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doc-src/Ref/syntax.tex

author | paulson |

Wed, 02 Jul 1997 16:46:36 +0200 | |

changeset 3485 | f27a30a18a17 |

parent 3135 | 233aba197bf2 |

child 4375 | ef2a7b589004 |

permissions | -rw-r--r-- |

Now there are TWO spaces after each full stop, so that the Emacs sentence
primitives work

%% $Id$ \chapter{Syntax Transformations} \label{chap:syntax} \newcommand\ttapp{\mathrel{\hbox{\tt\$}}} \newcommand\mtt[1]{\mbox{\tt #1}} \newcommand\ttfct[1]{\mathop{\mtt{#1}}\nolimits} \newcommand\Constant{\ttfct{Constant}} \newcommand\Variable{\ttfct{Variable}} \newcommand\Appl[1]{\ttfct{Appl}\,[#1]} \index{syntax!transformations|(} This chapter is intended for experienced Isabelle users who need to define macros or code their own translation functions. It describes the transformations between parse trees, abstract syntax trees and terms. \section{Abstract syntax trees} \label{sec:asts} \index{ASTs|(} The parser, given a token list from the lexer, applies productions to yield a parse tree\index{parse trees}. By applying some internal transformations the parse tree becomes an abstract syntax tree, or \AST{}. Macro expansion, further translations and finally type inference yields a well-typed term. The printing process is the reverse, except for some subtleties to be discussed later. Figure~\ref{fig:parse_print} outlines the parsing and printing process. Much of the complexity is due to the macro mechanism. Using macros, you can specify most forms of concrete syntax without writing any \ML{} code. \begin{figure} \begin{center} \begin{tabular}{cl} string & \\ $\downarrow$ & lexer, parser \\ parse tree & \\ $\downarrow$ & parse \AST{} translation \\ \AST{} & \\ $\downarrow$ & \AST{} rewriting (macros) \\ \AST{} & \\ $\downarrow$ & parse translation, type inference \\ --- well-typed term --- & \\ $\downarrow$ & print translation \\ \AST{} & \\ $\downarrow$ & \AST{} rewriting (macros) \\ \AST{} & \\ $\downarrow$ & print \AST{} translation, token translation \\ string & \end{tabular} \end{center} \caption{Parsing and printing}\label{fig:parse_print} \end{figure} Abstract syntax trees are an intermediate form between the raw parse trees and the typed $\lambda$-terms. An \AST{} is either an atom (constant or variable) or a list of {\em at least two\/} subtrees. Internally, they have type \mltydx{Syntax.ast}: \index{*Constant} \index{*Variable} \index{*Appl} \begin{ttbox} datatype ast = Constant of string | Variable of string | Appl of ast list \end{ttbox} % Isabelle uses an S-expression syntax for abstract syntax trees. Constant atoms are shown as quoted strings, variable atoms as non-quoted strings and applications as a parenthesised list of subtrees. For example, the \AST \begin{ttbox} Appl [Constant "_constrain", Appl [Constant "_abs", Variable "x", Variable "t"], Appl [Constant "fun", Variable "'a", Variable "'b"]] \end{ttbox} is shown as {\tt ("_constrain" ("_abs" x t) ("fun" 'a 'b))}. Both {\tt ()} and {\tt (f)} are illegal because they have too few subtrees. The resemblance to Lisp's S-expressions is intentional, but there are two kinds of atomic symbols: $\Constant x$ and $\Variable x$. Do not take the names {\tt Constant} and {\tt Variable} too literally; in the later translation to terms, $\Variable x$ may become a constant, free or bound variable, even a type constructor or class name; the actual outcome depends on the context. Similarly, you can think of ${\tt (} f~x@1~\ldots~x@n{\tt )}$ as the application of~$f$ to the arguments $x@1, \ldots, x@n$. But the kind of application is determined later by context; it could be a type constructor applied to types. Forms like {\tt (("_abs" x $t$) $u$)} are legal, but \AST{}s are first-order: the {\tt "_abs"} does not bind the {\tt x} in any way. Later at the term level, {\tt ("_abs" x $t$)} will become an {\tt Abs} node and occurrences of {\tt x} in $t$ will be replaced by bound variables (the term constructor \ttindex{Bound}). \section{Transforming parse trees to \AST{}s}\label{sec:astofpt} \index{ASTs!made from parse trees} \newcommand\astofpt[1]{\lbrakk#1\rbrakk} The parse tree is the raw output of the parser. Translation functions, called {\bf parse AST translations}\indexbold{translations!parse AST}, transform the parse tree into an abstract syntax tree. The parse tree is constructed by nesting the right-hand sides of the productions used to recognize the input. Such parse trees are simply lists of tokens and constituent parse trees, the latter representing the nonterminals of the productions. Let us refer to the actual productions in the form displayed by {\tt print_syntax} (see \S\ref{sec:inspct-thy} for an example). Ignoring parse \AST{} translations, parse trees are transformed to \AST{}s by stripping out delimiters and copy productions. More precisely, the mapping $\astofpt{-}$ is derived from the productions as follows: \begin{itemize} \item Name tokens: $\astofpt{t} = \Variable s$, where $t$ is an \ndx{id}, \ndx{var}, \ndx{tid}, \ndx{tvar}, \ndx{xnum} or \ndx{xstr} token, and $s$ its associated string. Note that for {\tt xstr} this does not include the quotes. \item Copy productions:\index{productions!copy} $\astofpt{\ldots P \ldots} = \astofpt{P}$. Here $\ldots$ stands for strings of delimiters, which are discarded. $P$ stands for the single constituent that is not a delimiter; it is either a nonterminal symbol or a name token. \item 0-ary productions: $\astofpt{\ldots \mtt{=>} c} = \Constant c$. Here there are no constituents other than delimiters, which are discarded. \item $n$-ary productions, where $n \ge 1$: delimiters are discarded and the remaining constituents $P@1$, \ldots, $P@n$ are built into an application whose head constant is~$c$: \[ \astofpt{\ldots P@1 \ldots P@n \ldots \mtt{=>} c} = \Appl{\Constant c, \astofpt{P@1}, \ldots, \astofpt{P@n}} \] \end{itemize} Figure~\ref{fig:parse_ast} presents some simple examples, where {\tt ==}, {\tt _appl}, {\tt _args}, and so forth name productions of the Pure syntax. These examples illustrate the need for further translations to make \AST{}s closer to the typed $\lambda$-calculus. The Pure syntax provides predefined parse \AST{} translations\index{translations!parse AST} for ordinary applications, type applications, nested abstractions, meta implications and function types. Figure~\ref{fig:parse_ast_tr} shows their effect on some representative input strings. \begin{figure} \begin{center} \tt\begin{tabular}{ll} \rm input string & \rm \AST \\\hline "f" & f \\ "'a" & 'a \\ "t == u" & ("==" t u) \\ "f(x)" & ("_appl" f x) \\ "f(x, y)" & ("_appl" f ("_args" x y)) \\ "f(x, y, z)" & ("_appl" f ("_args" x ("_args" y z))) \\ "\%x y.\ t" & ("_lambda" ("_idts" x y) t) \\ \end{tabular} \end{center} \caption{Parsing examples using the Pure syntax}\label{fig:parse_ast} \end{figure} \begin{figure} \begin{center} \tt\begin{tabular}{ll} \rm input string & \rm \AST{} \\\hline "f(x, y, z)" & (f x y z) \\ "'a ty" & (ty 'a) \\ "('a, 'b) ty" & (ty 'a 'b) \\ "\%x y z.\ t" & ("_abs" x ("_abs" y ("_abs" z t))) \\ "\%x ::\ 'a.\ t" & ("_abs" ("_constrain" x 'a) t) \\ "[| P; Q; R |] => S" & ("==>" P ("==>" Q ("==>" R S))) \\ "['a, 'b, 'c] => 'd" & ("fun" 'a ("fun" 'b ("fun" 'c 'd))) \end{tabular} \end{center} \caption{Built-in parse \AST{} translations}\label{fig:parse_ast_tr} \end{figure} The names of constant heads in the \AST{} control the translation process. The list of constants invoking parse \AST{} translations appears in the output of {\tt print_syntax} under {\tt parse_ast_translation}. \section{Transforming \AST{}s to terms}\label{sec:termofast} \index{terms!made from ASTs} \newcommand\termofast[1]{\lbrakk#1\rbrakk} The \AST{}, after application of macros (see \S\ref{sec:macros}), is transformed into a term. This term is probably ill-typed since type inference has not occurred yet. The term may contain type constraints consisting of applications with head {\tt "_constrain"}; the second argument is a type encoded as a term. Type inference later introduces correct types or rejects the input. Another set of translation functions, namely parse translations\index{translations!parse}, may affect this process. If we ignore parse translations for the time being, then \AST{}s are transformed to terms by mapping \AST{} constants to constants, \AST{} variables to schematic or free variables and \AST{} applications to applications. More precisely, the mapping $\termofast{-}$ is defined by \begin{itemize} \item Constants: $\termofast{\Constant x} = \ttfct{Const} (x, \mtt{dummyT})$. \item Schematic variables: $\termofast{\Variable \mtt{"?}xi\mtt"} = \ttfct{Var} ((x, i), \mtt{dummyT})$, where $x$ is the base name and $i$ the index extracted from~$xi$. \item Free variables: $\termofast{\Variable x} = \ttfct{Free} (x, \mtt{dummyT})$. \item Function applications with $n$ arguments: \[ \termofast{\Appl{f, x@1, \ldots, x@n}} = \termofast{f} \ttapp \termofast{x@1} \ttapp \ldots \ttapp \termofast{x@n} \] \end{itemize} Here \ttindex{Const}, \ttindex{Var}, \ttindex{Free} and \verb|$|\index{$@{\tt\$}} are constructors of the datatype \mltydx{term}, while \ttindex{dummyT} stands for some dummy type that is ignored during type inference. So far the outcome is still a first-order term. Abstractions and bound variables (constructors \ttindex{Abs} and \ttindex{Bound}) are introduced by parse translations. Such translations are attached to {\tt "_abs"}, {\tt "!!"} and user-defined binders. \section{Printing of terms} \newcommand\astofterm[1]{\lbrakk#1\rbrakk}\index{ASTs!made from terms} The output phase is essentially the inverse of the input phase. Terms are translated via abstract syntax trees into strings. Finally the strings are pretty printed. Print translations (\S\ref{sec:tr_funs}) may affect the transformation of terms into \AST{}s. Ignoring those, the transformation maps term constants, variables and applications to the corresponding constructs on \AST{}s. Abstractions are mapped to applications of the special constant {\tt _abs}. More precisely, the mapping $\astofterm{-}$ is defined as follows: \begin{itemize} \item $\astofterm{\ttfct{Const} (x, \tau)} = \Constant x$. \item $\astofterm{\ttfct{Free} (x, \tau)} = constrain (\Variable x, \tau)$. \item $\astofterm{\ttfct{Var} ((x, i), \tau)} = constrain (\Variable \mtt{"?}xi\mtt", \tau)$, where $\mtt?xi$ is the string representation of the {\tt indexname} $(x, i)$. \item For the abstraction $\lambda x::\tau.t$, let $x'$ be a variant of~$x$ renamed to differ from all names occurring in~$t$, and let $t'$ be obtained from~$t$ by replacing all bound occurrences of~$x$ by the free variable $x'$. This replaces corresponding occurrences of the constructor \ttindex{Bound} by the term $\ttfct{Free} (x', \mtt{dummyT})$: \[ \astofterm{\ttfct{Abs} (x, \tau, t)} = \Appl{\Constant \mtt{"_abs"}, constrain(\Variable x', \tau), \astofterm{t'}}. \] \item $\astofterm{\ttfct{Bound} i} = \Variable \mtt{"B.}i\mtt"$. The occurrence of constructor \ttindex{Bound} should never happen when printing well-typed terms; it indicates a de Bruijn index with no matching abstraction. \item Where $f$ is not an application, \[ \astofterm{f \ttapp x@1 \ttapp \ldots \ttapp x@n} = \Appl{\astofterm{f}, \astofterm{x@1}, \ldots,\astofterm{x@n}} \] \end{itemize} % Type constraints\index{type constraints} are inserted to allow the printing of types. This is governed by the boolean variable \ttindex{show_types}: \begin{itemize} \item $constrain(x, \tau) = x$ \ if $\tau = \mtt{dummyT}$ \index{*dummyT} or \ttindex{show_types} is set to {\tt false}. \item $constrain(x, \tau) = \Appl{\Constant \mtt{"_constrain"}, x, \astofterm{\tau}}$ \ otherwise. Here, $\astofterm{\tau}$ is the \AST{} encoding of $\tau$: type constructors go to {\tt Constant}s; type identifiers go to {\tt Variable}s; type applications go to {\tt Appl}s with the type constructor as the first element. If \ttindex{show_sorts} is set to {\tt true}, some type variables are decorated with an \AST{} encoding of their sort. \end{itemize} % The \AST{}, after application of macros (see \S\ref{sec:macros}), is transformed into the final output string. The built-in {\bf print AST translations}\indexbold{translations!print AST} reverse the parse \AST{} translations of Fig.\ts\ref{fig:parse_ast_tr}. For the actual printing process, the names attached to productions of the form $\ldots A^{(p@1)}@1 \ldots A^{(p@n)}@n \ldots \mtt{=>} c$ play a vital role. Each \AST{} with constant head $c$, namely $\mtt"c\mtt"$ or $(\mtt"c\mtt"~ x@1 \ldots x@n)$, is printed according to the production for~$c$. Each argument~$x@i$ is converted to a string, and put in parentheses if its priority~$(p@i)$ requires this. The resulting strings and their syntactic sugar (denoted by \dots{} above) are joined to make a single string. If an application $(\mtt"c\mtt"~ x@1 \ldots x@m)$ has more arguments than the corresponding production, it is first split into $((\mtt"c\mtt"~ x@1 \ldots x@n) ~ x@{n+1} \ldots x@m)$. Applications with too few arguments or with non-constant head or without a corresponding production are printed as $f(x@1, \ldots, x@l)$ or $(\alpha@1, \ldots, \alpha@l) ty$. Multiple productions associated with some name $c$ are tried in order of appearance. An occurrence of $\Variable x$ is simply printed as~$x$. Blanks are {\em not\/} inserted automatically. If blanks are required to separate tokens, specify them in the mixfix declaration, possibly preceded by a slash~({\tt/}) to allow a line break. \index{ASTs|)} \section{Macros: syntactic rewriting} \label{sec:macros} \index{macros|(}\index{rewriting!syntactic|(} Mixfix declarations alone can handle situations where there is a direct connection between the concrete syntax and the underlying term. Sometimes we require a more elaborate concrete syntax, such as quantifiers and list notation. Isabelle's {\bf macros} and {\bf translation functions} can perform translations such as \begin{center}\tt \begin{tabular}{r@{$\quad\protect\rightleftharpoons\quad$}l} ALL x:A.P & Ball(A, \%x.P) \\ \relax [x, y, z] & Cons(x, Cons(y, Cons(z, Nil))) \end{tabular} \end{center} Translation functions (see \S\ref{sec:tr_funs}) must be coded in ML; they are the most powerful translation mechanism but are difficult to read or write. Macros are specified by first-order rewriting systems that operate on abstract syntax trees. They are usually easy to read and write, and can express all but the most obscure translations. Figure~\ref{fig:set_trans} defines a fragment of first-order logic and set theory.\footnote{This and the following theories are complete working examples, though they specify only syntax, no axioms. The file {\tt ZF/ZF.thy} presents a full set theory definition, including many macro rules.} Theory {\tt SetSyntax} declares constants for set comprehension ({\tt Collect}), replacement ({\tt Replace}) and bounded universal quantification ({\tt Ball}). Each of these binds some variables. Without additional syntax we should have to write $\forall x \in A. P$ as {\tt Ball(A,\%x.P)}, and similarly for the others. \begin{figure} \begin{ttbox} SetSyntax = Pure + types i o arities i, o :: logic consts Trueprop :: o => prop ("_" 5) Collect :: [i, i => o] => i Replace :: [i, [i, i] => o] => i Ball :: [i, i => o] => o syntax "{\at}Collect" :: [idt, i, o] => i ("(1{\ttlbrace}_:_./ _{\ttrbrace})") "{\at}Replace" :: [idt, idt, i, o] => i ("(1{\ttlbrace}_./ _:_, _{\ttrbrace})") "{\at}Ball" :: [idt, i, o] => o ("(3ALL _:_./ _)" 10) translations "{\ttlbrace}x:A. P{\ttrbrace}" == "Collect(A, \%x. P)" "{\ttlbrace}y. x:A, Q{\ttrbrace}" == "Replace(A, \%x y. Q)" "ALL x:A. P" == "Ball(A, \%x. P)" end \end{ttbox} \caption{Macro example: set theory}\label{fig:set_trans} \end{figure} The theory specifies a variable-binding syntax through additional productions that have mixfix declarations. Each non-copy production must specify some constant, which is used for building \AST{}s. \index{constants!syntactic} The additional constants are decorated with {\tt\at} to stress their purely syntactic purpose; they may not occur within the final well-typed terms, being declared as {\tt syntax} rather than {\tt consts}. The translations cause the replacement of external forms by internal forms after parsing, and vice versa before printing of terms. As a specification of the set theory notation, they should be largely self-explanatory. The syntactic constants, {\tt\at Collect}, {\tt\at Replace} and {\tt\at Ball}, appear implicitly in the macro rules via their mixfix forms. Macros can define variable-binding syntax because they operate on \AST{}s, which have no inbuilt notion of bound variable. The macro variables {\tt x} and~{\tt y} have type~{\tt idt} and therefore range over identifiers, in this case bound variables. The macro variables {\tt P} and~{\tt Q} range over formulae containing bound variable occurrences. Other applications of the macro system can be less straightforward, and there are peculiarities. The rest of this section will describe in detail how Isabelle macros are preprocessed and applied. \subsection{Specifying macros} Macros are basically rewrite rules on \AST{}s. But unlike other macro systems found in programming languages, Isabelle's macros work in both directions. Therefore a syntax contains two lists of rewrites: one for parsing and one for printing. \index{*translations section} The {\tt translations} section specifies macros. The syntax for a macro is \[ (root)\; string \quad \left\{\begin{array}[c]{c} \mtt{=>} \\ \mtt{<=} \\ \mtt{==} \end{array} \right\} \quad (root)\; string \] % This specifies a parse rule ({\tt =>}), a print rule ({\tt <=}), or both ({\tt ==}). The two strings specify the left and right-hand sides of the macro rule. The $(root)$ specification is optional; it specifies the nonterminal for parsing the $string$ and if omitted defaults to {\tt logic}. \AST{} rewrite rules $(l, r)$ must obey certain conditions: \begin{itemize} \item Rules must be left linear: $l$ must not contain repeated variables. \item Rules must have constant heads, namely $l = \mtt"c\mtt"$ or $l = (\mtt"c\mtt" ~ x@1 \ldots x@n)$. \item Every variable in~$r$ must also occur in~$l$. \end{itemize} Macro rules may refer to any syntax from the parent theories. They may also refer to anything defined before the current {\tt translations} section --- including any mixfix declarations. Upon declaration, both sides of the macro rule undergo parsing and parse \AST{} translations (see \S\ref{sec:asts}), but do not themselves undergo macro expansion. The lexer runs in a different mode that additionally accepts identifiers of the form $\_~letter~quasiletter^*$ (like {\tt _idt}, {\tt _K}). Thus, a constant whose name starts with an underscore can appear in macro rules but not in ordinary terms. Some atoms of the macro rule's \AST{} are designated as constants for matching. These are all names that have been declared as classes, types or constants (logical and syntactic). The result of this preprocessing is two lists of macro rules, each stored as a pair of \AST{}s. They can be viewed using {\tt print_syntax} (sections \ttindex{parse_rules} and \ttindex{print_rules}). For theory~{\tt SetSyntax} of Fig.~\ref{fig:set_trans} these are \begin{ttbox} parse_rules: ("{\at}Collect" x A P) -> ("Collect" A ("_abs" x P)) ("{\at}Replace" y x A Q) -> ("Replace" A ("_abs" x ("_abs" y Q))) ("{\at}Ball" x A P) -> ("Ball" A ("_abs" x P)) print_rules: ("Collect" A ("_abs" x P)) -> ("{\at}Collect" x A P) ("Replace" A ("_abs" x ("_abs" y Q))) -> ("{\at}Replace" y x A Q) ("Ball" A ("_abs" x P)) -> ("{\at}Ball" x A P) \end{ttbox} \begin{warn} Avoid choosing variable names that have previously been used as constants, types or type classes; the {\tt consts} section in the output of {\tt print_syntax} lists all such names. If a macro rule works incorrectly, inspect its internal form as shown above, recalling that constants appear as quoted strings and variables without quotes. \end{warn} \begin{warn} If \ttindex{eta_contract} is set to {\tt true}, terms will be $\eta$-contracted {\em before\/} the \AST{} rewriter sees them. Thus some abstraction nodes needed for print rules to match may vanish. For example, \verb|Ball(A, %x. P(x))| contracts to {\tt Ball(A, P)}; the print rule does not apply and the output will be {\tt Ball(A, P)}. This problem would not occur if \ML{} translation functions were used instead of macros (as is done for binder declarations). \end{warn} \begin{warn} Another trap concerns type constraints. If \ttindex{show_types} is set to {\tt true}, bound variables will be decorated by their meta types at the binding place (but not at occurrences in the body). Matching with \verb|Collect(A, %x. P)| binds {\tt x} to something like {\tt ("_constrain" y "i")} rather than only {\tt y}. \AST{} rewriting will cause the constraint to appear in the external form, say \verb|{y::i:A::i. P::o}|. To allow such constraints to be re-read, your syntax should specify bound variables using the nonterminal~\ndx{idt}. This is the case in our example. Choosing {\tt id} instead of {\tt idt} is a common error. \end{warn} \subsection{Applying rules} As a term is being parsed or printed, an \AST{} is generated as an intermediate form (recall Fig.\ts\ref{fig:parse_print}). The \AST{} is normalised by applying macro rules in the manner of a traditional term rewriting system. We first examine how a single rule is applied. Let $t$ be the abstract syntax tree to be normalised and $(l, r)$ some translation rule. A subtree~$u$ of $t$ is a {\bf redex} if it is an instance of~$l$; in this case $l$ is said to {\bf match}~$u$. A redex matched by $l$ may be replaced by the corresponding instance of~$r$, thus {\bf rewriting} the \AST~$t$. Matching requires some notion of {\bf place-holders} that may occur in rule patterns but not in ordinary \AST{}s; {\tt Variable} atoms serve this purpose. The matching of the object~$u$ by the pattern~$l$ is performed as follows: \begin{itemize} \item Every constant matches itself. \item $\Variable x$ in the object matches $\Constant x$ in the pattern. This point is discussed further below. \item Every \AST{} in the object matches $\Variable x$ in the pattern, binding~$x$ to~$u$. \item One application matches another if they have the same number of subtrees and corresponding subtrees match. \item In every other case, matching fails. In particular, {\tt Constant}~$x$ can only match itself. \end{itemize} A successful match yields a substitution that is applied to~$r$, generating the instance that replaces~$u$. The second case above may look odd. This is where {\tt Variable}s of non-rule \AST{}s behave like {\tt Constant}s. Recall that \AST{}s are not far removed from parse trees; at this level it is not yet known which identifiers will become constants, bounds, frees, types or classes. As \S\ref{sec:asts} describes, former parse tree heads appear in \AST{}s as {\tt Constant}s, while the name tokens \ndx{id}, \ndx{var}, \ndx{tid}, \ndx{tvar}, \ndx{xnum} and \ndx{xstr} become {\tt Variable}s. On the other hand, when \AST{}s generated from terms for printing, all constants and type constructors become {\tt Constant}s; see \S\ref{sec:asts}. Thus \AST{}s may contain a messy mixture of {\tt Variable}s and {\tt Constant}s. This is insignificant at macro level because matching treats them alike. Because of this behaviour, different kinds of atoms with the same name are indistinguishable, which may make some rules prone to misbehaviour. Example: \begin{ttbox} types Nil consts Nil :: 'a list syntax "[]" :: 'a list ("[]") translations "[]" == "Nil" \end{ttbox} The term {\tt Nil} will be printed as {\tt []}, just as expected. The term \verb|%Nil.t| will be printed as \verb|%[].t|, which might not be expected! Guess how type~{\tt Nil} is printed? Normalizing an \AST{} involves repeatedly applying macro rules until none are applicable. Macro rules are chosen in order of appearance in the theory definitions. You can watch the normalization of \AST{}s during parsing and printing by setting \ttindex{Syntax.trace_norm_ast} to {\tt true}.\index{tracing!of macros} Alternatively, use \ttindex{Syntax.test_read}. The information displayed when tracing includes the \AST{} before normalization ({\tt pre}), redexes with results ({\tt rewrote}), the normal form finally reached ({\tt post}) and some statistics ({\tt normalize}). If tracing is off, \ttindex{Syntax.stat_norm_ast} can be set to {\tt true} in order to enable printing of the normal form and statistics only. \subsection{Example: the syntax of finite sets} \index{examples!of macros} This example demonstrates the use of recursive macros to implement a convenient notation for finite sets. \index{*empty constant}\index{*insert constant}\index{{}@\verb'{}' symbol} \index{"@Enum@{\tt\at Enum} constant} \index{"@Finset@{\tt\at Finset} constant} \begin{ttbox} FinSyntax = SetSyntax + types is syntax "" :: i => is ("_") "{\at}Enum" :: [i, is] => is ("_,/ _") consts empty :: i ("{\ttlbrace}{\ttrbrace}") insert :: [i, i] => i syntax "{\at}Finset" :: is => i ("{\ttlbrace}(_){\ttrbrace}") translations "{\ttlbrace}x, xs{\ttrbrace}" == "insert(x, {\ttlbrace}xs{\ttrbrace})" "{\ttlbrace}x{\ttrbrace}" == "insert(x, {\ttlbrace}{\ttrbrace})" end \end{ttbox} Finite sets are internally built up by {\tt empty} and {\tt insert}. The declarations above specify \verb|{x, y, z}| as the external representation of \begin{ttbox} insert(x, insert(y, insert(z, empty))) \end{ttbox} The nonterminal symbol~\ndx{is} stands for one or more objects of type~{\tt i} separated by commas. The mixfix declaration \hbox{\verb|"_,/ _"|} allows a line break after the comma for \rmindex{pretty printing}; if no line break is required then a space is printed instead. The nonterminal is declared as the type~{\tt is}, but with no {\tt arities} declaration. Hence {\tt is} is not a logical type and may be used safely as a new nonterminal for custom syntax. The nonterminal~{\tt is} can later be re-used for other enumerations of type~{\tt i} like lists or tuples. If we had needed polymorphic enumerations, we could have used the predefined nonterminal symbol \ndx{args} and skipped this part altogether. \index{"@Finset@{\tt\at Finset} constant} Next follows {\tt empty}, which is already equipped with its syntax \verb|{}|, and {\tt insert} without concrete syntax. The syntactic constant {\tt\at Finset} provides concrete syntax for enumerations of~{\tt i} enclosed in curly braces. Remember that a pair of parentheses, as in \verb|"{(_)}"|, specifies a block of indentation for pretty printing. The translations may look strange at first. Macro rules are best understood in their internal forms: \begin{ttbox} parse_rules: ("{\at}Finset" ("{\at}Enum" x xs)) -> ("insert" x ("{\at}Finset" xs)) ("{\at}Finset" x) -> ("insert" x "empty") print_rules: ("insert" x ("{\at}Finset" xs)) -> ("{\at}Finset" ("{\at}Enum" x xs)) ("insert" x "empty") -> ("{\at}Finset" x) \end{ttbox} This shows that \verb|{x,xs}| indeed matches any set enumeration of at least two elements, binding the first to {\tt x} and the rest to {\tt xs}. Likewise, \verb|{xs}| and \verb|{x}| represent any set enumeration. The parse rules only work in the order given. \begin{warn} The \AST{} rewriter cannot distinguish constants from variables and looks only for names of atoms. Thus the names of {\tt Constant}s occurring in the (internal) left-hand side of translation rules should be regarded as \rmindex{reserved words}. Choose non-identifiers like {\tt\at Finset} or sufficiently long and strange names. If a bound variable's name gets rewritten, the result will be incorrect; for example, the term \begin{ttbox} \%empty insert. insert(x, empty) \end{ttbox} \par\noindent is incorrectly printed as \verb|%empty insert. {x}|. \end{warn} \subsection{Example: a parse macro for dependent types}\label{prod_trans} \index{examples!of macros} As stated earlier, a macro rule may not introduce new {\tt Variable}s on the right-hand side. Something like \verb|"K(B)" => "%x.B"| is illegal; if allowed, it could cause variable capture. In such cases you usually must fall back on translation functions. But a trick can make things readable in some cases: {\em calling\/} translation functions by parse macros: \begin{ttbox} ProdSyntax = SetSyntax + consts Pi :: [i, i => i] => i syntax "{\at}PROD" :: [idt, i, i] => i ("(3PROD _:_./ _)" 10) "{\at}->" :: [i, i] => i ("(_ ->/ _)" [51, 50] 50) \ttbreak translations "PROD x:A. B" => "Pi(A, \%x. B)" "A -> B" => "Pi(A, _K(B))" end ML val print_translation = [("Pi", dependent_tr' ("{\at}PROD", "{\at}->"))]; \end{ttbox} Here {\tt Pi} is a logical constant for constructing general products. Two external forms exist: the general case {\tt PROD x:A.B} and the function space {\tt A -> B}, which abbreviates \verb|Pi(A, %x.B)| when {\tt B} does not depend on~{\tt x}. The second parse macro introduces {\tt _K(B)}, which later becomes \verb|%x.B| due to a parse translation associated with \cdx{_K}. Unfortunately there is no such trick for printing, so we have to add a {\tt ML} section for the print translation \ttindex{dependent_tr'}. Recall that identifiers with a leading {\tt _} are allowed in translation rules, but not in ordinary terms. Thus we can create \AST{}s containing names that are not directly expressible. The parse translation for {\tt _K} is already installed in Pure, and {\tt dependent_tr'} is exported by the syntax module for public use. See \S\ref{sec:tr_funs} below for more of the arcane lore of translation functions. \index{macros|)}\index{rewriting!syntactic|)} \section{Translation functions} \label{sec:tr_funs} \index{translations|(} % This section describes the translation function mechanism. By writing \ML{} functions, you can do almost everything to terms or \AST{}s during parsing and printing. The logic \LK\ is a good example of sophisticated transformations between internal and external representations of sequents; here, macros would be useless. A full understanding of translations requires some familiarity with Isabelle's internals, especially the datatypes {\tt term}, {\tt typ}, {\tt Syntax.ast} and the encodings of types and terms as such at the various stages of the parsing or printing process. Most users should never need to use translation functions. \subsection{Declaring translation functions} There are four kinds of translation functions, with one of these coming in two variants. Each such function is associated with a name, which triggers calls to it. Such names can be constants (logical or syntactic) or type constructors. {\tt print_syntax} displays the sets of names associated with the translation functions of a theory under \ttindex{parse_ast_translation}, \ttindex{parse_translation}, \ttindex{print_translation} and \ttindex{print_ast_translation}. You can add new ones via the {\tt ML} section\index{*ML section} of a theory definition file. There may never be more than one function of the same kind per name. Even though the {\tt ML} section is the very last part of the file, newly installed translation functions are already effective when processing all of the preceding sections. The {\tt ML} section's contents are simply copied verbatim near the beginning of the \ML\ file generated from a theory definition file. Definitions made here are accessible as components of an \ML\ structure; to make some parts private, use an \ML{} {\tt local} declaration. The {\ML} code may install translation functions by declaring any of the following identifiers: \begin{ttbox} val parse_ast_translation : (string * (ast list -> ast)) list val print_ast_translation : (string * (ast list -> ast)) list val parse_translation : (string * (term list -> term)) list val print_translation : (string * (term list -> term)) list val typed_print_translation : (string * (typ -> term list -> term)) list \end{ttbox} \subsection{The translation strategy} The different kinds of translation functions are called during the transformations between parse trees, \AST{}s and terms (recall Fig.\ts\ref{fig:parse_print}). Whenever a combination of the form $(\mtt"c\mtt"~x@1 \ldots x@n)$ is encountered, and a translation function $f$ of appropriate kind exists for $c$, the result is computed by the \ML{} function call $f \mtt[ x@1, \ldots, x@n \mtt]$. For \AST{} translations, the arguments $x@1, \ldots, x@n$ are \AST{}s. A combination has the form $\Constant c$ or $\Appl{\Constant c, x@1, \ldots, x@n}$. For term translations, the arguments are terms and a combination has the form $\ttfct{Const} (c, \tau)$ or $\ttfct{Const} (c, \tau) \ttapp x@1 \ttapp \ldots \ttapp x@n$. Terms allow more sophisticated transformations than \AST{}s do, typically involving abstractions and bound variables. {\em Typed} print translations may even peek at the type $\tau$ of the constant they are invoked on. Regardless of whether they act on terms or \AST{}s, translation functions called during the parsing process differ from those for printing more fundamentally in their overall behaviour: \begin{description} \item[Parse translations] are applied bottom-up. The arguments are already in translated form. The translations must not fail; exceptions trigger an error message. \item[Print translations] are applied top-down. They are supplied with arguments that are partly still in internal form. The result again undergoes translation; therefore a print translation should not introduce as head the very constant that invoked it. The function may raise exception \xdx{Match} to indicate failure; in this event it has no effect. \end{description} Only constant atoms --- constructor \ttindex{Constant} for \AST{}s and \ttindex{Const} for terms --- can invoke translation functions. This causes another difference between parsing and printing. Parsing starts with a string and the constants are not yet identified. Only parse tree heads create {\tt Constant}s in the resulting \AST, as described in \S\ref{sec:astofpt}. Macros and parse \AST{} translations may introduce further {\tt Constant}s. When the final \AST{} is converted to a term, all {\tt Constant}s become {\tt Const}s, as described in \S\ref{sec:termofast}. Printing starts with a well-typed term and all the constants are known. So all logical constants and type constructors may invoke print translations. These, and macros, may introduce further constants. \subsection{Example: a print translation for dependent types} \index{examples!of translations}\indexbold{*dependent_tr'} Let us continue the dependent type example (page~\pageref{prod_trans}) by examining the parse translation for~\cdx{_K} and the print translation {\tt dependent_tr'}, which are both built-in. By convention, parse translations have names ending with {\tt _tr} and print translations have names ending with {\tt _tr'}. Search for such names in the Isabelle sources to locate more examples. Here is the parse translation for {\tt _K}: \begin{ttbox} fun k_tr [t] = Abs ("x", dummyT, incr_boundvars 1 t) | k_tr ts = raise TERM ("k_tr", ts); \end{ttbox} If {\tt k_tr} is called with exactly one argument~$t$, it creates a new {\tt Abs} node with a body derived from $t$. Since terms given to parse translations are not yet typed, the type of the bound variable in the new {\tt Abs} is simply {\tt dummyT}. The function increments all {\tt Bound} nodes referring to outer abstractions by calling \ttindex{incr_boundvars}, a basic term manipulation function defined in {\tt Pure/term.ML}. Here is the print translation for dependent types: \begin{ttbox} fun dependent_tr' (q, r) (A :: Abs (x, T, B) :: ts) = if 0 mem (loose_bnos B) then let val (x', B') = Syntax.variant_abs' (x, dummyT, B) in list_comb (Const (q,{\thinspace}dummyT) $ Syntax.mark_boundT (x',{\thinspace}T) $ A $ B',{\thinspace}ts) end else list_comb (Const (r, dummyT) $ A $ B, ts) | dependent_tr' _ _ = raise Match; \end{ttbox} The argument {\tt (q,{\thinspace}r)} is supplied to the curried function {\tt dependent_tr'} by a partial application during its installation. For example, we could set up print translations for both {\tt Pi} and {\tt Sigma} by including \begin{ttbox}\index{*ML section} val print_translation = [("Pi", dependent_tr' ("{\at}PROD", "{\at}->")), ("Sigma", dependent_tr' ("{\at}SUM", "{\at}*"))]; \end{ttbox} within the {\tt ML} section. The first of these transforms ${\tt Pi}(A, \mtt{Abs}(x, T, B))$ into $\hbox{\tt{\at}PROD}(x', A, B')$ or $\hbox{\tt{\at}->}(A, B)$, choosing the latter form if $B$ does not depend on~$x$. It checks this using \ttindex{loose_bnos}, yet another function from {\tt Pure/term.ML}. Note that $x'$ is a version of $x$ renamed away from all names in $B$, and $B'$ is the body $B$ with {\tt Bound} nodes referring to the {\tt Abs} node replaced by $\ttfct{Free} (x', \mtt{dummyT})$ (but marked as representing a bound variable). We must be careful with types here. While types of {\tt Const}s are ignored, type constraints may be printed for some {\tt Free}s and {\tt Var}s if \ttindex{show_types} is set to {\tt true}. Variables of type \ttindex{dummyT} are never printed with constraint, though. The line \begin{ttbox} let val (x', B') = Syntax.variant_abs' (x, dummyT, B); \end{ttbox}\index{*Syntax.variant_abs'} replaces bound variable occurrences in~$B$ by the free variable $x'$ with type {\tt dummyT}. Only the binding occurrence of~$x'$ is given the correct type~{\tt T}, so this is the only place where a type constraint might appear. Also note that we are responsible to mark free identifiers that actually represent bound variables. This is achieved by \ttindex{Syntax.variant_abs'} and \ttindex{Syntax.mark_boundT} above. Failing to do so may cause these names to be printed in the wrong style. \index{translations|)} \index{syntax!transformations|)} \section{Token translations} \label{sec:tok_tr} \index{token translations|(} % Isabelle's meta-logic features quite a lot of different kinds of identifiers, namely {\em class}, {\em tfree}, {\em tvar}, {\em free}, {\em bound}, {\em var}. One might want to have these printed in different styles, e.g.\ in bold or italic, or even transcribed into something more readable like $\alpha, \alpha', \beta$ instead of {\tt 'a}, {\tt 'aa}, {\tt 'b} for type variables. Token translations provide a means to such ends, enabling the user to install certain \ML{} functions associated with any logical \rmindex{token class} and depending on some \rmindex{print mode}. The logical class of identifiers can not necessarily be determined by its syntactic category, though. For example, consider free vs.\ bound variables. So Isabelle's pretty printing mechanism, starting from fully typed terms, has to be careful to preserve this additional information\footnote{This is done by marking atoms in abstract syntax trees appropriately. The marks are actually visible by print translation functions -- they are just special constants applied to atomic asts, for example \texttt{("_bound" x)}.}. In particular, user-supplied print translation functions operating on terms have to be well-behaved in this respect. Free identifiers introduced to represent bound variables have to be marked appropriately (cf.\ the example at the end of \S\ref{sec:tr_funs}). \medskip Token translations may be installed by declaring the \ttindex{token_translation} value within the \texttt{ML} section of a theory definition file: \begin{ttbox} val token_translation: (string * string * (string -> string * int)) list \end{ttbox}\index{token_translation} The elements of this list are of the form $(m, c, f)$, where $m$ is a print mode identifier, $c$ a token class, and $f\colon string \to string \times int$ the actual translation function. Assuming that $x$ is of identifier class $c$, and print mode $m$ is the first one of all currently active modes that provide some translation for $c$, then $x$ is output according to $f(x) = (x', len)$. Thereby $x'$ is the modified identifier name and $len$ its visual length approximated in terms of whole characters. Thus $x'$ may include non-printing parts like control sequences or markup information for typesetting systems. %FIXME example (?) \index{token translations|)}