author  huffman 
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permissions  rwrr 
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(* Title: HOL/Power.thy 
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ID: $Id$ 
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Author: Lawrence C Paulson, Cambridge University Computer Laboratory 
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Copyright 1997 University of Cambridge 
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*) 
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linear arithmetic now takes "&" in assumptions apart.
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header{*Exponentiation*} 
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15131  10 
theory Power 
21413  11 
imports Nat 
15131  12 
begin 
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subsection{*Powers for Arbitrary Monoids*} 
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22390  16 
class recpower = monoid_mult + power + 
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assumes power_0 [simp]: "a \<^loc>^ 0 = \<^loc>1" 

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assumes power_Suc: "a \<^loc>^ Suc n = a \<^loc>* (a \<^loc>^ n)" 

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lemma power_0_Suc [simp]: "(0::'a::{recpower,semiring_0}) ^ (Suc n) = 0" 
23183  21 
by (simp add: power_Suc) 
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text{*It looks plausible as a simprule, but its effect can be strange.*} 
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lemma power_0_left: "0^n = (if n=0 then 1 else (0::'a::{recpower,semiring_0}))" 
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by (induct n) simp_all 
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15004  27 
lemma power_one [simp]: "1^n = (1::'a::recpower)" 
23183  28 
by (induct n) (simp_all add: power_Suc) 
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15004  30 
lemma power_one_right [simp]: "(a::'a::recpower) ^ 1 = a" 
23183  31 
by (simp add: power_Suc) 
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lemma power_commutes: "(a::'a::recpower) ^ n * a = a * a ^ n" 
23183  34 
by (induct n) (simp_all add: power_Suc mult_assoc) 
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15004  36 
lemma power_add: "(a::'a::recpower) ^ (m+n) = (a^m) * (a^n)" 
23183  37 
by (induct m) (simp_all add: power_Suc mult_ac) 
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15004  39 
lemma power_mult: "(a::'a::recpower) ^ (m*n) = (a^m) ^ n" 
23183  40 
by (induct n) (simp_all add: power_Suc power_add) 
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lemma power_mult_distrib: "((a::'a::{recpower,comm_monoid_mult}) * b) ^ n = (a^n) * (b^n)" 
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by (induct n) (simp_all add: power_Suc mult_ac) 
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lemma zero_less_power: 
15004  46 
"0 < (a::'a::{ordered_semidom,recpower}) ==> 0 < a^n" 
15251  47 
apply (induct "n") 
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apply (simp_all add: power_Suc zero_less_one mult_pos_pos) 
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done 
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lemma zero_le_power: 
15004  52 
"0 \<le> (a::'a::{ordered_semidom,recpower}) ==> 0 \<le> a^n" 
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apply (simp add: order_le_less) 
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apply (erule disjE) 
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apply (simp_all add: zero_less_power zero_less_one power_0_left) 
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done 
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lemma one_le_power: 
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"1 \<le> (a::'a::{ordered_semidom,recpower}) ==> 1 \<le> a^n" 
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apply (induct "n") 
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apply (simp_all add: power_Suc) 
14577  62 
apply (rule order_trans [OF _ mult_mono [of 1 _ 1]]) 
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apply (simp_all add: zero_le_one order_trans [OF zero_le_one]) 

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done 
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14738  66 
lemma gt1_imp_ge0: "1 < a ==> 0 \<le> (a::'a::ordered_semidom)" 
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by (simp add: order_trans [OF zero_le_one order_less_imp_le]) 
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lemma power_gt1_lemma: 
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assumes gt1: "1 < (a::'a::{ordered_semidom,recpower})" 
14577  71 
shows "1 < a * a^n" 
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proof  
14577  73 
have "1*1 < a*1" using gt1 by simp 
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also have "\<dots> \<le> a * a^n" using gt1 

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by (simp only: mult_mono gt1_imp_ge0 one_le_power order_less_imp_le 

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zero_le_one order_refl) 

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finally show ?thesis by simp 

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qed 
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lemma power_gt1: 
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"1 < (a::'a::{ordered_semidom,recpower}) ==> 1 < a ^ (Suc n)" 
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by (simp add: power_gt1_lemma power_Suc) 
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lemma power_le_imp_le_exp: 
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assumes gt1: "(1::'a::{recpower,ordered_semidom}) < a" 
14577  86 
shows "!!n. a^m \<le> a^n ==> m \<le> n" 
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proof (induct m) 

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case 0 
14577  89 
show ?case by simp 
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next 
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case (Suc m) 
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show ?case 
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proof (cases n) 

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case 0 

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from prems have "a * a^m \<le> 1" by (simp add: power_Suc) 

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with gt1 show ?thesis 

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by (force simp only: power_gt1_lemma 

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linorder_not_less [symmetric]) 

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next 

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case (Suc n) 

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from prems show ?thesis 

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by (force dest: mult_left_le_imp_le 

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simp add: power_Suc order_less_trans [OF zero_less_one gt1]) 

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qed 

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qed 
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text{*Surely we can strengthen this? It holds for @{text "0<a<1"} too.*} 
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lemma power_inject_exp [simp]: 
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"1 < (a::'a::{ordered_semidom,recpower}) ==> (a^m = a^n) = (m=n)" 
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by (force simp add: order_antisym power_le_imp_le_exp) 
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text{*Can relax the first premise to @{term "0<a"} in the case of the 
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natural numbers.*} 
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lemma power_less_imp_less_exp: 
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"[ (1::'a::{recpower,ordered_semidom}) < a; a^m < a^n ] ==> m < n" 
14577  116 
by (simp add: order_less_le [of m n] order_less_le [of "a^m" "a^n"] 
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power_le_imp_le_exp) 

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lemma power_mono: 
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"[a \<le> b; (0::'a::{recpower,ordered_semidom}) \<le> a] ==> a^n \<le> b^n" 
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apply (simp_all add: power_Suc) 
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apply (auto intro: mult_mono zero_le_power order_trans [of 0 a b]) 
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done 
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lemma power_strict_mono [rule_format]: 
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"[a < b; (0::'a::{recpower,ordered_semidom}) \<le> a] 
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==> 0 < n > a^n < b^n" 
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apply (induct "n") 
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apply (auto simp add: mult_strict_mono zero_le_power power_Suc 
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order_le_less_trans [of 0 a b]) 
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done 
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lemma power_eq_0_iff [simp]: 
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"(a^n = 0) = (a = (0::'a::{dom,recpower}) & 0<n)" 
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apply (auto simp add: power_Suc zero_neq_one [THEN not_sym]) 
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done 
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22991  141 
lemma field_power_eq_0_iff: 
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"(a^n = 0) = (a = (0::'a::{division_ring,recpower}) & 0<n)" 
22991  143 
by simp (* TODO: delete *) 
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lemma field_power_not_zero: "a \<noteq> (0::'a::{dom,recpower}) ==> a^n \<noteq> 0" 
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by force 
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lemma nonzero_power_inverse: 
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fixes a :: "'a::{division_ring,recpower}" 
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shows "a \<noteq> 0 ==> inverse (a ^ n) = (inverse a) ^ n" 

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apply (induct "n") 
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apply (auto simp add: power_Suc nonzero_inverse_mult_distrib power_commutes) 
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done (* TODO: reorient or rename to nonzero_inverse_power *) 
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text{*Perhaps these should be simprules.*} 
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lemma power_inverse: 
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fixes a :: "'a::{division_ring,division_by_zero,recpower}" 
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shows "inverse (a ^ n) = (inverse a) ^ n" 

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apply (cases "a = 0") 

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apply (simp add: power_0_left) 

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apply (simp add: nonzero_power_inverse) 

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done (* TODO: reorient or rename to inverse_power *) 

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lemma power_one_over: "1 / (a::'a::{field,division_by_zero,recpower})^n = 
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(1 / a)^n" 
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apply (simp add: divide_inverse) 
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apply (rule power_inverse) 
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done 
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lemma nonzero_power_divide: 
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"b \<noteq> 0 ==> (a/b) ^ n = ((a::'a::{field,recpower}) ^ n) / (b ^ n)" 
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by (simp add: divide_inverse power_mult_distrib nonzero_power_inverse) 
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14577  174 
lemma power_divide: 
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"(a/b) ^ n = ((a::'a::{field,division_by_zero,recpower}) ^ n / b ^ n)" 
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apply (case_tac "b=0", simp add: power_0_left) 
14577  177 
apply (rule nonzero_power_divide) 
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apply assumption 

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done 
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15004  181 
lemma power_abs: "abs(a ^ n) = abs(a::'a::{ordered_idom,recpower}) ^ n" 
15251  182 
apply (induct "n") 
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apply (auto simp add: power_Suc abs_mult) 
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done 
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lemma zero_less_power_abs_iff [simp]: 
15004  187 
"(0 < (abs a)^n) = (a \<noteq> (0::'a::{ordered_idom,recpower})  n=0)" 
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proof (induct "n") 
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case 0 
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show ?case by (simp add: zero_less_one) 
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next 
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case (Suc n) 
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show ?case by (force simp add: prems power_Suc zero_less_mult_iff) 
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qed 
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lemma zero_le_power_abs [simp]: 
15004  197 
"(0::'a::{ordered_idom,recpower}) \<le> (abs a)^n" 
22957  198 
by (rule zero_le_power [OF abs_ge_zero]) 
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15004  200 
lemma power_minus: "(a) ^ n = ( 1)^n * (a::'a::{comm_ring_1,recpower}) ^ n" 
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proof  
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have "a = ( 1) * a" by (simp add: minus_mult_left [symmetric]) 
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thus ?thesis by (simp only: power_mult_distrib) 
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qed 
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text{*Lemma for @{text power_strict_decreasing}*} 
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lemma power_Suc_less: 
15004  208 
"[(0::'a::{ordered_semidom,recpower}) < a; a < 1] 
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==> a * a^n < a^n" 
15251  210 
apply (induct n) 
14577  211 
apply (auto simp add: power_Suc mult_strict_left_mono) 
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done 
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lemma power_strict_decreasing: 
15004  215 
"[n < N; 0 < a; a < (1::'a::{ordered_semidom,recpower})] 
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==> a^N < a^n" 
14577  217 
apply (erule rev_mp) 
15251  218 
apply (induct "N") 
14577  219 
apply (auto simp add: power_Suc power_Suc_less less_Suc_eq) 
220 
apply (rename_tac m) 

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apply (subgoal_tac "a * a^m < 1 * a^n", simp) 
14577  222 
apply (rule mult_strict_mono) 
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apply (auto simp add: zero_le_power zero_less_one order_less_imp_le) 
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done 
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text{*Proof resembles that of @{text power_strict_decreasing}*} 
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lemma power_decreasing: 
15004  228 
"[n \<le> N; 0 \<le> a; a \<le> (1::'a::{ordered_semidom,recpower})] 
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==> a^N \<le> a^n" 
14577  230 
apply (erule rev_mp) 
15251  231 
apply (induct "N") 
14577  232 
apply (auto simp add: power_Suc le_Suc_eq) 
233 
apply (rename_tac m) 

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apply (subgoal_tac "a * a^m \<le> 1 * a^n", simp) 
14577  235 
apply (rule mult_mono) 
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apply (auto simp add: zero_le_power zero_le_one) 
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done 
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lemma power_Suc_less_one: 
15004  240 
"[ 0 < a; a < (1::'a::{ordered_semidom,recpower}) ] ==> a ^ Suc n < 1" 
14577  241 
apply (insert power_strict_decreasing [of 0 "Suc n" a], simp) 
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done 
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text{*Proof again resembles that of @{text power_strict_decreasing}*} 
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lemma power_increasing: 
15004  246 
"[n \<le> N; (1::'a::{ordered_semidom,recpower}) \<le> a] ==> a^n \<le> a^N" 
14577  247 
apply (erule rev_mp) 
15251  248 
apply (induct "N") 
14577  249 
apply (auto simp add: power_Suc le_Suc_eq) 
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apply (rename_tac m) 
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apply (subgoal_tac "1 * a^n \<le> a * a^m", simp) 
14577  252 
apply (rule mult_mono) 
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apply (auto simp add: order_trans [OF zero_le_one] zero_le_power) 
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done 
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text{*Lemma for @{text power_strict_increasing}*} 
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lemma power_less_power_Suc: 
15004  258 
"(1::'a::{ordered_semidom,recpower}) < a ==> a^n < a * a^n" 
15251  259 
apply (induct n) 
14577  260 
apply (auto simp add: power_Suc mult_strict_left_mono order_less_trans [OF zero_less_one]) 
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done 
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lemma power_strict_increasing: 
15004  264 
"[n < N; (1::'a::{ordered_semidom,recpower}) < a] ==> a^n < a^N" 
14577  265 
apply (erule rev_mp) 
15251  266 
apply (induct "N") 
14577  267 
apply (auto simp add: power_less_power_Suc power_Suc less_Suc_eq) 
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apply (rename_tac m) 
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apply (subgoal_tac "1 * a^n < a * a^m", simp) 
14577  270 
apply (rule mult_strict_mono) 
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apply (auto simp add: order_less_trans [OF zero_less_one] zero_le_power 
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order_less_imp_le) 
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done 
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15066  275 
lemma power_increasing_iff [simp]: 
276 
"1 < (b::'a::{ordered_semidom,recpower}) ==> (b ^ x \<le> b ^ y) = (x \<le> y)" 

277 
by (blast intro: power_le_imp_le_exp power_increasing order_less_imp_le) 

278 

279 
lemma power_strict_increasing_iff [simp]: 

280 
"1 < (b::'a::{ordered_semidom,recpower}) ==> (b ^ x < b ^ y) = (x < y)" 

281 
by (blast intro: power_less_imp_less_exp power_strict_increasing) 

282 

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lemma power_le_imp_le_base: 
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assumes le: "a ^ Suc n \<le> b ^ Suc n" 
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and ynonneg: "(0::'a::{ordered_semidom,recpower}) \<le> b" 
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shows "a \<le> b" 
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proof (rule ccontr) 
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assume "~ a \<le> b" 
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then have "b < a" by (simp only: linorder_not_le) 
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then have "b ^ Suc n < a ^ Suc n" 
14577  291 
by (simp only: prems power_strict_mono) 
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from le and this show "False" 
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by (simp add: linorder_not_less [symmetric]) 
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qed 
14577  295 

22853  296 
lemma power_less_imp_less_base: 
297 
fixes a b :: "'a::{ordered_semidom,recpower}" 

298 
assumes less: "a ^ n < b ^ n" 

299 
assumes nonneg: "0 \<le> b" 

300 
shows "a < b" 

301 
proof (rule contrapos_pp [OF less]) 

302 
assume "~ a < b" 

303 
hence "b \<le> a" by (simp only: linorder_not_less) 

304 
hence "b ^ n \<le> a ^ n" using nonneg by (rule power_mono) 

305 
thus "~ a ^ n < b ^ n" by (simp only: linorder_not_less) 

306 
qed 

307 

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lemma power_inject_base: 
14577  309 
"[ a ^ Suc n = b ^ Suc n; 0 \<le> a; 0 \<le> b ] 
15004  310 
==> a = (b::'a::{ordered_semidom,recpower})" 
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by (blast intro: power_le_imp_le_base order_antisym order_eq_refl sym) 
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312 

22955  313 
lemma power_eq_imp_eq_base: 
314 
fixes a b :: "'a::{ordered_semidom,recpower}" 

315 
shows "\<lbrakk>a ^ n = b ^ n; 0 \<le> a; 0 \<le> b; 0 < n\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> a = b" 

316 
by (cases n, simp_all, rule power_inject_base) 

317 

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318 

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subsection{*Exponentiation for the Natural Numbers*} 
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21456  321 
instance nat :: power .. 
322 

8844  323 
primrec (power) 
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"p ^ 0 = 1" 
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"p ^ (Suc n) = (p::nat) * (p ^ n)" 
14577  326 

15004  327 
instance nat :: recpower 
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proof 
14438  329 
fix z n :: nat 
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show "z^0 = 1" by simp 
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show "z^(Suc n) = z * (z^n)" by simp 
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qed 
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333 

23305  334 
lemma of_nat_power: 
335 
"of_nat (m ^ n) = (of_nat m::'a::{semiring_1,recpower}) ^ n" 

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by (induct n, simp_all add: power_Suc of_nat_mult) 
23305  337 

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lemma nat_one_le_power [simp]: "1 \<le> i ==> Suc 0 \<le> i^n" 
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by (insert one_le_power [of i n], simp) 
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340 

21413  341 
lemma nat_zero_less_power_iff [simp]: "(0 < x^n) = (x \<noteq> (0::nat)  n=0)" 
342 
by (induct "n", auto) 

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343 

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text{*Valid for the naturals, but what if @{text"0<i<1"}? 
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Premises cannot be weakened: consider the case where @{term "i=0"}, 
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@{term "m=1"} and @{term "n=0"}.*} 
21413  347 
lemma nat_power_less_imp_less: 
348 
assumes nonneg: "0 < (i\<Colon>nat)" 

349 
assumes less: "i^m < i^n" 

350 
shows "m < n" 

351 
proof (cases "i = 1") 

352 
case True with less power_one [where 'a = nat] show ?thesis by simp 

353 
next 

354 
case False with nonneg have "1 < i" by auto 

355 
from power_strict_increasing_iff [OF this] less show ?thesis .. 

356 
qed 

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357 

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lemma power_diff: 
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assumes nz: "a ~= 0" 
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shows "n <= m ==> (a::'a::{recpower, field}) ^ (mn) = (a^m) / (a^n)" 
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by (induct m n rule: diff_induct) 
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(simp_all add: power_Suc nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_left nz) 
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363 

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364 

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text{*ML bindings for the general exponentiation theorems*} 
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366 
ML 
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{* 
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val power_0 = thm"power_0"; 
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val power_Suc = thm"power_Suc"; 
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370 
val power_0_Suc = thm"power_0_Suc"; 
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371 
val power_0_left = thm"power_0_left"; 
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372 
val power_one = thm"power_one"; 
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373 
val power_one_right = thm"power_one_right"; 
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374 
val power_add = thm"power_add"; 
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375 
val power_mult = thm"power_mult"; 
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376 
val power_mult_distrib = thm"power_mult_distrib"; 
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377 
val zero_less_power = thm"zero_less_power"; 
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378 
val zero_le_power = thm"zero_le_power"; 
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379 
val one_le_power = thm"one_le_power"; 
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380 
val gt1_imp_ge0 = thm"gt1_imp_ge0"; 
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381 
val power_gt1_lemma = thm"power_gt1_lemma"; 
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382 
val power_gt1 = thm"power_gt1"; 
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383 
val power_le_imp_le_exp = thm"power_le_imp_le_exp"; 
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384 
val power_inject_exp = thm"power_inject_exp"; 
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385 
val power_less_imp_less_exp = thm"power_less_imp_less_exp"; 
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386 
val power_mono = thm"power_mono"; 
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387 
val power_strict_mono = thm"power_strict_mono"; 
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388 
val power_eq_0_iff = thm"power_eq_0_iff"; 
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389 
val field_power_eq_0_iff = thm"field_power_eq_0_iff"; 
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390 
val field_power_not_zero = thm"field_power_not_zero"; 
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391 
val power_inverse = thm"power_inverse"; 
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392 
val nonzero_power_divide = thm"nonzero_power_divide"; 
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393 
val power_divide = thm"power_divide"; 
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394 
val power_abs = thm"power_abs"; 
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395 
val zero_less_power_abs_iff = thm"zero_less_power_abs_iff"; 
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396 
val zero_le_power_abs = thm "zero_le_power_abs"; 
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397 
val power_minus = thm"power_minus"; 
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398 
val power_Suc_less = thm"power_Suc_less"; 
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399 
val power_strict_decreasing = thm"power_strict_decreasing"; 
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400 
val power_decreasing = thm"power_decreasing"; 
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401 
val power_Suc_less_one = thm"power_Suc_less_one"; 
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402 
val power_increasing = thm"power_increasing"; 
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403 
val power_strict_increasing = thm"power_strict_increasing"; 
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404 
val power_le_imp_le_base = thm"power_le_imp_le_base"; 
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405 
val power_inject_base = thm"power_inject_base"; 
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406 
*} 
14577  407 

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408 
text{*ML bindings for the remaining theorems*} 
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409 
ML 
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410 
{* 
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411 
val nat_one_le_power = thm"nat_one_le_power"; 
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412 
val nat_power_less_imp_less = thm"nat_power_less_imp_less"; 
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413 
val nat_zero_less_power_iff = thm"nat_zero_less_power_iff"; 
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414 
*} 
3390
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New theory "Power" of exponentiation (and binomial coefficients)
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415 

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416 
end 
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417 