NEWS
author boehmes
Mon Jan 17 17:45:52 2011 +0100 (2011-01-17)
changeset 41601 fda8511006f9
parent 41597 ced4f78bb728
child 41603 54a4512e29a6
permissions -rw-r--r--
made Z3 the default SMT solver again
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
     5 ----------------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
    10 src/Tools/jEdit).  A bundled component provides "isabelle jedit" as
    11 executable Isabelle tool.  Note that this also serves as IDE for
    12 Isabelle/ML, with useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its
    13 static analysis.
    14 
    15 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
    16 
    17 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
    18 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
    19 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
    20 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
    21 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
    22 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
    23 
    24 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
    25 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
    26 the following package declarations:
    27 
    28   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
    29   \usepackage{textcomp}
    30 
    31 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
    32 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
    33 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
    34 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
    35 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
    36 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
    37 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
    38 
    39 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
    40 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
    41 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
    42 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
    43 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
    44 
    45 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
    46 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
    47 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
    48 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
    49 
    50 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
    51 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
    52 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
    53 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
    54 
    55   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
    56 
    57   eta_contract                  eta_contract
    58   show_brackets                 show_brackets
    59   show_sorts                    show_sorts
    60   show_types                    show_types
    61   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
    62   show_consts                   show_consts
    63   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
    64 
    65   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
    66   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
    67   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
    68 
    69   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
    70   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
    71 
    72   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
    73 
    74   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
    75   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
    76   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
    77   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
    78   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
    79 
    80 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
    81 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
    82 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
    83 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
    84 
    85 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
    86 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    87 
    88   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
    89   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
    90 
    91 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
    92 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
    93 float_token.
    94 
    95 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
    96 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
    97 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    98 
    99 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
   100 DejaVu Sans.
   101 
   102 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
   103 
   104 
   105 *** Pure ***
   106 
   107 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
   108 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
   109 time.
   110 
   111 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
   112 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   113 
   114 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
   115 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   116 
   117 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
   118 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
   119 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
   120 command already provided this functionality.
   121 
   122 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
   123 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
   124 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
   125 without interpretations.
   126 
   127 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
   128 in addition to interpretations in theories.
   129 
   130 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
   131 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
   132 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
   133 feature is still required for historical reasons.
   134 
   135 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
   136 'definition' instead.
   137 
   138 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
   139 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
   140 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
   141 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
   142 
   143 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
   144 constructors.
   145 
   146 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
   147 the local file system.
   148 
   149 
   150 *** HOL ***
   151 
   152 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
   153 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
   154 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
   155 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
   156 
   157   declare [[coercion f]]
   158 
   159 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
   160 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
   161 
   162   declare [[coercion_map map]]
   163 
   164 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
   165 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
   166 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
   167 other theories like this:
   168 
   169   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
   170 
   171 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
   172 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
   173 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
   174 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
   175 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
   176 for examples.
   177 
   178 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
   179 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   180 
   181 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
   182 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
   183 
   184 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
   185 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
   186 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
   187 
   188 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
   189 functorial structure of types.
   190 
   191 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
   192 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
   193 
   194 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
   195 languages.
   196 
   197 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
   198 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
   199 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   200 
   201 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
   202 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   203 
   204 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
   205 combinators any longer.
   206 
   207 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
   208 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
   209 
   210 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
   211 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
   212 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
   213 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
   214 
   215   record 'a foo = ...
   216   ...
   217   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
   218 
   219 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
   220 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
   221 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   222 
   223 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
   224 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
   225 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
   226 
   227 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
   228 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
   229 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
   230 
   231 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
   232 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   233 
   234 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
   235 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
   236 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
   237 independently.
   238 
   239 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
   240 counter example search.
   241 
   242 * Sledgehammer:
   243   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
   244     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
   245     sledgehammer").
   246   - Renamed commands:
   247     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
   248     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
   249     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
   250     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   251   - Renamed options:
   252     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
   253     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
   254     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
   255     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
   256     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   257 
   258 * Nitpick:
   259   - Renamed options:
   260     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
   261     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
   262     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   263   - Added support for partial quotient types.
   264   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
   265   - Added "whack" option.
   266   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
   267   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
   268   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
   269   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
   270     higher cardinalities.
   271   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
   272 
   273 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
   274 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
   275 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
   276 
   277     using [[metis_trace = true]]
   278 
   279 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
   280 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
   281 
   282 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
   283 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
   284 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.
   285 For commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as
   286 fall-back; changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration
   287 option "smt_solver".
   288 
   289 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
   290 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
   291 
   292 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
   293 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
   294 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
   295 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   296 
   297 * Changed SMT configuration options:
   298   - Renamed:
   299     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
   300     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
   301     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   302   - Added:
   303     smt_verbose
   304     smt_random_seed
   305     smt_datatypes
   306     smt_infer_triggers
   307     smt_monomorph_limit
   308     cvc3_options
   309     remote_cvc3_options
   310     remote_z3_options
   311     yices_options
   312 
   313 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
   314 header.
   315 
   316 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
   317 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
   318 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
   319 
   320   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
   321 
   322 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   323 
   324 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
   325 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   326 
   327 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   328 
   329 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
   330 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   331 
   332 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
   333 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
   334 
   335 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
   336 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   337 
   338 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
   339 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
   340 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   341 
   342 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   343 
   344 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
   345 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   346 
   347 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
   348 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   349 
   350 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
   351 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
   352 for congruent(2)).
   353 
   354 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
   355 
   356   types
   357     bool ~> HOL.bool
   358     nat ~> Nat.nat
   359 
   360   constants
   361     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
   362     True ~> HOL.True
   363     False ~> HOL.False
   364     op & ~> HOL.conj
   365     op | ~> HOL.disj
   366     op --> ~> HOL.implies
   367     op = ~> HOL.eq
   368     Not ~> HOL.Not
   369     The ~> HOL.The
   370     All ~> HOL.All
   371     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
   372     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
   373     Let ~> HOL.Let
   374     If ~> HOL.If
   375     Ball ~> Set.Ball
   376     Bex ~> Set.Bex
   377     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
   378     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
   379     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
   380     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
   381     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
   382     op : ~> Set.member
   383     Collect ~> Set.Collect
   384 
   385 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   386 
   387 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
   388 
   389     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
   390     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
   391     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
   392     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
   393     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
   394     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
   395     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
   396     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
   397 
   398 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   399 
   400 * More stylized fact names:
   401 
   402   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
   403   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
   404   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
   405   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
   406 
   407 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   408 
   409 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
   410 
   411   constants
   412     null ~> List.null
   413 
   414   facts
   415     mem_iff ~> member_def
   416     null_empty ~> null_def
   417 
   418 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
   419 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
   420 generation.
   421 
   422 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
   423 Haskell code.
   424 
   425 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
   426 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
   427 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   428 
   429 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
   430 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   431 
   432 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
   433 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
   434 
   435 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
   436 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
   437 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   438 
   439 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
   440 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   441 
   442 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
   443 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   444 
   445 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
   446 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
   447 referred to by its qualified name.
   448 
   449   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
   450   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
   451   product ~>  Enum.product
   452 
   453 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
   454 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
   455 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   456 
   457 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
   458 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
   459 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
   460 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   461 
   462 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
   463 sort_key.
   464 
   465 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
   466 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   467 
   468 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
   469 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
   470 instead of finite cartesian products.
   471 
   472   types
   473     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
   474               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
   475               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
   476         (depends on your needs)
   477 
   478   constants
   479      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
   480      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
   481      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
   482 
   483 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
   484 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
   485 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
   486 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   487 
   488 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
   489 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
   490 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
   491 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
   492 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   493 
   494 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
   495 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   496 
   497 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
   498 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
   499 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
   500 
   501 
   502 *** HOL-Algebra ***
   503 
   504 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
   505 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
   506 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
   507 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
   508 compatibility.
   509 
   510 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
   511 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
   512 
   513 
   514 *** HOLCF ***
   515 
   516 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
   517 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
   518 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
   519 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   520 
   521 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
   522 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
   523 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   524 
   525   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
   526   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
   527   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
   528 
   529 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
   530 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
   531 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   532 
   533 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
   534 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
   535 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
   536 domain definition now works:
   537 
   538   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
   539 
   540 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
   541 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
   542 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
   543 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
   544 
   545   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
   546     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
   547 
   548   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
   549 
   550 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
   551 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
   552 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   553 
   554 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
   555 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   556 
   557 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
   558 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
   559 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
   560 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
   561 
   562 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
   563 
   564 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   565 
   566 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   567 
   568 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
   569 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   570 
   571 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
   572 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
   573 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
   574 
   575 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
   576 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
   577 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   578 
   579 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
   580 still supported as an input translation.
   581 
   582 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
   583 
   584   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
   585   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
   586   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
   587   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
   588   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
   589   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
   590   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
   591 
   592 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
   593 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   594 
   595   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
   596   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
   597   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
   598   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
   599   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
   600   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
   601 
   602 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
   603 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   604 
   605 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
   606 
   607   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
   608   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
   609   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
   610   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
   611 
   612 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   613 
   614 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
   615 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   616 
   617 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
   618 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   619 
   620   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
   621   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
   622   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
   623   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
   624   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
   625   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
   626   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
   627   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
   628   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
   629   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
   630   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
   631   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
   632   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
   633   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
   634   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
   635   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
   636   UU_I            ~> bottomI
   637   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
   638   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
   639   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
   640 
   641 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   642 
   643   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
   644   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
   645   refl_less            ~> below_refl
   646   trans_less           ~> below_trans
   647   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
   648   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
   649   box_less             ~> box_below
   650   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
   651   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
   652   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
   653   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
   654   adm_less             ~> adm_below
   655   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
   656   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
   657   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
   658   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
   659   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
   660   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
   661   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
   662   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
   663   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
   664   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
   665   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
   666   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
   667   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
   668   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
   669   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
   670   injection_less       ~> injection_below
   671   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
   672   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
   673   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
   674   up_less              ~> up_below
   675   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
   676   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
   677   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
   678   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
   679   spair_less           ~> spair_below
   680   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
   681   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
   682   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
   683   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
   684   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
   685   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
   686   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
   687   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
   688 
   689 
   690 *** FOL and ZF ***
   691 
   692 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
   693 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   694 
   695 
   696 *** ML ***
   697 
   698 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
   699 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
   700 failed assertions is included in the error output.
   701 
   702 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
   703 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
   704 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
   705 
   706 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
   707 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
   708 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
   709 
   710 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
   711 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
   712 
   713 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
   714 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
   715 
   716 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
   717 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
   718 
   719 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
   720 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
   721 
   722 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
   723 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
   724 almost all situations.
   725 
   726 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
   727 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
   728 Isabelle/ML.
   729 
   730 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
   731 meaning.
   732 
   733 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
   734 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
   735 rarely-used global-only stuff.
   736 
   737 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
   738 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
   739 
   740 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
   741 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
   742 
   743 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
   744 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
   745 @{thms} for most purposes.
   746 
   747 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
   748 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
   749 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
   750 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
   751 configuration options.
   752 
   753 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
   754 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
   755 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
   756 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
   757 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
   758 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
   759 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
   760 
   761 
   762 
   763 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
   764 ---------------------------------
   765 
   766 *** General ***
   767 
   768 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
   769 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
   770 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
   771 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
   772 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
   773 their full internal name.
   774 
   775 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
   776 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
   777 Some hints on upgrading:
   778 
   779   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
   780     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
   781     which are independent of this issue.
   782 
   783   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
   784     provides the following special forms:
   785 
   786       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
   787       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
   788       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
   789 
   790     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
   791     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
   792     extra variables".
   793 
   794     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
   795     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
   796     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
   797     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
   798     "logic".
   799 
   800   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
   801     antiquotations:
   802 
   803       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
   804       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
   805       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
   806       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
   807 
   808   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
   809     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
   810     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
   811     antiquotations.
   812 
   813 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
   814 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
   815 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
   816 diagnose syntax problems.
   817 
   818 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
   819 
   820 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
   821 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
   822 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
   823 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
   824 
   825 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
   826 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
   827 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
   828 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   829 
   830 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
   831 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
   832 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
   833 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
   834 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   835 
   836 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
   837 discontinued (old legacy feature).
   838 
   839 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
   840 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
   841 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
   842 
   843   using [[trace_simp = true]]
   844 
   845 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
   846 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
   847 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
   848 
   849 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
   850 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
   851 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   852 
   853 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
   854 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
   855 
   856 
   857 *** Pure ***
   858 
   859 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
   860 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
   861 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
   862 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
   863 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
   864 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
   865 inspect proof terms.
   866 
   867 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
   868 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
   869 are added internally.  For example:
   870 
   871   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
   872 
   873 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
   874 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   875 
   876 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   877 
   878 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
   879 'class' instead.
   880 
   881 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
   882 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
   883 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   884 
   885 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
   886 invariants.
   887 
   888 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
   889 user space functionality any longer.
   890 
   891 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
   892 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
   893 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   894 
   895 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
   896 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
   897 
   898 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
   899 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
   900 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
   901 
   902 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
   903 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
   904 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
   905 
   906 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
   907 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   908 
   909 
   910 *** HOL ***
   911 
   912 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
   913 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
   914 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
   915 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
   916 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
   917 
   918 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
   919 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
   920 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
   921 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
   922 
   923   fun
   924     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
   925   where
   926     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
   927 
   928   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
   929     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
   930 
   931   quotient_definition
   932     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
   933 
   934 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
   935 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
   936 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
   937 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
   938 
   939 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
   940 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
   941 
   942 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
   943 separate HOL-SMT session.
   944 
   945 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
   946 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   947 
   948 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
   949 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
   950 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
   951 
   952 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
   953 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   954 
   955 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
   956 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   957 
   958 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
   959 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   960 
   961 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
   962 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   963 
   964 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
   965 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
   966 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   967 
   968   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
   969   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
   970   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
   971   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
   972   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
   973   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
   974   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
   975   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
   976   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
   977   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
   978   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
   979   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
   980   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
   981   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
   982   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
   983   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
   984   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
   985   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
   986   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
   987   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
   988   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
   989   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
   990   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
   991   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
   992   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
   993   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
   994   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
   995   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
   996   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
   997   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
   998 
   999 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  1000 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  1001 
  1002 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  1003 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  1004 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  1005 
  1006 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  1007 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  1008 
  1009 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  1010 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1011 
  1012 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  1013 
  1014 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  1015 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1016 
  1017 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  1018 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1019 
  1020 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1021 
  1022 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  1023 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  1024 
  1025 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  1026 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  1027 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  1028 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1029 
  1030 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  1031   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  1032   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  1033   - inverse, divide: Rings
  1034 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1035 
  1036 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  1037 lattices):
  1038 
  1039     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  1040     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  1041 
  1042     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  1043 
  1044     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  1045     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  1046     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  1047     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  1048     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  1049     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  1050     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  1051     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  1052     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  1053     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  1054     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  1055     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  1056     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  1057 
  1058     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  1059     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  1060     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  1061     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  1062     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  1063     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  1064     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  1065     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  1066     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  1067     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  1068     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  1069     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  1070     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  1071     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  1072     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  1073     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  1074     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  1075     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  1076 
  1077   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  1078   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  1079 
  1080     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  1081     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  1082     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  1083     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  1084     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  1085 
  1086 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1087 
  1088 * Refined field classes:
  1089   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  1090     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  1091     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  1092   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  1093 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1094 
  1095 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  1096   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  1097   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  1098   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  1099     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  1100   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  1101     equal_neg_zero.
  1102 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1103 
  1104 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  1105 sets to lattices:
  1106 
  1107   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  1108   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  1109   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  1110   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  1111   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  1112   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  1113   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  1114   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  1115   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  1116   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  1117 
  1118 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  1119 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  1120 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  1121 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  1122 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  1123 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1124 
  1125 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  1126 multiset order:
  1127 
  1128   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  1129     <= and <;
  1130   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  1131     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  1132     multiset_order;
  1133   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  1134     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  1135     generation;
  1136   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  1137     if needed.
  1138 
  1139 Renamed:
  1140 
  1141   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  1142   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  1143   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  1144 
  1145 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1146 
  1147 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  1148 
  1149 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  1150 
  1151 * Theory List: added transpose.
  1152 
  1153 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  1154 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  1155 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1156 
  1157   Constants:
  1158   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  1159   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  1160   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  1161   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  1162   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  1163   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  1164   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  1165   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  1166   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  1167   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  1168   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  1169   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  1170   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  1171 
  1172   Lemmas:
  1173   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  1174   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  1175   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  1176   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  1177   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  1178   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  1179   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  1180   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  1181   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  1182   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  1183   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  1184   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  1185   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  1186 
  1187 * Sledgehammer:
  1188   - Renamed ATP commands:
  1189     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  1190     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  1191     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  1192     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  1193     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  1194     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1195   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  1196   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  1197     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  1198   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  1199     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  1200     is still experimental.)
  1201   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  1202     full-typed mode.
  1203   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  1204 
  1205 * Nitpick:
  1206   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  1207   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  1208   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  1209     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  1210   - Added support for quotient types.
  1211   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  1212     constructs.
  1213   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  1214     "termination" proofs).
  1215   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  1216   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  1217   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  1218   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  1219     record getters.
  1220   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  1221   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  1222   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  1223   - Added "atoms" option.
  1224   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  1225     problems.
  1226   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  1227     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  1228     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1229   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  1230     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1231   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1232 
  1233 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  1234   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  1235   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  1236   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  1237   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  1238   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  1239   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  1240   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  1241   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  1242   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1243 
  1244 
  1245 *** HOLCF ***
  1246 
  1247 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  1248 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  1249 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1250 
  1251 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  1252 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  1253 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  1254 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1255 
  1256 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  1257 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  1258 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  1259 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  1260 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1261 
  1262 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  1263 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  1264 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1265 
  1266 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  1267 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1268 
  1269   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  1270   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  1271 
  1272 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  1273 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1274 
  1275   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  1276   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  1277   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  1278   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  1279   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  1280 
  1281 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  1282 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1283 
  1284   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  1285   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  1286   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  1287 
  1288 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  1289 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  1290 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1291 
  1292 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  1293 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1294 
  1295 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1296 
  1297 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  1298 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1299 
  1300 
  1301 *** ML ***
  1302 
  1303 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  1304 
  1305     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  1306     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  1307 
  1308     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  1309     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  1310     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  1311     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  1312 
  1313     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  1314     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  1315     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  1316 
  1317 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  1318 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  1319 
  1320 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  1321 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  1322 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  1323 
  1324 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  1325 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  1326 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  1327 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  1328 
  1329 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  1330 the context or even global references.
  1331 
  1332 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  1333 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  1334 
  1335 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  1336 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  1337 
  1338   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  1339   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  1340   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  1341   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  1342   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  1343   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  1344   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  1345   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  1346   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  1347   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  1348 
  1349 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  1350 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  1351 
  1352 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  1353 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  1354 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  1355 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  1356 pass the proper local context through the code!
  1357 
  1358 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  1359 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  1360 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  1361 Theory_Data version.
  1362 
  1363 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  1364 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  1365 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  1366 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  1367 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  1368 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  1369 explicitly in rare situations.
  1370 
  1371 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  1372 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  1373 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1374 
  1375 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  1376 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1377 
  1378 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  1379 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  1380 quite rare).
  1381 
  1382 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  1383 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1384 
  1385 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  1386 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  1387 terms.
  1388 
  1389 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  1390 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  1391 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  1392 
  1393 
  1394 *** System ***
  1395 
  1396 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  1397 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  1398 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  1399 
  1400 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  1401 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  1402 respectively.
  1403 
  1404 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  1405 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  1406 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  1407 prefers 64 bit if available:
  1408 
  1409   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  1410 
  1411 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  1412 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  1413 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  1414 component.
  1415 
  1416 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  1417 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  1418 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  1419 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  1420 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  1421 the user for manual installation.
  1422 
  1423 
  1424 
  1425 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  1426 -------------------------------------
  1427 
  1428 *** General ***
  1429 
  1430 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  1431 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  1432 
  1433 
  1434 *** Pure ***
  1435 
  1436 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  1437 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  1438 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  1439 
  1440 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  1441 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  1442 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  1443 
  1444 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  1445 interpretation.
  1446 
  1447 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  1448 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1449 
  1450 
  1451 *** Document preparation ***
  1452 
  1453 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  1454 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  1455 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  1456 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  1457 
  1458 
  1459 *** HOL ***
  1460 
  1461 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  1462 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  1463 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  1464 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  1465 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  1466 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  1467 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  1468 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  1469 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  1470 
  1471 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  1472 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  1473 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  1474 
  1475 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  1476 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  1477 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  1478 
  1479 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  1480 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  1481 
  1482 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  1483 
  1484 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  1485 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  1486 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  1487 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  1488 
  1489 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  1490 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  1491 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  1492 "mirabelle" utility.
  1493 
  1494 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  1495 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  1496 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  1497 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  1498 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  1499 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  1500 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  1501 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  1502 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  1503 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  1504 
  1505 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  1506 procedure only.
  1507 
  1508 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  1509 
  1510 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  1511 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  1512 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  1513 that fail later.
  1514 
  1515 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  1516 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  1517 
  1518 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  1519 the same method as the approximation method.
  1520 
  1521 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  1522 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  1523 series expansion.
  1524 
  1525 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  1526 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  1527 
  1528 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  1529 reals.
  1530 
  1531 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  1532 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  1533 
  1534 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  1535 fixpoint theorem.
  1536 
  1537 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  1538   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  1539     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  1540   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  1541     accordingly
  1542   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  1543     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  1544   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  1545     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  1546 
  1547 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  1548 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  1549 lattice.
  1550 
  1551 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  1552 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  1553 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  1554 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  1555 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  1556 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  1557 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1558 
  1559 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  1560   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  1561     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  1562   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  1563     le_inf_iff
  1564   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  1565     sup_aci)
  1566   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  1567   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  1568   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  1569     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  1570     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  1571     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  1572     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  1573     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  1574     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  1575     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  1576     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  1577     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  1578     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  1579   - authentic syntax for
  1580     Set.Pow
  1581     Set.image
  1582   - mere abbreviations:
  1583     Set.empty               (for bot)
  1584     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  1585     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  1586     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  1587     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  1588     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  1589     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  1590     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  1591   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  1592 
  1593 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  1594 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  1595 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  1596 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  1597 
  1598 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  1599 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  1600 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1601 
  1602 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  1603 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1604 
  1605 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  1606 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  1607 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  1608 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1609 
  1610 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  1611 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1612 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  1613 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  1614 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  1615 
  1616 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  1617 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  1618 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1619 
  1620 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  1621 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1622 
  1623 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  1624 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  1625 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  1626 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  1627 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  1628 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  1629 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  1630 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1631 
  1632 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  1633     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  1634     code_post       replaces    code post
  1635     etc.
  1636   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1637 
  1638 * Renamed methods:
  1639     sizechange -> size_change
  1640     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  1641   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1642 
  1643 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  1644 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  1645 
  1646 * Renamed theorems:
  1647     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  1648     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  1649     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  1650     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  1651     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  1652   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1653 
  1654 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  1655 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1656 
  1657 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  1658 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1659 
  1660 
  1661 *** HOLCF ***
  1662 
  1663 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  1664 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  1665 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  1666 
  1667 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  1668 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  1669 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  1670 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  1671 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  1672 
  1673 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  1674 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  1675 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  1676 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  1677 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  1678 
  1679 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  1680 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  1681 constructor are pre-configured.
  1682 
  1683 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  1684 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  1685 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  1686 
  1687 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  1688 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  1689 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  1690 as well.)
  1691 
  1692 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  1693 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  1694 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  1695 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  1696 examples.
  1697 
  1698 
  1699 *** ML ***
  1700 
  1701 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  1702 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  1703 
  1704 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  1705 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  1706 position, logical grouping etc.
  1707 
  1708 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  1709 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  1710 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  1711 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  1712 
  1713 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  1714 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  1715 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  1716 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  1717 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  1718 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  1719 
  1720 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  1721 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  1722 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  1723 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  1724 experiments with references.
  1725 
  1726 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  1727 parallel tactical reasoning.
  1728 
  1729 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  1730 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  1731 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  1732 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  1733 
  1734 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  1735 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  1736 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  1737 
  1738 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  1739 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  1740 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1741 
  1742 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1743 
  1744 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  1745 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1746 
  1747 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  1748 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  1749 
  1750 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  1751 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  1752 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  1753 
  1754 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  1755 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  1756 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1757 
  1758 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  1759 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  1760 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  1761 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1762 
  1763 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  1764 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  1765 instead of global theory.
  1766 
  1767 
  1768 *** System ***
  1769 
  1770 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  1771 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  1772 usedir option -q.
  1773 
  1774 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  1775 also the system manual.
  1776 
  1777 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  1778 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  1779 
  1780 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  1781 this is always enabled.
  1782 
  1783 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  1784 
  1785 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  1786 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  1787 currently supported on Linux only.
  1788 
  1789 
  1790 
  1791 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  1792 --------------------------------
  1793 
  1794 *** General ***
  1795 
  1796 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  1797 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  1798 
  1799   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  1800     "isatool."
  1801 
  1802   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  1803     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  1804 
  1805   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  1806     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  1807 
  1808 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  1809 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  1810 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  1811 
  1812 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  1813 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  1814 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  1815 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  1816 via "isabelle emacs".
  1817 
  1818 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  1819 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  1820 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  1821 
  1822 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  1823 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  1824 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  1825 
  1826 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  1827 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  1828 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  1829 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  1830 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  1831 
  1832 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  1833 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  1834 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  1835 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  1836 
  1837 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  1838 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  1839 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  1840 
  1841 
  1842 *** Pure ***
  1843 
  1844 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  1845 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  1846 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  1847 
  1848 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  1849 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  1850 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  1851 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  1852 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  1853 
  1854 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  1855 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  1856 useful in locale declarations.
  1857 
  1858 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  1859 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  1860 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  1861 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  1862 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  1863 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  1864 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  1865 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  1866 no longer generated.
  1867 
  1868 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  1869 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  1870 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  1871 
  1872 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  1873 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  1874 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  1875 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  1876 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  1877 
  1878 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1879 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  1880 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  1881 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  1882 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  1883 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  1884 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  1885 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  1886 
  1887 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  1888 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  1889 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  1890 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  1891 
  1892 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1893 
  1894 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  1895 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  1896 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  1897 
  1898 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  1899 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1900 
  1901 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  1902 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  1903 in HOL, write
  1904 
  1905     class foo = ...
  1906 
  1907 instead of
  1908 
  1909     class foo = type + ...
  1910 
  1911 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  1912 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1913 
  1914 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  1915 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  1916 
  1917 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  1918 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  1919 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  1920 
  1921 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  1922 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  1923 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  1924 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  1925 directly in regular applications.
  1926 
  1927 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  1928 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  1929 
  1930 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  1931 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  1932 
  1933 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  1934 theory context.
  1935 
  1936 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  1937 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1938 
  1939 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  1940 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  1941 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  1942 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  1943 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  1944 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  1945 
  1946   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  1947 
  1948 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  1949 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  1950 normalization.
  1951 
  1952 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  1953 addressing etc.
  1954 
  1955 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  1956 
  1957   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  1958   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  1959 
  1960 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  1961 
  1962   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  1963      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  1964      parts of the code generator framework).
  1965 
  1966   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  1967      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  1968      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  1969 
  1970 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1971 
  1972 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  1973 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1974 
  1975 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  1976 patterns, e.g.
  1977 
  1978     find_consts "_ => bool"
  1979 
  1980 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  1981 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  1982 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  1983 hyphen:
  1984 
  1985     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  1986 
  1987 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  1988 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  1989 
  1990 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  1991 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  1992 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  1993 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  1994 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  1995 higher-order unification.
  1996 
  1997 
  1998 *** Document preparation ***
  1999 
  2000 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  2001 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  2002 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  2003 
  2004 
  2005 *** HOL ***
  2006 
  2007 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  2008 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  2009 
  2010 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  2011 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  2012 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  2013 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  2014 Main, as before.
  2015 
  2016 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  2017 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  2018 
  2019 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  2020 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  2021 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  2022 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  2023 
  2024 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  2025 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  2026 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  2027 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  2028 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  2029 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  2030 
  2031 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  2032 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  2033 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  2034 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  2035 
  2036 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  2037 menu.
  2038 
  2039 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  2040 (contains the empty clause).
  2041 
  2042 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  2043 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  2044 
  2045 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  2046 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  2047 
  2048 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  2049 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  2050 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2051 
  2052 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  2053 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  2054 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  2055 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  2056 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  2057 
  2058 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  2059 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  2060 
  2061 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  2062 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  2063 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  2064 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  2065 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  2066 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  2067 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  2068 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  2069 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  2070 
  2071 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  2072 
  2073 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  2074 
  2075 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  2076 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2077 
  2078 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  2079 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  2080 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  2081 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  2082 
  2083 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  2084 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  2085 
  2086     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  2087     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  2088     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  2089     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  2090     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  2091     Union ~>    Set.Union
  2092     {} ~>       Set.empty
  2093     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  2094 
  2095 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  2096 theory Set.
  2097 
  2098 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  2099 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  2100 
  2101 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  2102 
  2103 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  2104 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  2105 
  2106 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  2107 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  2108 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  2109 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  2110 allowed. For examples see
  2111 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  2112 
  2113 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  2114 
  2115 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  2116 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2117 
  2118 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  2119 structure:
  2120 
  2121     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  2122     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2123     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2124     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2125     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2126     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2127     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  2128     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2129     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2130     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2131     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2132     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2133     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2134     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2135     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2136     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2137     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  2138     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  2139     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2140     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2141     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2142     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2143     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2144     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2145     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2146     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2147     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2148     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2149     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2150     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2151     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  2152     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  2153     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2154 
  2155     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2156     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2157     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2158     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  2159     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2160     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2161     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2162     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2163     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2164     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2165 
  2166     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2167     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2168     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2169     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2170     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2171     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2172 
  2173 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  2174 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  2175 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  2176 
  2177 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  2178 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  2179 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  2180 
  2181 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  2182 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2183 
  2184 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  2185 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  2186 
  2187 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  2188 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  2189 proofs, e.g.
  2190 
  2191   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  2192 
  2193 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  2194 
  2195 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  2196 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  2197 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2198 
  2199 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  2200 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  2201 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2202 
  2203 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  2204 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  2205 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  2206 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2207 
  2208 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  2209 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  2210 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  2211 preorder_class.*.
  2212 
  2213 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  2214 "diag" to "Id_on".
  2215 
  2216 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  2217 
  2218   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  2219 
  2220 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  2221 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  2222 fold_image.
  2223 
  2224 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  2225 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  2226 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  2227 the former will disappear at some point.
  2228 
  2229 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  2230 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  2231 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  2232 
  2233 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  2234 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  2235 realpow_0      -> power_0
  2236 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  2237 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  2238 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  2239 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  2240 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  2241 
  2242 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  2243 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  2244 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  2245 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  2246 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  2247 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  2248 
  2249     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  2250     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  2251     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  2252     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  2253     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  2254     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  2255     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  2256 
  2257 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  2258 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2259 rename old lemmas as follows:
  2260 
  2261 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  2262 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  2263 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  2264 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  2265 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  2266 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  2267 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  2268 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  2269 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  2270 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  2271 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  2272 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  2273 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  2274 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  2275 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  2276 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  2277 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  2278 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  2279 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  2280 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  2281 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  2282 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  2283 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  2284 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  2285 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  2286 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  2287 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  2288 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  2289 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  2290 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  2291 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  2292 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  2293 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  2294 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  2295 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  2296 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  2297 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  2298 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  2299 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  2300 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  2301 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  2302 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  2303 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  2304 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  2305 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  2306 
  2307 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2308 
  2309 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  2310 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  2311 
  2312 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  2313 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  2314 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  2315 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  2316 
  2317 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  2318 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  2319 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  2320 theory RealVector.
  2321 
  2322 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  2323 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  2324 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  2325 and inner products are included.
  2326 
  2327 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  2328 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  2329 supported.
  2330 
  2331 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  2332 first diagonalization argument.
  2333 
  2334 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  2335 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  2336 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  2337 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2338 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  2339 
  2340     hide (open) const gcd
  2341     abbreviation gcd where
  2342       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  2343     notation (output)
  2344       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  2345 
  2346 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  2347 
  2348 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  2349 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  2350 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2351 
  2352 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  2353 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  2354 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  2355 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  2356 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  2357 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  2358 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  2359 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  2360 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  2361 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  2362 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  2363 cases.
  2364 
  2365 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  2366 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  2367 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  2368 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  2369 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  2370 
  2371     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  2372     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  2373     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  2374     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  2375     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  2376 
  2377 
  2378 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2379 
  2380 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  2381 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  2382 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  2383 
  2384 * New theory of factorial domains.
  2385 
  2386 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  2387 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  2388 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  2389 
  2390 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  2391 
  2392 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  2393 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  2394 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  2395 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  2396 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  2397 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  2398 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  2399 
  2400 
  2401 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  2402 
  2403 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  2404 
  2405 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  2406 theory targets.
  2407 
  2408 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  2409 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  2410 'inductive' etc.
  2411 
  2412 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  2413 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  2414 
  2415 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  2416 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  2417 
  2418 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  2419 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  2420 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  2421 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  2422 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  2423 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  2424 the algorithm W:
  2425 
  2426  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  2427  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  2428          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  2429 
  2430 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  2431 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  2432 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  2433 
  2434 
  2435 *** HOLCF ***
  2436 
  2437 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  2438 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  2439 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  2440 
  2441 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  2442 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  2443 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  2444 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  2445 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2446 
  2447 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  2448 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  2449 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2450 
  2451 
  2452 *** ZF ***
  2453 
  2454 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  2455 
  2456 
  2457 *** ML ***
  2458 
  2459 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  2460 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  2461 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  2462 5.2.1!
  2463 
  2464 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  2465 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  2466 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  2467 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  2468 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  2469 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  2470 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  2471 
  2472 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  2473 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  2474 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  2475 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  2476 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  2477 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  2478 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  2479 
  2480 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  2481 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  2482 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  2483 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  2484 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  2485 
  2486 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  2487 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  2488 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  2489 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  2490 Method.add_method.
  2491 
  2492 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  2493 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  2494 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  2495 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  2496 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  2497 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  2498 
  2499 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  2500 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  2501 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  2502 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  2503 examples.
  2504 
  2505 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  2506 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  2507 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  2508 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  2509 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  2510 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  2511 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  2512 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  2513 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  2514 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  2515 
  2516 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  2517 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  2518 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  2519 
  2520 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  2521 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  2522 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  2523 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  2524 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  2525 resort for legacy applications.
  2526 
  2527 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  2528 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  2529 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  2530 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  2531 explicit runtime argument.
  2532 
  2533 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  2534 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  2535 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  2536 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  2537 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2538 
  2539 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  2540 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  2541 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  2542 theory state.
  2543 
  2544 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  2545 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  2546 
  2547   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  2548   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  2549   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  2550   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  2551   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  2552   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  2553   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  2554   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  2555   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  2556   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  2557 
  2558 
  2559 *** System ***
  2560 
  2561 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  2562 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  2563 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  2564 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  2565 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  2566 
  2567 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  2568 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  2569 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  2570 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  2571 
  2572 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  2573 
  2574 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  2575 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  2576 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  2577 prover operations.
  2578 
  2579 
  2580 
  2581 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  2582 -------------------------------
  2583 
  2584 *** General ***
  2585 
  2586 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  2587 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  2588 
  2589 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  2590 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  2591 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  2592 provides a proper context already.
  2593 
  2594 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  2595 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  2596 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  2597 
  2598 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  2599 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  2600 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  2601 swap theory imports.
  2602 
  2603 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  2604 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  2605 
  2606 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  2607 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2608 white space without escapes.
  2609 
  2610 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  2611 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  2612 "foo_bar".
  2613 
  2614 
  2615 *** Pure ***
  2616 
  2617 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  2618 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  2619 
  2620 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  2621 There are three ways of invoking it:
  2622 
  2623 (1) unused_thms
  2624      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  2625 
  2626 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  2627      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  2628      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  2629 
  2630 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  2631      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  2632      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  2633      their ancestors.
  2634 
  2635 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  2636 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  2637 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  2638 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  2639 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  2640 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  2641 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  2642 
  2643 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  2644 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  2645 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  2646 
  2647 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  2648 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  2649 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  2650 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  2651 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  2652 
  2653 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  2654 
  2655 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  2656 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  2657 update of theories within ML code.
  2658 
  2659 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  2660 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  2661 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  2662 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  2663 
  2664 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  2665 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  2666 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  2667 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2668 
  2669 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  2670 
  2671 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  2672 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  2673 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  2674 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  2675 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  2676 
  2677 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  2678 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  2679 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  2680 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  2681 situations.
  2682 
  2683 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  2684 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  2685 proof text.
  2686 
  2687 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  2688 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  2689 
  2690 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  2691 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  2692 predicates.
  2693 
  2694 
  2695 *** Document preparation ***
  2696 
  2697 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  2698 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  2699 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  2700 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  2701 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  2702 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  2703 
  2704 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  2705 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  2706 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  2707 
  2708 
  2709 *** HOL ***
  2710 
  2711 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  2712 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  2713 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  2714 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  2715 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  2716 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  2717 
  2718 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  2719 with multithreading.
  2720 
  2721 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  2722 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  2723 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  2724 
  2725 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  2726 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  2727 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  2728 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2729 
  2730 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  2731 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  2732 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  2733 and makes them available separately.  See
  2734 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  2735 
  2736 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  2737 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  2738 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  2739 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  2740 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  2741 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  2742 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  2743 the declared rules.
  2744 
  2745 This setup also deals with rules like 
  2746 
  2747   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  2748 
  2749 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  2750 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  2751 
  2752 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  2753 
  2754   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  2755 
  2756   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  2757     definitions on => and bool.
  2758 
  2759   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  2760     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  2761     the following theorems have been renamed:
  2762 
  2763       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  2764       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  2765       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  2766       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  2767       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  2768       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  2769       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  2770       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  2771 
  2772   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  2773     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  2774     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  2775 
  2776   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  2777     The proof pattern
  2778 
  2779       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  2780       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  2781 
  2782     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  2783     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  2784 
  2785       have "EX S. P S"
  2786       proof
  2787         show "P S" <...>
  2788       qed
  2789 
  2790   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  2791     The proof pattern
  2792 
  2793       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  2794       also have "S = T" <...>
  2795       finally have "P T" .
  2796 
  2797     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  2798     must be replaced by something like
  2799 
  2800       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  2801       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  2802       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  2803 
  2804   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  2805     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  2806 
  2807       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  2808 
  2809     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  2810     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  2811     type of the form
  2812 
  2813       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  2814 
  2815     rather than
  2816 
  2817       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  2818 
  2819 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  2820 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  2821 
  2822 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2823 
  2824 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  2825 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  2826 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2827 
  2828 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  2829 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2830 
  2831 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  2832 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2833 
  2834 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  2835 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  2836 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2837 
  2838 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  2839 the same name in theory Orderings:
  2840 
  2841   less_trans
  2842   less_linear
  2843   le_imp_less_or_eq
  2844   le_less_trans
  2845   less_le_trans
  2846   less_not_sym
  2847   less_asym
  2848 
  2849 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  2850 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  2851 and different variable names.
  2852 
  2853 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  2854 
  2855 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  2856 finite maps.
  2857 
  2858 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  2859 
  2860 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  2861 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  2862 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  2863 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  2864 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  2865 accordingly.
  2866 
  2867 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  2868 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  2869 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  2870 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  2871 
  2872 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  2873 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  2874 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  2875 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  2876 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  2877 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2878 
  2879 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  2880 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2881 
  2882 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  2883 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  2884 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  2885 
  2886 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  2887 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2888 
  2889 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  2890 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  2891 
  2892 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  2893 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2894 
  2895 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  2896 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2897 
  2898 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  2899 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  2900 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2901 
  2902 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  2903 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2904 
  2905 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  2906 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  2907 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  2908 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  2909 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  2910 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2911 
  2912 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  2913 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  2914 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  2915 
  2916 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  2917 
  2918 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  2919 
  2920 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  2921 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  2922 well-orders on sets and on types.
  2923 
  2924 
  2925 *** ZF ***
  2926 
  2927 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  2928 same session:
  2929 
  2930   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  2931   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  2932   Int       -> Int_ZF
  2933   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  2934   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  2935   List      -> List_ZF
  2936   Main      -> Main_ZF
  2937 
  2938 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  2939 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  2940 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  2941 
  2942 
  2943 *** ML ***
  2944 
  2945 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  2946 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  2947 
  2948 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  2949 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  2950 
  2951 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  2952 
  2953 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  2954 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  2955 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  2956 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  2957 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2958 
  2959 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  2960 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  2961 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  2962 
  2963 
  2964 *** System ***
  2965 
  2966 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  2967 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  2968 
  2969 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  2970 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  2971 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  2972 
  2973 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  2974 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  2975 
  2976 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  2977 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  2978 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  2979 
  2980 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  2981 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  2982 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  2983 
  2984 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  2985 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  2986 
  2987 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  2988 way of changing the user's settings is via
  2989 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  2990 script.
  2991 
  2992 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  2993 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  2994 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  2995 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  2996 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  2997 
  2998 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  2999 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  3000 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  3001 
  3002 
  3003 
  3004 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  3005 -----------------------------------
  3006 
  3007 *** General ***
  3008 
  3009 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  3010 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  3011 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3012 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  3013 
  3014 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  3015 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  3016 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3017 
  3018 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  3019 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  3020 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  3021 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3022 
  3023 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  3024 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  3025 quotes.
  3026 
  3027 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  3028 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  3029 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  3030 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  3031 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  3032 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  3033 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  3034 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  3035 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  3036 
  3037 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  3038 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  3039 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  3040 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  3041 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  3042 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  3043 
  3044 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  3045 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  3046 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  3047 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  3048 
  3049 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  3050 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  3051 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  3052 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  3053 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  3054 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  3055 
  3056 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  3057 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  3058 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  3059 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  3060 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  3061 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  3062 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  3063 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  3064 
  3065 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  3066 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  3067 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  3068 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  3069 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  3070 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  3071 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  3072 
  3073 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  3074 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  3075 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  3076 
  3077 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  3078 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  3079 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  3080 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  3081 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  3082 limit is imposed.
  3083 
  3084 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  3085 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  3086 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  3087 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  3088 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  3089 and scalability.
  3090 
  3091 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  3092 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  3093 
  3094 
  3095 *** Document preparation ***
  3096 
  3097 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  3098 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  3099 current context.
  3100 
  3101 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  3102 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  3103 
  3104 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  3105 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  3106 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  3107 
  3108 
  3109 *** Pure ***
  3110 
  3111 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  3112 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  3113 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  3114 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  3115 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  3116 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  3117 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  3118 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  3119 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  3120 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  3121 
  3122 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  3123 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  3124 sketch:
  3125 
  3126     internal compilation:
  3127         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  3128     writing SML code to a file:
  3129         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  3130     writing OCaml code to a file:
  3131         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  3132     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  3133         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  3134 
  3135     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  3136         method ``eval''
  3137 
  3138 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  3139 
  3140 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  3141 
  3142     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  3143     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  3144     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  3145     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  3146 
  3147 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  3148 
  3149     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  3150       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  3151 
  3152     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  3153       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  3154 
  3155     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  3156       {(target)}+
  3157         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  3158 
  3159     code_class <and_list of classes>
  3160       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  3161         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  3162 
  3163 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  3164 
  3165 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  3166 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  3167 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  3168 codegen".
  3169 
  3170 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  3171 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  3172 annotations).
  3173 
  3174 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  3175 syntax.
  3176 
  3177 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  3178 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  3179 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  3180 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  3181 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  3182 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  3183 
  3184 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  3185 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  3186 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  3187 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  3188 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  3189 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  3190 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  3191 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  3192 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  3193 equations, see section "definitions".
  3194 
  3195 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  3196 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  3197 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  3198 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  3199 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  3200 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  3201 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  3202 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  3203 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  3204 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  3205 
  3206 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  3207 configuration options:
  3208 
  3209   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  3210   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  3211   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  3212   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  3213   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  3214   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  3215   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  3216   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  3217   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  3218 
  3219 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  3220 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  3221 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  3222 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  3223 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  3224 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  3225 order.
  3226 
  3227 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  3228 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  3229 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  3230 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  3231 context encountered later on.
  3232 
  3233 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  3234 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  3235 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  3236 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  3237 
  3238 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  3239 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  3240 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  3241 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  3242 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  3243 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  3244 
  3245 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  3246 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  3247 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  3248 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  3249 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  3250 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  3251 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  3252 more permissive.
  3253 
  3254 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  3255 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  3256 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  3257 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  3258 maintainability of proof texts.
  3259 
  3260 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  3261 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  3262 
  3263   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  3264   then guess x and y by clarify
  3265 
  3266 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  3267 proof tools being involved here.
  3268 
  3269 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  3270 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  3271 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  3272 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  3273 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  3274 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  3275 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  3276 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  3277 
  3278 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  3279 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  3280 certain special cases of literal facts:
  3281 
  3282   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  3283   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  3284   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  3285   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  3286 
  3287 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  3288 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  3289 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  3290 
  3291 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  3292 both named and unnamed ones.
  3293 
  3294 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  3295 
  3296   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  3297 
  3298 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  3299 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  3300 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  3301 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  3302 
  3303 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  3304 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  3305 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  3306 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  3307 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  3308 
  3309 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  3310 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  3311 
  3312 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  3313 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  3314 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  3315 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  3316 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  3317 originally first one.
  3318 
  3319 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  3320 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  3321 expected.
  3322 
  3323 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  3324 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  3325 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  3326 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  3327 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  3328 
  3329   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  3330     assumes "EX x. P x"
  3331     obtains x where "P x"
  3332 
  3333   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  3334     assumes "A & B"
  3335     obtains A and B
  3336 
  3337   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  3338     assumes "A | B"
  3339     obtains
  3340       A
  3341     | B
  3342 
  3343 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  3344 explicitly:
  3345 
  3346   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  3347     obtains "~ thesis"
  3348 
  3349   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  3350     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  3351 
  3352 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  3353 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  3354 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  3355 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  3356 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  3357 case_names).
  3358 
  3359 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  3360 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  3361 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  3362 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  3363 
  3364 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  3365 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  3366 top-level lemma.
  3367 
  3368 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  3369 introduction rule (default "that").
  3370 
  3371 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3372 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  3373 to occur.
  3374 
  3375 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  3376 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  3377 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  3378 representations independently of name spaces.
  3379 
  3380 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  3381 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  3382 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3383 
  3384 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  3385 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  3386 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  3387 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  3388 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  3389 current context.
  3390 
  3391 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  3392 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  3393 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  3394 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  3395 
  3396   axiomatization
  3397     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  3398     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  3399 
  3400   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  3401   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  3402 
  3403   abbreviation
  3404     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  3405     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  3406 
  3407 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  3408 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  3409 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  3410 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  3411 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  3412 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  3413 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  3414 
  3415 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  3416 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  3417 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  3418 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  3419 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  3420 
  3421 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  3422 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  3423 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  3424 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  3425 
  3426 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  3427 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  3428 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  3429 
  3430   definition "K x _ = x"
  3431 
  3432   inductive conj for A B
  3433   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  3434 
  3435 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  3436 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  3437 abbreviations on output.
  3438 
  3439 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  3440 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  3441 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  3442 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  3443 
  3444 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  3445 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  3446 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  3447 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  3448 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  3449 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  3450 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  3451 
  3452 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  3453 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  3454 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  3455 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  3456 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  3457 
  3458 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  3459 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  3460 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  3461 
  3462 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  3463 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  3464 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  3465 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  3466 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  3467 
  3468   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  3469     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  3470 
  3471 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  3472 definition specification element in the context of locale
  3473 partial_order.
  3474 
  3475 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  3476 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  3477 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  3478 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  3479 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  3480 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  3481 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  3482 examples.
  3483 
  3484 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  3485 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  3486 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  3487 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  3488 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  3489 
  3490 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  3491 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  3492 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  3493 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  3494 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  3495 
  3496   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  3497   (induct set: foo bar)
  3498   (induct pred: foo bar)
  3499   (induct type: foo bar)
  3500 
  3501 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  3502 new format.
  3503 
  3504 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  3505 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  3506 
  3507 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  3508 considered a legacy feature.
  3509 
  3510 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  3511 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3512 
  3513 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  3514 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  3515 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  3516 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  3517   
  3518 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  3519 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  3520 manipulating the claset.
  3521 
  3522 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  3523 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  3524 least one premise.
  3525 
  3526 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  3527 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  3528 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  3529 rule steps.
  3530 
  3531 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  3532 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  3533 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  3534 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  3535 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  3536 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  3537 
  3538 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  3539 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  3540 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  3541 
  3542 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  3543 the graph browser tool.
  3544 
  3545 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  3546 default; use '!' option for full details.
  3547 
  3548 
  3549 *** HOL ***
  3550 
  3551 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  3552 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  3553 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  3554 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  3555 multi-threading.
  3556   
  3557 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  3558 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  3559 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  3560 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  3561 work with multi-threading.
  3562 
  3563 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  3564 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  3565 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  3566 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  3567 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  3568 
  3569 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  3570 
  3571 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  3572 equality.
  3573 
  3574 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  3575 the new 'class' package:
  3576 
  3577     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  3578     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  3579     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  3580     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  3581     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  3582     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  3583     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  3584     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  3585     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  3586     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  3587     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  3588     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  3589     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  3590     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  3591     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  3592     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  3593     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  3594     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  3595     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  3596     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  3597 
  3598 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  3599 
  3600 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  3601 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  3602 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  3603 names.
  3604 
  3605 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  3606 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  3607 
  3608 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  3609 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  3610 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  3611 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  3612 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  3613 
  3614 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  3615 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  3616 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  3617 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  3618 
  3619 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  3620 
  3621 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  3622 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  3623 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  3624 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  3625 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3626 
  3627 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  3628 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3629 
  3630 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  3631 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  3632 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3633 
  3634 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  3635 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  3636 
  3637 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  3638 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  3639 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  3640 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  3641 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  3642 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  3643 in the current context.
  3644 
  3645 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  3646 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  3647 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3648 
  3649 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  3650 with new class dense_linear_order.
  3651 
  3652 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  3653 
  3654     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  3655     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  3656 
  3657     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  3658       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  3659     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  3660     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  3661 
  3662     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  3663     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  3664 
  3665   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  3666 
  3667     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  3668     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  3669     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  3670     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  3671     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  3672     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  3673     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  3674     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  3675     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  3676     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  3677     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  3678     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  3679     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  3680     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  3681     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  3682     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  3683     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  3684     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  3685     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  3686     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  3687     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  3688     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  3689     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  3690     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  3691     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  3692     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  3693     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  3694     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  3695     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  3696     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  3697     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  3698     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  3699     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  3700     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  3701     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  3702 
  3703     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  3704     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  3705     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  3706     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  3707     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  3708     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  3709     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  3710     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  3711     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  3712     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  3713     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  3714     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  3715     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  3716     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  3717     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  3718     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  3719     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  3720 
  3721     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  3722     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  3723     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  3724     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  3725     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  3726     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  3727     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  3728     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  3729     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  3730     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  3731     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  3732     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  3733     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  3734     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  3735     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  3736     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  3737     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  3738     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  3739     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  3740     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  3741     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  3742     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  3743     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  3744     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  3745     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  3746     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  3747     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  3748     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  3749 
  3750     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  3751     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  3752     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  3753     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  3754     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  3755     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  3756 
  3757     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  3758     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  3759     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  3760     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  3761 
  3762     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  3763     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  3764 
  3765     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  3766     join_max                ~> sup_max
  3767 
  3768 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  3769 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  3770 
  3771 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  3772 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  3773 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  3774 "*.size".
  3775 
  3776 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  3777 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3778 
  3779 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  3780 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  3781 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3782 
  3783 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3784 
  3785 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  3786 machine words, with arithemtic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  3787 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  3788 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  3789 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  3790 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  3791 numerals on all operations.
  3792 
  3793 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  3794 
  3795 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  3796 
  3797 * Code generator library theories:
  3798   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  3799     languages.
  3800   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  3801     languages.
  3802   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  3803     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  3804   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  3805   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  3806     denominator).
  3807   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  3808     representable by rational numbers.
  3809   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  3810     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  3811     includes Code_Integer.
  3812   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  3813     target-language built-in integers.
  3814   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  3815     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  3816 
  3817 * New package for inductive predicates
  3818 
  3819   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  3820 
  3821     inductive
  3822       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  3823       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  3824     where
  3825       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  3826     | ...
  3827 
  3828   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  3829 
  3830     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  3831 
  3832     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  3833     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  3834 
  3835     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  3836     intros
  3837       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  3838       ...
  3839 
  3840   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  3841   sets to be defined with the new package via
  3842 
  3843     inductive_set
  3844       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  3845       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  3846     where
  3847       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  3848     | ...
  3849 
  3850   or
  3851 
  3852     inductive_set
  3853       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  3854       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  3855       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  3856     where
  3857       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  3858     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  3859     | ...
  3860 
  3861   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  3862 
  3863   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  3864   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  3865 
  3866   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  3867 
  3868   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  3869     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  3870     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  3871     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  3872     than before the actual inductive definition.
  3873 
  3874   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  3875     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  3876     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  3877     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  3878     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  3879     statements of the form
  3880 
  3881       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  3882 
  3883     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  3884     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  3885 
  3886       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  3887 
  3888   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  3889 
  3890       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  3891         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  3892         ==> ... ==> P
  3893 
  3894     for predicates and
  3895 
  3896       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  3897         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  3898         ==> ... ==> P
  3899 
  3900     for sets rather than
  3901 
  3902       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  3903         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  3904         ==> ... ==> P
  3905 
  3906     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  3907     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  3908     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  3909 
  3910   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  3911     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  3912     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  3913 
  3914 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  3915 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  3916 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  3917 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  3918 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  3919 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  3920 
  3921 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  3922 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures. 
  3923 
  3924 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  3925 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  3926 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  3927 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  3928 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  3929 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  3930 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  3931 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  3932 variable.
  3933 
  3934 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  3935 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  3936 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  3937 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3938   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  3939   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  3940 
  3941 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  3942 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  3943 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  3944 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  3945 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  3946 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  3947 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  3948 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  3949 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  3950 
  3951 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  3952 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  3953 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  3954 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  3955 rat, etc.
  3956 
  3957 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  3958 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  3959 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  3960 
  3961 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  3962 
  3963 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  3964 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  3965 
  3966 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  3967 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  3968 
  3969 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  3970 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  3971 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3972 
  3973 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  3974 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  3975 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3976 
  3977 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  3978 
  3979 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  3980 
  3981 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  3982 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  3983 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  3984 positive/negative (in inequations).
  3985 
  3986 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  3987 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  3988 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  3989 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3990 
  3991 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  3992 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  3993 algebraic operations.
  3994 
  3995 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  3996 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3997 
  3998 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  3999 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4000 
  4001 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  4002 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  4003 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  4004 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  4005 adapted.
  4006  
  4007 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  4008 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  4009 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  4010 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  4011 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  4012 
  4013 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  4014 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  4015 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  4016 
  4017 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  4018 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  4019 better use 'abbreviation'.
  4020 
  4021 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4022 
  4023 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  4024 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  4025 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  4026   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  4027       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  4028   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  4029   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  4030   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  4031 
  4032 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  4033 
  4034 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  4035 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  4036 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  4037 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  4038 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  4039 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  4040 
  4041 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  4042 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  4043 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  4044 
  4045 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  4046 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  4047 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  4048 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4049 
  4050 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  4051 
  4052 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  4053 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4054 
  4055 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  4056 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  4057 
  4058 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  4059 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  4060 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  4061 
  4062 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  4063 True/False.
  4064 
  4065 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  4066 
  4067 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  4068 
  4069 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  4070 ``rule'' method.
  4071 
  4072 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  4073 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  4074 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  4075 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  4076 
  4077 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  4078 zChaff is still supported as well.
  4079 
  4080 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  4081 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  4082 
  4083 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  4084 Library.
  4085 
  4086 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  4087 
  4088 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  4089 as greatest fixed-point.
  4090 
  4091 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  4092 association lists.
  4093 
  4094 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  4095 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  4096 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  4097 
  4098 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  4099 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  4100 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4101 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  4102 behavior.
  4103 
  4104 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  4105 
  4106 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  4107 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  4108 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  4109 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  4110 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  4111 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  4112 
  4113 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  4114 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  4115 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
  4116 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
  4117 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
  4118 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
  4119 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
  4120 
  4121 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
  4122 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
  4123 
  4124 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
  4125 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
  4126 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
  4127 HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
  4128 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
  4129 
  4130 
  4131 *** HOL-Complex ***
  4132 
  4133 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
  4134 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
  4135 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
  4136 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
  4137 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4138 
  4139 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
  4140 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
  4141 and norm :: 'a => real.
  4142 
  4143 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
  4144 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
  4145 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4146 
  4147 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
  4148 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
  4149 
  4150 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
  4151 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
  4152 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
  4153 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4154 
  4155   Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  4156   HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  4157   HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  4158   approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
  4159   monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  4160   galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  4161   (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  4162   (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  4163   (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  4164   (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  4165   (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
  4166   is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  4167   deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
  4168   sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
  4169   exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
  4170 
  4171 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
  4172 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
  4173 hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
  4174 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4175 
  4176   approx        <-- capprox
  4177   HFinite       <-- CFinite
  4178   HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
  4179   Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
  4180   monad         <-- cmonad
  4181   galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
  4182   (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
  4183   is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
  4184   (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
  4185 
  4186 
  4187 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4188 
  4189 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
  4190 
  4191 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
  4192 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4193 
  4194 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
  4195 greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4196 
  4197 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see
  4198 Ring.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations
  4199 of algebraic structures.
  4200 
  4201 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.
  4202 
  4203 
  4204 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4205 
  4206 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding
  4207 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic.  See src/HOL/Nominal and
  4208 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples.  Prospective users should consult
  4209 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/
  4210 
  4211 
  4212 *** ML ***
  4213 
  4214 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int
  4215 (even on SML/NJ).
  4216 
  4217 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked
  4218 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at
  4219 compile-time.  For example:
  4220 
  4221 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}
  4222 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}
  4223 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}
  4224 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}
  4225 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}
  4226 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}
  4227 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}
  4228 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}
  4229 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}
  4230 ML {* @{type_name c} *}
  4231 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}
  4232 ML {* @{const_name c} *}
  4233 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}
  4234 ML {* @{context} *}
  4235 ML {* @{theory} *}
  4236 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}
  4237 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}
  4238 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}
  4239 ML {* @{simpset} *}
  4240 ML {* @{claset} *}
  4241 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}
  4242 
  4243 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.
  4244 
  4245 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with
  4246 ML_Context.trace enabled.
  4247 
  4248 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions
  4249 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and
  4250 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.
  4251 
  4252 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now
  4253 use Context.generic instead of just theory.
  4254 
  4255 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and
  4256 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of
  4257 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.
  4258 
  4259 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always
  4260 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.
  4261 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while
  4262 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and
  4263 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure
  4264 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably
  4265 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type
  4266 declarations and definitions.
  4267 
  4268 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed
  4269 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,
  4270 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need
  4271 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)
  4272 
  4273 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in
  4274 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the
  4275 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,
  4276 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4277 
  4278 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with
  4279 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed
  4280 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --
  4281 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and
  4282 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede
  4283 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.
  4284 
  4285 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --
  4286 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been
  4287 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted
  4288 accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for
  4289 attributes, methods, etc.
  4290 
  4291 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."
  4292 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to
  4293 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and
  4294 fold_map combinators.
  4295 
  4296 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional
  4297 comments (tags) are now strictly separate.  Name hints -- which are
  4298 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the
  4299 derivation.
  4300 
  4301 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an
  4302 actual goal state (thm).  Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to
  4303 achieve the old behaviour.
  4304 
  4305 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a
  4306 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule
  4307 statements.
  4308 
  4309 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now
  4310 enforced instead of silently assumed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use
  4311 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.
  4312 
  4313 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating
  4314 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc.  This replaces
  4315 some popular functions from term.ML:
  4316 
  4317   Term.variant		->  Name.variant
  4318   Term.variantlist	->  Name.variant_list
  4319   Term.invent_names	->  Name.invent_list
  4320 
  4321 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations
  4322 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).
  4323 
  4324 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper
  4325 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context.  For example,
  4326 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and
  4327 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces
  4328 various freeze_thaw operations.
  4329 
  4330 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for
  4331 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former
  4332 Tactic.prove).  Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results
  4333 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for
  4334 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard.  Note that
  4335 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is
  4336 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or
  4337 in a locale context).
  4338 
  4339 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)
  4340 and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations
  4341 (Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.
  4342 which are considered legacy and await removal.
  4343 
  4344 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking
  4345 (Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),
  4346 with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term
  4347 etc.).  Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still
  4348 available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using
  4349 a mere theory instead of a full context.
  4350 
  4351 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception
  4352 ERROR of string uniformly.  Function error now merely raises ERROR,
  4353 without any side effect on output channels.  The Isar toplevel takes
  4354 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions.  ML code may use plain
  4355 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:
  4356 
  4357   ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."
  4358 
  4359 Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be
  4360 embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like
  4361 this:
  4362 
  4363   Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)
  4364 
  4365 INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed
  4366 obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,
  4367 Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)
  4368 -- use plain ERROR instead.
  4369 
  4370 * Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a
  4371 list.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.
  4372 
  4373 * Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to
  4374 ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.
  4375 
  4376 * Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the
  4377 theory before entering a proof state.  Transactions now always see a
  4378 quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and
  4379 batch mode.
  4380 
  4381 * Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax.  Renamed
  4382 OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords.  Removed
  4383 OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in
  4384 OuterSyntax.command etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4385 
  4386 * Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now
  4387 contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the
  4388 very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by
  4389 simpset_of/local_simpset_of).  Consequently, all plug-in components
  4390 (solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.
  4391 
  4392 * Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the
  4393 local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc
  4394 etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this!  Removed
  4395 former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --
  4396 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to
  4397 specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.
  4398 
  4399 * Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces
  4400 change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a
  4401 theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --
  4402 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4403 
  4404 * Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired
  4405 "Trueprop" etc.
  4406 
  4407 
  4408 *** System ***
  4409 
  4410 * settings: the default heap location within ISABELLE_HOME_USER now
  4411 includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER.  This simplifies use of multiple
  4412 Isabelle installations.
  4413 
  4414 * isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical
  4415 operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source
  4416 code.
  4417 
  4418 * Basic Isabelle mode for jEdit, see Isabelle/lib/jedit/.
  4419 
  4420 * Support for parallel execution, using native multicore support of
  4421 Poly/ML 5.1.  The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing
  4422 independent theories, according to the given theory header
  4423 specifications. The maximum number of worker threads is specified via
  4424 usedir option -M or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. A
  4425 speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected on a 4-core machine, and up
  4426 to 6 on a 8-core machine.  User-code needs to observe certain
  4427 guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A in the Isar
  4428 Implementation manual.
  4429 
  4430 
  4431 
  4432 New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)
  4433 ----------------------------------
  4434 
  4435 *** General ***
  4436 
  4437 * Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is
  4438 
  4439   theory <name>
  4440   imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>
  4441   uses <file1> ... <fileM>
  4442   begin
  4443 
  4444 where the 'uses' part is optional.  The previous syntax
  4445 
  4446   theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:
  4447 
  4448 will disappear in the next release.  Use isatool fixheaders to convert
  4449 existing theory files.  Note that there is no change in ancient
  4450 non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.
  4451 
  4452 * Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via
  4453 relative and absolute paths.
  4454 
  4455 * Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a
  4456 list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,
  4457 simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select
  4458 theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that
  4459 match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified
  4460 name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose
  4461 lhs match term.  Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects
  4462 all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under
  4463 'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f.  Example:
  4464 
  4465   C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."
  4466 
  4467 prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",
  4468 matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."
  4469 in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).
  4470 
  4471 * Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of
  4472 'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4473 
  4474 * Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that
  4475 Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both
  4476 formal and informal parts).  Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof
  4477 General interface.  Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):
  4478 
  4479   http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html
  4480   http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html
  4481 
  4482 * Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the
  4483 Classical Reasoner.  Typical big applications run around 2 times
  4484 faster.
  4485 
  4486 
  4487 *** Document preparation ***
  4488 
  4489 * Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output
  4490 of raw sources.  Only those symbols that do not require additional
  4491 LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are
  4492 displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim.  isatool display
  4493 and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the
  4494 DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).
  4495 
  4496 * Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,
  4497 notably folding and hiding.  Predefined tags include "theory" (for
  4498 theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for
  4499 commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and
  4500 "invisible" are unused by default.  Users may give explicit tag
  4501 specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''.  The
  4502 interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document
  4503 preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of
  4504 isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,
  4505 \isadroptag.
  4506 
  4507 Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool
  4508 usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them).  Typical
  4509 specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present
  4510 theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold
  4511 proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit
  4512 these parts without any formal replacement text.  The Isabelle site
  4513 default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as
  4514 specified above.
  4515 
  4516 * Several new antiquotations:
  4517 
  4518   @{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;
  4519 
  4520   @{typeof term} prints the type of a term;
  4521 
  4522   @{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the
  4523   argument is a known logical constant;
  4524 
  4525   @{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or
  4526   theorem applying a "style" to it
  4527 
  4528   @{ML text}
  4529 
  4530 Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of
  4531 definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the
  4532 conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem19'
  4533 to print the specified premise.  TermStyle.add_style provides an ML
  4534 interface for introducing further styles.  See also the "LaTeX Sugar"
  4535 document practical applications.  The ML antiquotation prints
  4536 type-checked ML expressions verbatim.
  4537 
  4538 * Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',
  4539 and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which
  4540 specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations.  For
  4541 example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.
  4542 
  4543 * Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative
  4544 context interpreting the subsequent argument.  For example: @{thm
  4545 [locale=lattice] inf_assoc}.
  4546 
  4547 * Proper output of proof terms (@{prf ...} and @{full_prf ...}) within
  4548 a proof context.
  4549 
  4550 * Proper output of antiquotations for theory commands involving a
  4551 proof context (such as 'locale' or 'theorem (in loc) ...').
  4552 
  4553 * Delimiters of outer tokens (string etc.) now produce separate LaTeX
  4554 macros (\isachardoublequoteopen, isachardoublequoteclose etc.).
  4555 
  4556 * isatool usedir: new option -C (default true) controls whether option
  4557 -D should include a copy of the original document directory; -C false
  4558 prevents unwanted effects such as copying of administrative CVS data.
  4559 
  4560 
  4561 *** Pure ***
  4562 
  4563 * Considerably improved version of 'constdefs' command.  Now performs
  4564 automatic type-inference of declared constants; additional support for
  4565 local structure declarations (cf. locales and HOL records), see also
  4566 isar-ref manual.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to observe strictly
  4567 sequential dependencies of definitions within a single 'constdefs'
  4568 section; moreover, the declared name needs to be an identifier.  If
  4569 all fails, consider to fall back on 'consts' and 'defs' separately.
  4570 
  4571 * Improved indexed syntax and implicit structures.  First of all,
  4572 indexed syntax provides a notational device for subscripted
  4573 application, using the new syntax \<^bsub>term\<^esub> for arbitrary
  4574 expressions.  Secondly, in a local context with structure
  4575 declarations, number indexes \<^sub>n or the empty index (default
  4576 number 1) refer to a certain fixed variable implicitly; option
  4577 show_structs controls printing of implicit structures.  Typical
  4578 applications of these concepts involve record types and locales.
  4579 
  4580 * New command 'no_syntax' removes grammar declarations (and
  4581 translations) resulting from the given syntax specification, which is
  4582 interpreted in the same manner as for the 'syntax' command.
  4583 
  4584 * 'Advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) may depend
  4585 on the signature of the theory context being presently used for
  4586 parsing/printing, see also isar-ref manual.
  4587 
  4588 * Improved 'oracle' command provides a type-safe interface to turn an
  4589 ML expression of type theory -> T -> term into a primitive rule of
  4590 type theory -> T -> thm (i.e. the functionality of Thm.invoke_oracle
  4591 is already included here); see also FOL/ex/IffExample.thy;
  4592 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4593 
  4594 * axclass: name space prefix for class "c" is now "c_class" (was "c"
  4595 before); "cI" is no longer bound, use "c.intro" instead.
  4596 INCOMPATIBILITY.  This change avoids clashes of fact bindings for
  4597 axclasses vs. locales.
  4598 
  4599 * Improved internal renaming of symbolic identifiers -- attach primes
  4600 instead of base 26 numbers.
  4601 
  4602 * New flag show_question_marks controls printing of leading question
  4603 marks in schematic variable names.
  4604 
  4605 * In schematic variable names, *any* symbol following \<^isub> or
  4606 \<^isup> is now treated as part of the base name.  For example, the
  4607 following works without printing of awkward ".0" indexes:
  4608 
  4609   lemma "x\<^isub>1 = x\<^isub>2 ==> x\<^isub>2 = x\<^isub>1"
  4610     by simp
  4611 
  4612 * Inner syntax includes (*(*nested*) comments*).
  4613 
  4614 * Pretty printer now supports unbreakable blocks, specified in mixfix
  4615 annotations as "(00...)".
  4616 
  4617 * Clear separation of logical types and nonterminals, where the latter
  4618 may only occur in 'syntax' specifications or type abbreviations.
  4619 Before that distinction was only partially implemented via type class
  4620 "logic" vs. "{}".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare cases of improper
  4621 use of 'types'/'consts' instead of 'nonterminals'/'syntax'.  Some very
  4622 exotic syntax specifications may require further adaption
  4623 (e.g. Cube/Cube.thy).
  4624 
  4625 * Removed obsolete type class "logic", use the top sort {} instead.
  4626 Note that non-logical types should be declared as 'nonterminals'
  4627 rather than 'types'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for new object-logic
  4628 specifications.
  4629 
  4630 * Attributes 'induct' and 'cases': type or set names may now be
  4631 locally fixed variables as well.
  4632 
  4633 * Simplifier: can now control the depth to which conditional rewriting
  4634 is traced via the PG menu Isabelle -> Settings -> Trace Simp Depth
  4635 Limit.
  4636 
  4637 * Simplifier: simplification procedures may now take the current
  4638 simpset into account (cf. Simplifier.simproc(_i) / mk_simproc
  4639 interface), which is very useful for calling the Simplifier
  4640 recursively.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: the 'prems' argument of simprocs
  4641 is gone -- use prems_of_ss on the simpset instead.  Moreover, the
  4642 low-level mk_simproc no longer applies Logic.varify internally, to
  4643 allow for use in a context of fixed variables.
  4644 
  4645 * thin_tac now works even if the assumption being deleted contains !!
  4646 or ==>.  More generally, erule now works even if the major premise of
  4647 the elimination rule contains !! or ==>.
  4648 
  4649 * Method 'rules' has been renamed to 'iprover'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4650 
  4651 * Reorganized bootstrapping of the Pure theories; CPure is now derived
  4652 from Pure, which contains all common declarations already.  Both
  4653 theories are defined via plain Isabelle/Isar .thy files.
  4654 INCOMPATIBILITY: elements of CPure (such as the CPure.intro /
  4655 CPure.elim / CPure.dest attributes) now appear in the Pure name space;
  4656 use isatool fixcpure to adapt your theory and ML sources.
  4657 
  4658 * New syntax 'name(i-j, i-, i, ...)' for referring to specific
  4659 selections of theorems in named facts via index ranges.
  4660 
  4661 * 'print_theorems': in theory mode, really print the difference
  4662 wrt. the last state (works for interactive theory development only),
  4663 in proof mode print all local facts (cf. 'print_facts');
  4664 
  4665 * 'hide': option '(open)' hides only base names.
  4666 
  4667 * More efficient treatment of intermediate checkpoints in interactive
  4668 theory development.
  4669 
  4670 * Code generator is now invoked via code_module (incremental code
  4671 generation) and code_library (modular code generation, ML structures
  4672 for each theory).  INCOMPATIBILITY: new keywords 'file' and 'contains'
  4673 must be quoted when used as identifiers.
  4674 
  4675 * New 'value' command for reading, evaluating and printing terms using
  4676 the code generator.  INCOMPATIBILITY: command keyword 'value' must be
  4677 quoted when used as identifier.
  4678 
  4679 
  4680 *** Locales ***
  4681 
  4682 * New commands for the interpretation of locale expressions in
  4683 theories (1), locales (2) and proof contexts (3).  These generate
  4684 proof obligations from the expression specification.  After the
  4685 obligations have been discharged, theorems of the expression are added
  4686 to the theory, target locale or proof context.  The synopsis of the
  4687 commands is a follows:
  4688 
  4689   (1) interpretation expr inst
  4690   (2) interpretation target < expr
  4691   (3) interpret expr inst
  4692 
  4693 Interpretation in theories and proof contexts require a parameter
  4694 instantiation of terms from the current context.  This is applied to
  4695 specifications and theorems of the interpreted expression.
  4696 Interpretation in locales only permits parameter renaming through the
  4697 locale expression.  Interpretation is smart in that interpretations
  4698 that are active already do not occur in proof obligations, neither are
  4699 instantiated theorems stored in duplicate.  Use 'print_interps' to
  4700 inspect active interpretations of a particular locale.  For details,
  4701 see the Isar Reference manual.  Examples can be found in
  4702 HOL/Finite_Set.thy and HOL/Algebra/UnivPoly.thy.
  4703 
  4704 INCOMPATIBILITY: former 'instantiate' has been withdrawn, use
  4705 'interpret' instead.
  4706 
  4707 * New context element 'constrains' for adding type constraints to
  4708 parameters.
  4709 
  4710 * Context expressions: renaming of parameters with syntax
  4711 redeclaration.
  4712 
  4713 * Locale declaration: 'includes' disallowed.
  4714 
  4715 * Proper static binding of attribute syntax -- i.e. types / terms /
  4716 facts mentioned as arguments are always those of the locale definition
  4717 context, independently of the context of later invocations.  Moreover,
  4718 locale operations (renaming and type / term instantiation) are applied
  4719 to attribute arguments as expected.
  4720 
  4721 INCOMPATIBILITY of the ML interface: always pass Attrib.src instead of
  4722 actual attributes; rare situations may require Attrib.attribute to
  4723 embed those attributes into Attrib.src that lack concrete syntax.
  4724 Attribute implementations need to cooperate properly with the static
  4725 binding mechanism.  Basic parsers Args.XXX_typ/term/prop and
  4726 Attrib.XXX_thm etc. already do the right thing without further
  4727 intervention.  Only unusual applications -- such as "where" or "of"
  4728 (cf. src/Pure/Isar/attrib.ML), which process arguments depending both
  4729 on the context and the facts involved -- may have to assign parsed
  4730 values to argument tokens explicitly.
  4731 
  4732 * Changed parameter management in theorem generation for long goal
  4733 statements with 'includes'.  INCOMPATIBILITY: produces a different
  4734 theorem statement in rare situations.
  4735 
  4736 * Locale inspection command 'print_locale' omits notes elements.  Use
  4737 'print_locale!' to have them included in the output.
  4738 
  4739 
  4740 *** Provers ***
  4741 
  4742 * Provers/hypsubst.ML: improved version of the subst method, for
  4743 single-step rewriting: it now works in bound variable contexts. New is
  4744 'subst (asm)', for rewriting an assumption.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may
  4745 rewrite a different subterm than the original subst method, which is
  4746 still available as 'simplesubst'.
  4747 
  4748 * Provers/quasi.ML: new transitivity reasoners for transitivity only
  4749 and quasi orders.
  4750 
  4751 * Provers/trancl.ML: new transitivity reasoner for transitive and
  4752 reflexive-transitive closure of relations.
  4753 
  4754 * Provers/blast.ML: new reference depth_limit to make blast's depth
  4755 limit (previously hard-coded with a value of 20) user-definable.
  4756 
  4757 * Provers/simplifier.ML has been moved to Pure, where Simplifier.setup
  4758 is peformed already.  Object-logics merely need to finish their
  4759 initial simpset configuration as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4760 
  4761 
  4762 *** HOL ***
  4763 
  4764 * Symbolic syntax of Hilbert Choice Operator is now as follows:
  4765 
  4766   syntax (epsilon)
  4767     "_Eps" :: "[pttrn, bool] => 'a"    ("(3\<some>_./ _)" [0, 10] 10)
  4768 
  4769 The symbol \<some> is displayed as the alternative epsilon of LaTeX
  4770 and x-symbol; use option '-m epsilon' to get it actually printed.
  4771 Moreover, the mathematically important symbolic identifier \<epsilon>
  4772 becomes available as variable, constant etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4773 
  4774 * "x > y" abbreviates "y < x" and "x >= y" abbreviates "y <= x".
  4775 Similarly for all quantifiers: "ALL x > y" etc.  The x-symbol for >=
  4776 is \<ge>. New transitivity rules have been added to HOL/Orderings.thy to
  4777 support corresponding Isar calculations.
  4778 
  4779 * "{x:A. P}" abbreviates "{x. x:A & P}", and similarly for "\<in>"
  4780 instead of ":".
  4781 
  4782 * theory SetInterval: changed the syntax for open intervals:
  4783 
  4784   Old       New
  4785   {..n(}    {..<n}
  4786   {)n..}    {n<..}
  4787   {m..n(}   {m..<n}
  4788   {)m..n}   {m<..n}
  4789   {)m..n(}  {m<..<n}
  4790 
  4791 The old syntax is still supported but will disappear in the next
  4792 release.  For conversion use the following Emacs search and replace
  4793 patterns (these are not perfect but work quite well):
  4794 
  4795   {)\([^\.]*\)\.\.  ->  {\1<\.\.}
  4796   \.\.\([^(}]*\)(}  ->  \.\.<\1}
  4797 
  4798 * Theory Commutative_Ring (in Library): method comm_ring for proving
  4799 equalities in commutative rings; method 'algebra' provides a generic
  4800 interface.
  4801 
  4802 * Theory Finite_Set: changed the syntax for 'setsum', summation over
  4803 finite sets: "setsum (%x. e) A", which used to be "\<Sum>x:A. e", is
  4804 now either "SUM x:A. e" or "\<Sum>x \<in> A. e". The bound variable can
  4805 be a tuple pattern.
  4806 
  4807 Some new syntax forms are available:
  4808 
  4809   "\<Sum>x | P. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {x. P}"
  4810   "\<Sum>x = a..b. e"   for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..b}"
  4811   "\<Sum>x = a..<b. e"  for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..<b}"
  4812   "\<Sum>x < k. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {..<k}"
  4813 
  4814 The latter form "\<Sum>x < k. e" used to be based on a separate
  4815 function "Summation", which has been discontinued.
  4816 
  4817 * theory Finite_Set: in structured induction proofs, the insert case
  4818 is now 'case (insert x F)' instead of the old counterintuitive 'case
  4819 (insert F x)'.
  4820 
  4821 * The 'refute' command has been extended to support a much larger
  4822 fragment of HOL, including axiomatic type classes, constdefs and
  4823 typedefs, inductive datatypes and recursion.
  4824 
  4825 * New tactics 'sat' and 'satx' to prove propositional tautologies.
  4826 Requires zChaff with proof generation to be installed.  See
  4827 HOL/ex/SAT_Examples.thy for examples.
  4828 
  4829 * Datatype induction via method 'induct' now preserves the name of the
  4830 induction variable. For example, when proving P(xs::'a list) by
  4831 induction on xs, the induction step is now P(xs) ==> P(a#xs) rather
  4832 than P(list) ==> P(a#list) as previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  4833 in unstructured proof scripts.
  4834 
  4835 * Reworked implementation of records.  Improved scalability for
  4836 records with many fields, avoiding performance problems for type
  4837 inference. Records are no longer composed of nested field types, but
  4838 of nested extension types. Therefore the record type only grows linear
  4839 in the number of extensions and not in the number of fields.  The
  4840 top-level (users) view on records is preserved.  Potential
  4841 INCOMPATIBILITY only in strange cases, where the theory depends on the
  4842 old record representation. The type generated for a record is called
  4843 <record_name>_ext_type.
  4844 
  4845 Flag record_quick_and_dirty_sensitive can be enabled to skip the
  4846 proofs triggered by a record definition or a simproc (if
  4847 quick_and_dirty is enabled).  Definitions of large records can take
  4848 quite long.
  4849 
  4850 New simproc record_upd_simproc for simplification of multiple record
  4851 updates enabled by default.  Moreover, trivial updates are also
  4852 removed: r(|x := x r|) = r.  INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break
  4853 occasionally, since simplification is more powerful by default.
  4854 
  4855 * typedef: proper support for polymorphic sets, which contain extra
  4856 type-variables in the term.
  4857 
  4858 * Simplifier: automatically reasons about transitivity chains
  4859 involving "trancl" (r^+) and "rtrancl" (r^*) by setting up tactics
  4860 provided by Provers/trancl.ML as additional solvers.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4861 old proofs break occasionally as simplification may now solve more
  4862 goals than previously.
  4863 
  4864 * Simplifier: converts x <= y into x = y if assumption y <= x is
  4865 present.  Works for all partial orders (class "order"), in particular
  4866 numbers and sets.  For linear orders (e.g. numbers) it treats ~ x < y
  4867 just like y <= x.
  4868 
  4869 * Simplifier: new simproc for "let x = a in f x".  If a is a free or
  4870 bound variable or a constant then the let is unfolded.  Otherwise
  4871 first a is simplified to b, and then f b is simplified to g. If
  4872 possible we abstract b from g arriving at "let x = b in h x",
  4873 otherwise we unfold the let and arrive at g.  The simproc can be
  4874 enabled/disabled by the reference use_let_simproc.  Potential
  4875 INCOMPATIBILITY since simplification is more powerful by default.
  4876 
  4877 * Classical reasoning: the meson method now accepts theorems as arguments.
  4878 
  4879 * Prover support: pre-release of the Isabelle-ATP linkup, which runs background
  4880 jobs to provide advice on the provability of subgoals.
  4881 
  4882 * Theory OrderedGroup and Ring_and_Field: various additions and
  4883 improvements to faciliate calculations involving equalities and
  4884 inequalities.
  4885 
  4886 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
  4887 (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4888 
  4889   abs_eq             now named abs_of_nonneg
  4890   abs_of_ge_0        now named abs_of_nonneg
  4891   abs_minus_eq       now named abs_of_nonpos
  4892   imp_abs_id         now named abs_of_nonneg
  4893   imp_abs_neg_id     now named abs_of_nonpos
  4894   mult_pos           now named mult_pos_pos
  4895   mult_pos_le        now named mult_nonneg_nonneg
  4896   mult_pos_neg_le    now named mult_nonneg_nonpos
  4897   mult_pos_neg2_le   now named mult_nonneg_nonpos2
  4898   mult_neg           now named mult_neg_neg
  4899   mult_neg_le        now named mult_nonpos_nonpos
  4900 
  4901 * The following lemmas in Ring_and_Field have been added to the simplifier:
  4902      
  4903      zero_le_square
  4904      not_square_less_zero 
  4905 
  4906   The following lemmas have been deleted from Real/RealPow:
  4907   
  4908      realpow_zero_zero
  4909      realpow_two
  4910      realpow_less
  4911      zero_le_power
  4912      realpow_two_le
  4913      abs_realpow_two
  4914      realpow_two_abs     
  4915 
  4916 * Theory Parity: added rules for simplifying exponents.
  4917 
  4918 * Theory List:
  4919 
  4920 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
  4921 (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4922 
  4923   list_all_Nil       now named list_all.simps(1)
  4924   list_all_Cons      now named list_all.simps(2)
  4925   list_all_conv      now named list_all_iff
  4926   set_mem_eq         now named mem_iff
  4927 
  4928 * Theories SetsAndFunctions and BigO (see HOL/Library) support
  4929 asymptotic "big O" calculations.  See the notes in BigO.thy.
  4930 
  4931 
  4932 *** HOL-Complex ***
  4933 
  4934 * Theory RealDef: better support for embedding natural numbers and
  4935 integers in the reals.
  4936 
  4937 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
  4938 (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4939 
  4940   exp_ge_add_one_self  now requires no hypotheses
  4941   real_of_int_add      reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  4942   real_of_int_minus    reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  4943   real_of_int_diff     reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  4944   real_of_int_mult     reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  4945 
  4946 * Theory RComplete: expanded support for floor and ceiling functions.
  4947 
  4948 * Theory Ln is new, with properties of the natural logarithm
  4949 
  4950 * Hyperreal: There is a new type constructor "star" for making
  4951 nonstandard types.  The old type names are now type synonyms:
  4952 
  4953   hypreal = real star
  4954   hypnat = nat star
  4955   hcomplex = complex star
  4956 
  4957 * Hyperreal: Many groups of similarly-defined constants have been
  4958 replaced by polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4959 
  4960   star_of <-- hypreal_of_real, hypnat_of_nat, hcomplex_of_complex
  4961 
  4962   starset      <-- starsetNat, starsetC
  4963   *s*          <-- *sNat*, *sc*
  4964   starset_n    <-- starsetNat_n, starsetC_n
  4965   *sn*         <-- *sNatn*, *scn*
  4966   InternalSets <-- InternalNatSets, InternalCSets
  4967 
  4968   starfun      <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
  4969   *f*          <-- *fNat*, *fNat2*, *fc*, *fRc*, *fcR*
  4970   starfun_n    <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n
  4971   *fn*         <-- *fNatn*, *fNat2n*, *fcn*, *fRcn*, *fcRn*
  4972   InternalFuns <-- InternalNatFuns, InternalNatFuns2, Internal{C,RC,CR}Funs
  4973 
  4974 * Hyperreal: Many type-specific theorems have been removed in favor of
  4975 theorems specific to various axiomatic type classes (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4976 
  4977   add_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_commute
  4978   add_assoc   <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_assocs
  4979   OrderedGroup.add_0 <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_zero_left
  4980   OrderedGroup.add_0_right <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_zero_right
  4981   right_minus <-- hypreal_add_minus
  4982   left_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_minus_left
  4983   mult_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_commute
  4984   mult_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_assoc
  4985   mult_1_left <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_1, hcomplex_mult_one_left
  4986   mult_1_right <-- hcomplex_mult_one_right
  4987   mult_zero_left <-- hcomplex_mult_zero_left
  4988   left_distrib <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_mult_distrib
  4989   right_distrib <-- hypnat_add_mult_distrib2
  4990   zero_neq_one <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_not_eq_one
  4991   right_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse
  4992   left_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse_left, hcomplex_mult_inv_left
  4993   order_refl <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_refl
  4994   order_trans <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_trans
  4995   order_antisym <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_anti_sym
  4996   order_less_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less_le
  4997   linorder_linear <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_linear
  4998   add_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_add_left_mono
  4999   mult_strict_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_less_mono2
  5000   add_nonneg_nonneg <-- hypreal_le_add_order
  5001 
  5002 * Hyperreal: Separate theorems having to do with type-specific
  5003 versions of constants have been merged into theorems that apply to the
  5004 new polymorphic constants (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5005 
  5006   STAR_UNIV_set <-- {STAR_real,NatStar_real,STARC_complex}_set
  5007   STAR_empty_set <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_empty_set
  5008   STAR_Un <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Un
  5009   STAR_Int <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Int
  5010   STAR_Compl <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Compl
  5011   STAR_subset <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_subset
  5012   STAR_mem <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_mem
  5013   STAR_mem_Compl <-- {STAR,STARC}_mem_Compl
  5014   STAR_diff <-- {STAR,STARC}_diff
  5015   STAR_star_of_image_subset <-- {STAR_hypreal_of_real, NatStar_hypreal_of_real,
  5016     STARC_hcomplex_of_complex}_image_subset
  5017   starset_n_Un <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Un
  5018   starset_n_Int <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Int
  5019   starset_n_Compl <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Compl
  5020   starset_n_diff <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_diff
  5021   InternalSets_Un <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Un
  5022   InternalSets_Int <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Int
  5023   InternalSets_Compl <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Compl
  5024   InternalSets_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_diff
  5025   InternalSets_UNIV_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_UNIV_diff
  5026   InternalSets_starset_n <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_starset{Nat,C}_n
  5027   starset_starset_n_eq <-- starset{Nat,C}_starset{Nat,C}_n_eq
  5028   starset_n_starset <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_starset{Nat,C}
  5029   starfun_n_starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n_starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
  5030   starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
  5031   starfun_mult <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_mult
  5032   starfun_add <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_add
  5033   starfun_minus <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_minus
  5034   starfun_diff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_diff
  5035   starfun_o <-- starfun{NatNat2,Nat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o
  5036   starfun_o2 <-- starfun{NatNat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o2
  5037   starfun_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_const_fun
  5038   starfun_inverse <-- starfun{Nat,C,RC,CR}_inverse
  5039   starfun_eq <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_eq
  5040   starfun_eq_iff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_eq_iff
  5041   starfun_Id <-- starfunC_Id
  5042   starfun_approx <-- starfun{Nat,CR}_approx
  5043   starfun_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_capprox
  5044   starfun_abs <-- starfunNat_rabs
  5045   starfun_lambda_cancel <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel
  5046   starfun_lambda_cancel2 <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel2
  5047   starfun_mult_HFinite_approx <-- starfunCR_mult_HFinite_capprox
  5048   starfun_mult_CFinite_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_mult_CFinite_capprox
  5049   starfun_add_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_add_capprox
  5050   starfun_add_approx <-- starfunCR_add_approx
  5051   starfun_inverse_inverse <-- starfunC_inverse_inverse
  5052   starfun_divide <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_divide
  5053   starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n
  5054   starfun_n_mult <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_mult
  5055   starfun_n_add <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_add
  5056   starfun_n_add_minus <-- starfunNat_n_add_minus
  5057   starfun_n_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_const_fun
  5058   starfun_n_minus <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_minus
  5059   starfun_n_eq <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_eq
  5060 
  5061   star_n_add <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add
  5062   star_n_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_minus
  5063   star_n_diff <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_diff
  5064   star_n_mult <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_mult
  5065   star_n_inverse <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_inverse
  5066   star_n_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le
  5067   star_n_less <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less
  5068   star_n_zero_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_num
  5069   star_n_one_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_one_num
  5070   star_n_abs <-- hypreal_hrabs
  5071   star_n_divide <-- hcomplex_divide
  5072 
  5073   star_of_add <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_add
  5074   star_of_minus <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_minus
  5075   star_of_diff <-- hypreal_of_real_diff
  5076   star_of_mult <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_mult
  5077   star_of_one <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_one
  5078   star_of_zero <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_zero
  5079   star_of_le <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_le_iff
  5080   star_of_less <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_less_iff
  5081   star_of_eq <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_eq_iff
  5082   star_of_inverse <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_inverse
  5083   star_of_divide <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_divide
  5084   star_of_of_nat <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_nat
  5085   star_of_of_int <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_int
  5086   star_of_number_of <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_number_of
  5087   star_of_number_less <-- number_of_less_hypreal_of_real_iff
  5088   star_of_number_le <-- number_of_le_hypreal_of_real_iff
  5089   star_of_eq_number <-- hypreal_of_real_eq_number_of_iff
  5090   star_of_less_number <-- hypreal_of_real_less_number_of_iff
  5091   star_of_le_number <-- hypreal_of_real_le_number_of_iff
  5092   star_of_power <-- hypreal_of_real_power
  5093   star_of_eq_0 <-- hcomplex_of_complex_zero_iff
  5094 
  5095 * Hyperreal: new method "transfer" that implements the transfer
  5096 principle of nonstandard analysis. With a subgoal that mentions
  5097 nonstandard types like "'a star", the command "apply transfer"
  5098 replaces it with an equivalent one that mentions only standard types.
  5099 To be successful, all free variables must have standard types; non-
  5100 standard variables must have explicit universal quantifiers.
  5101 
  5102 * Hyperreal: A theory of Taylor series.
  5103 
  5104 
  5105 *** HOLCF ***
  5106 
  5107 * Discontinued special version of 'constdefs' (which used to support
  5108 continuous functions) in favor of the general Pure one with full
  5109 type-inference.
  5110 
  5111 * New simplification procedure for solving continuity conditions; it
  5112 is much faster on terms with many nested lambda abstractions (cubic
  5113 instead of exponential time).
  5114 
  5115 * New syntax for domain package: selector names are now optional.
  5116 Parentheses should be omitted unless argument is lazy, for example:
  5117 
  5118   domain 'a stream = cons "'a" (lazy "'a stream")
  5119 
  5120 * New command 'fixrec' for defining recursive functions with pattern
  5121 matching; defining multiple functions with mutual recursion is also
  5122 supported.  Patterns may include the constants cpair, spair, up, sinl,
  5123 sinr, or any data constructor defined by the domain package. The given
  5124 equations are proven as rewrite rules. See HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5125 syntax and examples.
  5126 
  5127 * New commands 'cpodef' and 'pcpodef' for defining predicate subtypes
  5128 of cpo and pcpo types. Syntax is exactly like the 'typedef' command,
  5129 but the proof obligation additionally includes an admissibility
  5130 requirement. The packages generate instances of class cpo or pcpo,
  5131 with continuity and strictness theorems for Rep and Abs.
  5132 
  5133 * HOLCF: Many theorems have been renamed according to a more standard naming
  5134 scheme (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5135 
  5136   foo_inject:  "foo$x = foo$y ==> x = y"
  5137   foo_eq:      "(foo$x = foo$y) = (x = y)"
  5138   foo_less:    "(foo$x << foo$y) = (x << y)"
  5139   foo_strict:  "foo$UU = UU"
  5140   foo_defined: "... ==> foo$x ~= UU"
  5141   foo_defined_iff: "(foo$x = UU) = (x = UU)"
  5142 
  5143 
  5144 *** ZF ***
  5145 
  5146 * ZF/ex: theories Group and Ring provide examples in abstract algebra,
  5147 including the First Isomorphism Theorem (on quotienting by the kernel
  5148 of a homomorphism).
  5149 
  5150 * ZF/Simplifier: install second copy of type solver that actually
  5151 makes use of TC rules declared to Isar proof contexts (or locales);
  5152 the old version is still required for ML proof scripts.
  5153 
  5154 
  5155 *** Cube ***
  5156 
  5157 * Converted to Isar theory format; use locales instead of axiomatic
  5158 theories.
  5159 
  5160 
  5161 *** ML ***
  5162 
  5163 * Pure/library.ML: added ##>, ##>>, #>> -- higher-order counterparts
  5164 for ||>, ||>>, |>>,
  5165 
  5166 * Pure/library.ML no longer defines its own option datatype, but uses
  5167 that of the SML basis, which has constructors NONE and SOME instead of
  5168 None and Some, as well as exception Option.Option instead of OPTION.
  5169 The functions the, if_none, is_some, is_none have been adapted
  5170 accordingly, while Option.map replaces apsome.
  5171 
  5172 * Pure/library.ML: the exception LIST has been given up in favour of
  5173 the standard exceptions Empty and Subscript, as well as
  5174 Library.UnequalLengths.  Function like Library.hd and Library.tl are
  5175 superceded by the standard hd and tl functions etc.
  5176 
  5177 A number of basic list functions are no longer exported to the ML
  5178 toplevel, as they are variants of predefined functions.  The following
  5179 suggests how one can translate existing code:
  5180 
  5181     rev_append xs ys = List.revAppend (xs, ys)
  5182     nth_elem (i, xs) = List.nth (xs, i)
  5183     last_elem xs = List.last xs
  5184     flat xss = List.concat xss
  5185     seq fs = List.app fs
  5186     partition P xs = List.partition P xs
  5187     mapfilter f xs = List.mapPartial f xs
  5188 
  5189 * Pure/library.ML: several combinators for linear functional
  5190 transformations, notably reverse application and composition:
  5191 
  5192   x |> f                f #> g
  5193   (x, y) |-> f          f #-> g
  5194 
  5195 * Pure/library.ML: introduced/changed precedence of infix operators:
  5196 
  5197   infix 1 |> |-> ||> ||>> |>> |>>> #> #->;
  5198   infix 2 ?;
  5199   infix 3 o oo ooo oooo;
  5200   infix 4 ~~ upto downto;
  5201 
  5202 Maybe INCOMPATIBILITY when any of those is used in conjunction with other
  5203 infix operators.
  5204 
  5205 * Pure/library.ML: natural list combinators fold, fold_rev, and
  5206 fold_map support linear functional transformations and nesting.  For
  5207 example:
  5208 
  5209   fold f [x1, ..., xN] y =
  5210     y |> f x1 |> ... |> f xN
  5211 
  5212   (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] y =
  5213     y |> fold f xs1 |> ... |> fold f xsN
  5214 
  5215   fold f [x1, ..., xN] =
  5216     f x1 #> ... #> f xN
  5217 
  5218   (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] =
  5219     fold f xs1 #> ... #> fold f xsN
  5220 
  5221 * Pure/library.ML: the following selectors on type 'a option are
  5222 available:
  5223 
  5224   the:               'a option -> 'a  (*partial*)
  5225   these:             'a option -> 'a  where 'a = 'b list
  5226   the_default: 'a -> 'a option -> 'a
  5227   the_list:          'a option -> 'a list
  5228 
  5229 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides
  5230 basic operations for association lists, following natural argument
  5231 order; moreover the explicit equality predicate passed here avoids
  5232 potentially expensive polymorphic runtime equality checks.
  5233 The old functions may be expressed as follows:
  5234 
  5235   assoc = uncurry (AList.lookup (op =))
  5236   assocs = these oo AList.lookup (op =)
  5237   overwrite = uncurry (AList.update (op =)) o swap
  5238 
  5239 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides
  5240 
  5241   val make: ('a -> 'b) -> 'a list -> ('a * 'b) list
  5242   val find: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> ('c * 'b) list -> 'a -> 'c list
  5243 
  5244 replacing make_keylist and keyfilter (occassionally used)
  5245 Naive rewrites:
  5246 
  5247   make_keylist = AList.make
  5248   keyfilter = AList.find (op =)
  5249 
  5250 * eq_fst and eq_snd now take explicit equality parameter, thus
  5251   avoiding eqtypes. Naive rewrites:
  5252 
  5253     eq_fst = eq_fst (op =)
  5254     eq_snd = eq_snd (op =)
  5255 
  5256 * Removed deprecated apl and apr (rarely used).
  5257   Naive rewrites:
  5258 
  5259     apl (n, op) =>>= curry op n
  5260     apr (op, m) =>>= fn n => op (n, m)
  5261 
  5262 * Pure/General: structure OrdList (cf. Pure/General/ord_list.ML)
  5263 provides a reasonably efficient light-weight implementation of sets as
  5264 lists.
  5265 
  5266 * Pure/General: generic tables (cf. Pure/General/table.ML) provide a
  5267 few new operations; existing lookup and update are now curried to
  5268 follow natural argument order (for use with fold etc.);
  5269 INCOMPATIBILITY, use (uncurry Symtab.lookup) etc. as last resort.
  5270 
  5271 * Pure/General: output via the Isabelle channels of
  5272 writeln/warning/error etc. is now passed through Output.output, with a
  5273 hook for arbitrary transformations depending on the print_mode
  5274 (cf. Output.add_mode -- the first active mode that provides a output
  5275 function wins).  Already formatted output may be embedded into further
  5276 text via Output.raw; the result of Pretty.string_of/str_of and derived
  5277 functions (string_of_term/cterm/thm etc.) is already marked raw to
  5278 accommodate easy composition of diagnostic messages etc.  Programmers
  5279 rarely need to care about Output.output or Output.raw at all, with
  5280 some notable exceptions: Output.output is required when bypassing the
  5281 standard channels (writeln etc.), or in token translations to produce
  5282 properly formatted results; Output.raw is required when capturing
  5283 already output material that will eventually be presented to the user
  5284 a second time.  For the default print mode, both Output.output and
  5285 Output.raw have no effect.
  5286 
  5287 * Pure/General: Output.time_accumulator NAME creates an operator ('a
  5288 -> 'b) -> 'a -> 'b to measure runtime and count invocations; the
  5289 cumulative results are displayed at the end of a batch session.
  5290 
  5291 * Pure/General: File.sysify_path and File.quote_sysify path have been
  5292 replaced by File.platform_path and File.shell_path (with appropriate
  5293 hooks).  This provides a clean interface for unusual systems where the
  5294 internal and external process view of file names are different.
  5295 
  5296 * Pure: more efficient orders for basic syntactic entities: added
  5297 fast_string_ord, fast_indexname_ord, fast_term_ord; changed sort_ord
  5298 and typ_ord to use fast_string_ord and fast_indexname_ord (term_ord is
  5299 NOT affected); structures Symtab, Vartab, Typtab, Termtab use the fast
  5300 orders now -- potential INCOMPATIBILITY for code that depends on a
  5301 particular order for Symtab.keys, Symtab.dest, etc. (consider using
  5302 Library.sort_strings on result).
  5303 
  5304 * Pure/term.ML: combinators fold_atyps, fold_aterms, fold_term_types,
  5305 fold_types traverse types/terms from left to right, observing natural
  5306 argument order.  Supercedes previous foldl_XXX versions, add_frees,
  5307 add_vars etc. have been adapted as well: INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5308 
  5309 * Pure: name spaces have been refined, with significant changes of the
  5310 internal interfaces -- INCOMPATIBILITY.  Renamed cond_extern(_table)
  5311 to extern(_table).  The plain name entry path is superceded by a
  5312 general 'naming' context, which also includes the 'policy' to produce
  5313 a fully qualified name and external accesses of a fully qualified
  5314 name; NameSpace.extend is superceded by context dependent
  5315 Sign.declare_name.  Several theory and proof context operations modify
  5316 the naming context.  Especially note Theory.restore_naming and
  5317 ProofContext.restore_naming to get back to a sane state; note that
  5318 Theory.add_path is no longer sufficient to recover from
  5319 Theory.absolute_path in particular.
  5320 
  5321 * Pure: new flags short_names (default false) and unique_names
  5322 (default true) for controlling output of qualified names.  If
  5323 short_names is set, names are printed unqualified.  If unique_names is
  5324 reset, the name prefix is reduced to the minimum required to achieve
  5325 the original result when interning again, even if there is an overlap
  5326 with earlier declarations.
  5327 
  5328 * Pure/TheoryDataFun: change of the argument structure; 'prep_ext' is
  5329 now 'extend', and 'merge' gets an additional Pretty.pp argument
  5330 (useful for printing error messages).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5331 
  5332 * Pure: major reorganization of the theory context.  Type Sign.sg and
  5333 Theory.theory are now identified, referring to the universal
  5334 Context.theory (see Pure/context.ML).  Actual signature and theory
  5335 content is managed as theory data.  The old code and interfaces were
  5336 spread over many files and structures; the new arrangement introduces
  5337 considerable INCOMPATIBILITY to gain more clarity:
  5338 
  5339   Context -- theory management operations (name, identity, inclusion,
  5340     parents, ancestors, merge, etc.), plus generic theory data;
  5341 
  5342   Sign -- logical signature and syntax operations (declaring consts,
  5343     types, etc.), plus certify/read for common entities;
  5344 
  5345   Theory -- logical theory operations (stating axioms, definitions,
  5346     oracles), plus a copy of logical signature operations (consts,
  5347     types, etc.); also a few basic management operations (Theory.copy,
  5348     Theory.merge, etc.)
  5349 
  5350 The most basic sign_of operations (Theory.sign_of, Thm.sign_of_thm
  5351 etc.) as well as the sign field in Thm.rep_thm etc. have been retained
  5352 for convenience -- they merely return the theory.
  5353 
  5354 * Pure: type Type.tsig is superceded by theory in most interfaces.
  5355 
  5356 * Pure: the Isar proof context type is already defined early in Pure
  5357 as Context.proof (note that ProofContext.context and Proof.context are
  5358 aliases, where the latter is the preferred name).  This enables other
  5359 Isabelle components to refer to that type even before Isar is present.
  5360 
  5361 * Pure/sign/theory: discontinued named name spaces (i.e. classK,
  5362 typeK, constK, axiomK, oracleK), but provide explicit operations for
  5363 any of these kinds.  For example, Sign.intern typeK is now
  5364 Sign.intern_type, Theory.hide_space Sign.typeK is now
  5365 Theory.hide_types.  Also note that former
  5366 Theory.hide_classes/types/consts are now
  5367 Theory.hide_classes_i/types_i/consts_i, while the non '_i' versions
  5368 internalize their arguments!  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5369 
  5370 * Pure: get_thm interface (of PureThy and ProofContext) expects
  5371 datatype thmref (with constructors Name and NameSelection) instead of
  5372 plain string -- INCOMPATIBILITY;
  5373 
  5374 * Pure: cases produced by proof methods specify options, where NONE
  5375 means to remove case bindings -- INCOMPATIBILITY in
  5376 (RAW_)METHOD_CASES.
  5377 
  5378 * Pure: the following operations retrieve axioms or theorems from a
  5379 theory node or theory hierarchy, respectively:
  5380 
  5381   Theory.axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list
  5382   Theory.all_axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list
  5383   PureThy.thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list
  5384   PureThy.all_thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list
  5385 
  5386 * Pure: print_tac now outputs the goal through the trace channel.
  5387 
  5388 * Isar toplevel: improved diagnostics, mostly for Poly/ML only.
  5389 Reference Toplevel.debug (default false) controls detailed printing
  5390 and tracing of low-level exceptions; Toplevel.profiling (default 0)
  5391 controls execution profiling -- set to 1 for time and 2 for space
  5392 (both increase the runtime).
  5393 
  5394 * Isar session: The initial use of ROOT.ML is now always timed,
  5395 i.e. the log will show the actual process times, in contrast to the
  5396 elapsed wall-clock time that the outer shell wrapper produces.
  5397 
  5398 * Simplifier: improved handling of bound variables (nameless
  5399 representation, avoid allocating new strings).  Simprocs that invoke
  5400 the Simplifier recursively should use Simplifier.inherit_bounds to
  5401 avoid local name clashes.  Failure to do so produces warnings
  5402 "Simplifier: renamed bound variable ..."; set Simplifier.debug_bounds
  5403 for further details.
  5404 
  5405 * ML functions legacy_bindings and use_legacy_bindings produce ML fact
  5406 bindings for all theorems stored within a given theory; this may help
  5407 in porting non-Isar theories to Isar ones, while keeping ML proof
  5408 scripts for the time being.
  5409 
  5410 * ML operator HTML.with_charset specifies the charset begin used for
  5411 generated HTML files.  For example:
  5412 
  5413   HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Hebrew";
  5414   HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Chinese";
  5415 
  5416 
  5417 *** System ***
  5418 
  5419 * Allow symlinks to all proper Isabelle executables (Isabelle,
  5420 isabelle, isatool etc.).
  5421 
  5422 * ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT setting specifies preferred document format (for
  5423 isatool doc, isatool mkdir, display_drafts etc.).
  5424 
  5425 * isatool usedir: option -f allows specification of the ML file to be
  5426 used by Isabelle; default is ROOT.ML.
  5427 
  5428 * New isatool version outputs the version identifier of the Isabelle
  5429 distribution being used.
  5430 
  5431 * HOL: new isatool dimacs2hol converts files in DIMACS CNF format
  5432 (containing Boolean satisfiability problems) into Isabelle/HOL
  5433 theories.
  5434 
  5435 
  5436 
  5437 New in Isabelle2004 (April 2004)
  5438 --------------------------------
  5439 
  5440 *** General ***
  5441 
  5442 * Provers/order.ML:  new efficient reasoner for partial and linear orders.
  5443   Replaces linorder.ML.
  5444 
  5445 * Pure: Greek letters (except small lambda, \<lambda>), as well as Gothic
  5446   (\<aa>...\<zz>\<AA>...\<ZZ>), calligraphic (\<A>...\<Z>), and Euler
  5447   (\<a>...\<z>), are now considered normal letters, and can therefore
  5448   be used anywhere where an ASCII letter (a...zA...Z) has until
  5449   now. COMPATIBILITY: This obviously changes the parsing of some
  5450   terms, especially where a symbol has been used as a binder, say
  5451   '\<Pi>x. ...', which is now a type error since \<Pi>x will be parsed
  5452   as an identifier.  Fix it by inserting a space around former
  5453   symbols.  Call 'isatool fixgreek' to try to fix parsing errors in
  5454   existing theory and ML files.
  5455 
  5456 * Pure: Macintosh and Windows line-breaks are now allowed in theory files.
  5457 
  5458 * Pure: single letter sub/superscripts (\<^isub> and \<^isup>) are now
  5459   allowed in identifiers. Similar to Greek letters \<^isub> is now considered
  5460   a normal (but invisible) letter. For multiple letter subscripts repeat
  5461   \<^isub> like this: x\<^isub>1\<^isub>2.
  5462 
  5463 * Pure: There are now sub-/superscripts that can span more than one
  5464   character. Text between \<^bsub> and \<^esub> is set in subscript in
  5465   ProofGeneral and LaTeX, text between \<^bsup> and \<^esup> in
  5466   superscript. The new control characters are not identifier parts.
  5467 
  5468 * Pure: Control-symbols of the form \<^raw:...> will literally print the
  5469   content of "..." to the latex file instead of \isacntrl... . The "..."
  5470   may consist of any printable characters excluding the end bracket >.
  5471 
  5472 * Pure: Using new Isar command "finalconsts" (or the ML functions
  5473   Theory.add_finals or Theory.add_finals_i) it is now possible to
  5474   declare constants "final", which prevents their being given a definition
  5475   later.  It is useful for constants whose behaviour is fixed axiomatically
  5476   rather than definitionally, such as the meta-logic connectives.
  5477 
  5478 * Pure: 'instance' now handles general arities with general sorts
  5479   (i.e. intersections of classes),
  5480 
  5481 * Presentation: generated HTML now uses a CSS style sheet to make layout
  5482   (somewhat) independent of content. It is copied from lib/html/isabelle.css.
  5483   It can be changed to alter the colors/layout of generated pages.
  5484 
  5485 
  5486 *** Isar ***
  5487 
  5488 * Tactic emulation methods rule_tac, erule_tac, drule_tac, frule_tac,
  5489   cut_tac, subgoal_tac and thin_tac:
  5490   - Now understand static (Isar) contexts.  As a consequence, users of Isar
  5491     locales are no longer forced to write Isar proof scripts.
  5492     For details see Isar Reference Manual, paragraph 4.3.2: Further tactic
  5493     emulations.
  5494   - INCOMPATIBILITY: names of variables to be instantiated may no
  5495     longer be enclosed in quotes.  Instead, precede variable name with `?'.
  5496     This is consistent with the instantiation attribute "where".
  5497 
  5498 * Attributes "where" and "of":
  5499   - Now take type variables of instantiated theorem into account when reading
  5500     the instantiation string.  This fixes a bug that caused instantiated
  5501     theorems to have too special types in some circumstances.
  5502   - "where" permits explicit instantiations of type variables.
  5503 
  5504 * Calculation commands "moreover" and "also" no longer interfere with
  5505   current facts ("this"), admitting arbitrary combinations with "then"
  5506   and derived forms.
  5507 
  5508 * Locales:
  5509   - Goal statements involving the context element "includes" no longer
  5510     generate theorems with internal delta predicates (those ending on
  5511     "_axioms") in the premise.
  5512     Resolve particular premise with <locale>.intro to obtain old form.
  5513   - Fixed bug in type inference ("unify_frozen") that prevented mix of target
  5514     specification and "includes" elements in goal statement.
  5515   - Rule sets <locale>.intro and <locale>.axioms no longer declared as
  5516     [intro?] and [elim?] (respectively) by default.
  5517   - Experimental command for instantiation of locales in proof contexts:
  5518         instantiate <label>[<attrs>]: <loc>
  5519     Instantiates locale <loc> and adds all its theorems to the current context
  5520     taking into account their attributes.  Label and attrs are optional
  5521     modifiers, like in theorem declarations.  If present, names of
  5522     instantiated theorems are qualified with <label>, and the attributes
  5523     <attrs> are applied after any attributes these theorems might have already.
  5524       If the locale has assumptions, a chained fact of the form
  5525     "<loc> t1 ... tn" is expected from which instantiations of the parameters
  5526     are derived.  The command does not support old-style locales declared
  5527     with "locale (open)".
  5528       A few (very simple) examples can be found in FOL/ex/LocaleInst.thy.
  5529 
  5530 * HOL: Tactic emulation methods induct_tac and case_tac understand static
  5531   (Isar) contexts.
  5532 
  5533 
  5534 *** HOL ***
  5535 
  5536 * Proof import: new image HOL4 contains the imported library from
  5537   the HOL4 system with about 2500 theorems. It is imported by
  5538   replaying proof terms produced by HOL4 in Isabelle. The HOL4 image
  5539   can be used like any other Isabelle image.  See
  5540   HOL/Import/HOL/README for more information.
  5541 
  5542 * Simplifier:
  5543   - Much improved handling of linear and partial orders.
  5544     Reasoners for linear and partial orders are set up for type classes
  5545     "linorder" and "order" respectively, and are added to the default simpset
  5546     as solvers.  This means that the simplifier can build transitivity chains
  5547     to solve goals from the assumptions.
  5548   - INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break occasionally.  Typically, applications
  5549     of blast or auto after simplification become unnecessary because the goal
  5550     is solved by simplification already.
  5551 
  5552 * Numerics: new theory Ring_and_Field contains over 250 basic numerical laws,
  5553     all proved in axiomatic type classes for semirings, rings and fields.
  5554 
  5555 * Numerics:
  5556   - Numeric types (nat, int, and in HOL-Complex rat, real, complex, etc.) are
  5557     now formalized using the Ring_and_Field theory mentioned above.
  5558   - INCOMPATIBILITY: simplification and arithmetic behaves somewhat differently
  5559     than before, because now they are set up once in a generic manner.
  5560   - INCOMPATIBILITY: many type-specific arithmetic laws have gone.
  5561     Look for the general versions in Ring_and_Field (and Power if they concern
  5562     exponentiation).
  5563 
  5564 * Type "rat" of the rational numbers is now available in HOL-Complex.
  5565 
  5566 * Records:
  5567   - Record types are now by default printed with their type abbreviation
  5568     instead of the list of all field types. This can be configured via
  5569     the reference "print_record_type_abbr".
  5570   - Simproc "record_upd_simproc" for simplification of multiple updates added
  5571     (not enabled by default).
  5572   - Simproc "record_ex_sel_eq_simproc" to simplify EX x. sel r = x resp.
  5573     EX x. x = sel r to True (not enabled by default).
  5574   - Tactic "record_split_simp_tac" to split and simplify records added.
  5575 
  5576 * 'specification' command added, allowing for definition by
  5577   specification.  There is also an 'ax_specification' command that
  5578   introduces the new constants axiomatically.
  5579 
  5580 * arith(_tac) is now able to generate counterexamples for reals as well.
  5581 
  5582 * HOL-Algebra: new locale "ring" for non-commutative rings.
  5583 
  5584 * HOL-ex: InductiveInvariant_examples illustrates advanced recursive function
  5585   definitions, thanks to Sava Krsti\'{c} and John Matthews.
  5586 
  5587 * HOL-Matrix: a first theory for matrices in HOL with an application of
  5588   matrix theory to linear programming.
  5589 
  5590 * Unions and Intersections:
  5591   The latex output syntax of UN and INT has been changed
  5592   from "\Union x \in A. B" to "\Union_{x \in A} B"
  5593   i.e. the index formulae has become a subscript.
  5594   Similarly for "\Union x. B", and for \Inter instead of \Union.
  5595 
  5596 * Unions and Intersections over Intervals:
  5597   There is new short syntax "UN i<=n. A" for "UN i:{0..n}. A". There is
  5598   also an x-symbol version with subscripts "\<Union>\<^bsub>i <= n\<^esub>. A"
  5599   like in normal math, and corresponding versions for < and for intersection.
  5600 
  5601 * HOL/List: Ordering "lexico" is renamed "lenlex" and the standard
  5602   lexicographic dictonary ordering has been added as "lexord".
  5603 
  5604 * ML: the legacy theory structures Int and List have been removed. They had
  5605   conflicted with ML Basis Library structures having the same names.
  5606 
  5607 * 'refute' command added to search for (finite) countermodels.  Only works
  5608   for a fragment of HOL.  The installation of an external SAT solver is
  5609   highly recommended.  See "HOL/Refute.thy" for details.
  5610 
  5611 * 'quickcheck' command: Allows to find counterexamples by evaluating
  5612   formulae under an assignment of free variables to random values.
  5613   In contrast to 'refute', it can deal with inductive datatypes,
  5614   but cannot handle quantifiers. See "HOL/ex/Quickcheck_Examples.thy"
  5615   for examples.
  5616 
  5617 
  5618 *** HOLCF ***
  5619 
  5620 * Streams now come with concatenation and are part of the HOLCF image
  5621 
  5622 
  5623 
  5624 New in Isabelle2003 (May 2003)
  5625 ------------------------------
  5626 
  5627 *** General ***
  5628 
  5629 * Provers/simplifier:
  5630 
  5631   - Completely reimplemented method simp (ML: Asm_full_simp_tac):
  5632     Assumptions are now subject to complete mutual simplification,
  5633     not just from left to right. The simplifier now preserves
  5634     the order of assumptions.
  5635 
  5636     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5637 
  5638     -- simp sometimes diverges where the old version did
  5639        not, e.g. invoking simp on the goal
  5640 
  5641         [| P (f x); y = x; f x = f y |] ==> Q
  5642 
  5643        now gives rise to the infinite reduction sequence
  5644 
  5645         P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> P(f y) --(y = x)--> P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> ...
  5646 
  5647        Using "simp (asm_lr)" (ML: Asm_lr_simp_tac) instead often solves this
  5648        kind of problem.
  5649 
  5650     -- Tactics combining classical reasoner and simplification (such as auto)
  5651        are also affected by this change, because many of them rely on
  5652        simp. They may sometimes diverge as well or yield a different numbers
  5653        of subgoals. Try to use e.g. force, fastsimp, or safe instead of auto
  5654        in case of problems. Sometimes subsequent calls to the classical
  5655        reasoner will fail because a preceeding call to the simplifier too
  5656        eagerly simplified the goal, e.g. deleted redundant premises.
  5657 
  5658   - The simplifier trace now shows the names of the applied rewrite rules
  5659 
  5660   - You can limit the number of recursive invocations of the simplifier
  5661     during conditional rewriting (where the simplifie tries to solve the
  5662     conditions before applying the rewrite rule):
  5663     ML "simp_depth_limit := n"
  5664     where n is an integer. Thus you can force termination where previously
  5665     the simplifier would diverge.
  5666 
  5667   - Accepts free variables as head terms in congruence rules.  Useful in Isar.
  5668 
  5669   - No longer aborts on failed congruence proof.  Instead, the
  5670     congruence is ignored.
  5671 
  5672 * Pure: New generic framework for extracting programs from constructive
  5673   proofs. See HOL/Extraction.thy for an example instantiation, as well
  5674   as HOL/Extraction for some case studies.
  5675 
  5676 * Pure: The main goal of the proof state is no longer shown by default, only
  5677 the subgoals. This behaviour is controlled by a new flag.
  5678    PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Settings -> Show Main Goal
  5679 (ML: Proof.show_main_goal).
  5680 
  5681 * Pure: You can find all matching introduction rules for subgoal 1, i.e. all
  5682 rules whose conclusion matches subgoal 1:
  5683       PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Show me -> matching rules
  5684 The rules are ordered by how closely they match the subgoal.
  5685 In particular, rules that solve a subgoal outright are displayed first
  5686 (or rather last, the way they are printed).
  5687 (ML: ProofGeneral.print_intros())
  5688 
  5689 * Pure: New flag trace_unify_fail causes unification to print
  5690 diagnostic information (PG: in trace buffer) when it fails. This is
  5691 useful for figuring out why single step proofs like rule, erule or
  5692 assumption failed.
  5693 
  5694 * Pure: Locale specifications now produce predicate definitions
  5695 according to the body of text (covering assumptions modulo local
  5696 definitions); predicate "loc_axioms" covers newly introduced text,
  5697 while "loc" is cumulative wrt. all included locale expressions; the
  5698 latter view is presented only on export into the global theory
  5699 context; potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use "(open)" option to fall back
  5700 on the old view without predicates;
  5701 
  5702 * Pure: predefined locales "var" and "struct" are useful for sharing
  5703 parameters (as in CASL, for example); just specify something like
  5704 ``var x + var y + struct M'' as import;
  5705 
  5706 * Pure: improved thms_containing: proper indexing of facts instead of
  5707 raw theorems; check validity of results wrt. current name space;
  5708 include local facts of proof configuration (also covers active
  5709 locales), cover fixed variables in index; may use "_" in term
  5710 specification; an optional limit for the number of printed facts may
  5711 be given (the default is 40);
  5712 
  5713 * Pure: disallow duplicate fact bindings within new-style theory files
  5714 (batch-mode only);
  5715 
  5716 * Provers: improved induct method: assumptions introduced by case
  5717 "foo" are split into "foo.hyps" (from the rule) and "foo.prems" (from
  5718 the goal statement); "foo" still refers to all facts collectively;
  5719 
  5720 * Provers: the function blast.overloaded has been removed: all constants
  5721 are regarded as potentially overloaded, which improves robustness in exchange
  5722 for slight decrease in efficiency;
  5723 
  5724 * Provers/linorder: New generic prover for transitivity reasoning over
  5725 linear orders.  Note: this prover is not efficient!
  5726 
  5727 * Isar: preview of problems to finish 'show' now produce an error
  5728 rather than just a warning (in interactive mode);
  5729 
  5730 
  5731 *** HOL ***
  5732 
  5733 * arith(_tac)
  5734 
  5735  - Produces a counter example if it cannot prove a goal.
  5736    Note that the counter example may be spurious if the goal is not a formula
  5737    of quantifier-free linear arithmetic.
  5738    In ProofGeneral the counter example appears in the trace buffer.
  5739 
  5740  - Knows about div k and mod k where k is a numeral of type nat or int.
  5741 
  5742  - Calls full Presburger arithmetic (by Amine Chaieb) if quantifier-free
  5743    linear arithmetic fails. This takes account of quantifiers and divisibility.
  5744    Presburger arithmetic can also be called explicitly via presburger(_tac).
  5745 
  5746 * simp's arithmetic capabilities have been enhanced a bit: it now
  5747 takes ~= in premises into account (by performing a case split);
  5748 
  5749 * simp reduces "m*(n div m) + n mod m" to n, even if the two summands
  5750 are distributed over a sum of terms;
  5751 
  5752 * New tactic "trans_tac" and method "trans" instantiate
  5753 Provers/linorder.ML for axclasses "order" and "linorder" (predicates
  5754 "<=", "<" and "=").
  5755 
  5756 * function INCOMPATIBILITIES: Pi-sets have been redefined and moved from main
  5757 HOL to Library/FuncSet; constant "Fun.op o" is now called "Fun.comp";
  5758 
  5759 * 'typedef' command has new option "open" to suppress the set
  5760 definition;
  5761 
  5762 * functions Min and Max on finite sets have been introduced (theory
  5763 Finite_Set);
  5764 
  5765 * attribute [symmetric] now works for relations as well; it turns
  5766 (x,y) : R^-1 into (y,x) : R, and vice versa;
  5767 
  5768 * induct over a !!-quantified statement (say !!x1..xn):
  5769   each "case" automatically performs "fix x1 .. xn" with exactly those names.
  5770 
  5771 * Map: `empty' is no longer a constant but a syntactic abbreviation for
  5772 %x. None. Warning: empty_def now refers to the previously hidden definition
  5773 of the empty set.
  5774 
  5775 * Algebra: formalization of classical algebra.  Intended as base for
  5776 any algebraic development in Isabelle.  Currently covers group theory
  5777 (up to Sylow's theorem) and ring theory (Universal Property of
  5778 Univariate Polynomials).  Contributions welcome;
  5779 
  5780 * GroupTheory: deleted, since its material has been moved to Algebra;
  5781 
  5782 * Complex: new directory of the complex numbers with numeric constants,
  5783 nonstandard complex numbers, and some complex analysis, standard and
  5784 nonstandard (Jacques Fleuriot);
  5785 
  5786 * HOL-Complex: new image for analysis, replacing HOL-Real and HOL-Hyperreal;
  5787 
  5788 * Hyperreal: introduced Gauge integration and hyperreal logarithms (Jacques
  5789 Fleuriot);
  5790 
  5791 * Real/HahnBanach: updated and adapted to locales;
  5792 
  5793 * NumberTheory: added Gauss's law of quadratic reciprocity (by Avigad,
  5794 Gray and Kramer);
  5795 
  5796 * UNITY: added the Meier-Sanders theory of progress sets;
  5797 
  5798 * MicroJava: bytecode verifier and lightweight bytecode verifier
  5799 as abstract algorithms, instantiated to the JVM;
  5800 
  5801 * Bali: Java source language formalization. Type system, operational
  5802 semantics, axiomatic semantics. Supported language features:
  5803 classes, interfaces, objects,virtual methods, static methods,
  5804 static/instance fields, arrays, access modifiers, definite
  5805 assignment, exceptions.
  5806 
  5807 
  5808 *** ZF ***
  5809 
  5810 * ZF/Constructible: consistency proof for AC (Gdel's constructible
  5811 universe, etc.);
  5812 
  5813 * Main ZF: virtually all theories converted to new-style format;
  5814 
  5815 
  5816 *** ML ***
  5817 
  5818 * Pure: Tactic.prove provides sane interface for internal proofs;
  5819 omits the infamous "standard" operation, so this is more appropriate
  5820 than prove_goalw_cterm in many situations (e.g. in simprocs);
  5821 
  5822 * Pure: improved error reporting of simprocs;
  5823 
  5824 * Provers: Simplifier.simproc(_i) provides sane interface for setting
  5825 up simprocs;
  5826 
  5827 
  5828 *** Document preparation ***
  5829 
  5830 * uses \par instead of \\ for line breaks in theory text. This may
  5831 shift some page breaks in large documents. To get the old behaviour
  5832 use \renewcommand{\isanewline}{\mbox{}\\\mbox{}} in root.tex.
  5833 
  5834 * minimized dependencies of isabelle.sty and isabellesym.sty on
  5835 other packages
  5836 
  5837 * \<euro> now needs package babel/greek instead of marvosym (which
  5838 broke \Rightarrow)
  5839 
  5840 * normal size for \<zero>...\<nine> (uses \mathbf instead of
  5841 textcomp package)
  5842 
  5843 
  5844 
  5845 New in Isabelle2002 (March 2002)
  5846 --------------------------------
  5847 
  5848 *** Document preparation ***
  5849 
  5850 * greatly simplified document preparation setup, including more
  5851 graceful interpretation of isatool usedir -i/-d/-D options, and more
  5852 instructive isatool mkdir; users should basically be able to get
  5853 started with "isatool mkdir HOL Test && isatool make"; alternatively,
  5854 users may run a separate document processing stage manually like this:
  5855 "isatool usedir -D output HOL Test && isatool document Test/output";
  5856 
  5857 * theory dependency graph may now be incorporated into documents;
  5858 isatool usedir -g true will produce session_graph.eps/.pdf for use
  5859 with \includegraphics of LaTeX;
  5860 
  5861 * proper spacing of consecutive markup elements, especially text
  5862 blocks after section headings;
  5863 
  5864 * support bold style (for single symbols only), input syntax is like
  5865 this: "\<^bold>\<alpha>" or "\<^bold>A";
  5866 
  5867 * \<bullet> is now output as bold \cdot by default, which looks much
  5868 better in printed text;
  5869 
  5870 * added default LaTeX bindings for \<tturnstile> and \<TTurnstile>;
  5871 note that these symbols are currently unavailable in Proof General /
  5872 X-Symbol; new symbols \<zero>, \<one>, ..., \<nine>, and \<euro>;
  5873 
  5874 * isatool latex no longer depends on changed TEXINPUTS, instead
  5875 isatool document copies the Isabelle style files to the target
  5876 location;
  5877 
  5878 
  5879 *** Isar ***
  5880 
  5881 * Pure/Provers: improved proof by cases and induction;
  5882   - 'case' command admits impromptu naming of parameters (such as
  5883     "case (Suc n)");
  5884   - 'induct' method divinates rule instantiation from the inductive
  5885     claim; no longer requires excessive ?P bindings for proper
  5886     instantiation of cases;
  5887   - 'induct' method properly enumerates all possibilities of set/type
  5888     rules; as a consequence facts may be also passed through *type*
  5889     rules without further ado;
  5890   - 'induct' method now derives symbolic cases from the *rulified*
  5891     rule (before it used to rulify cases stemming from the internal
  5892     atomized version); this means that the context of a non-atomic
  5893     statement becomes is included in the hypothesis, avoiding the
  5894     slightly cumbersome show "PROP ?case" form;
  5895   - 'induct' may now use elim-style induction rules without chaining
  5896     facts, using ``missing'' premises from the goal state; this allows
  5897     rules stemming from inductive sets to be applied in unstructured
  5898     scripts, while still benefitting from proper handling of non-atomic
  5899     statements; NB: major inductive premises need to be put first, all
  5900     the rest of the goal is passed through the induction;
  5901   - 'induct' proper support for mutual induction involving non-atomic
  5902     rule statements (uses the new concept of simultaneous goals, see
  5903     below);
  5904   - append all possible rule selections, but only use the first
  5905     success (no backtracking);
  5906   - removed obsolete "(simplified)" and "(stripped)" options of methods;
  5907   - undeclared rule case names default to numbers 1, 2, 3, ...;
  5908   - added 'print_induct_rules' (covered by help item in recent Proof
  5909     General versions);
  5910   - moved induct/cases attributes to Pure, methods to Provers;
  5911   - generic method setup instantiated for FOL and HOL;
  5912 
  5913 * Pure: support multiple simultaneous goal statements, for example
  5914 "have a: A and b: B" (same for 'theorem' etc.); being a pure
  5915 meta-level mechanism, this acts as if several individual goals had
  5916 been stated separately; in particular common proof methods need to be
  5917 repeated in order to cover all claims; note that a single elimination
  5918 step is *not* sufficient to establish the two conjunctions, so this
  5919 fails:
  5920 
  5921   assume "A & B" then have A and B ..   (*".." fails*)
  5922 
  5923 better use "obtain" in situations as above; alternative refer to
  5924 multi-step methods like 'auto', 'simp_all', 'blast+' etc.;
  5925 
  5926 * Pure: proper integration with ``locales''; unlike the original
  5927 version by Florian Kammller, Isar locales package high-level proof
  5928 contexts rather than raw logical ones (e.g. we admit to include
  5929 attributes everywhere); operations on locales include merge and
  5930 rename; support for implicit arguments (``structures''); simultaneous
  5931 type-inference over imports and text; see also HOL/ex/Locales.thy for
  5932 some examples;
  5933 
  5934 * Pure: the following commands have been ``localized'', supporting a
  5935 target locale specification "(in name)": 'lemma', 'theorem',
  5936 'corollary', 'lemmas', 'theorems', 'declare'; the results will be
  5937 stored both within the locale and at the theory level (exported and
  5938 qualified by the locale name);
  5939 
  5940 * Pure: theory goals may now be specified in ``long'' form, with
  5941 ad-hoc contexts consisting of arbitrary locale elements. for example
  5942 ``lemma foo: fixes x assumes "A x" shows "B x"'' (local syntax and
  5943 definitions may be given, too); the result is a meta-level rule with
  5944 the context elements being discharged in the obvious way;
  5945 
  5946 * Pure: new proof command 'using' allows to augment currently used
  5947 facts after a goal statement ('using' is syntactically analogous to
  5948 'apply', but acts on the goal's facts only); this allows chained facts
  5949 to be separated into parts given before and after a claim, as in
  5950 ``from a and b have C using d and e <proof>'';
  5951 
  5952 * Pure: renamed "antecedent" case to "rule_context";
  5953 
  5954 * Pure: new 'judgment' command records explicit information about the
  5955 object-logic embedding (used by several tools internally); no longer
  5956 use hard-wired "Trueprop";
  5957 
  5958 * Pure: added 'corollary' command;
  5959 
  5960 * Pure: fixed 'token_translation' command;
  5961 
  5962 * Pure: removed obsolete 'exported' attribute;
  5963 
  5964 * Pure: dummy pattern "_" in is/let is now automatically lifted over
  5965 bound variables: "ALL x. P x --> Q x" (is "ALL x. _ --> ?C x")
  5966 supersedes more cumbersome ... (is "ALL x. _ x --> ?C x");
  5967 
  5968 * Pure: method 'atomize' presents local goal premises as object-level
  5969 statements (atomic meta-level propositions); setup controlled via
  5970 rewrite rules declarations of 'atomize' attribute; example
  5971 application: 'induct' method with proper rule statements in improper
  5972 proof *scripts*;
  5973 
  5974 * Pure: emulation of instantiation tactics (rule_tac, cut_tac, etc.)
  5975 now consider the syntactic context of assumptions, giving a better
  5976 chance to get type-inference of the arguments right (this is
  5977 especially important for locales);
  5978 
  5979 * Pure: "sorry" no longer requires quick_and_dirty in interactive
  5980 mode;
  5981 
  5982 * Pure/obtain: the formal conclusion "thesis", being marked as
  5983 ``internal'', may no longer be reference directly in the text;
  5984 potential INCOMPATIBILITY, may need to use "?thesis" in rare
  5985 situations;
  5986 
  5987 * Pure: generic 'sym' attribute which declares a rule both as pure
  5988 'elim?' and for the 'symmetric' operation;
  5989 
  5990 * Pure: marginal comments ``--'' may now occur just anywhere in the
  5991 text; the fixed correlation with particular command syntax has been
  5992 discontinued;
  5993 
  5994 * Pure: new method 'rules' is particularly well-suited for proof
  5995 search in intuitionistic logic; a bit slower than 'blast' or 'fast',
  5996 but often produces more compact proof terms with less detours;
  5997 
  5998 * Pure/Provers/classical: simplified integration with pure rule
  5999 attributes and methods; the classical "intro?/elim?/dest?"
  6000 declarations coincide with the pure ones; the "rule" method no longer
  6001 includes classically swapped intros; "intro" and "elim" methods no
  6002 longer pick rules from the context; also got rid of ML declarations
  6003 AddXIs/AddXEs/AddXDs; all of this has some potential for
  6004 INCOMPATIBILITY;
  6005 
  6006 * Provers/classical: attribute 'swapped' produces classical inversions
  6007 of introduction rules;
  6008 
  6009 * Provers/simplifier: 'simplified' attribute may refer to explicit
  6010 rules instead of full simplifier context; 'iff' attribute handles
  6011 conditional rules;
  6012 
  6013 * HOL: 'typedef' now allows alternative names for Rep/Abs morphisms;
  6014 
  6015 * HOL: 'recdef' now fails on unfinished automated proofs, use
  6016 "(permissive)" option to recover old behavior;
  6017 
  6018 * HOL: 'inductive' no longer features separate (collective) attributes
  6019 for 'intros' (was found too confusing);
  6020 
  6021 * HOL: properly declared induction rules less_induct and
  6022 wf_induct_rule;
  6023 
  6024 
  6025 *** HOL ***
  6026 
  6027 * HOL: moved over to sane numeral syntax; the new policy is as
  6028 follows:
  6029 
  6030   - 0 and 1 are polymorphic constants, which are defined on any
  6031   numeric type (nat, int, real etc.);
  6032 
  6033   - 2, 3, 4, ... and -1, -2, -3, ... are polymorphic numerals, based
  6034   binary representation internally;
  6035 
  6036   - type nat has special constructor Suc, and generally prefers Suc 0
  6037   over 1::nat and Suc (Suc 0) over 2::nat;
  6038 
  6039 This change may cause significant problems of INCOMPATIBILITY; here
  6040 are some hints on converting existing sources:
  6041 
  6042   - due to the new "num" token, "-0" and "-1" etc. are now atomic
  6043   entities, so expressions involving "-" (unary or binary minus) need
  6044   to be spaced properly;
  6045 
  6046   - existing occurrences of "1" may need to be constraint "1::nat" or
  6047   even replaced by Suc 0; similar for old "2";
  6048 
  6049   - replace "#nnn" by "nnn", and "#-nnn" by "-nnn";
  6050 
  6051   - remove all special provisions on numerals in proofs;
  6052 
  6053 * HOL: simp rules nat_number expand numerals on nat to Suc/0
  6054 representation (depends on bin_arith_simps in the default context);
  6055 
  6056 * HOL: symbolic syntax for x^2 (numeral 2);
  6057 
  6058 * HOL: the class of all HOL types is now called "type" rather than
  6059 "term"; INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt references to this type class
  6060 in axclass/classes, instance/arities, and (usually rare) occurrences
  6061 in typings (of consts etc.); internally the class is called
  6062 "HOL.type", ML programs should refer to HOLogic.typeS;
  6063 
  6064 * HOL/record package improvements:
  6065   - new derived operations "fields" to build a partial record section,
  6066     "extend" to promote a fixed record to a record scheme, and
  6067     "truncate" for the reverse; cf. theorems "xxx.defs", which are *not*
  6068     declared as simp by default;
  6069   - shared operations ("more", "fields", etc.) now need to be always
  6070     qualified) --- potential INCOMPATIBILITY;
  6071   - removed "make_scheme" operations (use "make" with "extend") --
  6072     INCOMPATIBILITY;
  6073   - removed "more" class (simply use "term") -- INCOMPATIBILITY;
  6074   - provides cases/induct rules for use with corresponding Isar
  6075     methods (for concrete records, record schemes, concrete more
  6076     parts, and schematic more parts -- in that order);
  6077   - internal definitions directly based on a light-weight abstract
  6078     theory of product types over typedef rather than datatype;
  6079 
  6080 * HOL: generic code generator for generating executable ML code from
  6081 specifications; specific support for HOL constructs such as inductive
  6082 datatypes and sets, as well as recursive functions; can be invoked
  6083 via 'generate_code' theory section;
  6084 
  6085 * HOL: canonical cases/induct rules for n-tuples (n = 3..7);
  6086 
  6087 * HOL: consolidated and renamed several theories.  In particular:
  6088         Ord.thy has been absorbed into HOL.thy
  6089         String.thy has been absorbed into List.thy
  6090 
  6091 * HOL: concrete setsum syntax "\<Sum>i:A. b" == "setsum (%i. b) A"
  6092 (beware of argument permutation!);
  6093 
  6094 * HOL: linorder_less_split superseded by linorder_cases;
  6095 
  6096 * HOL/List: "nodups" renamed to "distinct";
  6097 
  6098 * HOL: added "The" definite description operator; move Hilbert's "Eps"
  6099 to peripheral theory "Hilbert_Choice"; some INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  6100   - Ex_def has changed, now need to use some_eq_ex
  6101 
  6102 * HOL: made split_all_tac safe; EXISTING PROOFS MAY FAIL OR LOOP, so
  6103 in this (rare) case use:
  6104 
  6105   delSWrapper "split_all_tac"
  6106   addSbefore ("unsafe_split_all_tac", unsafe_split_all_tac)
  6107 
  6108 * HOL: added safe wrapper "split_conv_tac" to claset; EXISTING PROOFS
  6109 MAY FAIL;
  6110 
  6111 * HOL: introduced f^n = f o ... o f; warning: due to the limits of
  6112 Isabelle's type classes, ^ on functions and relations has too general
  6113 a domain, namely ('a * 'b) set and 'a => 'b; this means that it may be
  6114 necessary to attach explicit type constraints;
  6115 
  6116 * HOL/Relation: the prefix name of the infix "O" has been changed from
  6117 "comp" to "rel_comp"; INCOMPATIBILITY: a few theorems have been
  6118 renamed accordingly (eg "compI" -> "rel_compI").
  6119 
  6120 * HOL: syntax translations now work properly with numerals and records
  6121 expressions;
  6122 
  6123 * HOL: bounded abstraction now uses syntax "%" / "\<lambda>" instead
  6124 of "lam" -- INCOMPATIBILITY;
  6125 
  6126 * HOL: got rid of some global declarations (potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  6127 for ML tools): const "()" renamed "Product_Type.Unity", type "unit"
  6128 renamed "Product_Type.unit";
  6129 
  6130 * HOL: renamed rtrancl_into_rtrancl2 to converse_rtrancl_into_rtrancl
  6131 
  6132 * HOL: removed obsolete theorem "optionE" (use "option.exhaust", or
  6133 the "cases" method);
  6134 
  6135 * HOL/GroupTheory: group theory examples including Sylow's theorem (by
  6136 Florian Kammller);
  6137 
  6138 * HOL/IMP: updated and converted to new-style theory format; several
  6139 parts turned into readable document, with proper Isar proof texts and
  6140 some explanations (by Gerwin Klein);
  6141 
  6142 * HOL-Real: added Complex_Numbers (by Gertrud Bauer);
  6143 
  6144 * HOL-Hyperreal is now a logic image;
  6145 
  6146 
  6147 *** HOLCF ***
  6148 
  6149 * Isar: consts/constdefs supports mixfix syntax for continuous
  6150 operations;
  6151 
  6152 * Isar: domain package adapted to new-style theory format, e.g. see
  6153 HOLCF/ex/Dnat.thy;
  6154 
  6155 * theory Lift: proper use of rep_datatype lift instead of ML hacks --
  6156 potential INCOMPATIBILITY; now use plain induct_tac instead of former
  6157 lift.induct_tac, always use UU instead of Undef;
  6158 
  6159 * HOLCF/IMP: updated and converted to new-style theory;
  6160 
  6161 
  6162 *** ZF ***
  6163 
  6164 * Isar: proper integration of logic-specific tools and packages,
  6165 including theory commands '(co)inductive', '(co)datatype',
  6166 'rep_datatype', 'inductive_cases', as well as methods 'ind_cases',
  6167 'induct_tac', 'case_tac', and 'typecheck' (with attribute 'TC');
  6168 
  6169 * theory Main no longer includes AC; for the Axiom of Choice, base
  6170 your theory on Main_ZFC;
  6171 
  6172 * the integer library now covers quotients and remainders, with many
  6173 laws relating division to addition, multiplication, etc.;
  6174 
  6175 * ZF/UNITY: Chandy and Misra's UNITY is now available in ZF, giving a
  6176 typeless version of the formalism;
  6177 
  6178 * ZF/AC, Coind, IMP, Resid: updated and converted to new-style theory
  6179 format;
  6180 
  6181 * ZF/Induct: new directory for examples of inductive definitions,
  6182 including theory Multiset for multiset orderings; converted to
  6183 new-style theory format;
  6184 
  6185 * ZF: many new theorems about lists, ordinals, etc.;
  6186 
  6187 
  6188 *** General ***
  6189 
  6190 * Pure/kernel: meta-level proof terms (by Stefan Berghofer); reference
  6191 variable proof controls level of detail: 0 = no proofs (only oracle
  6192 dependencies), 1 = lemma dependencies, 2 = compact proof terms; see
  6193 also ref manual for further ML interfaces;
  6194 
  6195 * Pure/axclass: removed obsolete ML interface
  6196 goal_subclass/goal_arity;
  6197 
  6198 * Pure/syntax: new token syntax "num" for plain numerals (without "#"
  6199 of "xnum"); potential INCOMPATIBILITY, since -0, -1 etc. are now
  6200 separate tokens, so expressions involving minus need to be spaced
  6201 properly;
  6202 
  6203 * Pure/syntax: support non-oriented infixes, using keyword "infix"
  6204 rather than "infixl" or "infixr";
  6205 
  6206 * Pure/syntax: concrete syntax for dummy type variables admits genuine
  6207 sort constraint specifications in type inference; e.g. "x::_::foo"
  6208 ensures that the type of "x" is of sort "foo" (but not necessarily a
  6209 type variable);
  6210 
  6211 * Pure/syntax: print modes "type_brackets" and "no_type_brackets"
  6212 control output of nested => (types); the default behavior is
  6213 "type_brackets";
  6214 
  6215 * Pure/syntax: builtin parse translation for "_constify" turns valued
  6216 tokens into AST constants;
  6217 
  6218 * Pure/syntax: prefer later declarations of translations and print
  6219 translation functions; potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to reverse
  6220 multiple declarations for same syntax element constant;
  6221 
  6222 * Pure/show_hyps reset by default (in accordance to existing Isar
  6223 practice);
  6224 
  6225 * Provers/classical: renamed addaltern to addafter, addSaltern to
  6226 addSafter;
  6227 
  6228 * Provers/clasimp: ``iff'' declarations now handle conditional rules
  6229 as well;
  6230 
  6231 * system: tested support for MacOS X; should be able to get Isabelle +