<*)lemma "x=x" (*>*) using [[simp_trace=true]] apply simp (*<*)oops(*>*) text{* \noindent Within the current proof, all simplifications in subsequent proof steps will be traced, but the text reminds you to remove the \isa{using} clause after it has done its job. *} subsection{*Finding Theorems\label{sec:find}*} text{*\indexbold{finding theorems}\indexbold{searching theorems} Isabelle's large database of proved theorems offers a powerful search engine. Its chief limitation is its restriction to the theories currently loaded. \begin{pgnote} The search engine is started by clicking on Proof General's \pgmenu{Find} icon. You specify your search textually in the input buffer at the bottom of the window. \end{pgnote} The simplest form of search finds theorems containing specified patterns. A pattern can be any term (even a single identifier). It may contain ``\texttt{\_}'', a wildcard standing for any term. Here are some examples: \begin{ttbox} length "_ # _ = _ # _" "_ + _" "_ * (_ - (_::nat))" \end{ttbox} Specifying types, as shown in the last example, constrains searches involving overloaded operators. \begin{warn} Always use ``\texttt{\_}'' rather than variable names: searching for \texttt{"x + y"} will usually not find any matching theorems because they would need to contain \texttt{x} and~\texttt{y} literally. When searching for infix operators, do not just type in the symbol, such as~\texttt{+}, but a proper term such as \texttt{"_ + _"}. This remark applies to more complicated syntaxes, too. \end{warn} If you are looking for rewrite rules (possibly conditional) that could simplify some term, prefix the pattern with \texttt{simp:}. \begin{ttbox} simp: "_ * (_ + _)" \end{ttbox} This finds \emph{all} equations---not just those with a \isa{simp} attribute---whose conclusion has the form @{text[display]"_ * (_ + _) = \<dots>"} It only finds equations that can simplify the given pattern at the root, not somewhere inside: for example, equations of the form @{text"_ + _ = \<dots>"} do not match. You may also search for theorems by name---you merely need to specify a substring. For example, you could search for all commutativity theorems like this: \begin{ttbox} name: comm \end{ttbox} This retrieves all theorems whose name contains \texttt{comm}. Search criteria can also be negated by prefixing them with ``\texttt{-}''. For example, \begin{ttbox} -name: List \end{ttbox} finds theorems whose name does not contain \texttt{List}. You can use this to exclude particular theories from the search: the long name of a theorem contains the name of the theory it comes from. Finallly, different search criteria can be combined arbitrarily. The effect is conjuctive: Find returns the theorems that satisfy all of the criteria. For example, \begin{ttbox} "_ + _" -"_ - _" -simp: "_ * (_ + _)" name: assoc \end{ttbox} looks for theorems containing plus but not minus, and which do not simplify \mbox{@{text"_ * (_ + _)"}} at the root, and whose name contains \texttt{assoc}. Further search criteria are explained in \S\ref{sec:find2}. \begin{pgnote} Proof General keeps a history of all your search expressions. If you click on \pgmenu{Find}, you can use the arrow keys to scroll through previous searches and just modify them. This saves you having to type in lengthy expressions again and again. \end{pgnote} *} (*<*) end (*>*)