NEWS
author wenzelm
Wed Sep 25 16:29:35 2013 +0200 (2013-09-25)
changeset 53886 c83727c7a510
parent 53852 c7707223d782
child 53968 814dbc4e84a3
permissions -rw-r--r--
updated documentation concerning MacOSX plugin 1.3;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
    10 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
    11 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
    12 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
    13 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
    14 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
    15 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
    16 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
    17 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
    18 syntax.
    19 
    20 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
    21 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    22 
    23 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
    24 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
    25 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
    26 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
    27 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
    28 
    29 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
    30 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    31 
    32 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
    33 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
    34 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation, with its
    35 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs, has been discontinued.
    36 The default chapter is "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for HTML
    37 presentation of theories.
    38 
    39 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
    40 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
    41 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    42 
    43 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
    44 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    45 
    46 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
    47 eliminated old "ref" manual.
    48 
    49 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
    50 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
    51 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
    52 
    53 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
    54 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
    55 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
    56 
    57 
    58 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    59 
    60 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality.
    61 
    62 * Separate manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
    63 Documentation panel.
    64 
    65 * Improved "Theories" panel: Continuous checking of proof document
    66 (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly, using check
    67 box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may be marked
    68 explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box or
    69 shortcut "C+e SPACE".
    70 
    71 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancelation of
    72 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
    73 such command executions while editing.
    74 
    75 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
    76 document content.
    77 
    78 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
    79 toplevel theorem statements.
    80 
    81 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
    82 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
    83 
    84 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
    85 documentation.
    86 
    87 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
    88 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
    89 normal editing and checking process.
    90 
    91 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
    92 timing information.
    93 
    94 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
    95 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size"
    96 (cf. keyboard shortcut C+0).
    97 
    98 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
    99 / Global Options / Appearance".
   100 
   101 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   102 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.
   103 
   104   - Various Isabelle plugin options to control popup behaviour and
   105     immediate insertion into buffer.
   106 
   107   - Light-weight popup, which avoids explicit window (more reactive
   108     and more robust).  Interpreted key events include TAB, ESCAPE, UP,
   109     DOWN, PAGE_UP, PAGE_DOWN.  All other key events are passed to
   110     the jEdit text area.
   111 
   112   - Explicit completion via standard jEdit shortcut C+b, which has
   113     been remapped to action "isabelle.complete" (fall-back on regular
   114     "complete-word" for non-Isabelle buffers).
   115 
   116   - Implicit completion via keyboard input on text area, with popup or
   117     immediate insertion into buffer.
   118 
   119   - Implicit completion of plain words requires at least 3 characters
   120     (was 2 before).
   121 
   122   - Immediate completion ignores plain words; it requires > 1
   123     characters of symbol abbreviation to complete, otherwise fall-back
   124     on completion popup.
   125 
   126   - Isabelle Symbols are only completed in backslashed forms,
   127     e.g. \forall or \<forall> that both produce the Isabelle symbol
   128     \<forall> in its Unicode rendering.
   129 
   130   - Refined table of Isabelle symbol abbreviations (see
   131     $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   132 
   133 
   134 *** Pure ***
   135 
   136 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   137 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   138 
   139 * Type theory is now immutable, without any special treatment of
   140 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
   141 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
   142 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
   143 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   144 
   145 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   146 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   147 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   148 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   149 
   150 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   151 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   152 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   153 
   154 * Target-sensitive commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale'.
   155 Particulary, 'interpretation' now allows for non-persistent
   156 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks.  See
   157 "isar-ref" manual for details.
   158 
   159 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   160 
   161 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   162 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   163 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   164 
   165 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   166 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   167 
   168 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   169 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   170 situations.
   171 
   172 
   173 *** HOL ***
   174 
   175 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   176 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   177 
   178 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   179 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   180 to distinguish both when desired.
   181 
   182 * Code generator:
   183   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   184     'code_instance'.
   185   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   186     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   187   See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories
   188   for examples.
   189 
   190 * HOL/BNF:
   191   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including new
   192     commands "primrec_new", "primcorecursive", and "datatype_new_compat",
   193     as well as documentation. See "datatypes.pdf" for details.
   194   - Renamed keywords:
   195     data ~> datatype_new
   196     codata ~> codatatype
   197     bnf_def ~> bnf
   198   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
   199     discs ~> disc
   200     map_comp' ~> map_comp
   201     map_id' ~> map_id
   202     sels ~> sel
   203     set_map' ~> set_map
   204     sets ~> set
   205 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   206 
   207 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   208 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   209 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   210 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   211 
   212 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   213 automatically generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x =
   214 t".
   215 
   216 * New command "fun_cases" derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   217 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   218 inductive_cases.  See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   219 
   220 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   221   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   222   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
   223     generated code.
   224   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   225   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   226   - Fact renames:
   227     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   228     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
   229     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
   230 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   231 
   232 * Reification and reflection:
   233   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   234     "Reification".
   235   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   236   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   237 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   238 
   239 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on sets,
   240 in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   241 
   242 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   243 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   244 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   245 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   246 
   247   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   248 
   249 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
   250 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
   251 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
   252 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
   253 
   254 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   255 
   256 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   257   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   258     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   259     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   260   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   261     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   262   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   263     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   264     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   265     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   266     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   267     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   268     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   269     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly. 
   270   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   271     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   272   - Fact renames:
   273       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   274       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   275 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   276 
   277 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   278 
   279 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   280 
   281 * Discontinued obsolete src/HOL/IsaMakefile (considered legacy since
   282 Isabelle2013).  Use "isabelle build" to operate on Isabelle sessions.
   283 
   284 * Numeric types mapped by default to target language numerals: natural
   285 (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former code_int).
   286 Conversions are available as integer_of_natural / natural_of_integer /
   287 integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   288 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   289 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   290 
   291 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   292 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   293 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   294 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   295 
   296 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   297 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   298 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   299 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   300 
   301 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   302 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   303 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   304 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   305 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   306 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   307 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   308 lemmas.
   309 
   310 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   311 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   312 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   313 
   314 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top 
   315 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions. 
   316 INCOMPATIBILITY: Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   317 
   318 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   319 top and bottom elements.
   320 
   321 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   322 
   323 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   324 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   325 
   326  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and linear_continuum_topology.
   327    Allows to generalize theorems about limits and order.
   328    Instances are reals and extended reals.
   329 
   330  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   331    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.
   332    "isCont" is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   333 
   334    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an arbitrary
   335    filter.
   336 
   337  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma
   338    to prove compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   339    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a continuous
   340    function is continuous, when the function is continuous on a compact set.
   341 
   342  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   343    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   344    linear_continuum_topology).
   345 
   346  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   347    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and on
   348    all sequences converging to x.
   349 
   350  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved theorems
   351    from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the definition of DERIV on
   352    FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV which are restricted to sets,
   353    i.e. to represent derivatives from left or right.
   354 
   355  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   356 
   357      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   358 
   359  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   360    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   361 
   362  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros, continuous_intros,
   363    continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems in tendsto_intros (or
   364    FDERIV_intros) are also available as tendsto_eq_intros (or
   365    FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side is replaced by a congruence
   366    rule. This allows to apply them as intro rules and then proving
   367    equivalence by the simplifier.
   368 
   369  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   370 
   371    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   372 
   373    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   374      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   375 
   376    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   377 
   378    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces, Real_Vector_Spaces, and
   379      Limits
   380 
   381    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   382 
   383    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   384 
   385  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   386 
   387 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   388 
   389 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   390 
   391     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   392     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   393 
   394 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   395 
   396 * Nitpick:
   397   - Added option "spy"
   398   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors
   399 
   400 * Sledgehammer:
   401   - Renamed option:
   402       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   403     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   404   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy"
   405   - Better support for "isar_proofs"
   406   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server
   407 
   408 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
   409 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
   410 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
   411 
   412 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
   413 .../poly.  Existing theories should be based on
   414 src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides integration
   415 with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   416 
   417 
   418 *** ML ***
   419 
   420 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
   421 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
   422 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
   423 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
   424 
   425 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
   426 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
   427 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
   428 Examples.thy in particular.
   429 
   430 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
   431 
   432     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
   433     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
   434 
   435 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
   436 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
   437 
   438 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
   439 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
   440 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
   441 clasets separately from the context.
   442 
   443 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
   444 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
   445 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
   446 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
   447 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
   448 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
   449 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
   450 
   451 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
   452 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
   453 
   454 
   455 *** System ***
   456 
   457 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
   458 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   459 
   460 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
   461 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   462 
   463 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
   464 settings variable.
   465 
   466 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
   467 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
   468 always pdf.
   469 
   470 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
   471 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
   472 
   473 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
   474 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
   475 
   476 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
   477 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
   478 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
   479 
   480 
   481 
   482 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
   483 -----------------------------------
   484 
   485 *** General ***
   486 
   487 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
   488 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
   489 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
   490 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
   491 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
   492 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
   493 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
   494 
   495 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
   496 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
   497 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
   498 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
   499 
   500 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
   501 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
   502 
   503 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
   504 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
   505 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
   506 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
   507 dependencies properly.
   508 
   509 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
   510 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
   511 
   512 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
   513 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
   514 
   515 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
   516 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
   517 and "class ... context ...".
   518 
   519 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
   520 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
   521 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
   522 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
   523 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
   524 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
   525 
   526 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
   527 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
   528 
   529 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
   530 to name patterns (with clickable results).
   531 
   532 
   533 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   534 
   535 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
   536 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
   537 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
   538 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
   539 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
   540 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
   541 
   542 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
   543 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
   544 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
   545 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
   546 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
   547 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
   548 
   549 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
   550 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
   551 browser on demand.
   552 
   553 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
   554 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
   555 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
   556 that frequently occur in user interaction.
   557 
   558 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
   559 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
   560 
   561 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
   562 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
   563 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
   564 potentially infinite message streams.
   565 
   566 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
   567 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
   568 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
   569 schemes.
   570 
   571 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
   572 symbols.
   573 
   574 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
   575 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
   576 
   577 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
   578 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
   579 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
   580 
   581 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
   582 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
   583 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
   584 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
   585 
   586 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
   587 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
   588 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
   589 
   590 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
   591 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
   592 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
   593 Isabelle distribution.
   594 
   595 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
   596 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   597 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   598 
   599 
   600 *** Pure ***
   601 
   602 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   603 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   604 
   605 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
   606 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
   607 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   608 
   609 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   610 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   611 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   612 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   613 with some care where this is really required.
   614 
   615 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   616 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   617 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   618 
   619   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   620 
   621 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
   622 a Hasse diagram.
   623 
   624 
   625 *** HOL ***
   626 
   627 * Sledgehammer:
   628 
   629   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   630     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   631   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
   632   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   633   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
   634   - Renamed options:
   635       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   636       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   637       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   638       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   639 
   640 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
   641 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
   642 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   643 
   644 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
   645 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   646 
   647 * Lifting:
   648   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
   649   - quot_del attribute
   650   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
   651 
   652 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   653 expressions.
   654 
   655 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   656 pointfree expressions.
   657 
   658 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   659 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   660 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   661 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
   662 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   663 
   664 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   665 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   666 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   667 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   668 accordingly.
   669 
   670 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   671 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   672 
   673 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
   674 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   675 
   676 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   677 
   678 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   679 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   680 
   681 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   682 
   683 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
   684 
   685   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
   686   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
   687 
   688 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   689 
   690 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
   691 
   692   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   693   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   694 
   695 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   696 
   697 * Generalized the definition of limits:
   698 
   699   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
   700     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
   701     output f x converges to G.
   702 
   703   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
   704     infinity (at_bot).
   705 
   706   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
   707     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
   708 
   709   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
   710     at_top".
   711 
   712 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   713 
   714 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
   715 lattice type classes.
   716 
   717 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
   718 
   719     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
   720     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
   721 
   722 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   723 
   724 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
   725 changes as follows.
   726 
   727   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
   728 
   729       prefix ~> prefixeq
   730       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   731 
   732   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
   733     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
   734     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
   735     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
   736 
   737   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
   738     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
   739     "list_hembeq (op =)".
   740 
   741   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
   742     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   743     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
   744     Library/Prefix_Order.
   745 
   746   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
   747     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
   748 
   749       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
   750       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
   751       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
   752       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
   753       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
   754       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
   755       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
   756       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
   757       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
   758       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
   759       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
   760       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
   761       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
   762       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   763       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   764       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
   765 
   766 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   767 
   768 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
   769 
   770 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
   771 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   772 
   773 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
   774 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
   775 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
   776 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
   777 
   778   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
   779   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
   780   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
   781   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
   782   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
   783   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
   784   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
   785   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
   786   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
   787   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
   788 
   789 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   790 
   791 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
   792 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
   793 Data").
   794 
   795 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
   796 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
   797 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
   798 code.
   799 
   800 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
   801 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   802 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
   803 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   804 
   805 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
   806 
   807 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
   808 
   809 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
   810 
   811   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
   812   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
   813 
   814 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
   815 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
   816 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
   817 
   818   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
   819 
   820     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
   821     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
   822     cart_base i  removed
   823     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
   824 
   825   Theorems about these constants where removed.
   826 
   827   Renamed lemmas:
   828 
   829     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
   830     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
   831     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
   832     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
   833     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
   834     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
   835     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
   836     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
   837     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
   838     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
   839 
   840 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   841 
   842 * HOL/Probability:
   843 
   844   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
   845 
   846   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
   847     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
   848     (borel_measurable_induct).
   849 
   850   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
   851     projective family).
   852 
   853 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
   854 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
   855 
   856 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
   857 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
   858 datatypes.
   859 
   860 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
   861 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
   862 
   863 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
   864 trees for the code generator.
   865 
   866 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
   867 Lifting/Transfer.
   868 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
   869 
   870 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
   871 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   872 
   873 
   874 *** Document preparation ***
   875 
   876 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
   877 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
   878 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
   879 
   880 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
   881 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
   882 
   883 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
   884 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
   885 document/root.tex.
   886 
   887 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
   888 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   889 
   890 
   891 *** ML ***
   892 
   893 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
   894 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
   895 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
   896 
   897 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
   898 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
   899 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
   900 
   901 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
   902 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
   903 necessarily printing visible text.
   904 
   905 
   906 *** System ***
   907 
   908 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
   909 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
   910 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
   911 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
   912 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
   913 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
   914 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
   915 
   916 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
   917 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
   918 
   919   isabelle build -s -b HOL
   920 
   921 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
   922 
   923 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
   924 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
   925 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
   926 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
   927 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
   928 
   929 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
   930 required for "isabelle build", for example.
   931 
   932 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
   933 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
   934 
   935 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
   936 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   937 
   938 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
   939 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
   940 version of Isabelle.
   941 
   942 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
   943 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
   944 
   945 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
   946 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   947 for home-made settings.
   948 
   949 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
   950 
   951 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
   952 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
   953 configuration.
   954 
   955 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
   956 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
   957 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
   958 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
   959 bundled as Isabelle component.
   960 
   961 
   962 
   963 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
   964 ------------------------------
   965 
   966 *** General ***
   967 
   968 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
   969 
   970   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
   971     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
   972   - markup for bound variables
   973   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
   974   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
   975   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
   976     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
   977 
   978 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
   979 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
   980 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
   981 
   982 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
   983 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
   984 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
   985 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
   986 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
   987 
   988   context
   989     fixes x y z :: 'a
   990     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
   991   begin
   992 
   993   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
   994 
   995   end
   996 
   997   thm my_trans
   998 
   999 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1000 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1001 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1002 
  1003 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1004 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1005 
  1006 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1007 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1008 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1009 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1010 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1011 
  1012 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1013 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1014 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1015 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1016 indices of schematic variables.
  1017 
  1018 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1019 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1020 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1021 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1022 etc. was exploited.
  1023 
  1024 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1025 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1026 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1027 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1028 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1029 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1030 
  1031 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1032 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1033 manual.
  1034 
  1035 
  1036 *** Pure ***
  1037 
  1038 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1039 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1040 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1041 
  1042 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1043 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1044 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1045 undocumented feature.)
  1046 
  1047 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1048 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1049 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1050 
  1051   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1052 
  1053   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1054     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1055 
  1056 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1057 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1058 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1059 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1060 
  1061 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1062 
  1063     num ~> num_token
  1064     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1065     xstr ~> str_token
  1066 
  1067 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1068 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1069 position information via constraints).
  1070 
  1071 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1072 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1073 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1074 
  1075 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1076 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1077 
  1078 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1079 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1080 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1081 
  1082 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1083 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1084 
  1085 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1086 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1087 
  1088   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1089 
  1090 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1091 
  1092 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1093 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1094 
  1095 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1096 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1097 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1098 
  1099 
  1100 *** HOL ***
  1101 
  1102 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1103 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1104 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1105 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1106 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1107 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1108 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1109 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1110 possible.
  1111 
  1112 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1113 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1114 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1115 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1116 
  1117 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1118 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1119 
  1120 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1121 
  1122 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1123 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1124 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1125 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1126 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1127 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1128 
  1129   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1130     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1131 
  1132   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1133     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1134     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1135 
  1136   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1137     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1138 
  1139   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1140     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1141     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1142 
  1143   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1144     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1145 
  1146 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1147 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1148 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1149 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1150 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1151 
  1152   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1153     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1154     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1155     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1156     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1157 
  1158     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1159     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1160 
  1161   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1162     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1163     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1164     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1165     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1166     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1167     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1168     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1169 
  1170   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1171     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1172     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1173     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1174 
  1175   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1176     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1177     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1178     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1179 
  1180   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1181     from type nat to type int.
  1182 
  1183 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1184 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1185 
  1186   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1187     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1188     type.  Example syntax:
  1189 
  1190     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1191       is List.insert
  1192 
  1193     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1194     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1195     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1196     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1197     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1198     by the package.
  1199 
  1200   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1201     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1202     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1203     code generation for each constant.
  1204 
  1205   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1206     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1207     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1208     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1209     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1210 
  1211   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1212     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1213     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1214 
  1215 * Quotient package:
  1216 
  1217   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1218     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1219 
  1220   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1221     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1222 
  1223   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1224     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1225     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1226 
  1227   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1228     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1229 
  1230 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1231 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1232 
  1233 * Quickcheck:
  1234 
  1235   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1236     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1237     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1238     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1239     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1240 
  1241     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1242     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1243     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1244 
  1245     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1246     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1247 
  1248     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1249     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1250     show genuine counterexamples.
  1251 
  1252   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1253     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1254 
  1255     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1256     constructors of that type.
  1257 
  1258   - Support for multisets.
  1259 
  1260   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1261 
  1262   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1263     conjectures in a locale context.
  1264 
  1265 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1266 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1267 
  1268 * Sledgehammer:
  1269   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1270     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1271   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1272   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1273     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1274   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1275   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1276   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1277   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1278 
  1279 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1280 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1281 
  1282 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1283 
  1284 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1285 
  1286 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1287 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1288 
  1289   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1290 
  1291 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1292 a list and a nat.
  1293 
  1294 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1295 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1296 
  1297 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1298 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1299 default.
  1300 
  1301 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1302 
  1303   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1304 
  1305 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1306 
  1307 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1308 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1309 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1310 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1311 one_case.
  1312 
  1313 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1314 the result of the fact expression.
  1315 
  1316 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1317 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1318 of some relation theorems:
  1319 
  1320   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1321   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1322   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1323   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1324   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1325   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1326 
  1327 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1328 
  1329 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1330 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1331 
  1332 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1333 
  1334 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1335 to match the constant's name:
  1336 
  1337   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1338   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1339   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1340   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1341   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1342   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1343   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1344   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1345   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1346   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1347   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1348   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1349   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1350   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1351   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1352   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1353   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1354   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1355   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1356   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1357   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1358   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1359   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1360   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1361 
  1362 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1363 
  1364 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1365 and corresponding theorem names:
  1366 
  1367   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1368 
  1369   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1370 
  1371   - Renamed theorems:
  1372 
  1373     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1374     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1375     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1376     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1377     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1378     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1379     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1380     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1381     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1382     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1383     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1384     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1385     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1386     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1387     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1388     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1389     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1390     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1391     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1392     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1393     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1394     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1395     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1396 
  1397     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1398 
  1399     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1400 
  1401 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1402 
  1403 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1404 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1405 
  1406   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1407   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1408   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1409   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1410   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1411   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1412   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1413   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1414   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1415   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1416   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1417   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1418   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1419   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1420   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1421   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1422   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1423   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1424   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1425   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1426   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1427 
  1428 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1429 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1430 
  1431 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1432 
  1433 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1434 
  1435   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1436   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1437   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1438   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1439   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1440   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1441   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1442   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1443   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1444   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1445   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1446   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1447   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1448   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1449   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1450   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1451   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1452   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1453 
  1454 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1455 
  1456 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1457 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1458 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1459 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1460 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1461 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1462 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1463 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1464 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1465 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1466 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1467 
  1468 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1469 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1470 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1471 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1472 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1473 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1474 
  1475 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1476 through option types.
  1477 
  1478 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1479 relations.
  1480 
  1481 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1482 
  1483 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1484 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1485 
  1486   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1487   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1488   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1489   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1490   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1491   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1492   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1493   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1494   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1495   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1496   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1497   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1498   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1499   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1500   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1501   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1502   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1503   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1504   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1505   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1506   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1507   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1508   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1509   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1510   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1511   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1512   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1513   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1514   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1515   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1516   zless_le ~> less_le
  1517   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1518   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1519   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1520 
  1521 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1522 
  1523   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1524 
  1525 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1526 
  1527 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1528 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1529 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1530 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1531 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1532 
  1533 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1534 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1535 
  1536 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1537 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1538 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1539 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1540 follows:
  1541 
  1542   Operations:
  1543   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1544   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1545   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1546   del -> rbt_del
  1547   delete -> rbt_delete
  1548   ins -> rbt_ins
  1549   insert -> rbt_insert
  1550   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1551   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1552   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1553   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1554   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1555   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1556   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1557   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1558   union -> rbt_union
  1559   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1560   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1561 
  1562   Lemmas:
  1563   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1564   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1565   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1566   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1567   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1568   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1569   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1570   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1571   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1572   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1573   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1574   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1575   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1576   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1577   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1578   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1579   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1580   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1581   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1582   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1583   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1584   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1585   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1586   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1587   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1588   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1589   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1590   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1591   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1592   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1593   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1594   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1595   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1596   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1597   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1598   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1599   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1600   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1601   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1602   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1603   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1604   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1605   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1606   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1607   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1608   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1609   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1610   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1611   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1612   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1613   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1614   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1615   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1616   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1617   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1618   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1619   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1620   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1621   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1622   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1623   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1624   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1625   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1626   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1627   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1628   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1629   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1630   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1631   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1632   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1633   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1634   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1635   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1636   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1637   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1638   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1639   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1640   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1641   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1642   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1643   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1644   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1645   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1646 
  1647 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1648 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1649 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1650 
  1651   Changed Operations:
  1652   float_abs -> abs
  1653   float_nprt -> nprt
  1654   float_pprt -> pprt
  1655   pow2 -> use powr
  1656   round_down -> float_round_down
  1657   round_up -> float_round_up
  1658   scale -> exponent
  1659 
  1660   Removed Operations:
  1661   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1662 
  1663   Renamed Lemmas:
  1664   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1665   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1666   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1667   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1668   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1669   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1670   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1671   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1672   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1673   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1674   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1675   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1676   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1677   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1678   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1679   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1680   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1681   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1682   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1683   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1684   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1685   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1686   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1687   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1688   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1689   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1690   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1691   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1692   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1693   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1694   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1695   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1696   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1697   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1698   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1699   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1700 
  1701   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1702   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1703   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1704   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1705   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1706   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1707   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1708   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1709   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1710   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1711 
  1712 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1713 association lists with distinct keys.
  1714 
  1715 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1716 annotated commands.
  1717 
  1718 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1719 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1720 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1721 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1722 
  1723 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1724 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1725 instead.
  1726 
  1727   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1728   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1729   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1730   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1731   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1732   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1733   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1734   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1735   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1736   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1737   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1738   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1739   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1740   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1741   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1742   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1743   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1744   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1745   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1746   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1747   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1748   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1749   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1750   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1751   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1752   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1753   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1754   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1755   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1756   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1757   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1758   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1759   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1760   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1761   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1762   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1763   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1764   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1765   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1766   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1767   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1768 
  1769 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1770 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1771 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1772 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1773 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1774 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1775 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1776 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1777 
  1778 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1779 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1780 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1781 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1782 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1783 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1784 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1785 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1786 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1787 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1788 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1789 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1790 
  1791   Renamed constants:
  1792   measure -> emeasure
  1793   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1794   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1795   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1796   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1797 
  1798   Removed locales:
  1799   completeable_measure_space
  1800   finite_measure_space
  1801   finite_prob_space
  1802   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1803   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1804   finite_sigma_algebra
  1805   measure_space
  1806   pair_finite_prob_space
  1807   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1808   pair_finite_space
  1809   pair_sigma_algebra
  1810   product_sigma_algebra
  1811 
  1812   Removed constants:
  1813   conditional_space
  1814   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1815   image_space
  1816   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1817   pair_measure_generator
  1818   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1819   subvimage
  1820 
  1821   Replacement theorems:
  1822   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1823   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1824   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1825   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1826   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1827   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1828   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1829   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1830   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1831   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1832   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1833   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1834   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1835   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1836   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1837   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1838   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1839   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1840   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1841   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1842   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1843   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1844   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1845   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1846   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1847   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1848   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1849   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1850   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1851   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1852   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1853   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1854   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1855   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1856   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1857   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1858   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1859   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1860   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1861   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1862   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1863   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1864   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1865   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1866   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1867   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1868   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1869   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1870   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1871   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1872   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1873   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1874   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1875   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1876   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1877   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1878   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1879   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1880   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1881   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1882   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1883   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1884   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1885   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1886   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1887   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1888   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1889   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1890   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1891   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1892   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1893   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1894   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1895   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1896   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1897   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1898   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1899   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1900   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1901   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1902   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1903   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1904   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1905   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1906   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1907   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1908   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1909   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1910   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1911   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1912   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1913   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1914   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1915   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1916   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1917   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1918   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1919   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1920   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1921   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1922   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1923   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1924   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1925   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1926   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1927   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1928   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1929   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1930   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1931   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1932   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1933   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1934   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1935   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1936   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1937   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1938   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1939   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1940   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1941   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1942   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1943   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1944   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1945   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1946   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1947   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1948   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1949   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1950 
  1951 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1952 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1953 
  1954 
  1955 *** FOL ***
  1956 
  1957 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1958 
  1959 
  1960 *** ZF ***
  1961 
  1962 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1963 analysis.
  1964 
  1965 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1966 
  1967 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1968 
  1969 
  1970 *** ML ***
  1971 
  1972 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1973 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1974 
  1975 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1976 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1977 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1978 
  1979 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1980 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1981 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1982 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1983 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1984 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1985 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1986 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1987 
  1988 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1989 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1990 
  1991 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1992 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1993 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1994 
  1995 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1996 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1997 
  1998 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1999 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2000 context as well.
  2001 
  2002 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2003 
  2004   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2005   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2006   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2007   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2008   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2009   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2010   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2011   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2012   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2013   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2014   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2015   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2016 
  2017 
  2018 *** System ***
  2019 
  2020 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2021 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2022 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2023 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2024 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2025 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2026 the generic user home was intended.
  2027 
  2028 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2029 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2030 
  2031 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2032 (not just JRE).
  2033 
  2034 
  2035 
  2036 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2037 ------------------------------------
  2038 
  2039 *** General ***
  2040 
  2041 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2042 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2043 
  2044   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2045     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2046     files for checking).
  2047 
  2048   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2049     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2050     positions.
  2051 
  2052   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2053     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2054     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2055 
  2056   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2057     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2058     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2059 
  2060   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2061     cores.
  2062 
  2063   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2064     versions (garbage collection).
  2065 
  2066 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2067 including some remaining limitations.
  2068 
  2069 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2070 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2071 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2072 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2073 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2074 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2075 
  2076 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2077 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2078 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2079 
  2080 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2081 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2082 usedir option -Q.
  2083 
  2084 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2085 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2086 
  2087   long_names   ~> names_long
  2088   short_names  ~> names_short
  2089   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2090 
  2091 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2092 
  2093   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2094 
  2095 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2096 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2097 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2098 
  2099 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2100 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2101 
  2102 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2103   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2104   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2105   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2106     "Classical Reasoner".
  2107 
  2108 
  2109 *** HOL ***
  2110 
  2111 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2112 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2113 
  2114 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2115 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2116 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2117 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2118 class complete_linorder.
  2119 
  2120 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2121 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2122 
  2123 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2124 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2125 
  2126   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2127   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2128   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2129   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2130   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2131   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2132   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2133   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2134   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2135   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2136   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2137 
  2138 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2139 
  2140   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2141   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2142   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2143   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2144   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2145   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2146   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2147   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2148   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2149   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2150   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2151   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2152   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2153   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2154   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2155   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2156 
  2157 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2158 
  2159 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2160 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2161 
  2162 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2163 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2164 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2165 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2166 
  2167 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2168 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2169 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2170 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2171 
  2172 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2173 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2174 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2175 
  2176 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2177 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2178 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2179 
  2180 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2181 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2182 
  2183 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2184 
  2185     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2186     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2187 
  2188 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2189 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2190 
  2191 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2192 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2193 
  2194 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2195 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2196 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2197 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2198 
  2199   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2200   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2201   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2202   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2203   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2204   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2205   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2206 
  2207 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2208 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2209 
  2210   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2211   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2212   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2213   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2214   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2215   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2216   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2217   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2218   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2219   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2220   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2221   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2222   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2223   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2224   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2225   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2226   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2227   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2228   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2229   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2230   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2231   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2232   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2233   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2234   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2235   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2236   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2237   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2238   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2239   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2240   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2241   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2242   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2243   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2244   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2245   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2246   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2247   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2248   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2249   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2250   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2251   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2252   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2253   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2254   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2255   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2256   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2257   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2258   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2259   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2260   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2261   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2262   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2263   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2264   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2265   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2266   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2267   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2268   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2269   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2270   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2271   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2272   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2273   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2274   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2275   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2276   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2277   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2278   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2279   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2280   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2281   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2282   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2283   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2284   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2285   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2286   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2287   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2288   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2289   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2290   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2291   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2292 
  2293 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2294 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2295 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2296 
  2297 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2298 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2299 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2300 
  2301 * Code generation:
  2302 
  2303   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2304     characters in the target language.
  2305 
  2306   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2307     instead.
  2308 
  2309   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2310 
  2311   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2312     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2313 
  2314       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2315 
  2316 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2317 
  2318 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2319 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2320 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2321 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2322 syntax.
  2323 
  2324 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2325 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2326 
  2327 * Nitpick:
  2328   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2329   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2330   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2331     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2332 
  2333 * Sledgehammer:
  2334   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2335   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2336     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2337   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2338     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2339   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2340     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2341   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2342     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2343   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2344     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2345 
  2346 * Metis:
  2347   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2348   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2349     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2350 
  2351 * Command 'try':
  2352   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2353     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2354   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2355     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2356 
  2357 * Quickcheck:
  2358   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2359     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2360   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2361     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2362   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2363     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2364     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2365     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2366   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2367     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2368 
  2369 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2370 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2371 
  2372 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2373 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2374 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2375 
  2376 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2377 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2378 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2379 
  2380 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2381 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2382 
  2383 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2384 arithmetic.
  2385 
  2386 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2387 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2388 and lattice type classes.
  2389 
  2390 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2391 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2392 
  2393 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2394 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2395 
  2396 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2397 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2398 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2399 
  2400   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2401   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2402   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2403   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2404 
  2405 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2406 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2407 constants:
  2408 
  2409   type inat   ~> type enat
  2410   Fin         ~> enat
  2411   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2412   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2413   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2414 
  2415 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2416 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2417 
  2418 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2419 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2420 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2421 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2422 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2423 
  2424 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2425 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2426 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2427 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2428 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2429 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2430 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2431 
  2432   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2433   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2434   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2435   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2436 
  2437 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2438 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2439 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2440 
  2441   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2442   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2443   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2444   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2445   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2446   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2447   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2448   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2449   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2450   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2451   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2452   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2453   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2454   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2455   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2456   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2457   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2458   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2459   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2460   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2461   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2462   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2463   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2464   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2465   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2466   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2467   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2468   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2469   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2470   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2471   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2472   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2473   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2474   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2475   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2476   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2477   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2478   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2479   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2480   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2481   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2482   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2483   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2484   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2485   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2486   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2487   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2488   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2489   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2490   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2491   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2492 
  2493 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2494   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2495   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2496   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2497   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2498     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2499 
  2500 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2501 
  2502   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2503   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2504   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2505   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2506   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2507   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2508   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2509   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2510   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2511   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2512   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2513   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2514   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2515   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2516   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2517   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2518   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2519   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2520   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2521   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2522   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2523   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2524   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2525   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2526   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2527 
  2528 
  2529 *** Document preparation ***
  2530 
  2531 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2532 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2533 same.
  2534 
  2535 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2536 result.
  2537 
  2538 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2539 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2540 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2541 
  2542 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2543 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2544 
  2545 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2546 like this:
  2547 
  2548   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2549   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2550 
  2551 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2552 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2553 layouts.
  2554 
  2555 
  2556 *** ML ***
  2557 
  2558 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2559 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2560 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2561 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2562 under external program control.
  2563 
  2564 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2565 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2566 
  2567 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2568 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2569 (better known as Proof General).
  2570 
  2571 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2572 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2573 
  2574 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2575 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2576 
  2577 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2578 (including quotes etc.).
  2579 
  2580 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2581 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2582 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2583 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2584 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2585 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2586 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2587 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2588 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2589 
  2590 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2591 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2592 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2593 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2594 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2595 
  2596 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2597 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2598 
  2599 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2600 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2601 
  2602 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2603 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2604 
  2605 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2606 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2607 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2608 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2609 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2610 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2611 proper Proof.context.
  2612 
  2613 
  2614 *** System ***
  2615 
  2616 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2617 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2618 
  2619 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2620 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2621 
  2622 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2623 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2624 
  2625   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2626   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2627   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2628   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2629   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2630 
  2631 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2632 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2633 
  2634 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2635 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2636 example:
  2637 
  2638   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2639 
  2640 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2641 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2642 
  2643 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2644 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2645 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2646 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2647 
  2648 
  2649 
  2650 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2651 ----------------------------------
  2652 
  2653 *** General ***
  2654 
  2655 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2656 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2657 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2658 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2659 like this:
  2660 
  2661   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2662 
  2663 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2664 
  2665 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2666 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2667 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2668 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2669 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2670 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2671 
  2672 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2673 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2674 the following package declarations:
  2675 
  2676   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2677   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2678 
  2679 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2680 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2681 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2682 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2683 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2684 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2685 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2686 
  2687 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2688 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2689 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2690 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2691 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2692 
  2693 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2694 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2695 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2696 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2697 
  2698 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2699 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2700 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2701 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2702 
  2703   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2704 
  2705   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2706   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2707   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2708   show_types                    show_types
  2709   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2710   show_consts                   show_consts
  2711   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2712 
  2713   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2714   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2715   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2716 
  2717   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2718   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2719 
  2720   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2721 
  2722   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2723   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2724   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2725   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2726   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2727 
  2728 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2729 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2730 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2731 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2732 
  2733 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2734 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2735 
  2736   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2737   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2738 
  2739 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2740 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2741 float_token.
  2742 
  2743 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2744 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2745 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2746 
  2747 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2748 DejaVu Sans.
  2749 
  2750 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2751 
  2752 
  2753 *** Pure ***
  2754 
  2755 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2756 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2757 time.
  2758 
  2759 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2760 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2761 
  2762 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2763 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2764 
  2765 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2766 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2767 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2768 command already provided this functionality.
  2769 
  2770 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2771 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2772 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2773 without interpretations.
  2774 
  2775 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2776 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2777 
  2778 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2779 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2780 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2781 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2782 
  2783 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2784 'definition' instead.
  2785 
  2786 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2787 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2788 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2789 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2790 
  2791 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2792 constructors.
  2793 
  2794 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2795 the local file system.
  2796 
  2797 
  2798 *** HOL ***
  2799 
  2800 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2801 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2802 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2803 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2804 
  2805   declare [[coercion f]]
  2806 
  2807 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2808 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2809 
  2810   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2811 
  2812 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2813 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2814 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2815 other theories like this:
  2816 
  2817   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2818 
  2819 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2820 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2821 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2822 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2823 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2824 for examples.
  2825 
  2826 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2827 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2828 
  2829 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2830 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2831 
  2832 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2833 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2834 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2835 
  2836 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2837 functorial structure of types.
  2838 
  2839 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2840 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2841 
  2842 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2843 languages.
  2844 
  2845 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2846 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2847 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2848 
  2849 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2850 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2851 
  2852 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2853 combinators any longer.
  2854 
  2855 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2856 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2857 
  2858 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2859 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2860 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2861 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2862 
  2863   record 'a foo = ...
  2864   ...
  2865   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2866 
  2867 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2868 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2869 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2870 
  2871 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2872 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2873 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2874 
  2875 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2876 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2877 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2878 
  2879 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2880 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2881 
  2882 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2883 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2884 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2885 independently.
  2886 
  2887 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2888 counter example search.
  2889 
  2890 * Sledgehammer:
  2891   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2892     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2893     sledgehammer").
  2894   - Renamed commands:
  2895     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2896     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2897     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2898     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2899   - Renamed options:
  2900     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2901     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2902     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2903     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2904     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2905 
  2906 * Nitpick:
  2907   - Renamed options:
  2908     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2909     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2910     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2911   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2912   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2913   - Added "whack" option.
  2914   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2915   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2916   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2917   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2918     higher cardinalities.
  2919   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2920 
  2921 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2922 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2923 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2924 
  2925     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2926 
  2927 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2928 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2929 
  2930 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2931 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2932 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2933 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2934 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2935 "smt_solver".
  2936 
  2937 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2938 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2939 
  2940 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2941 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2942 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2943 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2944 
  2945 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2946   - Renamed:
  2947     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2948     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2949     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2950   - Added:
  2951     smt_verbose
  2952     smt_random_seed
  2953     smt_datatypes
  2954     smt_infer_triggers
  2955     smt_monomorph_limit
  2956     cvc3_options
  2957     remote_cvc3_options
  2958     remote_z3_options
  2959     yices_options
  2960 
  2961 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2962 header.
  2963 
  2964 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2965 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2966 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2967 
  2968   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2969 
  2970 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2971 
  2972 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2973 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2974 
  2975 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2976 
  2977 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2978 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2979 
  2980 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2981 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2982 
  2983 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2984 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2985 
  2986 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2987 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2988 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2989 
  2990 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2991 
  2992 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2993 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2994 
  2995 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2996 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2997 
  2998 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2999 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3000 for congruent(2)).
  3001 
  3002 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3003 
  3004   types
  3005     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3006     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3007 
  3008   constants
  3009     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3010     True ~> HOL.True
  3011     False ~> HOL.False
  3012     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3013     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3014     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3015     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3016     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3017     The ~> HOL.The
  3018     All ~> HOL.All
  3019     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3020     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3021     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3022     If ~> HOL.If
  3023     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3024     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3025     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3026     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3027     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3028     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3029     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3030     op : ~> Set.member
  3031     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3032 
  3033 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3034 
  3035 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3036 
  3037     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3038     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3039     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3040     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3041     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3042     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3043     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3044     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3045 
  3046 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3047 
  3048 * More stylized fact names:
  3049 
  3050   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3051   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3052   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3053   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3054 
  3055 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3056 
  3057 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3058 
  3059   constants
  3060     null ~> List.null
  3061 
  3062   facts
  3063     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3064     null_empty ~> null_def
  3065 
  3066 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3067 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3068 generation.
  3069 
  3070 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3071 Haskell code.
  3072 
  3073 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3074 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3075 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3076 
  3077 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3078 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3079 
  3080 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3081 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3082 
  3083 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3084 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3085 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3086 
  3087 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3088 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3089 
  3090 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3091 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3092 
  3093 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3094 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3095 referred to by its qualified name.
  3096 
  3097   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3098   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3099   product ~>  Enum.product
  3100 
  3101 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3102 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3103 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3104 
  3105 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3106 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3107 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3108 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3109 
  3110 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3111 sort_key.
  3112 
  3113 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3114 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3115 
  3116 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3117 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3118 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3119 
  3120   types
  3121     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3122               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3123               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3124         (depends on your needs)
  3125 
  3126   constants
  3127      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3128      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3129      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3130 
  3131 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3132 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3133 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3134 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3135 
  3136 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3137 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3138 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3139 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3140 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3141 
  3142 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3143 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3144 
  3145 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3146 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3147 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3148 
  3149 
  3150 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3151 
  3152 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3153 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3154 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3155 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3156 compatibility.
  3157 
  3158 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3159 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3160 
  3161 
  3162 *** HOLCF ***
  3163 
  3164 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3165 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3166 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3167 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3168 
  3169 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3170 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3171 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3172 
  3173   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3174   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3175   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3176 
  3177 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3178 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3179 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3180 
  3181 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3182 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3183 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3184 domain definition now works:
  3185 
  3186   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3187 
  3188 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3189 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3190 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3191 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3192 
  3193   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3194     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3195 
  3196   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3197 
  3198 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3199 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3200 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3201 
  3202 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3203 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3204 
  3205 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3206 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3207 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3208 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3209 
  3210 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3211 
  3212 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3213 
  3214 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3215 
  3216 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3217 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3218 
  3219 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3220 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3221 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3222 
  3223 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3224 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3225 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3226 
  3227 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3228 still supported as an input translation.
  3229 
  3230 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3231 
  3232   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3233   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3234   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3235   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3236   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3237   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3238   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3239 
  3240 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3241 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3242 
  3243   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3244   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3245   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3246   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3247   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3248   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3249 
  3250 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3251 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3252 
  3253 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3254 
  3255   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3256   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3257   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3258   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3259 
  3260 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3261 
  3262 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3263 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3264 
  3265 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3266 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3267 
  3268   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3269   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3270   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3271   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3272   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3273   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3274   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3275   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3276   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3277   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3278   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3279   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3280   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3281   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3282   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3283   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3284   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3285   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3286   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3287   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3288 
  3289 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3290 
  3291   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3292   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3293   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3294   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3295   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3296   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3297   box_less             ~> box_below
  3298   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3299   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3300   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3301   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3302   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3303   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3304   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3305   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3306   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3307   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3308   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3309   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3310   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3311   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3312   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3313   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3314   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3315   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3316   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3317   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3318   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3319   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3320   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3321   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3322   up_less              ~> up_below
  3323   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3324   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3325   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3326   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3327   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3328   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3329   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3330   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3331   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3332   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3333   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3334   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3335   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3336 
  3337 
  3338 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3339 
  3340 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3341 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3342 
  3343 
  3344 *** ML ***
  3345 
  3346 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3347 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3348 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3349 
  3350 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3351 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3352 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3353 
  3354 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3355 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3356 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3357 
  3358 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3359 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3360 
  3361 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3362 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3363 
  3364 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3365 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3366 
  3367 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3368 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3369 
  3370 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3371 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3372 almost all situations.
  3373 
  3374 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3375 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3376 Isabelle/ML.
  3377 
  3378 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3379 meaning.
  3380 
  3381 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3382 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3383 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3384 
  3385 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3386 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3387 
  3388 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3389 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3390 
  3391 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3392 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3393 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3394 
  3395 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3396 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3397 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3398 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3399 configuration options.
  3400 
  3401 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3402 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3403 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3404 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3405 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3406 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3407 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3408 
  3409 
  3410 
  3411 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3412 ---------------------------------
  3413 
  3414 *** General ***
  3415 
  3416 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3417 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3418 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3419 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3420 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3421 their full internal name.
  3422 
  3423 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3424 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3425 Some hints on upgrading:
  3426 
  3427   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3428     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3429     which are independent of this issue.
  3430 
  3431   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3432     provides the following special forms:
  3433 
  3434       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3435       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3436       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3437 
  3438     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3439     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3440     extra variables".
  3441 
  3442     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3443     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3444     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3445     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3446     "logic".
  3447 
  3448   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3449     antiquotations:
  3450 
  3451       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3452       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3453       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3454       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3455 
  3456   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3457     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3458     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3459     antiquotations.
  3460 
  3461 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3462 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3463 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3464 diagnose syntax problems.
  3465 
  3466 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3467 
  3468 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3469 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3470 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3471 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3472 
  3473 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3474 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3475 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3476 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3477 
  3478 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3479 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3480 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3481 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3482 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3483 
  3484 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3485 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3486 
  3487 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3488 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3489 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3490 
  3491   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3492 
  3493 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3494 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3495 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3496 
  3497 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3498 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3499 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3500 
  3501 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3502 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3503 
  3504 
  3505 *** Pure ***
  3506 
  3507 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3508 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3509 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3510 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3511 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3512 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3513 inspect proof terms.
  3514 
  3515 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3516 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3517 are added internally.  For example:
  3518 
  3519   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3520 
  3521 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3522 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3523 
  3524 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3525 
  3526 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3527 'class' instead.
  3528 
  3529 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3530 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3531 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3532 
  3533 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3534 invariants.
  3535 
  3536 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3537 user space functionality any longer.
  3538 
  3539 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3540 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3541 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3542 
  3543 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3544 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3545 
  3546 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3547 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3548 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3549 
  3550 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3551 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3552 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3553 
  3554 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3555 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3556 
  3557 
  3558 *** HOL ***
  3559 
  3560 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3561 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3562 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3563 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3564 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3565 
  3566 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3567 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3568 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3569 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3570 
  3571   fun
  3572     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3573   where
  3574     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3575 
  3576   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3577     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3578 
  3579   quotient_definition
  3580     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3581 
  3582 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3583 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3584 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3585 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3586 
  3587 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3588 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3589 
  3590 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3591 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3592 
  3593 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3594 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3595 
  3596 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3597 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3598 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3599 
  3600 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3601 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3602 
  3603 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3604 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3605 
  3606 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3607 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3608 
  3609 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3610 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3611 
  3612 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3613 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3614 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3615 
  3616   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3617   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3618   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3619   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3620   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3621   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3622   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3623   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3624   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3625   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3626   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3627   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3628   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3629   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3630   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3631   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3632   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3633   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3634   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3635   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3636   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3637   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3638   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3639   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3640   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3641   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3642   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3643   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3644   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3645   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3646 
  3647 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3648 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3649 
  3650 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3651 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3652 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3653 
  3654 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3655 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3656 
  3657 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3658 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3659 
  3660 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3661 
  3662 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3663 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3664 
  3665 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3666 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3667 
  3668 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3669 
  3670 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3671 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3672 
  3673 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3674 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3675 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3676 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3677 
  3678 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3679   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3680   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3681   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3682 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3683 
  3684 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3685 lattices):
  3686 
  3687     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3688     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3689 
  3690     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3691 
  3692     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3693     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3694     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3695     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3696     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3697     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3698     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3699     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3700     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3701     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3702     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3703     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3704     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3705 
  3706     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3707     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3708     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3709     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3710     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3711     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3712     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3713     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3714     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3715     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3716     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3717     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3718     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3719     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3720     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3721     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3722     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3723     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3724 
  3725   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3726   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3727 
  3728     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3729     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3730     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3731     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3732     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3733 
  3734 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3735 
  3736 * Refined field classes:
  3737   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3738     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3739     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3740   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3741 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3742 
  3743 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3744   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3745   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3746   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3747     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3748   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3749     equal_neg_zero.
  3750 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3751 
  3752 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3753 sets to lattices:
  3754 
  3755   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3756   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3757   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3758   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3759   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3760   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3761   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3762   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3763   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3764   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3765 
  3766 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3767 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3768 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3769 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3770 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3771 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3772 
  3773 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3774 multiset order:
  3775 
  3776   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3777     <= and <;
  3778   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3779     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3780     multiset_order;
  3781   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3782     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3783     generation;
  3784   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3785     if needed.
  3786 
  3787 Renamed:
  3788 
  3789   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3790   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3791   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3792 
  3793 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3794 
  3795 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3796 
  3797 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3798 
  3799 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3800 
  3801 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3802 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3803 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3804 
  3805   Constants:
  3806   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3807   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3808   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3809   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3810   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3811   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3812   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3813   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3814   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3815   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3816   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3817   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3818   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3819 
  3820   Lemmas:
  3821   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3822   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3823   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3824   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3825   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3826   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3827   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3828   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3829   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3830   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3831   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3832   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3833   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3834 
  3835 * Sledgehammer:
  3836   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3837     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3838     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3839     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3840     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3841     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3842     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3843   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3844   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3845     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3846   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3847     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3848     is still experimental.)
  3849   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3850     full-typed mode.
  3851   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3852 
  3853 * Nitpick:
  3854   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3855   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3856   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3857     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3858   - Added support for quotient types.
  3859   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3860     constructs.
  3861   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3862     "termination" proofs).
  3863   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3864   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3865   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3866   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3867     record getters.
  3868   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3869   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3870   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3871   - Added "atoms" option.
  3872   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3873     problems.
  3874   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3875     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3876     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3877   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3878     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3879   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3880 
  3881 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3882   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3883   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3884   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3885   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3886   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3887   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3888   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3889   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3890   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3891 
  3892 
  3893 *** HOLCF ***
  3894 
  3895 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3896 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3897 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3898 
  3899 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3900 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3901 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3902 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3903 
  3904 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3905 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3906 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3907 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3908 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3909 
  3910 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3911 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3912 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3913 
  3914 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3915 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3916 
  3917   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3918   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3919 
  3920 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3921 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3922 
  3923   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3924   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3925   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3926   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3927   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3928 
  3929 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3930 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3931 
  3932   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3933   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3934   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3935 
  3936 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3937 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3938 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3939 
  3940 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3941 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3942 
  3943 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3944 
  3945 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3946 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3947 
  3948 
  3949 *** ML ***
  3950 
  3951 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3952 
  3953     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3954     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3955 
  3956     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3957     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3958     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3959     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3960 
  3961     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3962     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3963     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3964 
  3965 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3966 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3967 
  3968 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3969 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3970 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3971 
  3972 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3973 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3974 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3975 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3976 
  3977 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3978 the context or even global references.
  3979 
  3980 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3981 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3982 
  3983 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3984 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3985 
  3986   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3987   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3988   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3989   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3990   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3991   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3992   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3993   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3994   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3995   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3996 
  3997 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3998 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3999 
  4000 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4001 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4002 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4003 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4004 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4005 
  4006 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4007 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4008 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4009 Theory_Data version.
  4010 
  4011 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4012 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4013 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4014 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4015 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4016 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4017 explicitly in rare situations.
  4018 
  4019 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4020 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4021 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4022 
  4023 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4024 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4025 
  4026 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4027 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4028 quite rare).
  4029 
  4030 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4031 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4032 
  4033 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4034 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4035 terms.
  4036 
  4037 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4038 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4039 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4040 
  4041 
  4042 *** System ***
  4043 
  4044 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4045 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4046 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4047 
  4048 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4049 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4050 respectively.
  4051 
  4052 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4053 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4054 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4055 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4056 
  4057   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4058 
  4059 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4060 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4061 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4062 component.
  4063 
  4064 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4065 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4066 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4067 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4068 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4069 the user for manual installation.
  4070 
  4071 
  4072 
  4073 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4074 -------------------------------------
  4075 
  4076 *** General ***
  4077 
  4078 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4079 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4080 
  4081 
  4082 *** Pure ***
  4083 
  4084 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4085 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4086 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4087 
  4088 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4089 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4090 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4091 
  4092 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4093 interpretation.
  4094 
  4095 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4096 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4097 
  4098 
  4099 *** Document preparation ***
  4100 
  4101 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4102 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4103 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4104 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4105 
  4106 
  4107 *** HOL ***
  4108 
  4109 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4110 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4111 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4112 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4113 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4114 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4115 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4116 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4117 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4118 
  4119 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4120 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4121 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4122 
  4123 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4124 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4125 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4126 
  4127 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4128 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4129 
  4130 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4131 
  4132 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4133 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4134 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4135 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4136 
  4137 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4138 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4139 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4140 "mirabelle" utility.
  4141 
  4142 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4143 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4144 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4145 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4146 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4147 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4148 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4149 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4150 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4151 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4152 
  4153 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4154 procedure only.
  4155 
  4156 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4157 
  4158 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4159 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4160 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4161 that fail later.
  4162 
  4163 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4164 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4165 
  4166 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4167 the same method as the approximation method.
  4168 
  4169 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4170 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4171 series expansion.
  4172 
  4173 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4174 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4175 
  4176 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4177 reals.
  4178 
  4179 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4180 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4181 
  4182 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4183 fixpoint theorem.
  4184 
  4185 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4186   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4187     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4188   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4189     accordingly
  4190   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4191     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4192   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4193     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4194 
  4195 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4196 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4197 lattice.
  4198 
  4199 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4200 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4201 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4202 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4203 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4204 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4205 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4206 
  4207 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4208   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4209     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4210   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4211     le_inf_iff
  4212   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4213     sup_aci)
  4214   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4215   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4216   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4217     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4218     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4219     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4220     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4221     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4222     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4223     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4224     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4225     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4226     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4227   - authentic syntax for
  4228     Set.Pow
  4229     Set.image
  4230   - mere abbreviations:
  4231     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4232     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4233     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4234     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4235     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4236     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4237     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4238     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4239   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4240 
  4241 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4242 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4243 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4244 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4245 
  4246 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4247 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4248 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4249 
  4250 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4251 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4252 
  4253 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4254 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4255 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4256 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4257 
  4258 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4259 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4260 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4261 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4262 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4263 
  4264 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4265 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4266 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4267 
  4268 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4269 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4270 
  4271 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4272 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4273 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4274 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4275 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4276 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4277 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4278 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4279 
  4280 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4281     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4282     code_post       replaces    code post
  4283     etc.
  4284   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4285 
  4286 * Renamed methods:
  4287     sizechange -> size_change
  4288     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4289   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4290 
  4291 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4292 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4293 
  4294 * Renamed theorems:
  4295     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4296     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4297     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4298     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4299     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4300   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4301 
  4302 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4303 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4304 
  4305 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4306 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4307 
  4308 
  4309 *** HOLCF ***
  4310 
  4311 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4312 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4313 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4314 
  4315 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4316 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4317 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4318 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4319 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4320 
  4321 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4322 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4323 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4324 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4325 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4326 
  4327 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4328 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4329 constructor are pre-configured.
  4330 
  4331 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4332 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4333 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4334 
  4335 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4336 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4337 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4338 as well.)
  4339 
  4340 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4341 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4342 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4343 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4344 examples.
  4345 
  4346 
  4347 *** ML ***
  4348 
  4349 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4350 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4351 
  4352 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4353 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4354 position, logical grouping etc.
  4355 
  4356 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4357 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4358 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4359 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4360 
  4361 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4362 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4363 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4364 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4365 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4366 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4367 
  4368 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4369 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4370 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4371 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4372 experiments with references.
  4373 
  4374 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4375 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4376 
  4377 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4378 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4379 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4380 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4381 
  4382 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4383 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4384 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4385 
  4386 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4387 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4388 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4389 
  4390 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4391 
  4392 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4393 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4394 
  4395 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4396 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4397 
  4398 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4399 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4400 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4401 
  4402 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4403 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4404 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4405 
  4406 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4407 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4408 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4409 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4410 
  4411 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4412 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4413 instead of global theory.
  4414 
  4415 
  4416 *** System ***
  4417 
  4418 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4419 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4420 usedir option -q.
  4421 
  4422 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4423 also the system manual.
  4424 
  4425 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4426 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4427 
  4428 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4429 this is always enabled.
  4430 
  4431 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4432 
  4433 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4434 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4435 currently supported on Linux only.
  4436 
  4437 
  4438 
  4439 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4440 --------------------------------
  4441 
  4442 *** General ***
  4443 
  4444 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4445 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4446 
  4447   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4448     "isatool."
  4449 
  4450   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4451     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4452 
  4453   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4454     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4455 
  4456 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4457 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4458 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4459 
  4460 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4461 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4462 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4463 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4464 via "isabelle emacs".
  4465 
  4466 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4467 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4468 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4469 
  4470 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4471 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4472 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4473 
  4474 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4475 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4476 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4477 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4478 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4479 
  4480 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4481 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4482 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4483 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4484 
  4485 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4486 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4487 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4488 
  4489 
  4490 *** Pure ***
  4491 
  4492 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4493 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4494 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4495 
  4496 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4497 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4498 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4499 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4500 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4501 
  4502 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4503 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4504 useful in locale declarations.
  4505 
  4506 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4507 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4508 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4509 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4510 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4511 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4512 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4513 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4514 no longer generated.
  4515 
  4516 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4517 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4518 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4519 
  4520 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4521 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4522 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4523 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4524 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4525 
  4526 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4527 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4528 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4529 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4530 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4531 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4532 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4533 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4534 
  4535 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4536 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4537 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4538 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4539 
  4540 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4541 
  4542 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4543 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4544 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4545 
  4546 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4547 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4548 
  4549 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4550 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4551 in HOL, write
  4552 
  4553     class foo = ...
  4554 
  4555 instead of
  4556 
  4557     class foo = type + ...
  4558 
  4559 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4560 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4561 
  4562 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4563 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4564 
  4565 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4566 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4567 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4568 
  4569 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4570 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4571 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4572 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4573 directly in regular applications.
  4574 
  4575 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4576 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4577 
  4578 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4579 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4580 
  4581 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4582 theory context.
  4583 
  4584 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4585 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4586 
  4587 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4588 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4589 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4590 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4591 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4592 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4593 
  4594   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4595 
  4596 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4597 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4598 normalization.
  4599 
  4600 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4601 addressing etc.
  4602 
  4603 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4604 
  4605   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4606   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4607 
  4608 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4609 
  4610   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4611      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4612      parts of the code generator framework).
  4613 
  4614   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4615      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4616      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4617 
  4618 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4619 
  4620 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4621 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4622 
  4623 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4624 patterns, e.g.
  4625 
  4626     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4627 
  4628 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4629 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4630 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4631 hyphen:
  4632 
  4633     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4634 
  4635 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4636 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4637 
  4638 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4639 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4640 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4641 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4642 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4643 higher-order unification.
  4644 
  4645 
  4646 *** Document preparation ***
  4647 
  4648 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4649 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4650 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4651 
  4652 
  4653 *** HOL ***
  4654 
  4655 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4656 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4657 
  4658 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4659 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4660 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4661 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4662 Main, as before.
  4663 
  4664 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4665 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4666 
  4667 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4668 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4669 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4670 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4671 
  4672 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4673 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4674 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4675 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4676 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4677 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4678 
  4679 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4680 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4681 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4682 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4683 
  4684 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4685 menu.
  4686 
  4687 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4688 (contains the empty clause).
  4689 
  4690 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4691 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4692 
  4693 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4694 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4695 
  4696 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4697 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4698 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4699 
  4700 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4701 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4702 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4703 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4704 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4705 
  4706 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4707 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4708 
  4709 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4710 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4711 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4712 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4713 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4714 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4715 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4716 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4717 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4718 
  4719 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4720 
  4721 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4722 
  4723 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4724 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4725 
  4726 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4727 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4728 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4729 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4730 
  4731 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4732 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4733 
  4734     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4735     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4736     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4737     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4738     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4739     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4740     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4741     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4742 
  4743 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4744 theory Set.
  4745 
  4746 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4747 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4748 
  4749 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4750 
  4751 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4752 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4753 
  4754 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4755 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4756 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4757 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4758 allowed. For examples see
  4759 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4760 
  4761 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4762 
  4763 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4764 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4765 
  4766 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4767 structure:
  4768 
  4769     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4770     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4771     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4772     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4773     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4774     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4775     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4776     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4777     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4778     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4779     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4780     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4781     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4782     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4783     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4784     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4785     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4786     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4787     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4788     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4789     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4790     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4791     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4792     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4793     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4794     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4795     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4796     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4797     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4798     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4799     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4800     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4801     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4802 
  4803     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4804     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4805     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4806     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4807     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4808     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4809     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4810     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4811     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4812     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4813 
  4814     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4815     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4816     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4817     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4818     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4819     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4820 
  4821 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4822 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4823 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4824 
  4825 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4826 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4827 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4828 
  4829 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4830 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4831 
  4832 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4833 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4834 
  4835 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4836 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4837 proofs, e.g.
  4838 
  4839   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4840 
  4841 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4842 
  4843 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4844 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4845 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4846 
  4847 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4848 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4849 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4850 
  4851 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4852 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4853 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4854 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4855 
  4856 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4857 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4858 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4859 preorder_class.*.
  4860 
  4861 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4862 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4863 
  4864 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4865 
  4866   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4867 
  4868 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4869 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4870 fold_image.
  4871 
  4872 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4873 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4874 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4875 the former will disappear at some point.
  4876 
  4877 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4878 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4879 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4880 
  4881 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4882 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4883 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4884 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4885 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4886 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4887 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4888 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4889 
  4890 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4891 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4892 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4893 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4894 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4895 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4896 
  4897     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4898     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4899     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4900     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4901     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4902     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4903     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4904 
  4905 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4906 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4907 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4908 
  4909 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4910 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4911 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4912 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4913 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4914 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4915 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4916 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4917 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4918 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4919 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4920 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4921 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4922 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4923 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4924 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4925 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4926 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4927 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4928 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4929 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4930 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4931 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4932 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4933 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4934 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4935 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4936 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4937 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4938 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4939 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4940 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4941 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4942 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4943 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4944 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4945 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4946 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4947 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4948 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4949 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4950 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4951 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4952 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4953 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4954 
  4955 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4956 
  4957 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4958 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4959 
  4960 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4961 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4962 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4963 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4964 
  4965 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4966 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4967 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4968 theory RealVector.
  4969 
  4970 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4971 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4972 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4973 and inner products are included.
  4974 
  4975 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4976 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4977 supported.
  4978 
  4979 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4980 first diagonalization argument.
  4981 
  4982 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4983 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4984 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4985 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4986 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4987 
  4988     hide (open) const gcd
  4989     abbreviation gcd where
  4990       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4991     notation (output)
  4992       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4993 
  4994 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4995 
  4996 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4997 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4998 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4999 
  5000 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5001 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5002 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5003 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5004 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5005 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5006 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5007 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5008 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5009 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5010 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5011 cases.
  5012 
  5013 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5014 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5015 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5016 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5017 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5018 
  5019     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5020     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5021     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5022     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5023     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5024 
  5025 
  5026 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5027 
  5028 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5029 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5030 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5031 
  5032 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5033 
  5034 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5035 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5036 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5037 
  5038 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5039 
  5040 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5041 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5042 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5043 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5044 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5045 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5046 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5047 
  5048 
  5049 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5050 
  5051 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5052 
  5053 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5054 theory targets.
  5055 
  5056 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5057 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5058 'inductive' etc.
  5059 
  5060 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5061 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5062 
  5063 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5064 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5065 
  5066 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5067 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5068 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5069 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5070 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5071 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5072 the algorithm W:
  5073 
  5074  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5075  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5076          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5077 
  5078 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5079 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5080 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5081 
  5082 
  5083 *** HOLCF ***
  5084 
  5085 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5086 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5087 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5088 
  5089 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5090 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5091 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5092 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5093 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5094 
  5095 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5096 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5097 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5098 
  5099 
  5100 *** ZF ***
  5101 
  5102 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5103 
  5104 
  5105 *** ML ***
  5106 
  5107 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5108 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5109 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5110 5.2.1!
  5111 
  5112 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5113 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5114 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5115 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5116 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5117 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5118 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5119 
  5120 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5121 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5122 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5123 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5124 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5125 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5126 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5127 
  5128 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5129 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5130 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5131 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5132 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5133 
  5134 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5135 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5136 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5137 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5138 Method.add_method.
  5139 
  5140 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5141 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5142 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5143 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5144 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5145 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5146 
  5147 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5148 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5149 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5150 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5151 examples.
  5152 
  5153 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5154 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5155 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5156 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5157 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5158 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5159 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5160 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5161 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5162 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5163 
  5164 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5165 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5166 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5167 
  5168 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5169 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5170 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5171 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5172 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5173 resort for legacy applications.
  5174 
  5175 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5176 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5177 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5178 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5179 explicit runtime argument.
  5180 
  5181 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5182 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5183 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5184 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5185 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5186 
  5187 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5188 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5189 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5190 theory state.
  5191 
  5192 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5193 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5194 
  5195   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5196   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5197   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5198   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5199   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5200   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5201   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5202   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5203   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5204   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5205 
  5206 
  5207 *** System ***
  5208 
  5209 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5210 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5211 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5212 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5213 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5214 
  5215 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5216 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5217 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5218 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5219 
  5220 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5221 
  5222 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5223 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5224 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5225 prover operations.
  5226 
  5227 
  5228 
  5229 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5230 -------------------------------
  5231 
  5232 *** General ***
  5233 
  5234 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5235 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5236 
  5237 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5238 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5239 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5240 provides a proper context already.
  5241 
  5242 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5243 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5244 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5245 
  5246 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5247 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5248 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5249 swap theory imports.
  5250 
  5251 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5252 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5253 
  5254 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5255 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5256 white space without escapes.
  5257 
  5258 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5259 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5260 "foo_bar".
  5261 
  5262 
  5263 *** Pure ***
  5264 
  5265 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5266 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5267 
  5268 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5269 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5270 
  5271 (1) unused_thms
  5272      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5273 
  5274 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5275      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5276      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5277 
  5278 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5279      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5280      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5281      their ancestors.
  5282 
  5283 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5284 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5285 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5286 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5287 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5288 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5289 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5290 
  5291 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5292 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5293 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5294 
  5295 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5296 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5297 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5298 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5299 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5300 
  5301 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5302 
  5303 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5304 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5305 update of theories within ML code.
  5306 
  5307 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5308 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5309 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5310 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5311 
  5312 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5313 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5314 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5315 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5316 
  5317 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5318 
  5319 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5320 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5321 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5322 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5323 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5324 
  5325 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5326 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5327 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5328 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5329 situations.
  5330 
  5331 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5332 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5333 proof text.
  5334 
  5335 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5336 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5337 
  5338 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5339 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5340 predicates.
  5341 
  5342 
  5343 *** Document preparation ***
  5344 
  5345 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5346 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5347 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5348 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5349 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5350 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5351 
  5352 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5353 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5354 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5355 
  5356 
  5357 *** HOL ***
  5358 
  5359 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5360 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5361 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5362 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5363 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5364 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5365 
  5366 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5367 with multithreading.
  5368 
  5369 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5370 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5371 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5372 
  5373 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5374 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5375 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5376 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5377 
  5378 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5379 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5380 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5381 and makes them available separately.  See
  5382 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5383 
  5384 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5385 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5386 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5387 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5388 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5389 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5390 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5391 the declared rules.
  5392 
  5393 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5394 
  5395   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5396 
  5397 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5398 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5399 
  5400 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5401 
  5402   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5403 
  5404   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5405     definitions on => and bool.
  5406 
  5407   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5408     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5409     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5410 
  5411       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5412       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5413       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5414       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5415       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5416       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5417       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5418       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5419 
  5420   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5421     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5422     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5423 
  5424   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5425     The proof pattern
  5426 
  5427       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5428       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5429 
  5430     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5431     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5432 
  5433       have "EX S. P S"
  5434       proof
  5435         show "P S" <...>
  5436       qed
  5437 
  5438   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5439     The proof pattern
  5440 
  5441       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5442       also have "S = T" <...>
  5443       finally have "P T" .
  5444 
  5445     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5446     must be replaced by something like
  5447 
  5448       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5449       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5450       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5451 
  5452   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5453     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5454 
  5455       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5456 
  5457     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5458     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5459     type of the form
  5460 
  5461       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5462 
  5463     rather than
  5464 
  5465       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5466 
  5467 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5468 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5469 
  5470 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5471 
  5472 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5473 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5474 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5475 
  5476 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5477 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5478 
  5479 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5480 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5481 
  5482 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5483 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5484 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5485 
  5486 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5487 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5488 
  5489   less_trans
  5490   less_linear
  5491   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5492   le_less_trans
  5493   less_le_trans
  5494   less_not_sym
  5495   less_asym
  5496 
  5497 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5498 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5499 and different variable names.
  5500 
  5501 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5502 
  5503 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5504 finite maps.
  5505 
  5506 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5507 
  5508 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5509 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5510 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5511 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5512 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5513 accordingly.
  5514 
  5515 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5516 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5517 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5518 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5519 
  5520 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5521 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5522 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5523 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5524 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5525 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5526 
  5527 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5528 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5529 
  5530 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5531 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5532 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5533 
  5534 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5535 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5536 
  5537 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5538 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5539 
  5540 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5541 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5542 
  5543 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5544 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5545 
  5546 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5547 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5548 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5549 
  5550 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5551 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5552 
  5553 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5554 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5555 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5556 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5557 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5558 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5559 
  5560 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5561 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5562 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5563 
  5564 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5565 
  5566 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5567 
  5568 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5569 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5570 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5571 
  5572 
  5573 *** ZF ***
  5574 
  5575 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5576 same session:
  5577 
  5578   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5579   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5580   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5581   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5582   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5583   List      -> List_ZF
  5584   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5585 
  5586 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5587 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5588 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5589 
  5590 
  5591 *** ML ***
  5592 
  5593 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5594 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5595 
  5596 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5597 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5598 
  5599 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5600 
  5601 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5602 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5603 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5604 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5605 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5606 
  5607 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5608 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5609 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5610 
  5611 
  5612 *** System ***
  5613 
  5614 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5615 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5616 
  5617 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5618 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5619 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5620 
  5621 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5622 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5623 
  5624 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5625 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5626 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5627 
  5628 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5629 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5630 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5631 
  5632 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5633 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5634 
  5635 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5636 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5637 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5638 script.
  5639 
  5640 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5641 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5642 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5643 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5644 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5645 
  5646 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5647 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5648 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5649 
  5650 
  5651 
  5652 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5653 -----------------------------------
  5654 
  5655 *** General ***
  5656 
  5657 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5658 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5659 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5660 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5661 
  5662 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5663 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5664 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5665 
  5666 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5667 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5668 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5669 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5670 
  5671 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5672 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5673 quotes.
  5674 
  5675 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5676 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5677 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5678 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5679 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5680 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5681 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5682 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5683 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5684 
  5685 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5686 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5687 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5688 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5689 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5690 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5691 
  5692 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5693 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5694 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5695 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5696 
  5697 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5698 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5699 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5700 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5701 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5702 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5703 
  5704 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5705 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5706 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5707 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5708 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5709 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5710 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5711 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5712 
  5713 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5714 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5715 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5716 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5717 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5718 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5719 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5720 
  5721 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5722 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5723 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5724 
  5725 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5726 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5727 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5728 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5729 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5730 limit is imposed.
  5731 
  5732 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5733 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5734 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5735 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5736 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5737 and scalability.
  5738 
  5739 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5740 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5741 
  5742 
  5743 *** Document preparation ***
  5744 
  5745 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5746 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5747 current context.
  5748 
  5749 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5750 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5751 
  5752 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5753 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5754 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5755 
  5756 
  5757 *** Pure ***
  5758 
  5759 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5760 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5761 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5762 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5763 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5764 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5765 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5766 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5767 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5768 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5769 
  5770 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5771 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5772 sketch:
  5773 
  5774     internal compilation:
  5775         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5776     writing SML code to a file:
  5777         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5778     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5779         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5780     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5781         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5782 
  5783     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5784         method ``eval''
  5785 
  5786 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5787 
  5788 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5789 
  5790     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5791     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5792     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5793     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5794 
  5795 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5796 
  5797     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5798       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5799 
  5800     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5801       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5802 
  5803     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5804       {(target)}+
  5805         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5806 
  5807     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5808       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5809         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5810 
  5811 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5812 
  5813 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5814 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5815 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5816 codegen".
  5817 
  5818 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5819 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5820 annotations).
  5821 
  5822 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5823 syntax.
  5824 
  5825 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5826 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5827 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5828 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5829 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5830 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5831 
  5832 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5833 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5834 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5835 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5836 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5837 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5838 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5839 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5840 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5841 equations, see section "definitions".
  5842 
  5843 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5844 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5845 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5846 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5847 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5848 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5849 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5850 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5851 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5852 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5853 
  5854 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5855 configuration options:
  5856 
  5857   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5858   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5859   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5860   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5861   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5862   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5863   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5864   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5865   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5866 
  5867 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5868 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5869 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5870 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5871 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5872 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5873 order.
  5874 
  5875 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5876 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5877 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5878 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5879 context encountered later on.
  5880 
  5881 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5882 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5883 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5884 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5885 
  5886 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5887 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5888 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5889 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5890 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5891 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5892 
  5893 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5894 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5895 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5896 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5897 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5898 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5899 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5900 more permissive.
  5901 
  5902 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5903 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5904 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5905 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5906 maintainability of proof texts.
  5907 
  5908 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5909 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5910 
  5911   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5912   then guess x and y by clarify
  5913 
  5914 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5915 proof tools being involved here.
  5916 
  5917 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5918 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5919 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5920 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5921 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5922 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5923 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5924 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5925 
  5926 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5927 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5928 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5929 
  5930   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5931   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5932   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5933   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5934 
  5935 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5936 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5937 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5938 
  5939 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5940 both named and unnamed ones.
  5941 
  5942 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5943 
  5944   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5945 
  5946 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5947 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5948 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5949 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5950 
  5951 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5952 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5953 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5954 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5955 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5956 
  5957 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5958 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5959 
  5960 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5961 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5962 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5963 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5964 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5965 originally first one.
  5966 
  5967 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5968 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5969 expected.
  5970 
  5971 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5972 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5973 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5974 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5975 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5976 
  5977   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5978     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5979     obtains x where "P x"
  5980 
  5981   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5982     assumes "A & B"
  5983     obtains A and B
  5984 
  5985   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5986     assumes "A | B"
  5987     obtains
  5988       A
  5989     | B
  5990 
  5991 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5992 explicitly:
  5993 
  5994   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5995     obtains "~ thesis"
  5996 
  5997   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5998     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5999 
  6000 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  6001 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  6002 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  6003 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  6004 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  6005 case_names).
  6006 
  6007 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  6008 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  6009 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  6010 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  6011 
  6012 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  6013 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  6014 top-level lemma.
  6015 
  6016 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  6017 introduction rule (default "that").
  6018 
  6019 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  6020 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  6021 to occur.
  6022 
  6023 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  6024 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  6025 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  6026 representations independently of name spaces.
  6027 
  6028 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  6029 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  6030 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6031 
  6032 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  6033 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  6034 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  6035 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  6036 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  6037 current context.
  6038 
  6039 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  6040 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  6041 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  6042 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  6043 
  6044   axiomatization
  6045     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  6046     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  6047 
  6048   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  6049   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  6050 
  6051   abbreviation
  6052     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  6053     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  6054 
  6055 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  6056 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  6057 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  6058 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  6059 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  6060 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  6061 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  6062 
  6063 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  6064 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  6065 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  6066 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  6067 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  6068 
  6069 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  6070 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  6071 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  6072 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  6073 
  6074 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  6075 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  6076 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  6077 
  6078   definition "K x _ = x"
  6079 
  6080   inductive conj for A B
  6081   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  6082 
  6083 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  6084 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  6085 abbreviations on output.
  6086 
  6087 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  6088 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  6089 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  6090 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  6091 
  6092 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  6093 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  6094 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  6095 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  6096 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  6097 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  6098 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  6099 
  6100 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  6101 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  6102 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  6103 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  6104 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  6105 
  6106 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  6107 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  6108 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  6109 
  6110 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  6111 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  6112 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  6113 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  6114 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  6115 
  6116   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  6117     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  6118 
  6119 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  6120 definition specification element in the context of locale
  6121 partial_order.
  6122 
  6123 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  6124 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  6125 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  6126 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  6127 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  6128 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  6129 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  6130 examples.
  6131 
  6132 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  6133 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  6134 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  6135 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  6136 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  6137 
  6138 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  6139 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  6140 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  6141 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  6142 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  6143 
  6144   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  6145   (induct set: foo bar)
  6146   (induct pred: foo bar)
  6147   (induct type: foo bar)
  6148 
  6149 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  6150 new format.
  6151 
  6152 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  6153 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  6154 
  6155 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  6156 considered a legacy feature.
  6157 
  6158 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  6159 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6160 
  6161 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  6162 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  6163 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  6164 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  6165   
  6166 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  6167 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  6168 manipulating the claset.
  6169 
  6170 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  6171 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  6172 least one premise.
  6173 
  6174 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  6175 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  6176 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  6177 rule steps.
  6178 
  6179 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  6180 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  6181 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  6182 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  6183 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  6184 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  6185 
  6186 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  6187 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  6188 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  6189 
  6190 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  6191 the graph browser tool.
  6192 
  6193 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  6194 default; use '!' option for full details.
  6195 
  6196 
  6197 *** HOL ***
  6198 
  6199 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  6200 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  6201 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  6202 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  6203 multi-threading.
  6204   
  6205 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  6206 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  6207 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  6208 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  6209 work with multi-threading.
  6210 
  6211 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  6212 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  6213 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  6214 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  6215 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  6216 
  6217 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  6218 
  6219 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  6220 equality.
  6221 
  6222 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  6223 the new 'class' package:
  6224 
  6225     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  6226     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  6227     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  6228     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  6229     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  6230     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  6231     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  6232     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  6233     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  6234     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  6235     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  6236     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  6237     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  6238     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  6239     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  6240     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  6241     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  6242     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  6243     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  6244     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  6245 
  6246 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  6247 
  6248 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  6249 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  6250 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  6251 names.
  6252 
  6253 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"