Theory Factorial_Ring

(*  Title:      HOL/Computational_Algebra/Factorial_Ring.thy
    Author:     Manuel Eberl, TU Muenchen
    Author:     Florian Haftmann, TU Muenchen
*)

section Factorial (semi)rings

theory Factorial_Ring
imports
  Main
  "HOL-Library.Multiset"
begin

subsection Irreducible and prime elements

context comm_semiring_1
begin

definition irreducible :: "'a  bool" where
  "irreducible p  p  0  ¬p dvd 1  (a b. p = a * b  a dvd 1  b dvd 1)"

lemma not_irreducible_zero [simp]: "¬irreducible 0"
  by (simp add: irreducible_def)

lemma irreducible_not_unit: "irreducible p  ¬p dvd 1"
  by (simp add: irreducible_def)

lemma not_irreducible_one [simp]: "¬irreducible 1"
  by (simp add: irreducible_def)

lemma irreducibleI:
  "p  0  ¬p dvd 1  (a b. p = a * b  a dvd 1  b dvd 1)  irreducible p"
  by (simp add: irreducible_def)

lemma irreducibleD: "irreducible p  p = a * b  a dvd 1  b dvd 1"
  by (simp add: irreducible_def)

lemma irreducible_mono:
  assumes irr: "irreducible b" and "a dvd b" "¬a dvd 1"
  shows   "irreducible a"
proof (rule irreducibleI)
  fix c d assume "a = c * d"
  from assms obtain k where [simp]: "b = a * k" by auto
  from a = c * d have "b = c * d * k"
    by simp
  hence "c dvd 1  (d * k) dvd 1"
    using irreducibleD[OF irr, of c "d * k"] by (auto simp: mult.assoc)
  thus "c dvd 1  d dvd 1"
    by auto
qed (use assms in auto simp: irreducible_def)

definition prime_elem :: "'a  bool" where
  "prime_elem p  p  0  ¬p dvd 1  (a b. p dvd (a * b)  p dvd a  p dvd b)"

lemma not_prime_elem_zero [simp]: "¬prime_elem 0"
  by (simp add: prime_elem_def)

lemma prime_elem_not_unit: "prime_elem p  ¬p dvd 1"
  by (simp add: prime_elem_def)

lemma prime_elemI:
    "p  0  ¬p dvd 1  (a b. p dvd (a * b)  p dvd a  p dvd b)  prime_elem p"
  by (simp add: prime_elem_def)

lemma prime_elem_dvd_multD:
    "prime_elem p  p dvd (a * b)  p dvd a  p dvd b"
  by (simp add: prime_elem_def)

lemma prime_elem_dvd_mult_iff:
  "prime_elem p  p dvd (a * b)  p dvd a  p dvd b"
  by (auto simp: prime_elem_def)

lemma not_prime_elem_one [simp]:
  "¬ prime_elem 1"
  by (auto dest: prime_elem_not_unit)

lemma prime_elem_not_zeroI:
  assumes "prime_elem p"
  shows "p  0"
  using assms by (auto intro: ccontr)

lemma prime_elem_dvd_power:
  "prime_elem p  p dvd x ^ n  p dvd x"
  by (induction n) (auto dest: prime_elem_dvd_multD intro: dvd_trans[of _ 1])

lemma prime_elem_dvd_power_iff:
  "prime_elem p  n > 0  p dvd x ^ n  p dvd x"
  by (auto dest: prime_elem_dvd_power intro: dvd_trans)

lemma prime_elem_imp_nonzero [simp]:
  "ASSUMPTION (prime_elem x)  x  0"
  unfolding ASSUMPTION_def by (rule prime_elem_not_zeroI)

lemma prime_elem_imp_not_one [simp]:
  "ASSUMPTION (prime_elem x)  x  1"
  unfolding ASSUMPTION_def by auto

end


lemma (in normalization_semidom) irreducible_cong:
  assumes "normalize a = normalize b"
  shows   "irreducible a  irreducible b"
proof (cases "a = 0  a dvd 1")
  case True
  hence "¬irreducible a" by (auto simp: irreducible_def)
  from True have "normalize a = 0  normalize a dvd 1"
    by auto
  also note assms
  finally have "b = 0  b dvd 1" by simp
  hence "¬irreducible b" by (auto simp: irreducible_def)
  with ¬irreducible a show ?thesis by simp
next
  case False
  hence b: "b  0" "¬is_unit b" using assms
    by (auto simp: is_unit_normalize[of b])
  show ?thesis
  proof
    assume "irreducible a"
    thus "irreducible b"
      by (rule irreducible_mono) (use assms False b in auto dest: associatedD2)
  next
    assume "irreducible b"
    thus "irreducible a"
      by (rule irreducible_mono) (use assms False b in auto dest: associatedD1)
  qed
qed

lemma (in normalization_semidom) associatedE1:
  assumes "normalize a = normalize b"
  obtains u where "is_unit u" "a = u * b"
proof (cases "a = 0")
  case [simp]: False
  from assms have [simp]: "b  0" by auto
  show ?thesis
  proof (rule that)
    show "is_unit (unit_factor a div unit_factor b)"
      by auto
    have "unit_factor a div unit_factor b * b = unit_factor a * (b div unit_factor b)"
      using b  0 unit_div_commute unit_div_mult_swap unit_factor_is_unit by metis
    also have "b div unit_factor b = normalize b" by simp
    finally show "a = unit_factor a div unit_factor b * b"
      by (metis assms unit_factor_mult_normalize)
  qed
next
  case [simp]: True
  hence [simp]: "b = 0"
    using assms[symmetric] by auto
  show ?thesis
    by (intro that[of 1]) auto
qed

lemma (in normalization_semidom) associatedE2:
  assumes "normalize a = normalize b"
  obtains u where "is_unit u" "b = u * a"
proof -
  from assms have "normalize b = normalize a"
    by simp
  then obtain u where "is_unit u" "b = u * a"
    by (elim associatedE1)
  thus ?thesis using that by blast
qed
  

(* TODO Move *)
lemma (in normalization_semidom) normalize_power_normalize:
  "normalize (normalize x ^ n) = normalize (x ^ n)"
proof (induction n)
  case (Suc n)
  have "normalize (normalize x ^ Suc n) = normalize (x * normalize (normalize x ^ n))"
    by simp
  also note Suc.IH
  finally show ?case by simp
qed auto

context algebraic_semidom
begin

lemma prime_elem_imp_irreducible:
  assumes "prime_elem p"
  shows   "irreducible p"
proof (rule irreducibleI)
  fix a b
  assume p_eq: "p = a * b"
  with assms have nz: "a  0" "b  0" by auto
  from p_eq have "p dvd a * b" by simp
  with prime_elem p have "p dvd a  p dvd b" by (rule prime_elem_dvd_multD)
  with p = a * b have "a * b dvd 1 * b  a * b dvd a * 1" by auto
  thus "a dvd 1  b dvd 1"
    by (simp only: dvd_times_left_cancel_iff[OF nz(1)] dvd_times_right_cancel_iff[OF nz(2)])
qed (insert assms, simp_all add: prime_elem_def)

lemma (in algebraic_semidom) unit_imp_no_irreducible_divisors:
  assumes "is_unit x" "irreducible p"
  shows   "¬p dvd x"
proof (rule notI)
  assume "p dvd x"
  with is_unit x have "is_unit p"
    by (auto intro: dvd_trans)
  with irreducible p show False
    by (simp add: irreducible_not_unit)
qed

lemma unit_imp_no_prime_divisors:
  assumes "is_unit x" "prime_elem p"
  shows   "¬p dvd x"
  using unit_imp_no_irreducible_divisors[OF assms(1) prime_elem_imp_irreducible[OF assms(2)]] .

lemma prime_elem_mono:
  assumes "prime_elem p" "¬q dvd 1" "q dvd p"
  shows   "prime_elem q"
proof -
  from q dvd p obtain r where r: "p = q * r" by (elim dvdE)
  hence "p dvd q * r" by simp
  with prime_elem p have "p dvd q  p dvd r" by (rule prime_elem_dvd_multD)
  hence "p dvd q"
  proof
    assume "p dvd r"
    then obtain s where s: "r = p * s" by (elim dvdE)
    from r have "p * 1 = p * (q * s)" by (subst (asm) s) (simp add: mult_ac)
    with prime_elem p have "q dvd 1"
      by (subst (asm) mult_cancel_left) auto
    with ¬q dvd 1 show ?thesis by contradiction
  qed

  show ?thesis
  proof (rule prime_elemI)
    fix a b assume "q dvd (a * b)"
    with p dvd q have "p dvd (a * b)" by (rule dvd_trans)
    with prime_elem p have "p dvd a  p dvd b" by (rule prime_elem_dvd_multD)
    with q dvd p show "q dvd a  q dvd b" by (blast intro: dvd_trans)
  qed (insert assms, auto)
qed

lemma irreducibleD':
  assumes "irreducible a" "b dvd a"
  shows   "a dvd b  is_unit b"
proof -
  from assms obtain c where c: "a = b * c" by (elim dvdE)
  from irreducibleD[OF assms(1) this] have "is_unit b  is_unit c" .
  thus ?thesis by (auto simp: c mult_unit_dvd_iff)
qed

lemma irreducibleI':
  assumes "a  0" "¬is_unit a" "b. b dvd a  a dvd b  is_unit b"
  shows   "irreducible a"
proof (rule irreducibleI)
  fix b c assume a_eq: "a = b * c"
  hence "a dvd b  is_unit b" by (intro assms) simp_all
  thus "is_unit b  is_unit c"
  proof
    assume "a dvd b"
    hence "b * c dvd b * 1" by (simp add: a_eq)
    moreover from a  0 a_eq have "b  0" by auto
    ultimately show ?thesis by (subst (asm) dvd_times_left_cancel_iff) auto
  qed blast
qed (simp_all add: assms(1,2))

lemma irreducible_altdef:
  "irreducible x  x  0  ¬is_unit x  (b. b dvd x  x dvd b  is_unit b)"
  using irreducibleI'[of x] irreducibleD'[of x] irreducible_not_unit[of x] by auto

lemma prime_elem_multD:
  assumes "prime_elem (a * b)"
  shows "is_unit a  is_unit b"
proof -
  from assms have "a  0" "b  0" by (auto dest!: prime_elem_not_zeroI)
  moreover from assms prime_elem_dvd_multD [of "a * b"] have "a * b dvd a  a * b dvd b"
    by auto
  ultimately show ?thesis
    using dvd_times_left_cancel_iff [of a b 1]
      dvd_times_right_cancel_iff [of b a 1]
    by auto
qed

lemma prime_elemD2:
  assumes "prime_elem p" and "a dvd p" and "¬ is_unit a"
  shows "p dvd a"
proof -
  from a dvd p obtain b where "p = a * b" ..
  with prime_elem p prime_elem_multD ¬ is_unit a have "is_unit b" by auto
  with p = a * b show ?thesis
    by (auto simp add: mult_unit_dvd_iff)
qed

lemma prime_elem_dvd_prod_msetE:
  assumes "prime_elem p"
  assumes dvd: "p dvd prod_mset A"
  obtains a where "a ∈# A" and "p dvd a"
proof -
  from dvd have "a. a ∈# A  p dvd a"
  proof (induct A)
    case empty then show ?case
    using prime_elem p by (simp add: prime_elem_not_unit)
  next
    case (add a A)
    then have "p dvd a * prod_mset A" by simp
    with prime_elem p consider (A) "p dvd prod_mset A" | (B) "p dvd a"
      by (blast dest: prime_elem_dvd_multD)
    then show ?case proof cases
      case B then show ?thesis by auto
    next
      case A
      with add.hyps obtain b where "b ∈# A" "p dvd b"
        by auto
      then show ?thesis by auto
    qed
  qed
  with that show thesis by blast

qed

context
begin

lemma prime_elem_powerD:
  assumes "prime_elem (p ^ n)"
  shows   "prime_elem p  n = 1"
proof (cases n)
  case (Suc m)
  note assms
  also from Suc have "p ^ n = p * p^m" by simp
  finally have "is_unit p  is_unit (p^m)" by (rule prime_elem_multD)
  moreover from assms have "¬is_unit p" by (simp add: prime_elem_def is_unit_power_iff)
  ultimately have "is_unit (p ^ m)" by simp
  with ¬is_unit p have "m = 0" by (simp add: is_unit_power_iff)
  with Suc assms show ?thesis by simp
qed (insert assms, simp_all)

lemma prime_elem_power_iff:
  "prime_elem (p ^ n)  prime_elem p  n = 1"
  by (auto dest: prime_elem_powerD)

end

lemma irreducible_mult_unit_left:
  "is_unit a  irreducible (a * p)  irreducible p"
  by (auto simp: irreducible_altdef mult.commute[of a] is_unit_mult_iff
        mult_unit_dvd_iff dvd_mult_unit_iff)

lemma prime_elem_mult_unit_left:
  "is_unit a  prime_elem (a * p)  prime_elem p"
  by (auto simp: prime_elem_def mult.commute[of a] is_unit_mult_iff mult_unit_dvd_iff)

lemma prime_elem_dvd_cases:
  assumes pk: "p*k dvd m*n" and p: "prime_elem p"
  shows "(x. k dvd x*n  m = p*x)  (y. k dvd m*y  n = p*y)"
proof -
  have "p dvd m*n" using dvd_mult_left pk by blast
  then consider "p dvd m" | "p dvd n"
    using p prime_elem_dvd_mult_iff by blast
  then show ?thesis
  proof cases
    case 1 then obtain a where "m = p * a" by (metis dvd_mult_div_cancel)
      then have "x. k dvd x * n  m = p * x"
        using p pk by (auto simp: mult.assoc)
    then show ?thesis ..
  next
    case 2 then obtain b where "n = p * b" by (metis dvd_mult_div_cancel)
    with p pk have "y. k dvd m*y  n = p*y"
      by (metis dvd_mult_right dvd_times_left_cancel_iff mult.left_commute mult_zero_left)
    then show ?thesis ..
  qed
qed

lemma prime_elem_power_dvd_prod:
  assumes pc: "p^c dvd m*n" and p: "prime_elem p"
  shows "a b. a+b = c  p^a dvd m  p^b dvd n"
using pc
proof (induct c arbitrary: m n)
  case 0 show ?case by simp
next
  case (Suc c)
  consider x where "p^c dvd x*n" "m = p*x" | y where "p^c dvd m*y" "n = p*y"
    using prime_elem_dvd_cases [of _ "p^c", OF _ p] Suc.prems by force
  then show ?case
  proof cases
    case (1 x)
    with Suc.hyps[of x n] obtain a b where "a + b = c  p ^ a dvd x  p ^ b dvd n" by blast
    with 1 have "Suc a + b = Suc c  p ^ Suc a dvd m  p ^ b dvd n"
      by (auto intro: mult_dvd_mono)
    thus ?thesis by blast
  next
    case (2 y)
    with Suc.hyps[of m y] obtain a b where "a + b = c  p ^ a dvd m  p ^ b dvd y" by blast
    with 2 have "a + Suc b = Suc c  p ^ a dvd m  p ^ Suc b dvd n"
      by (auto intro: mult_dvd_mono)
    with Suc.hyps [of m y] show "a b. a + b = Suc c  p ^ a dvd m  p ^ b dvd n"
      by blast
  qed
qed

lemma prime_elem_power_dvd_cases:
  assumes "p ^ c dvd m * n" and "a + b = Suc c" and "prime_elem p"
  shows "p ^ a dvd m  p ^ b dvd n"
proof -
  from assms obtain r s
    where "r + s = c  p ^ r dvd m  p ^ s dvd n"
    by (blast dest: prime_elem_power_dvd_prod)
  moreover with assms have
    "a  r  b  s" by arith
  ultimately show ?thesis by (auto intro: power_le_dvd)
qed

lemma prime_elem_not_unit' [simp]:
  "ASSUMPTION (prime_elem x)  ¬is_unit x"
  unfolding ASSUMPTION_def by (rule prime_elem_not_unit)

lemma prime_elem_dvd_power_iff:
  assumes "prime_elem p"
  shows "p dvd a ^ n  p dvd a  n > 0"
  using assms by (induct n) (auto dest: prime_elem_not_unit prime_elem_dvd_multD)

lemma prime_power_dvd_multD:
  assumes "prime_elem p"
  assumes "p ^ n dvd a * b" and "n > 0" and "¬ p dvd a"
  shows "p ^ n dvd b"
  using p ^ n dvd a * b and n > 0
proof (induct n arbitrary: b)
  case 0 then show ?case by simp
next
  case (Suc n) show ?case
  proof (cases "n = 0")
    case True with Suc prime_elem p ¬ p dvd a show ?thesis
      by (simp add: prime_elem_dvd_mult_iff)
  next
    case False then have "n > 0" by simp
    from prime_elem p have "p  0" by auto
    from Suc.prems have *: "p * p ^ n dvd a * b"
      by simp
    then have "p dvd a * b"
      by (rule dvd_mult_left)
    with Suc prime_elem p ¬ p dvd a have "p dvd b"
      by (simp add: prime_elem_dvd_mult_iff)
    moreover define c where "c = b div p"
    ultimately have b: "b = p * c" by simp
    with * have "p * p ^ n dvd p * (a * c)"
      by (simp add: ac_simps)
    with p  0 have "p ^ n dvd a * c"
      by simp
    with Suc.hyps n > 0 have "p ^ n dvd c"
      by blast
    with p  0 show ?thesis
      by (simp add: b)
  qed
qed

end


subsection Generalized primes: normalized prime elements

context normalization_semidom
begin

lemma irreducible_normalized_divisors:
  assumes "irreducible x" "y dvd x" "normalize y = y"
  shows   "y = 1  y = normalize x"
proof -
  from assms have "is_unit y  x dvd y" by (auto simp: irreducible_altdef)
  thus ?thesis
  proof (elim disjE)
    assume "is_unit y"
    hence "normalize y = 1" by (simp add: is_unit_normalize)
    with assms show ?thesis by simp
  next
    assume "x dvd y"
    with y dvd x have "normalize y = normalize x" by (rule associatedI)
    with assms show ?thesis by simp
  qed
qed

lemma irreducible_normalize_iff [simp]: "irreducible (normalize x) = irreducible x"
  using irreducible_mult_unit_left[of "1 div unit_factor x" x]
  by (cases "x = 0") (simp_all add: unit_div_commute)

lemma prime_elem_normalize_iff [simp]: "prime_elem (normalize x) = prime_elem x"
  using prime_elem_mult_unit_left[of "1 div unit_factor x" x]
  by (cases "x = 0") (simp_all add: unit_div_commute)

lemma prime_elem_associated:
  assumes "prime_elem p" and "prime_elem q" and "q dvd p"
  shows "normalize q = normalize p"
using q dvd p proof (rule associatedI)
  from prime_elem q have "¬ is_unit q"
    by (auto simp add: prime_elem_not_unit)
  with prime_elem p q dvd p show "p dvd q"
    by (blast intro: prime_elemD2)
qed

definition prime :: "'a  bool" where
  "prime p  prime_elem p  normalize p = p"

lemma not_prime_0 [simp]: "¬prime 0" by (simp add: prime_def)

lemma not_prime_unit: "is_unit x  ¬prime x"
  using prime_elem_not_unit[of x] by (auto simp add: prime_def)

lemma not_prime_1 [simp]: "¬prime 1" by (simp add: not_prime_unit)

lemma primeI: "prime_elem x  normalize x = x  prime x"
  by (simp add: prime_def)

lemma prime_imp_prime_elem [dest]: "prime p  prime_elem p"
  by (simp add: prime_def)

lemma normalize_prime: "prime p  normalize p = p"
  by (simp add: prime_def)

lemma prime_normalize_iff [simp]: "prime (normalize p)  prime_elem p"
  by (auto simp add: prime_def)

lemma prime_power_iff:
  "prime (p ^ n)  prime p  n = 1"
  by (auto simp: prime_def prime_elem_power_iff)

lemma prime_imp_nonzero [simp]:
  "ASSUMPTION (prime x)  x  0"
  unfolding ASSUMPTION_def prime_def by auto

lemma prime_imp_not_one [simp]:
  "ASSUMPTION (prime x)  x  1"
  unfolding ASSUMPTION_def by auto

lemma prime_not_unit' [simp]:
  "ASSUMPTION (prime x)  ¬is_unit x"
  unfolding ASSUMPTION_def prime_def by auto

lemma prime_normalize' [simp]: "ASSUMPTION (prime x)  normalize x = x"
  unfolding ASSUMPTION_def prime_def by simp

lemma unit_factor_prime: "prime x  unit_factor x = 1"
  using unit_factor_normalize[of x] unfolding prime_def by auto

lemma unit_factor_prime' [simp]: "ASSUMPTION (prime x)  unit_factor x = 1"
  unfolding ASSUMPTION_def by (rule unit_factor_prime)

lemma prime_imp_prime_elem' [simp]: "ASSUMPTION (prime x)  prime_elem x"
  by (simp add: prime_def ASSUMPTION_def)

lemma prime_dvd_multD: "prime p  p dvd a * b  p dvd a  p dvd b"
  by (intro prime_elem_dvd_multD) simp_all

lemma prime_dvd_mult_iff: "prime p  p dvd a * b  p dvd a  p dvd b"
  by (auto dest: prime_dvd_multD)

lemma prime_dvd_power:
  "prime p  p dvd x ^ n  p dvd x"
  by (auto dest!: prime_elem_dvd_power simp: prime_def)

lemma prime_dvd_power_iff:
  "prime p  n > 0  p dvd x ^ n  p dvd x"
  by (subst prime_elem_dvd_power_iff) simp_all

lemma prime_dvd_prod_mset_iff: "prime p  p dvd prod_mset A  (x. x ∈# A  p dvd x)"
  by (induction A) (simp_all add: prime_elem_dvd_mult_iff prime_imp_prime_elem, blast+)

lemma prime_dvd_prod_iff: "finite A  prime p  p dvd prod f A  (xA. p dvd f x)"
  by (auto simp: prime_dvd_prod_mset_iff prod_unfold_prod_mset)

lemma primes_dvd_imp_eq:
  assumes "prime p" "prime q" "p dvd q"
  shows   "p = q"
proof -
  from assms have "irreducible q" by (simp add: prime_elem_imp_irreducible prime_def)
  from irreducibleD'[OF this p dvd q] assms have "q dvd p" by simp
  with p dvd q have "normalize p = normalize q" by (rule associatedI)
  with assms show "p = q" by simp
qed

lemma prime_dvd_prod_mset_primes_iff:
  assumes "prime p" "q. q ∈# A  prime q"
  shows   "p dvd prod_mset A  p ∈# A"
proof -
  from assms(1) have "p dvd prod_mset A  (x. x ∈# A  p dvd x)" by (rule prime_dvd_prod_mset_iff)
  also from assms have "  p ∈# A" by (auto dest: primes_dvd_imp_eq)
  finally show ?thesis .
qed

lemma prod_mset_primes_dvd_imp_subset:
  assumes "prod_mset A dvd prod_mset B" "p. p ∈# A  prime p" "p. p ∈# B  prime p"
  shows   "A ⊆# B"
using assms
proof (induction A arbitrary: B)
  case empty
  thus ?case by simp
next
  case (add p A B)
  hence p: "prime p" by simp
  define B' where "B' = B - {#p#}"
  from add.prems have "p dvd prod_mset B" by (simp add: dvd_mult_left)
  with add.prems have "p ∈# B"
    by (subst (asm) (2) prime_dvd_prod_mset_primes_iff) simp_all
  hence B: "B = B' + {#p#}" by (simp add: B'_def)
  from add.prems p have "A ⊆# B'" by (intro add.IH) (simp_all add: B)
  thus ?case by (simp add: B)
qed

lemma prod_mset_dvd_prod_mset_primes_iff:
  assumes "x. x ∈# A  prime x" "x. x ∈# B  prime x"
  shows   "prod_mset A dvd prod_mset B  A ⊆# B"
  using assms by (auto intro: prod_mset_subset_imp_dvd prod_mset_primes_dvd_imp_subset)

lemma is_unit_prod_mset_primes_iff:
  assumes "x. x ∈# A  prime x"
  shows   "is_unit (prod_mset A)  A = {#}"
  by (auto simp add: is_unit_prod_mset_iff)
    (meson all_not_in_conv assms not_prime_unit set_mset_eq_empty_iff)

lemma prod_mset_primes_irreducible_imp_prime:
  assumes irred: "irreducible (prod_mset A)"
  assumes A: "x. x ∈# A  prime x"
  assumes B: "x. x ∈# B  prime x"
  assumes C: "x. x ∈# C  prime x"
  assumes dvd: "prod_mset A dvd prod_mset B * prod_mset C"
  shows   "prod_mset A dvd prod_mset B  prod_mset A dvd prod_mset C"
proof -
  from dvd have "prod_mset A dvd prod_mset (B + C)"
    by simp
  with A B C have subset: "A ⊆# B + C"
    by (subst (asm) prod_mset_dvd_prod_mset_primes_iff) auto
  define A1 and A2 where "A1 = A ∩# B" and "A2 = A - A1"
  have "A = A1 + A2" unfolding A1_def A2_def
    by (rule sym, intro subset_mset.add_diff_inverse) simp_all
  from subset have "A1 ⊆# B" "A2 ⊆# C"
    by (auto simp: A1_def A2_def Multiset.subset_eq_diff_conv Multiset.union_commute)
  from A = A1 + A2 have "prod_mset A = prod_mset A1 * prod_mset A2" by simp
  from irred and this have "is_unit (prod_mset A1)  is_unit (prod_mset A2)"
    by (rule irreducibleD)
  with A have "A1 = {#}  A2 = {#}" unfolding A1_def A2_def
    by (subst (asm) (1 2) is_unit_prod_mset_primes_iff) (auto dest: Multiset.in_diffD)
  with dvd A = A1 + A2 A1 ⊆# B A2 ⊆# C show ?thesis
    by (auto intro: prod_mset_subset_imp_dvd)
qed

lemma prod_mset_primes_finite_divisor_powers:
  assumes A: "x. x ∈# A  prime x"
  assumes B: "x. x ∈# B  prime x"
  assumes "A  {#}"
  shows   "finite {n. prod_mset A ^ n dvd prod_mset B}"
proof -
  from A  {#} obtain x where x: "x ∈# A" by blast
  define m where "m = count B x"
  have "{n. prod_mset A ^ n dvd prod_mset B}  {..m}"
  proof safe
    fix n assume dvd: "prod_mset A ^ n dvd prod_mset B"
    from x have "x ^ n dvd prod_mset A ^ n" by (intro dvd_power_same dvd_prod_mset)
    also note dvd
    also have "x ^ n = prod_mset (replicate_mset n x)" by simp
    finally have "replicate_mset n x ⊆# B"
      by (rule prod_mset_primes_dvd_imp_subset) (insert A B x, simp_all split: if_splits)
    thus "n  m" by (simp add: count_le_replicate_mset_subset_eq m_def)
  qed
  moreover have "finite {..m}" by simp
  ultimately show ?thesis by (rule finite_subset)
qed

end


subsection In a semiring with GCD, each irreducible element is a prime element

context semiring_gcd
begin

lemma irreducible_imp_prime_elem_gcd:
  assumes "irreducible x"
  shows   "prime_elem x"
proof (rule prime_elemI)
  fix a b assume "x dvd a * b"
  from dvd_productE[OF this] obtain y z where yz: "x = y * z" "y dvd a" "z dvd b" .
  from irreducible x and x = y * z have "is_unit y  is_unit z" by (rule irreducibleD)
  with yz show "x dvd a  x dvd b"
    by (auto simp: mult_unit_dvd_iff mult_unit_dvd_iff')
qed (insert assms, auto simp: irreducible_not_unit)

lemma prime_elem_imp_coprime:
  assumes "prime_elem p" "¬p dvd n"
  shows   "coprime p n"
proof (rule coprimeI)
  fix d assume "d dvd p" "d dvd n"
  show "is_unit d"
  proof (rule ccontr)
    assume "¬is_unit d"
    from prime_elem p and d dvd p and this have "p dvd d"
      by (rule prime_elemD2)
    from this and d dvd n have "p dvd n" by (rule dvd_trans)
    with ¬p dvd n show False by contradiction
  qed
qed

lemma prime_imp_coprime:
  assumes "prime p" "¬p dvd n"
  shows   "coprime p n"
  using assms by (simp add: prime_elem_imp_coprime)

lemma prime_elem_imp_power_coprime:
  "prime_elem p  ¬ p dvd a  coprime a (p ^ m)"
  by (cases "m > 0") (auto dest: prime_elem_imp_coprime simp add: ac_simps)

lemma prime_imp_power_coprime:
  "prime p  ¬ p dvd a  coprime a (p ^ m)"
  by (rule prime_elem_imp_power_coprime) simp_all

lemma prime_elem_divprod_pow:
  assumes p: "prime_elem p" and ab: "coprime a b" and pab: "p^n dvd a * b"
  shows   "p^n dvd a  p^n dvd b"
  using assms
proof -
  from p have "¬ is_unit p"
    by simp
  with ab p have "¬ p dvd a  ¬ p dvd b"
    using not_coprimeI by blast
  with p have "coprime (p ^ n) a  coprime (p ^ n) b"
    by (auto dest: prime_elem_imp_power_coprime simp add: ac_simps)
  with pab show ?thesis
    by (auto simp add: coprime_dvd_mult_left_iff coprime_dvd_mult_right_iff)
qed

lemma primes_coprime:
  "prime p  prime q  p  q  coprime p q"
  using prime_imp_coprime primes_dvd_imp_eq by blast

end


subsection Factorial semirings: algebraic structures with unique prime factorizations

class factorial_semiring = normalization_semidom +
  assumes prime_factorization_exists:
    "x  0  A. (x. x ∈# A  prime_elem x)  normalize (prod_mset A) = normalize x"

text Alternative characterization

lemma (in normalization_semidom) factorial_semiring_altI_aux:
  assumes finite_divisors: "x. x  0  finite {y. y dvd x  normalize y = y}"
  assumes irreducible_imp_prime_elem: "x. irreducible x  prime_elem x"
  assumes "x  0"
  shows   "A. (x. x ∈# A  prime_elem x)  normalize (prod_mset A) = normalize x"
using x  0
proof (induction "card {b. b dvd x  normalize b = b}" arbitrary: x rule: less_induct)
  case (less a)
  let ?fctrs = "λa. {b. b dvd a  normalize b = b}"
  show ?case
  proof (cases "is_unit a")
    case True
    thus ?thesis by (intro exI[of _ "{#}"]) (auto simp: is_unit_normalize)
  next
    case False
    show ?thesis
    proof (cases "b. b dvd a  ¬is_unit b  ¬a dvd b")
      case False
      with ¬is_unit a less.prems have "irreducible a" by (auto simp: irreducible_altdef)
      hence "prime_elem a" by (rule irreducible_imp_prime_elem)
      thus ?thesis by (intro exI[of _ "{#normalize a#}"]) auto
    next
      case True
      then obtain b where b: "b dvd a" "¬ is_unit b" "¬ a dvd b" by auto
      from b have "?fctrs b  ?fctrs a" by (auto intro: dvd_trans)
      moreover from b have "normalize a  ?fctrs b" "normalize a  ?fctrs a" by simp_all
      hence "?fctrs b  ?fctrs a" by blast
      ultimately have "?fctrs b  ?fctrs a" by (subst subset_not_subset_eq) blast
      with finite_divisors[OF a  0] have "card (?fctrs b) < card (?fctrs a)"
        by (rule psubset_card_mono)
      moreover from a  0 b have "b  0" by auto
      ultimately have "A. (x. x ∈# A  prime_elem x)  normalize (prod_mset A) = normalize b"
        by (intro less) auto
      then obtain A where A: "(x. x ∈# A  prime_elem x)  normalize (# A) = normalize b"
        by auto

      define c where "c = a div b"
      from b have c: "a = b * c" by (simp add: c_def)
      from less.prems c have "c  0" by auto
      from b c have "?fctrs c  ?fctrs a" by (auto intro: dvd_trans)
      moreover have "normalize a  ?fctrs c"
      proof safe
        assume "normalize a dvd c"
        hence "b * c dvd 1 * c" by (simp add: c)
        hence "b dvd 1" by (subst (asm) dvd_times_right_cancel_iff) fact+
        with b show False by simp
      qed
      with normalize a  ?fctrs a have "?fctrs a  ?fctrs c" by blast
      ultimately have "?fctrs c  ?fctrs a" by (subst subset_not_subset_eq) blast
      with finite_divisors[OF a  0] have "card (?fctrs c) < card (?fctrs a)"
        by (rule psubset_card_mono)
      with c  0 have "A. (x. x ∈# A  prime_elem x)  normalize (prod_mset A) = normalize c"
        by (intro less) auto
      then obtain B where B: "(x. x ∈# B  prime_elem x)  normalize (# B) = normalize c"
        by auto

      show ?thesis
      proof (rule exI[of _ "A + B"]; safe)
        have "normalize (prod_mset (A + B)) =
                normalize (normalize (prod_mset A) * normalize (prod_mset B))"
          by simp
        also have " = normalize (b * c)"
          by (simp only: A B) auto
        also have "b * c = a"
          using c by simp
        finally show "normalize (prod_mset (A + B)) = normalize a" .
      next
      qed (use A B in auto)
    qed
  qed
qed

lemma factorial_semiring_altI:
  assumes finite_divisors: "x::'a. x  0  finite {y. y dvd x  normalize y = y}"
  assumes irreducible_imp_prime: "x::'a. irreducible x  prime_elem x"
  shows   "OFCLASS('a :: normalization_semidom, factorial_semiring_class)"
  by intro_classes (rule factorial_semiring_altI_aux[OF assms])

text Properties

context factorial_semiring
begin

lemma prime_factorization_exists':
  assumes "x  0"
  obtains A where "x. x ∈# A  prime x" "normalize (prod_mset A) = normalize x"
proof -
  from prime_factorization_exists[OF assms] obtain A
    where A: "x. x ∈# A  prime_elem x" "normalize (prod_mset A) = normalize x" by blast
  define A' where "A' = image_mset normalize A"
  have "normalize (prod_mset A') = normalize (prod_mset A)"
    by (simp add: A'_def normalize_prod_mset_normalize)
  also note A(2)
  finally have "normalize (prod_mset A') = normalize x" by simp
  moreover from A(1) have "x. x ∈# A'  prime x" by (auto simp: prime_def A'_def)
  ultimately show ?thesis by (intro that[of A']) blast
qed

lemma irreducible_imp_prime_elem:
  assumes "irreducible x"
  shows   "prime_elem x"
proof (rule prime_elemI)
  fix a b assume dvd: "x dvd a * b"
  from assms have "x  0" by auto
  show "x dvd a  x dvd b"
  proof (cases "a = 0  b = 0")
    case False
    hence "a  0" "b  0" by blast+
    note nz = x  0 this
    from nz[THEN prime_factorization_exists'] obtain A B C
      where ABC:
        "z. z ∈# A  prime z"
        "normalize (# A) = normalize x"
        "z. z ∈# B  prime z"
        "normalize (# B) = normalize a"
        "z. z ∈# C  prime z"
        "normalize (# C) = normalize b"
      by this blast

    have "irreducible (prod_mset A)"
      by (subst irreducible_cong[OF ABC(2)]) fact
    moreover have "normalize (prod_mset A) dvd
                     normalize (normalize (prod_mset B) * normalize (prod_mset C))"
      unfolding ABC using dvd by simp
    hence "prod_mset A dvd prod_mset B * prod_mset C"
      unfolding normalize_mult_normalize_left normalize_mult_normalize_right by simp
    ultimately have "prod_mset A dvd prod_mset B  prod_mset A dvd prod_mset C"
      by (intro prod_mset_primes_irreducible_imp_prime) (use ABC in auto)
    hence "normalize (prod_mset A) dvd normalize (prod_mset B) 
           normalize (prod_mset A) dvd normalize (prod_mset C)" by simp
    thus ?thesis unfolding ABC by simp
  qed auto
qed (use assms in simp_all add: irreducible_def)

lemma finite_divisor_powers:
  assumes "y  0" "¬is_unit x"
  shows   "finite {n. x ^ n dvd y}"
proof (cases "x = 0")
  case True
  with assms have "{n. x ^ n dvd y} = {0}" by (auto simp: power_0_left)
  thus ?thesis by simp
next
  case False
  note nz = this y  0
  from nz[THEN prime_factorization_exists'] obtain A B
    where AB:
      "z. z ∈# A  prime z"
      "normalize (# A) = normalize x"
      "z. z ∈# B  prime z"
      "normalize (# B) = normalize y"
    by this blast

  from AB assms have "A  {#}" by (auto simp: normalize_1_iff)
  from AB(2,4) prod_mset_primes_finite_divisor_powers [of A B, OF AB(1,3) this]
    have "finite {n. prod_mset A ^ n dvd prod_mset B}" by simp
  also have "{n. prod_mset A ^ n dvd prod_mset B} =
             {n. normalize (normalize (prod_mset A) ^ n) dvd normalize (prod_mset B)}"
    unfolding normalize_power_normalize by simp
  also have " = {n. x ^ n dvd y}"
    unfolding AB unfolding normalize_power_normalize by simp
  finally show ?thesis .
qed

lemma finite_prime_divisors:
  assumes "x  0"
  shows   "finite {p. prime p  p dvd x}"
proof -
  from prime_factorization_exists'[OF assms] obtain A
    where A: "z. z ∈# A  prime z" "normalize (# A) = normalize x" by this blast
  have "{p. prime p  p dvd x}  set_mset A"
  proof safe
    fix p assume p: "prime p" and dvd: "p dvd x"
    from dvd have "p dvd normalize x" by simp
    also from A have "normalize x = normalize (prod_mset A)" by simp
    finally have "p dvd prod_mset A"
      by simp
    thus  "p ∈# A" using p A
      by (subst (asm) prime_dvd_prod_mset_primes_iff)
  qed
  moreover have "finite (set_mset A)" by simp
  ultimately show ?thesis by (rule finite_subset)
qed

lemma infinite_unit_divisor_powers:
 assumes "y  0"
 assumes "is_unit x"
 shows "infinite {n. x^n dvd y}"
proof -
 from `is_unit x` have "is_unit (x^n)" for n
   using is_unit_power_iff by auto
 hence "x^n dvd y" for n
   by auto
 hence "{n. x^n dvd y} = UNIV"
   by auto
 thus ?thesis
   by auto
qed

corollary is_unit_iff_infinite_divisor_powers:
 assumes "y  0"
 shows "is_unit x  infinite {n. x^n dvd y}"
 using infinite_unit_divisor_powers finite_divisor_powers assms by auto

lemma prime_elem_iff_irreducible: "prime_elem x  irreducible x"
  by (blast intro: irreducible_imp_prime_elem prime_elem_imp_irreducible)

lemma prime_divisor_exists:
  assumes "a  0" "¬is_unit a"
  shows   "b. b dvd a  prime b"
proof -
  from prime_factorization_exists'[OF assms(1)]
  obtain A where A: "z. z ∈# A  prime z" "normalize (# A) = normalize a"
    by this blast
  with assms have "A  {#}" by auto
  then obtain x where "x ∈# A" by blast
  with A(1) have *: "x dvd normalize (prod_mset A)" "prime x"
    by (auto simp: dvd_prod_mset)
  hence "x dvd a" by (simp add: A(2))
  with * show ?thesis by blast
qed

lemma prime_divisors_induct [case_names zero unit factor]:
  assumes "P 0" "x. is_unit x  P x" "p x. prime p  P x  P (p * x)"
  shows   "P x"
proof (cases "x = 0")
  case False
  from prime_factorization_exists'[OF this]
  obtain A where A: "z. z ∈# A  prime z" "normalize (# A) = normalize x"
    by this blast
  from A obtain u where u: "is_unit u" "x = u * prod_mset A"
    by (elim associatedE2)

  from A(1) have "P (u * prod_mset A)"
  proof (induction A)
    case (add p A)
    from add.prems have "prime p" by simp
    moreover from add.prems have "P (u * prod_mset A)" by (intro add.IH) simp_all
    ultimately have "P (p * (u * prod_mset A))" by (rule assms(3))
    thus ?case by (simp add: mult_ac)
  qed (simp_all add: assms False u)
  with A u show ?thesis by simp
qed (simp_all add: assms(1))

lemma no_prime_divisors_imp_unit:
  assumes "a  0" "b. b dvd a  normalize b = b  ¬ prime_elem b"
  shows "is_unit a"
proof (rule ccontr)
  assume "¬is_unit a"
  from prime_divisor_exists[OF assms(1) this] obtain b where "b dvd a" "prime b" by auto
  with assms(2)[of b] show False by (simp add: prime_def)
qed

lemma prime_divisorE:
  assumes "a  0" and "¬ is_unit a"
  obtains p where "prime p" and "p dvd a"
  using assms no_prime_divisors_imp_unit unfolding prime_def by blast

definition multiplicity :: "'a  'a  nat" where
  "multiplicity p x = (if finite {n. p ^ n dvd x} then Max {n. p ^ n dvd x} else 0)"

lemma multiplicity_dvd: "p ^ multiplicity p x dvd x"
proof (cases "finite {n. p ^ n dvd x}")
  case True
  hence "multiplicity p x = Max {n. p ^ n dvd x}"
    by (simp add: multiplicity_def)
  also have "  {n. p ^ n dvd x}"
    by (rule Max_in) (auto intro!: True exI[of _ "0::nat"])
  finally show ?thesis by simp
qed (simp add: multiplicity_def)

lemma multiplicity_dvd': "n  multiplicity p x  p ^ n dvd x"
  by (rule dvd_trans[OF le_imp_power_dvd multiplicity_dvd])

context
  fixes x p :: 'a
  assumes xp: "x  0" "¬is_unit p"
begin

lemma multiplicity_eq_Max: "multiplicity p x = Max {n. p ^ n dvd x}"
  using finite_divisor_powers[OF xp] by (simp add: multiplicity_def)

lemma multiplicity_geI:
  assumes "p ^ n dvd x"
  shows   "multiplicity p x  n"
proof -
  from assms have "n  Max {n. p ^ n dvd x}"
    by (intro Max_ge finite_divisor_powers xp) simp_all
  thus ?thesis by (subst multiplicity_eq_Max)
qed

lemma multiplicity_lessI:
  assumes "¬p ^ n dvd x"
  shows   "multiplicity p x < n"
proof (rule ccontr)
  assume "¬(n > multiplicity p x)"
  hence "p ^ n dvd x" by (intro multiplicity_dvd') simp
  with assms show False by contradiction
qed

lemma power_dvd_iff_le_multiplicity:
  "p ^ n dvd x  n  multiplicity p x"
  using multiplicity_geI[of n] multiplicity_lessI[of n] by (cases "p ^ n dvd x") auto

lemma multiplicity_eq_zero_iff:
  shows   "multiplicity p x = 0  ¬p dvd x"
  using power_dvd_iff_le_multiplicity[of 1] by auto

lemma multiplicity_gt_zero_iff:
  shows   "multiplicity p x > 0  p dvd x"
  using power_dvd_iff_le_multiplicity[of 1] by auto

lemma multiplicity_decompose:
  "¬p dvd (x div p ^ multiplicity p x)"
proof
  assume *: "p dvd x div p ^ multiplicity p x"
  have "x = x div p ^ multiplicity p x * (p ^ multiplicity p x)"
    using multiplicity_dvd[of p x] by simp
  also from * have "x div p ^ multiplicity p x = (x div p ^ multiplicity p x div p) * p" by simp
  also have "x div p ^ multiplicity p x div p * p * p ^ multiplicity p x =
               x div p ^ multiplicity p x div p * p ^ Suc (multiplicity p x)"
    by (simp add: mult_assoc)
  also have "p ^ Suc (multiplicity p x) dvd " by (rule dvd_triv_right)
  finally show False by (subst (asm) power_dvd_iff_le_multiplicity) simp
qed

lemma multiplicity_decompose':
  obtains y where "x = p ^ multiplicity p x * y" "¬p dvd y"
  using that[of "x div p ^ multiplicity p x"]
  by (simp add: multiplicity_decompose multiplicity_dvd)

end

lemma multiplicity_zero [simp]: "multiplicity p 0 = 0"
  by (simp add: multiplicity_def)

lemma prime_elem_multiplicity_eq_zero_iff:
  "prime_elem p  x  0  multiplicity p x = 0  ¬p dvd x"
  by (rule multiplicity_eq_zero_iff) simp_all

lemma prime_multiplicity_other:
  assumes "prime p" "prime q" "p  q"
  shows   "multiplicity p q = 0"
  using assms by (subst prime_elem_multiplicity_eq_zero_iff) (auto dest: primes_dvd_imp_eq)

lemma prime_multiplicity_gt_zero_iff:
  "prime_elem p  x  0  multiplicity p x > 0  p dvd x"
  by (rule multiplicity_gt_zero_iff) simp_all

lemma multiplicity_unit_left: "is_unit p  multiplicity p x = 0"
  by (simp add: multiplicity_def is_unit_power_iff unit_imp_dvd)

lemma multiplicity_unit_right:
  assumes "is_unit x"
  shows   "multiplicity p x = 0"
proof (cases "is_unit p  x = 0")
  case False
  with multiplicity_lessI[of x p 1] this assms
    show ?thesis by (auto dest: dvd_unit_imp_unit)
qed (auto simp: multiplicity_unit_left)

lemma multiplicity_one [simp]: "multiplicity p 1 = 0"
  by (rule multiplicity_unit_right) simp_all

lemma multiplicity_eqI:
  assumes "p ^ n dvd x" "¬p ^ Suc n dvd x"
  shows   "multiplicity p x = n"
proof -
  consider "x = 0" | "is_unit p" | "x  0" "¬is_unit p" by blast
  thus ?thesis
  proof cases
    assume xp: "x  0" "¬is_unit p"
    from xp assms(1) have "multiplicity p x  n" by (intro multiplicity_geI)
    moreover from assms(2) xp have "multiplicity p x < Suc n" by (intro multiplicity_lessI)
    ultimately show ?thesis by simp
  next
    assume "is_unit p"
    hence "is_unit (p ^ Suc n)" by (simp add: is_unit_power_iff del: power_Suc)
    hence "p ^ Suc n dvd x" by (rule unit_imp_dvd)
    with ¬p ^ Suc n dvd x show ?thesis by contradiction
  qed (insert assms, simp_all)
qed


context
  fixes x p :: 'a
  assumes xp: "x  0" "¬is_unit p"
begin

lemma multiplicity_times_same:
  assumes "p  0"
  shows   "multiplicity p (p * x) = Suc (multiplicity p x)"
proof (rule multiplicity_eqI)
  show "p ^ Suc (multiplicity p x) dvd p * x"
    by (auto intro!: mult_dvd_mono multiplicity_dvd)
  from xp assms show "¬ p ^ Suc (Suc (multiplicity p x)) dvd p * x"
    using power_dvd_iff_le_multiplicity[OF xp, of "Suc (multiplicity p x)"] by simp
qed

end

lemma multiplicity_same_power': "multiplicity p (p ^ n) = (if p = 0  is_unit p then 0 else n)"
proof -
  consider "p = 0" | "is_unit p" |"p  0" "¬is_unit p" by blast
  thus ?thesis
  proof cases
    assume "p  0" "¬is_unit p"
    thus ?thesis by (induction n) (simp_all add: multiplicity_times_same)
  qed (simp_all add: power_0_left multiplicity_unit_left)
qed

lemma multiplicity_same_power:
  "p  0  ¬is_unit p  multiplicity p (p ^ n) = n"
  by (simp add: multiplicity_same_power')

lemma multiplicity_prime_elem_times_other:
  assumes "prime_elem p" "¬p dvd q"
  shows   "multiplicity p (q * x) = multiplicity p x"
proof (cases "x = 0")
  case False
  show ?thesis
  proof (rule multiplicity_eqI)
    have "1 * p ^ multiplicity p x dvd q * x"
      by (intro mult_dvd_mono multiplicity_dvd) simp_all
    thus "p ^ multiplicity p x dvd q * x" by simp
  next
    define n where "n = multiplicity p x"
    from assms have "¬is_unit p" by simp
    from multiplicity_decompose'[OF False this]
    obtain y where y [folded n_def]: "x = p ^ multiplicity p x * y" "¬ p dvd y" .
    from y have "p ^ Suc n dvd q * x  p ^ n * p dvd p ^ n * (q * y)" by (simp add: mult_ac)
    also from assms have "  p dvd q * y" by simp
    also have "  p dvd q  p dvd y" by (rule prime_elem_dvd_mult_iff) fact+
    also from assms y have "  False" by simp
    finally show "¬(p ^ Suc n dvd q * x)" by blast
  qed
qed simp_all

lemma multiplicity_self:
  assumes "p  0" "¬is_unit p"
  shows   "multiplicity p p = 1"
proof -
  from assms have "multiplicity p p = Max {n. p ^ n dvd p}"
    by (simp add: multiplicity_eq_Max)
  also from assms have "p ^ n dvd p  n  1" for n
    using dvd_power_iff[of p n 1] by auto
  hence "{n. p ^ n dvd p} = {..1}" by auto
  also have " = {0,1}" by auto
  finally show ?thesis by simp
qed

lemma multiplicity_times_unit_left:
  assumes "is_unit c"
  shows   "multiplicity (c * p) x = multiplicity p x"
proof -
  from assms have "{n. (c * p) ^ n dvd x} = {n. p ^ n dvd x}"
    by (subst mult.commute) (simp add: mult_unit_dvd_iff power_mult_distrib is_unit_power_iff)
  thus ?thesis by (simp add: multiplicity_def)
qed

lemma multiplicity_times_unit_right:
  assumes "is_unit c"
  shows   "multiplicity p (c * x) = multiplicity p x"
proof -
  from assms have "{n. p ^ n dvd c * x} = {n. p ^ n dvd x}"
    by (subst mult.commute) (simp add: dvd_mult_unit_iff)
  thus ?thesis by (simp add: multiplicity_def)
qed

lemma multiplicity_normalize_left [simp]:
  "multiplicity (normalize p) x = multiplicity p x"
proof (cases "p = 0")
  case [simp]: False
  have "normalize p = (1 div unit_factor p) * p"
    by (simp add: unit_div_commute is_unit_unit_factor)
  also have "multiplicity  x = multiplicity p x"
    by (rule multiplicity_times_unit_left) (simp add: is_unit_unit_factor)
  finally show ?thesis .
qed simp_all

lemma multiplicity_normalize_right [simp]:
  "multiplicity p (normalize x) = multiplicity p x"
proof (cases "x = 0")
  case [simp]: False
  have "normalize x = (1 div unit_factor x) * x"
    by (simp add: unit_div_commute is_unit_unit_factor)
  also have "multiplicity p  = multiplicity p x"
    by (rule multiplicity_times_unit_right) (simp add: is_unit_unit_factor)
  finally show ?thesis .
qed simp_all

lemma multiplicity_prime [simp]: "prime_elem p  multiplicity p p = 1"
  by (rule multiplicity_self) auto

lemma multiplicity_prime_power [simp]: "prime_elem p  multiplicity p (p ^ n) = n"
  by (subst multiplicity_same_power') auto

lift_definition prime_factorization :: "'a  'a multiset" is
  "λx p. if prime p then multiplicity p x else 0"
proof -
  fix x :: 'a
  show "finite {p. 0 < (if prime p then multiplicity p x else 0)}" (is "finite ?A")
  proof (cases "x = 0")
    case False
    from False have "?A  {p. prime p  p dvd x}"
      by (auto simp: multiplicity_gt_zero_iff)
    moreover from False have "finite {p. prime p  p dvd x}"
      by (rule finite_prime_divisors)
    ultimately show ?thesis by (rule finite_subset)
  qed simp_all
qed

abbreviation prime_factors :: "'a  'a set" where
  "prime_factors a  set_mset (prime_factorization a)"

lemma count_prime_factorization_nonprime:
  "¬prime p  count (prime_factorization x) p = 0"
  by transfer simp

lemma count_prime_factorization_prime:
  "prime p  count (prime_factorization x) p = multiplicity p x"
  by transfer simp

lemma count_prime_factorization:
  "count (prime_factorization x) p = (if prime p then multiplicity p x else 0)"
  by transfer simp

lemma dvd_imp_multiplicity_le:
  assumes "a dvd b" "b  0"
  shows   "multiplicity p a  multiplicity p b"
proof (cases "is_unit p")
  case False
  with assms show ?thesis
    by (intro multiplicity_geI ) (auto intro: dvd_trans[OF multiplicity_dvd' assms(1)])
qed (insert assms, auto simp: multiplicity_unit_left)

lemma prime_power_inj:
  assumes "prime a" "a ^ m = a ^ n"
  shows   "m = n"
proof -
  have "multiplicity a (a ^ m) = multiplicity a (a ^ n)" by (simp only: assms)
  thus ?thesis using assms by (subst (asm) (1 2) multiplicity_prime_power) simp_all
qed

lemma prime_power_inj':
  assumes "prime p" "prime q"
  assumes "p ^ m = q ^ n" "m > 0" "n > 0"
  shows   "p = q" "m = n"
proof -
  from assms have "p ^ 1 dvd p ^ m" by (intro le_imp_power_dvd) simp
  also have "p ^ m = q ^ n" by fact
  finally have "p dvd q ^ n" by simp
  with assms have "p dvd q" using prime_dvd_power[of p q] by simp
  with assms show "p = q" by (simp add: primes_dvd_imp_eq)
  with assms show "m = n" by (simp add: prime_power_inj)
qed

lemma prime_power_eq_one_iff [simp]: "prime p  p ^ n = 1  n = 0"
  using prime_power_inj[of p n 0] by auto

lemma one_eq_prime_power_iff [simp]: "prime p  1 = p ^ n  n = 0"
  using prime_power_inj[of p 0 n] by auto

lemma prime_power_inj'':
  assumes "prime p" "prime q"
  shows   "p ^ m = q ^ n  (m = 0  n = 0)  (p = q  m = n)"
  using assms 
  by (cases "m = 0"; cases "n = 0")
     (auto dest: prime_power_inj'[OF assms])

lemma prime_factorization_0 [simp]: "prime_factorization 0 = {#}"
  by (simp add: multiset_eq_iff count_prime_factorization)

lemma prime_factorization_empty_iff:
  "prime_factorization x = {#}  x = 0  is_unit x"
proof
  assume *: "prime_factorization x = {#}"
  {
    assume x: "x  0" "¬is_unit x"
    {
      fix p assume p: "prime p"
      have "count (prime_factorization x) p = 0" by (simp add: *)
      also from p have "count (prime_factorization x) p = multiplicity p x"
        by (rule count_prime_factorization_prime)
      also from x p have " = 0  ¬p dvd x" by (simp add: multiplicity_eq_zero_iff)
      finally have "¬p dvd x" .
    }
    with prime_divisor_exists[OF x] have False by blast
  }
  thus "x = 0  is_unit x" by blast
next
  assume "x = 0  is_unit x"
  thus "prime_factorization x = {#}"
  proof
    assume x: "is_unit x"
    {
      fix p assume p: "prime p"
      from p x have "multiplicity p x = 0"
        by (subst multiplicity_eq_zero_iff)
           (auto simp: multiplicity_eq_zero_iff dest: unit_imp_no_prime_divisors)
    }
    thus ?thesis by (simp add: multiset_eq_iff count_prime_factorization)
  qed simp_all
qed

lemma prime_factorization_unit:
  assumes "is_unit x"
  shows   "prime_factorization x = {#}"
proof (rule multiset_eqI)
  fix p :: 'a
  show "count (prime_factorization x) p = count {#} p"
  proof (cases "prime p")
    case True
    with assms have "multiplicity p x = 0"
      by (subst multiplicity_eq_zero_iff)
         (auto simp: multiplicity_eq_zero_iff dest: unit_imp_no_prime_divisors)
    with True show ?thesis by (simp add: count_prime_factorization_prime)
  qed (simp_all add: count_prime_factorization_nonprime)
qed

lemma prime_factorization_1 [simp]: "prime_factorization 1 = {#}"
  by (simp add: prime_factorization_unit)

lemma prime_factorization_times_prime:
  assumes "x  0" "prime p"
  shows   "prime_factorization (p * x) = {#p#} + prime_factorization x"
proof (rule multiset_eqI)
  fix q :: 'a
  consider "¬prime q" | "p = q" | "prime q" "p  q" by blast
  thus "count (prime_factorization (p * x)) q = count ({#p#} + prime_factorization x) q"
  proof cases
    assume q: "prime q" "p  q"
    with assms primes_dvd_imp_eq[of q p] have "¬q dvd p" by auto
    with q assms show ?thesis
      by (simp add: multiplicity_prime_elem_times_other count_prime_factorization)
  qed (insert assms, auto simp: count_prime_factorization multiplicity_times_same)
qed

lemma prod_mset_prime_factorization_weak:
  assumes "x  0"
  shows   "normalize (prod_mset (prime_factorization x)) = normalize x"
  using assms
proof (induction x rule: prime_divisors_induct)
  case (factor p x)
  have "normalize (prod_mset (prime_factorization (p * x))) =
          normalize (p * normalize (prod_mset (prime_factorization x)))"
    using factor.prems factor.hyps by (simp add: prime_factorization_times_prime)
  also have "normalize (prod_mset (prime_factorization x)) = normalize x"
    by (rule factor.IH) (use factor in auto)
  finally show ?case by simp
qed (auto simp: prime_factorization_unit is_unit_normalize)

lemma in_prime_factors_iff:
  "p  prime_factors x  x  0  p dvd x  prime p"
proof -
  have "p  prime_factors x  count (prime_factorization x) p > 0" by simp
  also have "  x  0  p dvd x  prime p"
   by (subst count_prime_factorization, cases "x = 0")
      (auto simp: multiplicity_eq_zero_iff multiplicity_gt_zero_iff)
  finally show ?thesis .
qed

lemma in_prime_factors_imp_prime [intro]:
  "p  prime_factors x  prime p"
  by (simp add: in_prime_factors_iff)

lemma in_prime_factors_imp_dvd [dest]:
  "p  prime_factors x  p dvd x"
  by (simp add: in_prime_factors_iff)

lemma prime_factorsI:
  "x  0  prime p  p dvd x  p  prime_factors x"
  by (auto simp: in_prime_factors_iff)

lemma prime_factors_dvd:
  "x  0  prime_factors x = {p. prime p  p dvd x}"
  by (auto intro: prime_factorsI)

lemma prime_factors_multiplicity:
  "prime_factors n = {p. prime p  multiplicity p n > 0}"
  by (cases "n = 0") (auto simp add: prime_factors_dvd prime_multiplicity_gt_zero_iff)

lemma prime_factorization_prime:
  assumes "prime p"
  shows   "prime_factorization p = {#p#}"
proof (rule multiset_eqI)
  fix q :: 'a
  consider "¬prime q" | "q = p" | "prime q" "q  p" by blast
  thus "count (prime_factorization p) q = count {#p#} q"
    by cases (insert assms, auto dest: primes_dvd_imp_eq
                simp: count_prime_factorization multiplicity_self multiplicity_eq_zero_iff)
qed

lemma prime_factorization_prod_mset_primes:
  assumes "p. p ∈# A  prime p"
  shows   "prime_factorization (prod_mset A) = A"
  using assms
proof (induction A)
  case (add p A)
  from add.prems[of 0] have "0 ∉# A" by auto
  hence "prod_mset A  0" by auto
  with add show ?case
    by (simp_all add: mult_ac prime_factorization_times_prime Multiset.union_commute)
qed simp_all

lemma prime_factorization_cong:
  "normalize x = normalize y  prime_factorization x = prime_factorization y"
  by (simp add: multiset_eq_iff count_prime_factorization
                multiplicity_normalize_right [of _ x, symmetric]
                multiplicity_normalize_right [of _ y, symmetric]
           del:  multiplicity_normalize_right)

lemma prime_factorization_unique:
  assumes "x  0" "y  0"
  shows   "prime_factorization x = prime_factorization y  normalize x = normalize y"
proof
  assume "prime_factorization x = prime_factorization y"
  hence "prod_mset (prime_factorization x) = prod_mset (prime_factorization y)" by simp
  hence "normalize (prod_mset (prime_factorization x)) =
         normalize (prod_mset (prime_factorization y))"
    by (simp only: )
  with assms show "normalize x = normalize y"
    by (simp add: prod_mset_prime_factorization_weak)
qed (rule prime_factorization_cong)

lemma prime_factorization_normalize [simp]:
  "prime_factorization (normalize x) = prime_factorization x"
  by (cases "x = 0", simp, subst prime_factorization_unique) auto

lemma prime_factorization_eqI_strong:
  assumes "p. p ∈# P  prime p" "prod_mset P = n"
  shows   "prime_factorization n = P"
  using prime_factorization_prod_mset_primes[of P] assms by simp

lemma prime_factorization_eqI:
  assumes "p. p ∈# P  prime p" "normalize (prod_mset P) = normalize n"
  shows   "prime_factorization n = P"
proof -
  have "P = prime_factorization (normalize (prod_mset P))"
    using prime_factorization_prod_mset_primes[of P] assms(1) by simp
  with assms(2) show ?thesis by simp
qed

lemma prime_factorization_mult:
  assumes "x  0" "y  0"
  shows   "prime_factorization (x * y) = prime_factorization x + prime_factorization y"
proof -
  have "normalize (prod_mset (prime_factorization x) * prod_mset (prime_factorization y)) =
          normalize (normalize (prod_mset (prime_factorization x)) *
                     normalize (prod_mset (prime_factorization y)))"
    by (simp only: normalize_mult_normalize_left normalize_mult_normalize_right)
  also have " = normalize (x * y)"
    by (subst (1 2) prod_mset_prime_factorization_weak) (use assms in auto)
  finally show ?thesis
    by (intro prime_factorization_eqI) auto
qed

lemma prime_factorization_prod:
  assumes "finite A" "x. x  A  f x  0"
  shows   "prime_factorization (prod f A) = (nA. prime_factorization (f n))"
  using assms by (induction A rule: finite_induct)
                 (auto simp: Sup_multiset_empty prime_factorization_mult)

lemma prime_elem_multiplicity_mult_distrib:
  assumes "prime_elem p" "x  0" "y  0"
  shows   "multiplicity p (x * y) = multiplicity p x + multiplicity p y"
proof -
  have "multiplicity p (x * y) = count (prime_factorization (x * y)) (normalize p)"
    by (subst count_prime_factorization_prime) (simp_all add: assms)
  also from assms
    have "prime_factorization (x * y) = prime_factorization x + prime_factorization y"
      by (intro prime_factorization_mult)
  also have "count  (normalize p) =
    count (prime_factorization x) (normalize p) + count (prime_factorization y) (normalize p)"
    by simp
  also have " = multiplicity p x + multiplicity p y"
    by (subst (1 2) count_prime_factorization_prime) (simp_all add: assms)
  finally show ?thesis .
qed

lemma prime_elem_multiplicity_prod_mset_distrib:
  assumes "prime_elem p" "0 ∉# A"
  shows   "multiplicity p (prod_mset A) = sum_mset (image_mset (multiplicity p) A)"
  using assms by (induction A) (auto simp: prime_elem_multiplicity_mult_distrib)

lemma prime_elem_multiplicity_power_distrib:
  assumes "prime_elem p" "x  0"
  shows   "multiplicity p (x ^ n) = n * multiplicity p x"
  using assms prime_elem_multiplicity_prod_mset_distrib [of p "replicate_mset n x"]
  by simp

lemma prime_elem_multiplicity_prod_distrib:
  assumes "prime_elem p" "0  f ` A" "finite A"
  shows   "multiplicity p (prod f A) = (xA. multiplicity p (f x))"
proof -
  have "multiplicity p (prod f A) = (x∈#mset_set A. multiplicity p (f x))"
    using assms by (subst prod_unfold_prod_mset)
                   (simp_all add: prime_elem_multiplicity_prod_mset_distrib sum_unfold_sum_mset
                      multiset.map_comp o_def)
  also from finite A have " = (xA. multiplicity p (f x))"
    by (induction A rule: finite_induct) simp_all
  finally show ?thesis .
qed

lemma multiplicity_distinct_prime_power:
  "prime p  prime q  p  q  multiplicity p (q ^ n) = 0"
  by (subst prime_elem_multiplicity_power_distrib) (auto simp: prime_multiplicity_other)

lemma prime_factorization_prime_power:
  "prime p  prime_factorization (p ^ n) = replicate_mset n p"
  by (induction n)
     (simp_all add: prime_factorization_mult prime_factorization_prime Multiset.union_commute)

lemma prime_factorization_subset_iff_dvd:
  assumes [simp]: "x  0" "y  0"
  shows   "prime_factorization x ⊆# prime_factorization y  x dvd y"
proof -
  have "x dvd y 
    normalize (prod_mset (prime_factorization x)) dvd normalize (prod_mset (prime_factorization y))"
    using assms by (subst (1 2) prod_mset_prime_factorization_weak) auto
  also have "  prime_factorization x ⊆# prime_factorization y"
    by (auto intro!: prod_mset_primes_dvd_imp_subset prod_mset_subset_imp_dvd)
  finally show ?thesis ..
qed

lemma prime_factorization_subset_imp_dvd:
  "x