src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples/Manual_Nits.thy
author wenzelm
Tue, 19 Oct 2021 18:24:33 +0200
changeset 74551 375e8e1a2139
parent 74399 a1d33d1bfb6d
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(*  Title:      HOL/Nitpick_Examples/Manual_Nits.thy
    Author:     Jasmin Blanchette, TU Muenchen
    Copyright   2009-2014

Examples from the Nitpick manual.
*)

section \<open>Examples from the Nitpick Manual\<close>

(* The "expect" arguments to Nitpick in this theory and the other example
   theories are there so that the example can also serve as a regression test
   suite. *)

theory Manual_Nits
imports HOL.Real "HOL-Library.Quotient_Product"
begin

section \<open>2. First Steps\<close>

nitpick_params [sat_solver = MiniSat_JNI, max_threads = 1, timeout = 240]


subsection \<open>2.1. Propositional Logic\<close>

lemma "P \<longleftrightarrow> Q"
nitpick [expect = genuine]
apply auto
nitpick [expect = genuine] 1
nitpick [expect = genuine] 2
oops


subsection \<open>2.2. Type Variables\<close>

lemma "x \<in> A \<Longrightarrow> (THE y. y \<in> A) \<in> A"
nitpick [verbose, expect = genuine]
oops


subsection \<open>2.3. Constants\<close>

lemma "x \<in> A \<Longrightarrow> (THE y. y \<in> A) \<in> A"
nitpick [show_consts, expect = genuine]
nitpick [dont_specialize, show_consts, expect = genuine]
oops

lemma "\<exists>!x. x \<in> A \<Longrightarrow> (THE y. y \<in> A) \<in> A"
nitpick [expect = none]
nitpick [card 'a = 1-50, expect = none]
(* sledgehammer *)
by (metis the_equality)


subsection \<open>2.4. Skolemization\<close>

lemma "\<exists>g. \<forall>x. g (f x) = x \<Longrightarrow> \<forall>y. \<exists>x. y = f x"
nitpick [expect = genuine]
oops

lemma "\<exists>x. \<forall>f. f x = x"
nitpick [expect = genuine]
oops

lemma "refl r \<Longrightarrow> sym r"
nitpick [expect = genuine]
oops


subsection \<open>2.5. Natural Numbers and Integers\<close>

lemma "\<lbrakk>i \<le> j; n \<le> (m::int)\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> i * n + j * m \<le> i * m + j * n"
nitpick [expect = genuine]
nitpick [binary_ints, bits = 16, expect = genuine]
oops

lemma "\<forall>n. Suc n \<noteq> n \<Longrightarrow> P"
nitpick [card nat = 100, expect = potential]
oops

lemma "P Suc"
nitpick [expect = none]
oops

lemma "P ((+)::nat\<Rightarrow>nat\<Rightarrow>nat)"
nitpick [card nat = 1, expect = genuine]
nitpick [card nat = 2, expect = none]
oops


subsection \<open>2.6. Inductive Datatypes\<close>

lemma "hd (xs @ [y, y]) = hd xs"
nitpick [expect = genuine]
nitpick [show_consts, show_types, expect = genuine]
oops

lemma "\<lbrakk>length xs = 1; length ys = 1\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> xs = ys"
nitpick [show_types, expect = genuine]
oops


subsection \<open>2.7. Typedefs, Records, Rationals, and Reals\<close>

definition "three = {0::nat, 1, 2}"
typedef three = three
  unfolding three_def by blast

definition A :: three where "A \<equiv> Abs_three 0"
definition B :: three where "B \<equiv> Abs_three 1"
definition C :: three where "C \<equiv> Abs_three 2"

lemma "\<lbrakk>A \<in> X; B \<in> X\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> c \<in> X"
nitpick [show_types, expect = genuine]
oops

fun my_int_rel where
"my_int_rel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"

quotient_type my_int = "nat \<times> nat" / my_int_rel
by (auto simp add: equivp_def fun_eq_iff)

definition add_raw where
"add_raw \<equiv> \<lambda>(x, y) (u, v). (x + (u::nat), y + (v::nat))"

quotient_definition "add::my_int \<Rightarrow> my_int \<Rightarrow> my_int" is add_raw
unfolding add_raw_def by auto

lemma "add x y = add x x"
nitpick [show_types, expect = genuine]
oops

ML \<open>
fun my_int_postproc _ _ _ T (Const _ $ (Const _ $ t1 $ t2)) =
    HOLogic.mk_number T (snd (HOLogic.dest_number t1)
                         - snd (HOLogic.dest_number t2))
  | my_int_postproc _ _ _ _ t = t
\<close>

declaration \<open>
Nitpick_Model.register_term_postprocessor \<^Type>\<open>my_int\<close> my_int_postproc
\<close>

lemma "add x y = add x x"
nitpick [show_types]
oops

record point =
  Xcoord :: int
  Ycoord :: int

lemma "Xcoord (p::point) = Xcoord (q::point)"
nitpick [show_types, expect = genuine]
oops

lemma "4 * x + 3 * (y::real) \<noteq> 1 / 2"
nitpick [show_types, expect = genuine]
oops


subsection \<open>2.8. Inductive and Coinductive Predicates\<close>

inductive even where
"even 0" |
"even n \<Longrightarrow> even (Suc (Suc n))"

lemma "\<exists>n. even n \<and> even (Suc n)"
nitpick [card nat = 50, unary_ints, verbose, expect = potential]
oops

lemma "\<exists>n \<le> 49. even n \<and> even (Suc n)"
nitpick [card nat = 50, unary_ints, expect = genuine]
oops

inductive even' where
"even' (0::nat)" |
"even' 2" |
"\<lbrakk>even' m; even' n\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> even' (m + n)"

lemma "\<exists>n \<in> {0, 2, 4, 6, 8}. \<not> even' n"
nitpick [card nat = 10, unary_ints, verbose, show_consts, expect = genuine]
oops

lemma "even' (n - 2) \<Longrightarrow> even' n"
nitpick [card nat = 10, show_consts, expect = genuine]
oops

coinductive nats where
"nats (x::nat) \<Longrightarrow> nats x"

lemma "nats = (\<lambda>n. n \<in> {0, 1, 2, 3, 4})"
nitpick [card nat = 10, show_consts, expect = genuine]
oops

inductive odd where
"odd 1" |
"\<lbrakk>odd m; even n\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> odd (m + n)"

lemma "odd n \<Longrightarrow> odd (n - 2)"
nitpick [card nat = 4, show_consts, expect = genuine]
oops


subsection \<open>2.9. Coinductive Datatypes\<close>

codatatype 'a llist = LNil | LCons 'a "'a llist"

primcorec iterates where
"iterates f a = LCons a (iterates f (f a))"

lemma "xs \<noteq> LCons a xs"
nitpick [expect = genuine]
oops

lemma "\<lbrakk>xs = LCons a xs; ys = iterates (\<lambda>b. a) b\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> xs = ys"
nitpick [verbose, expect = genuine]
oops

lemma "\<lbrakk>xs = LCons a xs; ys = LCons a ys\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> xs = ys"
nitpick [bisim_depth = -1, show_types, expect = quasi_genuine]
nitpick [card = 1-5, expect = none]
sorry


subsection \<open>2.10. Boxing\<close>

datatype tm = Var nat | Lam tm | App tm tm

primrec lift where
"lift (Var j) k = Var (if j < k then j else j + 1)" |
"lift (Lam t) k = Lam (lift t (k + 1))" |
"lift (App t u) k = App (lift t k) (lift u k)"

primrec loose where
"loose (Var j) k = (j \<ge> k)" |
"loose (Lam t) k = loose t (Suc k)" |
"loose (App t u) k = (loose t k \<or> loose u k)"

primrec subst\<^sub>1 where
"subst\<^sub>1 \<sigma> (Var j) = \<sigma> j" |
"subst\<^sub>1 \<sigma> (Lam t) =
 Lam (subst\<^sub>1 (\<lambda>n. case n of 0 \<Rightarrow> Var 0 | Suc m \<Rightarrow> lift (\<sigma> m) 1) t)" |
"subst\<^sub>1 \<sigma> (App t u) = App (subst\<^sub>1 \<sigma> t) (subst\<^sub>1 \<sigma> u)"

lemma "\<not> loose t 0 \<Longrightarrow> subst\<^sub>1 \<sigma> t = t"
nitpick [verbose, expect = genuine]
nitpick [eval = "subst\<^sub>1 \<sigma> t", expect = genuine]
(* nitpick [dont_box, expect = unknown] *)
oops

primrec subst\<^sub>2 where
"subst\<^sub>2 \<sigma> (Var j) = \<sigma> j" |
"subst\<^sub>2 \<sigma> (Lam t) =
 Lam (subst\<^sub>2 (\<lambda>n. case n of 0 \<Rightarrow> Var 0 | Suc m \<Rightarrow> lift (\<sigma> m) 0) t)" |
"subst\<^sub>2 \<sigma> (App t u) = App (subst\<^sub>2 \<sigma> t) (subst\<^sub>2 \<sigma> u)"

lemma "\<not> loose t 0 \<Longrightarrow> subst\<^sub>2 \<sigma> t = t"
nitpick [card = 1-5, expect = none]
sorry


subsection \<open>2.11. Scope Monotonicity\<close>

lemma "length xs = length ys \<Longrightarrow> rev (zip xs ys) = zip xs (rev ys)"
nitpick [verbose, expect = genuine]
oops

lemma "\<exists>g. \<forall>x::'b. g (f x) = x \<Longrightarrow> \<forall>y::'a. \<exists>x. y = f x"
nitpick [mono, expect = none]
nitpick [expect = genuine]
oops


subsection \<open>2.12. Inductive Properties\<close>

inductive_set reach where
"(4::nat) \<in> reach" |
"n \<in> reach \<Longrightarrow> n < 4 \<Longrightarrow> 3 * n + 1 \<in> reach" |
"n \<in> reach \<Longrightarrow> n + 2 \<in> reach"

lemma "n \<in> reach \<Longrightarrow> 2 dvd n"
(* nitpick *)
apply (induct set: reach)
  apply auto
 nitpick [card = 1-4, bits = 1-4, expect = none]
 apply (thin_tac "n \<in> reach")
 nitpick [expect = genuine]
oops

lemma "n \<in> reach \<Longrightarrow> 2 dvd n \<and> n \<noteq> 0"
(* nitpick *)
apply (induct set: reach)
  apply auto
 nitpick [card = 1-4, bits = 1-4, expect = none]
 apply (thin_tac "n \<in> reach")
 nitpick [expect = genuine]
oops

lemma "n \<in> reach \<Longrightarrow> 2 dvd n \<and> n \<ge> 4"
by (induct set: reach) arith+


section \<open>3. Case Studies\<close>

nitpick_params [max_potential = 0]


subsection \<open>3.1. A Context-Free Grammar\<close>

datatype alphabet = a | b

inductive_set S\<^sub>1 and A\<^sub>1 and B\<^sub>1 where
  "[] \<in> S\<^sub>1"
| "w \<in> A\<^sub>1 \<Longrightarrow> b # w \<in> S\<^sub>1"
| "w \<in> B\<^sub>1 \<Longrightarrow> a # w \<in> S\<^sub>1"
| "w \<in> S\<^sub>1 \<Longrightarrow> a # w \<in> A\<^sub>1"
| "w \<in> S\<^sub>1 \<Longrightarrow> b # w \<in> S\<^sub>1"
| "\<lbrakk>v \<in> B\<^sub>1; v \<in> B\<^sub>1\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> a # v @ w \<in> B\<^sub>1"

theorem S\<^sub>1_sound:
"w \<in> S\<^sub>1 \<longrightarrow> length [x \<leftarrow> w. x = a] = length [x \<leftarrow> w. x = b]"
nitpick [expect = genuine]
oops

inductive_set S\<^sub>2 and A\<^sub>2 and B\<^sub>2 where
  "[] \<in> S\<^sub>2"
| "w \<in> A\<^sub>2 \<Longrightarrow> b # w \<in> S\<^sub>2"
| "w \<in> B\<^sub>2 \<Longrightarrow> a # w \<in> S\<^sub>2"
| "w \<in> S\<^sub>2 \<Longrightarrow> a # w \<in> A\<^sub>2"
| "w \<in> S\<^sub>2 \<Longrightarrow> b # w \<in> B\<^sub>2"
| "\<lbrakk>v \<in> B\<^sub>2; v \<in> B\<^sub>2\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> a # v @ w \<in> B\<^sub>2"

theorem S\<^sub>2_sound:
"w \<in> S\<^sub>2 \<longrightarrow> length [x \<leftarrow> w. x = a] = length [x \<leftarrow> w. x = b]"
nitpick [expect = genuine]
oops

inductive_set S\<^sub>3 and A\<^sub>3 and B\<^sub>3 where
  "[] \<in> S\<^sub>3"
| "w \<in> A\<^sub>3 \<Longrightarrow> b # w \<in> S\<^sub>3"
| "w \<in> B\<^sub>3 \<Longrightarrow> a # w \<in> S\<^sub>3"
| "w \<in> S\<^sub>3 \<Longrightarrow> a # w \<in> A\<^sub>3"
| "w \<in> S\<^sub>3 \<Longrightarrow> b # w \<in> B\<^sub>3"
| "\<lbrakk>v \<in> B\<^sub>3; w \<in> B\<^sub>3\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> a # v @ w \<in> B\<^sub>3"

theorem S\<^sub>3_sound:
"w \<in> S\<^sub>3 \<longrightarrow> length [x \<leftarrow> w. x = a] = length [x \<leftarrow> w. x = b]"
nitpick [card = 1-5, expect = none]
sorry

theorem S\<^sub>3_complete:
"length [x \<leftarrow> w. x = a] = length [x \<leftarrow> w. x = b] \<longrightarrow> w \<in> S\<^sub>3"
nitpick [expect = genuine]
oops

inductive_set S\<^sub>4 and A\<^sub>4 and B\<^sub>4 where
  "[] \<in> S\<^sub>4"
| "w \<in> A\<^sub>4 \<Longrightarrow> b # w \<in> S\<^sub>4"
| "w \<in> B\<^sub>4 \<Longrightarrow> a # w \<in> S\<^sub>4"
| "w \<in> S\<^sub>4 \<Longrightarrow> a # w \<in> A\<^sub>4"
| "\<lbrakk>v \<in> A\<^sub>4; w \<in> A\<^sub>4\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> b # v @ w \<in> A\<^sub>4"
| "w \<in> S\<^sub>4 \<Longrightarrow> b # w \<in> B\<^sub>4"
| "\<lbrakk>v \<in> B\<^sub>4; w \<in> B\<^sub>4\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> a # v @ w \<in> B\<^sub>4"

theorem S\<^sub>4_sound:
"w \<in> S\<^sub>4 \<longrightarrow> length [x \<leftarrow> w. x = a] = length [x \<leftarrow> w. x = b]"
nitpick [card = 1-5, expect = none]
sorry

theorem S\<^sub>4_complete:
"length [x \<leftarrow> w. x = a] = length [x \<leftarrow> w. x = b] \<longrightarrow> w \<in> S\<^sub>4"
nitpick [card = 1-5, expect = none]
sorry

theorem S\<^sub>4_A\<^sub>4_B\<^sub>4_sound_and_complete:
"w \<in> S\<^sub>4 \<longleftrightarrow> length [x \<leftarrow> w. x = a] = length [x \<leftarrow> w. x = b]"
"w \<in> A\<^sub>4 \<longleftrightarrow> length [x \<leftarrow> w. x = a] = length [x \<leftarrow> w. x = b] + 1"
"w \<in> B\<^sub>4 \<longleftrightarrow> length [x \<leftarrow> w. x = b] = length [x \<leftarrow> w. x = a] + 1"
nitpick [card = 1-5, expect = none]
sorry


subsection \<open>3.2. AA Trees\<close>

datatype 'a aa_tree = \<Lambda> | N "'a::linorder" nat "'a aa_tree" "'a aa_tree"

primrec data where
"data \<Lambda> = undefined" |
"data (N x _ _ _) = x"

primrec dataset where
"dataset \<Lambda> = {}" |
"dataset (N x _ t u) = {x} \<union> dataset t \<union> dataset u"

primrec level where
"level \<Lambda> = 0" |
"level (N _ k _ _) = k"

primrec left where
"left \<Lambda> = \<Lambda>" |
"left (N _ _ t\<^sub>1 _) = t\<^sub>1"

primrec right where
"right \<Lambda> = \<Lambda>" |
"right (N _ _ _ t\<^sub>2) = t\<^sub>2"

fun wf where
"wf \<Lambda> = True" |
"wf (N _ k t u) =
 (if t = \<Lambda> then
    k = 1 \<and> (u = \<Lambda> \<or> (level u = 1 \<and> left u = \<Lambda> \<and> right u = \<Lambda>))
  else
    wf t \<and> wf u \<and> u \<noteq> \<Lambda> \<and> level t < k \<and> level u \<le> k \<and> level (right u) < k)"

fun skew where
"skew \<Lambda> = \<Lambda>" |
"skew (N x k t u) =
 (if t \<noteq> \<Lambda> \<and> k = level t then
    N (data t) k (left t) (N x k (right t) u)
  else
    N x k t u)"

fun split where
"split \<Lambda> = \<Lambda>" |
"split (N x k t u) =
 (if u \<noteq> \<Lambda> \<and> k = level (right u) then
    N (data u) (Suc k) (N x k t (left u)) (right u)
  else
    N x k t u)"

theorem dataset_skew_split:
"dataset (skew t) = dataset t"
"dataset (split t) = dataset t"
nitpick [card = 1-5, expect = none]
sorry

theorem wf_skew_split:
"wf t \<Longrightarrow> skew t = t"
"wf t \<Longrightarrow> split t = t"
nitpick [card = 1-5, expect = none]
sorry

primrec insort\<^sub>1 where
"insort\<^sub>1 \<Lambda> x = N x 1 \<Lambda> \<Lambda>" |
"insort\<^sub>1 (N y k t u) x =
 \<^cancel>\<open>(split \<circ> skew)\<close> (N y k (if x < y then insort\<^sub>1 t x else t)
                             (if x > y then insort\<^sub>1 u x else u))"

theorem wf_insort\<^sub>1: "wf t \<Longrightarrow> wf (insort\<^sub>1 t x)"
nitpick [expect = genuine]
oops

theorem wf_insort\<^sub>1_nat: "wf t \<Longrightarrow> wf (insort\<^sub>1 t (x::nat))"
nitpick [eval = "insort\<^sub>1 t x", expect = genuine]
oops

primrec insort\<^sub>2 where
"insort\<^sub>2 \<Lambda> x = N x 1 \<Lambda> \<Lambda>" |
"insort\<^sub>2 (N y k t u) x =
 (split \<circ> skew) (N y k (if x < y then insort\<^sub>2 t x else t)
                       (if x > y then insort\<^sub>2 u x else u))"

theorem wf_insort\<^sub>2: "wf t \<Longrightarrow> wf (insort\<^sub>2 t x)"
nitpick [card = 1-5, expect = none]
sorry

theorem dataset_insort\<^sub>2: "dataset (insort\<^sub>2 t x) = {x} \<union> dataset t"
nitpick [card = 1-5, expect = none]
sorry

end