author huffman Sat, 04 Nov 2006 00:11:11 +0100 changeset 21164 0742fc979c67 parent 21163 6860f161111c child 21165 8fb49f668511
new Deriv.thy contains stuff from Lim.thy
 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy file | annotate | diff | comparison | revisions src/HOL/IsaMakefile file | annotate | diff | comparison | revisions
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+++ b/src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy	Sat Nov 04 00:11:11 2006 +0100
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+(*  Title       : Deriv.thy
+    ID          : \$Id\$
+    Author      : Jacques D. Fleuriot
+    Copyright   : 1998  University of Cambridge
+    Conversion to Isar and new proofs by Lawrence C Paulson, 2004
+    GMVT by Benjamin Porter, 2005
+*)
+
+
+theory Deriv
+imports Lim
+begin
+
+text{*Standard and Nonstandard Definitions*}
+
+definition
+
+  deriv :: "[real \<Rightarrow> 'a::real_normed_vector, real, 'a] \<Rightarrow> bool"
+    --{*Differentiation: D is derivative of function f at x*}
+          ("(DERIV (_)/ (_)/ :> (_))" [1000, 1000, 60] 60)
+  "DERIV f x :> D = ((%h. (f(x + h) - f x) /# h) -- 0 --> D)"
+
+  nsderiv :: "[real=>real,real,real] => bool"
+          ("(NSDERIV (_)/ (_)/ :> (_))" [1000, 1000, 60] 60)
+  "NSDERIV f x :> D = (\<forall>h \<in> Infinitesimal - {0}.
+      (( *f* f)(hypreal_of_real x + h)
+       - hypreal_of_real (f x))/h @= hypreal_of_real D)"
+
+  differentiable :: "[real=>real,real] => bool"   (infixl "differentiable" 60)
+  "f differentiable x = (\<exists>D. DERIV f x :> D)"
+
+  NSdifferentiable :: "[real=>real,real] => bool"
+                       (infixl "NSdifferentiable" 60)
+  "f NSdifferentiable x = (\<exists>D. NSDERIV f x :> D)"
+
+  increment :: "[real=>real,real,hypreal] => hypreal"
+  "increment f x h = (@inc. f NSdifferentiable x &
+           inc = ( *f* f)(hypreal_of_real x + h) - hypreal_of_real (f x))"
+
+
+consts
+  Bolzano_bisect :: "[real*real=>bool, real, real, nat] => (real*real)"
+primrec
+  "Bolzano_bisect P a b 0 = (a,b)"
+  "Bolzano_bisect P a b (Suc n) =
+      (let (x,y) = Bolzano_bisect P a b n
+       in if P(x, (x+y)/2) then ((x+y)/2, y)
+                            else (x, (x+y)/2))"
+
+
+subsection {* Derivatives *}
+
+subsubsection {* Purely standard proofs *}
+
+lemma DERIV_iff: "(DERIV f x :> D) = ((%h. (f(x + h) - f(x))/#h) -- 0 --> D)"
+
+lemma DERIV_D: "DERIV f x :> D ==> (%h. (f(x + h) - f(x))/#h) -- 0 --> D"
+
+lemma DERIV_const [simp]: "DERIV (\<lambda>x. k) x :> 0"
+
+lemma DERIV_Id [simp]: "DERIV (\<lambda>x. x) x :> 1"
+by (simp add: deriv_def real_scaleR_def cong: LIM_cong)
+
+  fixes a b c d :: "'a::ab_group_add"
+  shows "(a + c) - (b + d) = (a - b) + (c - d)"
+by simp
+
+  "\<lbrakk>DERIV f x :> D; DERIV g x :> E\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> DERIV (\<lambda>x. f x + g x) x :> D + E"
+
+lemma DERIV_minus:
+  "DERIV f x :> D \<Longrightarrow> DERIV (\<lambda>x. - f x) x :> - D"
+by (simp only: deriv_def minus_diff_minus scaleR_minus_right LIM_minus)
+
+lemma DERIV_diff:
+  "\<lbrakk>DERIV f x :> D; DERIV g x :> E\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> DERIV (\<lambda>x. f x - g x) x :> D - E"
+by (simp only: diff_def DERIV_add DERIV_minus)
+
+  "\<lbrakk>DERIV f x :> D; DERIV g x :> E\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> DERIV (\<lambda>x. f x + - g x) x :> D + - E"
+
+lemma DERIV_isCont: "DERIV f x :> D \<Longrightarrow> isCont f x"
+proof (unfold isCont_iff)
+  assume "DERIV f x :> D"
+  hence "(\<lambda>h. (f(x+h) - f(x)) /# h) -- 0 --> D"
+    by (rule DERIV_D)
+  hence "(\<lambda>h. h *# ((f(x+h) - f(x)) /# h)) -- 0 --> 0 *# D"
+    by (intro LIM_scaleR LIM_self)
+  hence "(\<lambda>h. (f(x+h) - f(x))) -- 0 --> 0"
+    by (simp cong: LIM_cong)
+  thus "(\<lambda>h. f(x+h)) -- 0 --> f(x)"
+qed
+
+lemma DERIV_mult_lemma:
+  fixes a b c d :: "'a::real_algebra"
+  shows "(a * b - c * d) /# h = a * ((b - d) /# h) + ((a - c) /# h) * d"
+by (simp add: diff_minus scaleR_right_distrib [symmetric] ring_distrib)
+
+lemma DERIV_mult':
+  fixes f g :: "real \<Rightarrow> 'a::real_normed_algebra"
+  assumes f: "DERIV f x :> D"
+  assumes g: "DERIV g x :> E"
+  shows "DERIV (\<lambda>x. f x * g x) x :> f x * E + D * g x"
+proof (unfold deriv_def)
+  from f have "isCont f x"
+    by (rule DERIV_isCont)
+  hence "(\<lambda>h. f(x+h)) -- 0 --> f x"
+    by (simp only: isCont_iff)
+  hence "(\<lambda>h. f(x+h) * ((g(x+h) - g x) /# h) +
+              ((f(x+h) - f x) /# h) * g x)
+          -- 0 --> f x * E + D * g x"
+    by (intro LIM_add LIM_mult2 LIM_const DERIV_D f g)
+  thus "(\<lambda>h. (f(x+h) * g(x+h) - f x * g x) /# h)
+         -- 0 --> f x * E + D * g x"
+    by (simp only: DERIV_mult_lemma)
+qed
+
+lemma DERIV_mult:
+  fixes f g :: "real \<Rightarrow> 'a::{real_normed_algebra,comm_ring}" shows
+     "[| DERIV f x :> Da; DERIV g x :> Db |]
+      ==> DERIV (%x. f x * g x) x :> (Da * g(x)) + (Db * f(x))"
+by (drule (1) DERIV_mult', simp only: mult_commute add_commute)
+
+lemma DERIV_unique:
+      "[| DERIV f x :> D; DERIV f x :> E |] ==> D = E"
+apply (blast intro: LIM_unique)
+done
+
+text{*Differentiation of finite sum*}
+
+lemma DERIV_sumr [rule_format (no_asm)]:
+     "(\<forall>r. m \<le> r & r < (m + n) --> DERIV (%x. f r x) x :> (f' r x))
+      --> DERIV (%x. \<Sum>n=m..<n::nat. f n x :: real) x :> (\<Sum>r=m..<n. f' r x)"
+apply (induct "n")
+done
+
+text{*Alternative definition for differentiability*}
+
+lemma DERIV_LIM_iff:
+     "((%h::real. (f(a + h) - f(a)) / h) -- 0 --> D) =
+      ((%x. (f(x)-f(a)) / (x-a)) -- a --> D)"
+apply (rule iffI)
+apply (drule_tac k="- a" in LIM_offset)
+apply (drule_tac k="a" in LIM_offset)
+done
+
+lemma DERIV_LIM_iff':
+     "((%h::real. (f(a + h) - f(a)) /# h) -- 0 --> D) =
+      ((%x. (f(x)-f(a)) /# (x-a)) -- a --> D)"
+apply (rule iffI)
+apply (drule_tac k="- a" in LIM_offset)
+apply (drule_tac k="a" in LIM_offset)
+done
+
+lemma DERIV_iff2: "(DERIV f x :> D) = ((%z. (f(z) - f(x)) /# (z-x)) -- x --> D)"
+by (simp add: deriv_def diff_minus [symmetric] DERIV_LIM_iff')
+
+lemma inverse_diff_inverse:
+  "\<lbrakk>(a::'a::division_ring) \<noteq> 0; b \<noteq> 0\<rbrakk>
+   \<Longrightarrow> inverse a - inverse b = - (inverse a * (a - b) * inverse b)"
+by (simp add: right_diff_distrib left_diff_distrib mult_assoc)
+
+lemma DERIV_inverse_lemma:
+  "\<lbrakk>a \<noteq> 0; b \<noteq> (0::'a::real_normed_div_algebra)\<rbrakk>
+   \<Longrightarrow> (inverse a - inverse b) /# h
+     = - (inverse a * ((a - b) /# h) * inverse b)"
+
+lemma LIM_equal2:
+  assumes 1: "0 < R"
+  assumes 2: "\<And>x. \<lbrakk>x \<noteq> a; norm (x - a) < R\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> f x = g x"
+  shows "g -- a --> l \<Longrightarrow> f -- a --> l"
+apply (unfold LIM_def, safe)
+apply (drule_tac x="r" in spec, safe)
+apply (rule_tac x="min s R" in exI, safe)
+done
+
+lemma DERIV_inverse':
+  fixes f :: "real \<Rightarrow> 'a::real_normed_div_algebra"
+  assumes der: "DERIV f x :> D"
+  assumes neq: "f x \<noteq> 0"
+  shows "DERIV (\<lambda>x. inverse (f x)) x :> - (inverse (f x) * D * inverse (f x))"
+    (is "DERIV _ _ :> ?E")
+proof (unfold DERIV_iff2)
+  from der have lim_f: "f -- x --> f x"
+    by (rule DERIV_isCont [unfolded isCont_def])
+
+  from neq have "0 < norm (f x)" by simp
+  with LIM_D [OF lim_f] obtain s
+    where s: "0 < s"
+    and less_fx: "\<And>z. \<lbrakk>z \<noteq> x; norm (z - x) < s\<rbrakk>
+                  \<Longrightarrow> norm (f z - f x) < norm (f x)"
+    by fast
+
+  show "(\<lambda>z. (inverse (f z) - inverse (f x)) /# (z - x)) -- x --> ?E"
+  proof (rule LIM_equal2 [OF s])
+    fix z :: real
+    assume "z \<noteq> x" "norm (z - x) < s"
+    hence "norm (f z - f x) < norm (f x)" by (rule less_fx)
+    hence "f z \<noteq> 0" by auto
+    thus "(inverse (f z) - inverse (f x)) /# (z - x) =
+          - (inverse (f z) * ((f z - f x) /# (z - x)) * inverse (f x))"
+      using neq by (rule DERIV_inverse_lemma)
+  next
+    from der have "(\<lambda>z. (f z - f x) /# (z - x)) -- x --> D"
+      by (unfold DERIV_iff2)
+    thus "(\<lambda>z. - (inverse (f z) * ((f z - f x) /# (z - x)) * inverse (f x)))
+          -- x --> ?E"
+      by (intro LIM_mult2 LIM_inverse LIM_minus LIM_const lim_f neq)
+  qed
+qed
+
+lemma DERIV_divide:
+  fixes D E :: "'a::{real_normed_div_algebra,field}"
+  shows "\<lbrakk>DERIV f x :> D; DERIV g x :> E; g x \<noteq> 0\<rbrakk>
+         \<Longrightarrow> DERIV (\<lambda>x. f x / g x) x :> (D * g x - f x * E) / (g x * g x)"
+apply (subgoal_tac "f x * - (inverse (g x) * E * inverse (g x)) +
+          D * inverse (g x) = (D * g x - f x * E) / (g x * g x)")
+apply (erule subst)
+apply (unfold divide_inverse)
+apply (erule DERIV_mult')
+apply (erule (1) DERIV_inverse')
+done
+
+lemma DERIV_power_Suc:
+  fixes f :: "real \<Rightarrow> 'a::{real_normed_algebra,recpower}"
+  assumes f: "DERIV f x :> D"
+  shows "DERIV (\<lambda>x. f x ^ Suc n) x :> (of_nat n + 1) *# (D * f x ^ n)"
+proof (induct n)
+case 0
+  show ?case by (simp add: power_Suc f)
+case (Suc k)
+  from DERIV_mult' [OF f Suc] show ?case
+    apply (simp only: of_nat_Suc scaleR_left_distrib scaleR_one)
+    apply (simp only: power_Suc right_distrib mult_scaleR_right mult_ac)
+    done
+qed
+
+lemma DERIV_power:
+  fixes f :: "real \<Rightarrow> 'a::{real_normed_algebra,recpower}"
+  assumes f: "DERIV f x :> D"
+  shows "DERIV (\<lambda>x. f x ^ n) x :> of_nat n *# (D * f x ^ (n - Suc 0))"
+by (cases "n", simp, simp add: DERIV_power_Suc f)
+
+
+(* ------------------------------------------------------------------------ *)
+(* Caratheodory formulation of derivative at a point: standard proof        *)
+(* ------------------------------------------------------------------------ *)
+
+lemma CARAT_DERIV:
+     "(DERIV f x :> l) =
+      (\<exists>g. (\<forall>z. f z - f x = (z-x) *# g z) & isCont g x & g x = l)"
+      (is "?lhs = ?rhs")
+proof
+  assume der: "DERIV f x :> l"
+  show "\<exists>g. (\<forall>z. f z - f x = (z-x) *# g z) \<and> isCont g x \<and> g x = l"
+  proof (intro exI conjI)
+    let ?g = "(%z. if z = x then l else (f z - f x) /# (z-x))"
+    show "\<forall>z. f z - f x = (z-x) *# ?g z" by (simp)
+    show "isCont ?g x" using der
+      by (simp add: isCont_iff DERIV_iff diff_minus
+               cong: LIM_equal [rule_format])
+    show "?g x = l" by simp
+  qed
+next
+  assume "?rhs"
+  then obtain g where
+    "(\<forall>z. f z - f x = (z-x) *# g z)" and "isCont g x" and "g x = l" by blast
+  thus "(DERIV f x :> l)"
+     by (auto simp add: isCont_iff DERIV_iff diff_minus
+               cong: LIM_equal [rule_format])
+qed
+
+lemma DERIV_chain':
+  assumes f: "DERIV f x :> D"
+  assumes g: "DERIV g (f x) :> E"
+  shows "DERIV (\<lambda>x. g (f x)) x :> D *# E"
+proof (unfold DERIV_iff2)
+  obtain d where d: "\<forall>y. g y - g (f x) = (y - f x) *# d y"
+    and cont_d: "isCont d (f x)" and dfx: "d (f x) = E"
+    using CARAT_DERIV [THEN iffD1, OF g] by fast
+  from f have "f -- x --> f x"
+    by (rule DERIV_isCont [unfolded isCont_def])
+  with cont_d have "(\<lambda>z. d (f z)) -- x --> d (f x)"
+    by (rule LIM_compose)
+  hence "(\<lambda>z. ((f z - f x) /# (z - x)) *# d (f z))
+          -- x --> D *# d (f x)"
+    by (rule LIM_scaleR [OF f [unfolded DERIV_iff2]])
+  thus "(\<lambda>z. (g (f z) - g (f x)) /# (z - x)) -- x --> D *# E"
+    by (simp add: d dfx real_scaleR_def)
+qed
+
+
+subsubsection {* Nonstandard proofs *}
+
+lemma DERIV_NS_iff:
+      "(DERIV f x :> D) = ((%h. (f(x + h) - f(x))/#h) -- 0 --NS> D)"
+
+lemma NS_DERIV_D: "DERIV f x :> D ==> (%h. (f(x + h) - f(x))/#h) -- 0 --NS> D"
+
+lemma NSDeriv_unique:
+     "[| NSDERIV f x :> D; NSDERIV f x :> E |] ==> D = E"
+apply (cut_tac Infinitesimal_epsilon hypreal_epsilon_not_zero)
+apply (auto dest!: bspec [where x=epsilon]
+            intro!: inj_hypreal_of_real [THEN injD]
+            dest: approx_trans3)
+done
+
+text {*First NSDERIV in terms of NSLIM*}
+
+text{*first equivalence *}
+lemma NSDERIV_NSLIM_iff:
+      "(NSDERIV f x :> D) = ((%h. (f(x + h) - f(x))/h) -- 0 --NS> D)"
+apply (simp add: nsderiv_def NSLIM_def, auto)
+apply (drule_tac x = xa in bspec)
+apply (rule_tac [3] ccontr)
+apply (drule_tac [3] x = h in spec)
+apply (auto simp add: mem_infmal_iff starfun_lambda_cancel)
+done
+
+text{*second equivalence *}
+lemma NSDERIV_NSLIM_iff2:
+     "(NSDERIV f x :> D) = ((%z. (f(z) - f(x)) / (z-x)) -- x --NS> D)"
+by (simp add: NSDERIV_NSLIM_iff DERIV_LIM_iff  diff_minus [symmetric]
+              LIM_NSLIM_iff [symmetric])
+
+(* while we're at it! *)
+lemma NSDERIV_iff2:
+     "(NSDERIV f x :> D) =
+      (\<forall>w.
+        w \<noteq> hypreal_of_real x & w \<approx> hypreal_of_real x -->
+        ( *f* (%z. (f z - f x) / (z-x))) w \<approx> hypreal_of_real D)"
+
+(*FIXME DELETE*)
+lemma hypreal_not_eq_minus_iff: "(x \<noteq> a) = (x - a \<noteq> (0::hypreal))"
+by (auto dest: hypreal_eq_minus_iff [THEN iffD2])
+
+lemma NSDERIVD5:
+  "(NSDERIV f x :> D) ==>
+   (\<forall>u. u \<approx> hypreal_of_real x -->
+     ( *f* (%z. f z - f x)) u \<approx> hypreal_of_real D * (u - hypreal_of_real x))"
+apply (case_tac "u = hypreal_of_real x", auto)
+apply (drule_tac x = u in spec, auto)
+apply (drule_tac c = "u - hypreal_of_real x" and b = "hypreal_of_real D" in approx_mult1)
+apply (drule_tac [!] hypreal_not_eq_minus_iff [THEN iffD1])
+apply (subgoal_tac [2] "( *f* (%z. z-x)) u \<noteq> (0::hypreal) ")
+         approx_minus_iff [THEN iffD1, THEN mem_infmal_iff [THEN iffD2]]
+         Infinitesimal_subset_HFinite [THEN subsetD])
+done
+
+lemma NSDERIVD4:
+     "(NSDERIV f x :> D) ==>
+      (\<forall>h \<in> Infinitesimal.
+               (( *f* f)(hypreal_of_real x + h) -
+                 hypreal_of_real (f x))\<approx> (hypreal_of_real D) * h)"
+apply (case_tac "h = (0::hypreal) ")
+apply (drule_tac x = h in bspec)
+apply (drule_tac [2] c = h in approx_mult1)
+apply (auto intro: Infinitesimal_subset_HFinite [THEN subsetD]
+done
+
+lemma NSDERIVD3:
+     "(NSDERIV f x :> D) ==>
+      (\<forall>h \<in> Infinitesimal - {0}.
+               (( *f* f)(hypreal_of_real x + h) -
+                 hypreal_of_real (f x))\<approx> (hypreal_of_real D) * h)"
+apply (rule ccontr, drule_tac x = h in bspec)
+apply (drule_tac [2] c = h in approx_mult1)
+apply (auto intro: Infinitesimal_subset_HFinite [THEN subsetD]
+done
+
+text{*Differentiability implies continuity
+         nice and simple "algebraic" proof*}
+lemma NSDERIV_isNSCont: "NSDERIV f x :> D ==> isNSCont f x"
+apply (auto simp add: nsderiv_def isNSCont_NSLIM_iff NSLIM_def)
+apply (drule approx_minus_iff [THEN iffD1])
+apply (drule hypreal_not_eq_minus_iff [THEN iffD1])
+apply (drule_tac x = "xa - hypreal_of_real x" in bspec)
+apply (drule_tac c = "xa - hypreal_of_real x" in approx_mult1)
+apply (auto intro: Infinitesimal_subset_HFinite [THEN subsetD]
+apply (drule_tac x3=D in
+           HFinite_hypreal_of_real [THEN [2] Infinitesimal_HFinite_mult,
+             THEN mem_infmal_iff [THEN iffD1]])
+            intro: approx_trans approx_minus_iff [THEN iffD2])
+done
+
+text{*Differentiation rules for combinations of functions
+      follow from clear, straightforard, algebraic
+      manipulations*}
+text{*Constant function*}
+
+(* use simple constant nslimit theorem *)
+lemma NSDERIV_const [simp]: "(NSDERIV (%x. k) x :> 0)"
+
+text{*Sum of functions- proved easily*}
+
+lemma NSDERIV_add: "[| NSDERIV f x :> Da;  NSDERIV g x :> Db |]
+      ==> NSDERIV (%x. f x + g x) x :> Da + Db"
+apply (auto simp add: NSDERIV_NSLIM_iff NSLIM_def)
+apply (drule_tac b = "hypreal_of_real Da" and d = "hypreal_of_real Db" in approx_add)
+done
+
+text{*Product of functions - Proof is trivial but tedious
+  and long due to rearrangement of terms*}
+
+lemma lemma_nsderiv1: "((a::hypreal)*b) - (c*d) = (b*(a - c)) + (c*(b - d))"
+
+lemma lemma_nsderiv2: "[| (x - y) / z = hypreal_of_real D + yb; z \<noteq> 0;
+         z \<in> Infinitesimal; yb \<in> Infinitesimal |]
+      ==> x - y \<approx> 0"
+apply (frule_tac c1 = z in hypreal_mult_right_cancel [THEN iffD2], assumption)
+apply (erule_tac V = "(x - y) / z = hypreal_of_real D + yb" in thin_rl)
+            simp add: mult_assoc mem_infmal_iff [symmetric])
+apply (erule Infinitesimal_subset_HFinite [THEN subsetD])
+done
+
+lemma NSDERIV_mult: "[| NSDERIV f x :> Da; NSDERIV g x :> Db |]
+      ==> NSDERIV (%x. f x * g x) x :> (Da * g(x)) + (Db * f(x))"
+apply (auto simp add: NSDERIV_NSLIM_iff NSLIM_def)
+apply (auto dest!: spec
+apply (drule bex_Infinitesimal_iff2 [THEN iffD2])+
+apply (auto simp add: times_divide_eq_right [symmetric]
+            simp del: times_divide_eq)
+apply (drule_tac D = Db in lemma_nsderiv2, assumption+)
+apply (drule_tac
+     approx_minus_iff [THEN iffD2, THEN bex_Infinitesimal_iff2 [THEN iffD2]])
+apply (rule_tac b1 = "hypreal_of_real Db * hypreal_of_real (f x)"
+apply (auto intro!: Infinitesimal_add_approx_self2 [THEN approx_sym]
+                    Infinitesimal_hypreal_of_real_mult
+                    Infinitesimal_hypreal_of_real_mult2
+done
+
+text{*Multiplying by a constant*}
+lemma NSDERIV_cmult: "NSDERIV f x :> D
+      ==> NSDERIV (%x. c * f x) x :> c*D"
+apply (simp only: times_divide_eq_right [symmetric] NSDERIV_NSLIM_iff
+                  minus_mult_right right_diff_distrib [symmetric])
+apply (erule NSLIM_const [THEN NSLIM_mult])
+done
+
+text{*Negation of function*}
+lemma NSDERIV_minus: "NSDERIV f x :> D ==> NSDERIV (%x. -(f x)) x :> -D"
+  assume "(\<lambda>h. (f (x + h) - f x) / h) -- 0 --NS> D"
+  hence deriv: "(\<lambda>h. - ((f(x+h) - f x) / h)) -- 0 --NS> - D"
+    by (rule NSLIM_minus)
+  have "\<forall>h. - ((f (x + h) - f x) / h) = (- f (x + h) + f x) / h"
+  with deriv
+  show "(\<lambda>h. (- f (x + h) + f x) / h) -- 0 --NS> - D" by simp
+qed
+
+text{*Subtraction*}
+lemma NSDERIV_add_minus: "[| NSDERIV f x :> Da; NSDERIV g x :> Db |] ==> NSDERIV (%x. f x + -g x) x :> Da + -Db"
+
+lemma NSDERIV_diff:
+     "[| NSDERIV f x :> Da; NSDERIV g x :> Db |]
+      ==> NSDERIV (%x. f x - g x) x :> Da-Db"
+done
+
+text{*  Similarly to the above, the chain rule admits an entirely
+   straightforward derivation. Compare this with Harrison's
+   HOL proof of the chain rule, which proved to be trickier and
+   required an alternative characterisation of differentiability-
+   the so-called Carathedory derivative. Our main problem is
+   manipulation of terms.*}
+
+
+(* lemmas *)
+lemma NSDERIV_zero:
+      "[| NSDERIV g x :> D;
+               ( *f* g) (hypreal_of_real(x) + xa) = hypreal_of_real(g x);
+               xa \<in> Infinitesimal;
+               xa \<noteq> 0
+            |] ==> D = 0"
+apply (drule bspec, auto)
+done
+
+(* can be proved differently using NSLIM_isCont_iff *)
+lemma NSDERIV_approx:
+     "[| NSDERIV f x :> D;  h \<in> Infinitesimal;  h \<noteq> 0 |]
+      ==> ( *f* f) (hypreal_of_real(x) + h) - hypreal_of_real(f x) \<approx> 0"
+apply (rule Infinitesimal_ratio)
+apply (rule_tac [3] approx_hypreal_of_real_HFinite, auto)
+done
+
+(*---------------------------------------------------------------
+   from one version of differentiability
+
+                f(x) - f(a)
+              --------------- \<approx> Db
+                  x - a
+ ---------------------------------------------------------------*)
+lemma NSDERIVD1: "[| NSDERIV f (g x) :> Da;
+         ( *f* g) (hypreal_of_real(x) + xa) \<noteq> hypreal_of_real (g x);
+         ( *f* g) (hypreal_of_real(x) + xa) \<approx> hypreal_of_real (g x)
+      |] ==> (( *f* f) (( *f* g) (hypreal_of_real(x) + xa))
+                   - hypreal_of_real (f (g x)))
+              / (( *f* g) (hypreal_of_real(x) + xa) - hypreal_of_real (g x))
+             \<approx> hypreal_of_real(Da)"
+by (auto simp add: NSDERIV_NSLIM_iff2 NSLIM_def diff_minus [symmetric])
+
+(*--------------------------------------------------------------
+   from other version of differentiability
+
+                f(x + h) - f(x)
+               ----------------- \<approx> Db
+                       h
+ --------------------------------------------------------------*)
+lemma NSDERIVD2: "[| NSDERIV g x :> Db; xa \<in> Infinitesimal; xa \<noteq> 0 |]
+      ==> (( *f* g) (hypreal_of_real(x) + xa) - hypreal_of_real(g x)) / xa
+          \<approx> hypreal_of_real(Db)"
+by (auto simp add: NSDERIV_NSLIM_iff NSLIM_def mem_infmal_iff starfun_lambda_cancel)
+
+lemma lemma_chain: "(z::hypreal) \<noteq> 0 ==> x*y = (x*inverse(z))*(z*y)"
+by auto
+
+text{*This proof uses both definitions of differentiability.*}
+lemma NSDERIV_chain: "[| NSDERIV f (g x) :> Da; NSDERIV g x :> Db |]
+      ==> NSDERIV (f o g) x :> Da * Db"
+apply (simp (no_asm_simp) add: NSDERIV_NSLIM_iff NSLIM_def
+                mem_infmal_iff [symmetric])
+apply clarify
+apply (frule_tac f = g in NSDERIV_approx)
+apply (auto simp add: starfun_lambda_cancel2 starfun_o [symmetric])
+apply (case_tac "( *f* g) (hypreal_of_real (x) + xa) = hypreal_of_real (g x) ")
+apply (drule_tac g = g in NSDERIV_zero)
+apply (rule_tac z1 = "( *f* g) (hypreal_of_real (x) + xa) - hypreal_of_real (g x) " and y1 = "inverse xa" in lemma_chain [THEN ssubst])
+apply (erule hypreal_not_eq_minus_iff [THEN iffD1])
+apply (rule approx_mult_hypreal_of_real)
+apply (blast intro: NSDERIVD1 approx_minus_iff [THEN iffD2])
+apply (blast intro: NSDERIVD2)
+done
+
+text{*Differentiation of natural number powers*}
+lemma NSDERIV_Id [simp]: "NSDERIV (%x. x) x :> 1"
+by (simp add: NSDERIV_NSLIM_iff NSLIM_def divide_self del: divide_self_if)
+
+lemma NSDERIV_cmult_Id [simp]: "NSDERIV (op * c) x :> c"
+by (cut_tac c = c and x = x in NSDERIV_Id [THEN NSDERIV_cmult], simp)
+
+(*Can't get rid of x \<noteq> 0 because it isn't continuous at zero*)
+lemma NSDERIV_inverse:
+     "x \<noteq> 0 ==> NSDERIV (%x. inverse(x)) x :> (- (inverse x ^ Suc (Suc 0)))"
+apply (rule ballI, simp, clarify)
+(*apply (auto simp add: starfun_inverse_inverse realpow_two
+        simp del: minus_mult_left [symmetric] minus_mult_right [symmetric])*)
+              inverse_minus_eq [symmetric] add_ac mult_ac diff_def
+            del: inverse_mult_distrib inverse_minus_eq
+                 minus_mult_left [symmetric] minus_mult_right [symmetric])
+apply (simp (no_asm_simp) add: mult_assoc [symmetric] right_distrib
+            del: minus_mult_left [symmetric] minus_mult_right [symmetric])
+apply (rule_tac y = "inverse (- hypreal_of_real x * hypreal_of_real x)" in approx_trans)
+apply (auto dest!: hypreal_of_real_HFinite_diff_Infinitesimal
+            simp add: inverse_minus_eq [symmetric] HFinite_minus_iff)
+apply (rule Infinitesimal_HFinite_mult2, auto)
+done
+
+subsubsection {* Equivalence of NS and Standard definitions *}
+
+lemma divideR_eq_divide [simp]: "x /# y = x / y"
+by (simp add: real_scaleR_def divide_inverse mult_commute)
+
+text{*Now equivalence between NSDERIV and DERIV*}
+lemma NSDERIV_DERIV_iff: "(NSDERIV f x :> D) = (DERIV f x :> D)"
+by (simp add: deriv_def NSDERIV_NSLIM_iff LIM_NSLIM_iff)
+
+(* let's do the standard proof though theorem *)
+(* LIM_mult2 follows from a NS proof          *)
+
+lemma DERIV_cmult:
+  fixes f :: "real \<Rightarrow> 'a::real_normed_algebra" shows
+      "DERIV f x :> D ==> DERIV (%x. c * f x) x :> c*D"
+by (drule DERIV_mult' [OF DERIV_const], simp)
+
+(* standard version *)
+lemma DERIV_chain: "[| DERIV f (g x) :> Da; DERIV g x :> Db |] ==> DERIV (f o g) x :> Da * Db"
+by (drule (1) DERIV_chain', simp add: o_def real_scaleR_def mult_commute)
+
+lemma DERIV_chain2: "[| DERIV f (g x) :> Da; DERIV g x :> Db |] ==> DERIV (%x. f (g x)) x :> Da * Db"
+by (auto dest: DERIV_chain simp add: o_def)
+
+(*derivative of linear multiplication*)
+lemma DERIV_cmult_Id [simp]: "DERIV (op * c) x :> c"
+by (cut_tac c = c and x = x in DERIV_Id [THEN DERIV_cmult], simp)
+
+lemma DERIV_pow: "DERIV (%x. x ^ n) x :> real n * (x ^ (n - Suc 0))"
+apply (cut_tac DERIV_power [OF DERIV_Id])
+done
+
+(* NS version *)
+lemma NSDERIV_pow: "NSDERIV (%x. x ^ n) x :> real n * (x ^ (n - Suc 0))"
+
+text{*Power of -1*}
+
+lemma DERIV_inverse: "x \<noteq> 0 ==> DERIV (%x. inverse(x)) x :> (-(inverse x ^ Suc (Suc 0)))"
+by (drule DERIV_inverse' [OF DERIV_Id], simp)
+
+text{*Derivative of inverse*}
+lemma DERIV_inverse_fun: "[| DERIV f x :> d; f(x) \<noteq> 0 |]
+      ==> DERIV (%x. inverse(f x)::real) x :> (- (d * inverse(f(x) ^ Suc (Suc 0))))"
+by (drule (1) DERIV_inverse', simp add: mult_ac)
+
+lemma NSDERIV_inverse_fun: "[| NSDERIV f x :> d; f(x) \<noteq> 0 |]
+      ==> NSDERIV (%x. inverse(f x)) x :> (- (d * inverse(f(x) ^ Suc (Suc 0))))"
+by (simp add: NSDERIV_DERIV_iff DERIV_inverse_fun del: realpow_Suc)
+
+text{*Derivative of quotient*}
+lemma DERIV_quotient: "[| DERIV f x :> d; DERIV g x :> e; g(x) \<noteq> 0 |]
+       ==> DERIV (%y. f(y) / (g y) :: real) x :> (d*g(x) - (e*f(x))) / (g(x) ^ Suc (Suc 0))"
+by (drule (2) DERIV_divide, simp add: mult_commute)
+
+lemma NSDERIV_quotient: "[| NSDERIV f x :> d; DERIV g x :> e; g(x) \<noteq> 0 |]
+       ==> NSDERIV (%y. f(y) / (g y)) x :> (d*g(x)
+                            - (e*f(x))) / (g(x) ^ Suc (Suc 0))"
+by (simp add: NSDERIV_DERIV_iff DERIV_quotient del: realpow_Suc)
+
+lemma CARAT_NSDERIV: "NSDERIV f x :> l ==>
+      \<exists>g. (\<forall>z. f z - f x = g z * (z-x)) & isNSCont g x & g x = l"
+by (auto simp add: NSDERIV_DERIV_iff isNSCont_isCont_iff CARAT_DERIV
+                   real_scaleR_def mult_commute)
+
+lemma hypreal_eq_minus_iff3: "(x = y + z) = (x + -z = (y::hypreal))"
+by auto
+
+lemma CARAT_DERIVD:
+  assumes all: "\<forall>z. f z - f x = g z * (z-x)"
+      and nsc: "isNSCont g x"
+  shows "NSDERIV f x :> g x"
+proof -
+  from nsc
+  have "\<forall>w. w \<noteq> hypreal_of_real x \<and> w \<approx> hypreal_of_real x \<longrightarrow>
+         ( *f* g) w * (w - hypreal_of_real x) / (w - hypreal_of_real x) \<approx>
+         hypreal_of_real (g x)"
+    by (simp add: diff_minus isNSCont_def)
+  thus ?thesis using all
+    by (simp add: NSDERIV_iff2 starfun_if_eq cong: if_cong)
+qed
+
+subsubsection {* Differentiability predicate *}
+
+lemma differentiableD: "f differentiable x ==> \<exists>D. DERIV f x :> D"
+
+lemma differentiableI: "DERIV f x :> D ==> f differentiable x"
+
+lemma NSdifferentiableD: "f NSdifferentiable x ==> \<exists>D. NSDERIV f x :> D"
+
+lemma NSdifferentiableI: "NSDERIV f x :> D ==> f NSdifferentiable x"
+
+lemma differentiable_const: "(\<lambda>z. a) differentiable x"
+  apply (unfold differentiable_def)
+  apply (rule_tac x=0 in exI)
+  apply simp
+  done
+
+lemma differentiable_sum:
+  assumes "f differentiable x"
+  and "g differentiable x"
+  shows "(\<lambda>x. f x + g x) differentiable x"
+proof -
+  from prems have "\<exists>D. DERIV f x :> D" by (unfold differentiable_def)
+  then obtain df where "DERIV f x :> df" ..
+  moreover from prems have "\<exists>D. DERIV g x :> D" by (unfold differentiable_def)
+  then obtain dg where "DERIV g x :> dg" ..
+  ultimately have "DERIV (\<lambda>x. f x + g x) x :> df + dg" by (rule DERIV_add)
+  hence "\<exists>D. DERIV (\<lambda>x. f x + g x) x :> D" by auto
+  thus ?thesis by (fold differentiable_def)
+qed
+
+lemma differentiable_diff:
+  assumes "f differentiable x"
+  and "g differentiable x"
+  shows "(\<lambda>x. f x - g x) differentiable x"
+proof -
+  from prems have "f differentiable x" by simp
+  moreover
+  from prems have "\<exists>D. DERIV g x :> D" by (unfold differentiable_def)
+  then obtain dg where "DERIV g x :> dg" ..
+  then have "DERIV (\<lambda>x. - g x) x :> -dg" by (rule DERIV_minus)
+  hence "\<exists>D. DERIV (\<lambda>x. - g x) x :> D" by auto
+  hence "(\<lambda>x. - g x) differentiable x" by (fold differentiable_def)
+  ultimately
+  show ?thesis
+    by (auto simp: real_diff_def dest: differentiable_sum)
+qed
+
+lemma differentiable_mult:
+  assumes "f differentiable x"
+  and "g differentiable x"
+  shows "(\<lambda>x. f x * g x) differentiable x"
+proof -
+  from prems have "\<exists>D. DERIV f x :> D" by (unfold differentiable_def)
+  then obtain df where "DERIV f x :> df" ..
+  moreover from prems have "\<exists>D. DERIV g x :> D" by (unfold differentiable_def)
+  then obtain dg where "DERIV g x :> dg" ..
+  ultimately have "DERIV (\<lambda>x. f x * g x) x :> df * g x + dg * f x" by (simp add: DERIV_mult)
+  hence "\<exists>D. DERIV (\<lambda>x. f x * g x) x :> D" by auto
+  thus ?thesis by (fold differentiable_def)
+qed
+
+subsection {*(NS) Increment*}
+lemma incrementI:
+      "f NSdifferentiable x ==>
+      increment f x h = ( *f* f) (hypreal_of_real(x) + h) -
+      hypreal_of_real (f x)"
+
+lemma incrementI2: "NSDERIV f x :> D ==>
+     increment f x h = ( *f* f) (hypreal_of_real(x) + h) -
+     hypreal_of_real (f x)"
+apply (erule NSdifferentiableI [THEN incrementI])
+done
+
+(* The Increment theorem -- Keisler p. 65 *)
+lemma increment_thm: "[| NSDERIV f x :> D; h \<in> Infinitesimal; h \<noteq> 0 |]
+      ==> \<exists>e \<in> Infinitesimal. increment f x h = hypreal_of_real(D)*h + e*h"
+apply (frule_tac h = h in incrementI2, simp add: nsderiv_def)
+apply (drule bspec, auto)
+apply (drule bex_Infinitesimal_iff2 [THEN iffD2], clarify)
+apply (frule_tac b1 = "hypreal_of_real (D) + y"
+        in hypreal_mult_right_cancel [THEN iffD2])
+apply (erule_tac [2] V = "(( *f* f) (hypreal_of_real (x) + h) - hypreal_of_real (f x)) / h = hypreal_of_real (D) + y" in thin_rl)
+apply assumption
+done
+
+lemma increment_thm2:
+     "[| NSDERIV f x :> D; h \<approx> 0; h \<noteq> 0 |]
+      ==> \<exists>e \<in> Infinitesimal. increment f x h =
+              hypreal_of_real(D)*h + e*h"
+by (blast dest!: mem_infmal_iff [THEN iffD2] intro!: increment_thm)
+
+
+lemma increment_approx_zero: "[| NSDERIV f x :> D; h \<approx> 0; h \<noteq> 0 |]
+      ==> increment f x h \<approx> 0"
+apply (drule increment_thm2,
+apply (erule Infinitesimal_subset_HFinite [THEN subsetD])
+done
+
+subsection {* Nested Intervals and Bisection *}
+
+text{*Lemmas about nested intervals and proof by bisection (cf.Harrison).
+     All considerably tidied by lcp.*}
+
+lemma lemma_f_mono_add [rule_format (no_asm)]: "(\<forall>n. (f::nat=>real) n \<le> f (Suc n)) --> f m \<le> f(m + no)"
+apply (induct "no")
+apply (auto intro: order_trans)
+done
+
+lemma f_inc_g_dec_Beq_f: "[| \<forall>n. f(n) \<le> f(Suc n);
+         \<forall>n. g(Suc n) \<le> g(n);
+         \<forall>n. f(n) \<le> g(n) |]
+      ==> Bseq (f :: nat \<Rightarrow> real)"
+apply (rule_tac k = "f 0" and K = "g 0" in BseqI2, rule allI)
+apply (induct_tac "n")
+apply (auto intro: order_trans)
+apply (rule_tac y = "g (Suc na)" in order_trans)
+apply (induct_tac [2] "na")
+apply (auto intro: order_trans)
+done
+
+lemma f_inc_g_dec_Beq_g: "[| \<forall>n. f(n) \<le> f(Suc n);
+         \<forall>n. g(Suc n) \<le> g(n);
+         \<forall>n. f(n) \<le> g(n) |]
+      ==> Bseq (g :: nat \<Rightarrow> real)"
+apply (subst Bseq_minus_iff [symmetric])
+apply (rule_tac g = "%x. - (f x)" in f_inc_g_dec_Beq_f)
+apply auto
+done
+
+lemma f_inc_imp_le_lim:
+  fixes f :: "nat \<Rightarrow> real"
+  shows "\<lbrakk>\<forall>n. f n \<le> f (Suc n); convergent f\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> f n \<le> lim f"
+apply (rule linorder_not_less [THEN iffD1])
+apply (auto simp add: convergent_LIMSEQ_iff LIMSEQ_iff monoseq_Suc)
+apply (drule real_less_sum_gt_zero)
+apply (drule_tac x = "f n + - lim f" in spec, safe)
+apply (drule_tac P = "%na. no\<le>na --> ?Q na" and x = "no + n" in spec, auto)
+apply (subgoal_tac "lim f \<le> f (no + n) ")
+apply (drule_tac no=no and m=n in lemma_f_mono_add)
+apply (induct_tac "no")
+apply simp
+apply (auto intro: order_trans simp add: diff_minus abs_if)
+done
+
+lemma lim_uminus: "convergent g ==> lim (%x. - g x) = - (lim g)"
+apply (rule LIMSEQ_minus [THEN limI])
+done
+
+lemma g_dec_imp_lim_le:
+  fixes g :: "nat \<Rightarrow> real"
+  shows "\<lbrakk>\<forall>n. g (Suc n) \<le> g(n); convergent g\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> lim g \<le> g n"
+apply (subgoal_tac "- (g n) \<le> - (lim g) ")
+apply (cut_tac [2] f = "%x. - (g x)" in f_inc_imp_le_lim)
+apply (auto simp add: lim_uminus convergent_minus_iff [symmetric])
+done
+
+lemma lemma_nest: "[| \<forall>n. f(n) \<le> f(Suc n);
+         \<forall>n. g(Suc n) \<le> g(n);
+         \<forall>n. f(n) \<le> g(n) |]
+      ==> \<exists>l m :: real. l \<le> m &  ((\<forall>n. f(n) \<le> l) & f ----> l) &
+                            ((\<forall>n. m \<le> g(n)) & g ----> m)"
+apply (subgoal_tac "monoseq f & monoseq g")
+prefer 2 apply (force simp add: LIMSEQ_iff monoseq_Suc)
+apply (subgoal_tac "Bseq f & Bseq g")
+prefer 2 apply (blast intro: f_inc_g_dec_Beq_f f_inc_g_dec_Beq_g)
+apply (auto dest!: Bseq_monoseq_convergent simp add: convergent_LIMSEQ_iff)
+apply (rule_tac x = "lim f" in exI)
+apply (rule_tac x = "lim g" in exI)
+apply (auto intro: LIMSEQ_le)
+apply (auto simp add: f_inc_imp_le_lim g_dec_imp_lim_le convergent_LIMSEQ_iff)
+done
+
+lemma lemma_nest_unique: "[| \<forall>n. f(n) \<le> f(Suc n);
+         \<forall>n. g(Suc n) \<le> g(n);
+         \<forall>n. f(n) \<le> g(n);
+         (%n. f(n) - g(n)) ----> 0 |]
+      ==> \<exists>l::real. ((\<forall>n. f(n) \<le> l) & f ----> l) &
+                ((\<forall>n. l \<le> g(n)) & g ----> l)"
+apply (drule lemma_nest, auto)
+apply (subgoal_tac "l = m")
+apply (drule_tac [2] X = f in LIMSEQ_diff)
+apply (auto intro: LIMSEQ_unique)
+done
+
+text{*The universal quantifiers below are required for the declaration
+  of @{text Bolzano_nest_unique} below.*}
+
+lemma Bolzano_bisect_le:
+ "a \<le> b ==> \<forall>n. fst (Bolzano_bisect P a b n) \<le> snd (Bolzano_bisect P a b n)"
+apply (rule allI)
+apply (induct_tac "n")
+apply (auto simp add: Let_def split_def)
+done
+
+lemma Bolzano_bisect_fst_le_Suc: "a \<le> b ==>
+   \<forall>n. fst(Bolzano_bisect P a b n) \<le> fst (Bolzano_bisect P a b (Suc n))"
+apply (rule allI)
+apply (induct_tac "n")
+apply (auto simp add: Bolzano_bisect_le Let_def split_def)
+done
+
+lemma Bolzano_bisect_Suc_le_snd: "a \<le> b ==>
+   \<forall>n. snd(Bolzano_bisect P a b (Suc n)) \<le> snd (Bolzano_bisect P a b n)"
+apply (rule allI)
+apply (induct_tac "n")
+apply (auto simp add: Bolzano_bisect_le Let_def split_def)
+done
+
+lemma eq_divide_2_times_iff: "((x::real) = y / (2 * z)) = (2 * x = y/z)"
+apply (auto)
+apply (drule_tac f = "%u. (1/2) *u" in arg_cong)
+apply (simp)
+done
+
+lemma Bolzano_bisect_diff:
+     "a \<le> b ==>
+      snd(Bolzano_bisect P a b n) - fst(Bolzano_bisect P a b n) =
+      (b-a) / (2 ^ n)"
+apply (induct "n")
+done
+
+lemmas Bolzano_nest_unique =
+    lemma_nest_unique
+    [OF Bolzano_bisect_fst_le_Suc Bolzano_bisect_Suc_le_snd Bolzano_bisect_le]
+
+
+lemma not_P_Bolzano_bisect:
+  assumes P:    "!!a b c. [| P(a,b); P(b,c); a \<le> b; b \<le> c|] ==> P(a,c)"
+      and notP: "~ P(a,b)"
+      and le:   "a \<le> b"
+  shows "~ P(fst(Bolzano_bisect P a b n), snd(Bolzano_bisect P a b n))"
+proof (induct n)
+  case 0 thus ?case by simp
+ next
+  case (Suc n)
+  thus ?case
+ by (auto simp del: surjective_pairing [symmetric]
+             simp add: Let_def split_def Bolzano_bisect_le [OF le]
+     P [of "fst (Bolzano_bisect P a b n)" _ "snd (Bolzano_bisect P a b n)"])
+qed
+
+(*Now we re-package P_prem as a formula*)
+lemma not_P_Bolzano_bisect':
+     "[| \<forall>a b c. P(a,b) & P(b,c) & a \<le> b & b \<le> c --> P(a,c);
+         ~ P(a,b);  a \<le> b |] ==>
+      \<forall>n. ~ P(fst(Bolzano_bisect P a b n), snd(Bolzano_bisect P a b n))"
+by (blast elim!: not_P_Bolzano_bisect [THEN [2] rev_notE])
+
+
+
+lemma lemma_BOLZANO:
+     "[| \<forall>a b c. P(a,b) & P(b,c) & a \<le> b & b \<le> c --> P(a,c);
+         \<forall>x. \<exists>d::real. 0 < d &
+                (\<forall>a b. a \<le> x & x \<le> b & (b-a) < d --> P(a,b));
+         a \<le> b |]
+      ==> P(a,b)"
+apply (rule Bolzano_nest_unique [where P1=P, THEN exE], assumption+)
+apply (rule LIMSEQ_minus_cancel)
+apply (simp (no_asm_simp) add: Bolzano_bisect_diff LIMSEQ_divide_realpow_zero)
+apply (rule ccontr)
+apply (drule not_P_Bolzano_bisect', assumption+)
+apply (rename_tac "l")
+apply (drule_tac x = l in spec, clarify)
+apply (drule_tac P = "%r. 0<r --> ?Q r" and x = "d/2" in spec)
+apply (drule_tac P = "%r. 0<r --> ?Q r" and x = "d/2" in spec)
+apply (drule real_less_half_sum, auto)
+apply (drule_tac x = "fst (Bolzano_bisect P a b (no + noa))" in spec)
+apply (drule_tac x = "snd (Bolzano_bisect P a b (no + noa))" in spec)
+apply safe
+apply (simp_all (no_asm_simp))
+apply (rule_tac y = "abs (fst (Bolzano_bisect P a b (no + noa)) - l) + abs (snd (Bolzano_bisect P a b (no + noa)) - l)" in order_le_less_trans)
+apply (rule real_sum_of_halves [THEN subst])
+done
+
+
+lemma lemma_BOLZANO2: "((\<forall>a b c. (a \<le> b & b \<le> c & P(a,b) & P(b,c)) --> P(a,c)) &
+       (\<forall>x. \<exists>d::real. 0 < d &
+                (\<forall>a b. a \<le> x & x \<le> b & (b-a) < d --> P(a,b))))
+      --> (\<forall>a b. a \<le> b --> P(a,b))"
+apply clarify
+apply (blast intro: lemma_BOLZANO)
+done
+
+
+subsection {* Intermediate Value Theorem *}
+
+text {*Prove Contrapositive by Bisection*}
+
+lemma IVT: "[| f(a::real) \<le> (y::real); y \<le> f(b);
+         a \<le> b;
+         (\<forall>x. a \<le> x & x \<le> b --> isCont f x) |]
+      ==> \<exists>x. a \<le> x & x \<le> b & f(x) = y"
+apply (rule contrapos_pp, assumption)
+apply (cut_tac P = "% (u,v) . a \<le> u & u \<le> v & v \<le> b --> ~ (f (u) \<le> y & y \<le> f (v))" in lemma_BOLZANO2)
+apply safe
+apply simp_all
+apply (rule ccontr)
+apply (subgoal_tac "a \<le> x & x \<le> b")
+ prefer 2
+ apply simp
+ apply (drule_tac P = "%d. 0<d --> ?P d" and x = 1 in spec, arith)
+apply (drule_tac x = x in spec)+
+apply simp
+apply (drule_tac P = "%r. ?P r --> (\<exists>s>0. ?Q r s) " and x = "\<bar>y - f x\<bar>" in spec)
+apply safe
+apply simp
+apply (drule_tac x = s in spec, clarify)
+apply (cut_tac x = "f x" and y = y in linorder_less_linear, safe)
+apply (drule_tac x = "ba-x" in spec)
+apply (drule_tac x = "aa-x" in spec)
+apply (case_tac "x \<le> aa", simp_all)
+done
+
+lemma IVT2: "[| f(b::real) \<le> (y::real); y \<le> f(a);
+         a \<le> b;
+         (\<forall>x. a \<le> x & x \<le> b --> isCont f x)
+      |] ==> \<exists>x. a \<le> x & x \<le> b & f(x) = y"
+apply (subgoal_tac "- f a \<le> -y & -y \<le> - f b", clarify)
+apply (drule IVT [where f = "%x. - f x"], assumption)
+apply (auto intro: isCont_minus)
+done
+
+(*HOL style here: object-level formulations*)
+lemma IVT_objl: "(f(a::real) \<le> (y::real) & y \<le> f(b) & a \<le> b &
+      (\<forall>x. a \<le> x & x \<le> b --> isCont f x))
+      --> (\<exists>x. a \<le> x & x \<le> b & f(x) = y)"
+apply (blast intro: IVT)
+done
+
+lemma IVT2_objl: "(f(b::real) \<le> (y::real) & y \<le> f(a) & a \<le> b &
+      (\<forall>x. a \<le> x & x \<le> b --> isCont f x))
+      --> (\<exists>x. a \<le> x & x \<le> b & f(x) = y)"
+apply (blast intro: IVT2)
+done
+
+text{*By bisection, function continuous on closed interval is bounded above*}
+
+lemma isCont_bounded:
+     "[| a \<le> b; \<forall>x. a \<le> x & x \<le> b --> isCont f x |]
+      ==> \<exists>M::real. \<forall>x::real. a \<le> x & x \<le> b --> f(x) \<le> M"
+apply (cut_tac P = "% (u,v) . a \<le> u & u \<le> v & v \<le> b --> (\<exists>M. \<forall>x. u \<le> x & x \<le> v --> f x \<le> M)" in lemma_BOLZANO2)
+apply safe
+apply simp_all
+apply (rename_tac x xa ya M Ma)
+apply (cut_tac x = M and y = Ma in linorder_linear, safe)
+apply (rule_tac x = Ma in exI, clarify)
+apply (cut_tac x = xb and y = xa in linorder_linear, force)
+apply (rule_tac x = M in exI, clarify)
+apply (cut_tac x = xb and y = xa in linorder_linear, force)
+apply (case_tac "a \<le> x & x \<le> b")
+apply (rule_tac [2] x = 1 in exI)
+prefer 2 apply force
+apply (drule_tac x = x in spec, auto)
+apply (erule_tac V = "\<forall>M. \<exists>x. a \<le> x & x \<le> b & ~ f x \<le> M" in thin_rl)
+apply (drule_tac x = 1 in spec, auto)
+apply (rule_tac x = s in exI, clarify)
+apply (rule_tac x = "\<bar>f x\<bar> + 1" in exI, clarify)
+apply (drule_tac x = "xa-x" in spec)
+done
+
+text{*Refine the above to existence of least upper bound*}
+
+lemma lemma_reals_complete: "((\<exists>x. x \<in> S) & (\<exists>y. isUb UNIV S (y::real))) -->
+      (\<exists>t. isLub UNIV S t)"
+by (blast intro: reals_complete)
+
+lemma isCont_has_Ub: "[| a \<le> b; \<forall>x. a \<le> x & x \<le> b --> isCont f x |]
+         ==> \<exists>M::real. (\<forall>x::real. a \<le> x & x \<le> b --> f(x) \<le> M) &
+                   (\<forall>N. N < M --> (\<exists>x. a \<le> x & x \<le> b & N < f(x)))"
+apply (cut_tac S = "Collect (%y. \<exists>x. a \<le> x & x \<le> b & y = f x)"
+        in lemma_reals_complete)
+apply auto
+apply (drule isCont_bounded, assumption)
+apply (auto simp add: isUb_def leastP_def isLub_def setge_def setle_def)
+apply (rule exI, auto)
+apply (auto dest!: spec simp add: linorder_not_less)
+done
+
+text{*Now show that it attains its upper bound*}
+
+lemma isCont_eq_Ub:
+  assumes le: "a \<le> b"
+      and con: "\<forall>x::real. a \<le> x & x \<le> b --> isCont f x"
+  shows "\<exists>M::real. (\<forall>x. a \<le> x & x \<le> b --> f(x) \<le> M) &
+             (\<exists>x. a \<le> x & x \<le> b & f(x) = M)"
+proof -
+  from isCont_has_Ub [OF le con]
+  obtain M where M1: "\<forall>x. a \<le> x \<and> x \<le> b \<longrightarrow> f x \<le> M"
+             and M2: "!!N. N<M ==> \<exists>x. a \<le> x \<and> x \<le> b \<and> N < f x"  by blast
+  show ?thesis
+  proof (intro exI, intro conjI)
+    show " \<forall>x. a \<le> x \<and> x \<le> b \<longrightarrow> f x \<le> M" by (rule M1)
+    show "\<exists>x. a \<le> x \<and> x \<le> b \<and> f x = M"
+    proof (rule ccontr)
+      assume "\<not> (\<exists>x. a \<le> x \<and> x \<le> b \<and> f x = M)"
+      with M1 have M3: "\<forall>x. a \<le> x & x \<le> b --> f x < M"
+        by (fastsimp simp add: linorder_not_le [symmetric])
+      hence "\<forall>x. a \<le> x & x \<le> b --> isCont (%x. inverse (M - f x)) x"
+        by (auto simp add: isCont_inverse isCont_diff con)
+      from isCont_bounded [OF le this]
+      obtain k where k: "!!x. a \<le> x & x \<le> b --> inverse (M - f x) \<le> k" by auto
+      have Minv: "!!x. a \<le> x & x \<le> b --> 0 < inverse (M - f (x))"
+        by (simp add: M3 compare_rls)
+      have "!!x. a \<le> x & x \<le> b --> inverse (M - f x) < k+1" using k
+        by (auto intro: order_le_less_trans [of _ k])
+      with Minv
+      have "!!x. a \<le> x & x \<le> b --> inverse(k+1) < inverse(inverse(M - f x))"
+        by (intro strip less_imp_inverse_less, simp_all)
+      hence invlt: "!!x. a \<le> x & x \<le> b --> inverse(k+1) < M - f x"
+        by simp
+      have "M - inverse (k+1) < M" using k [of a] Minv [of a] le
+        by (simp, arith)
+      from M2 [OF this]
+      obtain x where ax: "a \<le> x & x \<le> b & M - inverse(k+1) < f x" ..
+      thus False using invlt [of x] by force
+    qed
+  qed
+qed
+
+
+text{*Same theorem for lower bound*}
+
+lemma isCont_eq_Lb: "[| a \<le> b; \<forall>x. a \<le> x & x \<le> b --> isCont f x |]
+         ==> \<exists>M::real. (\<forall>x::real. a \<le> x & x \<le> b --> M \<le> f(x)) &
+                   (\<exists>x. a \<le> x & x \<le> b & f(x) = M)"
+apply (subgoal_tac "\<forall>x. a \<le> x & x \<le> b --> isCont (%x. - (f x)) x")
+prefer 2 apply (blast intro: isCont_minus)
+apply (drule_tac f = "(%x. - (f x))" in isCont_eq_Ub)
+apply safe
+apply auto
+done
+
+
+text{*Another version.*}
+
+lemma isCont_Lb_Ub: "[|a \<le> b; \<forall>x. a \<le> x & x \<le> b --> isCont f x |]
+      ==> \<exists>L M::real. (\<forall>x::real. a \<le> x & x \<le> b --> L \<le> f(x) & f(x) \<le> M) &
+          (\<forall>y. L \<le> y & y \<le> M --> (\<exists>x. a \<le> x & x \<le> b & (f(x) = y)))"
+apply (frule isCont_eq_Lb)
+apply (frule_tac [2] isCont_eq_Ub)
+apply (assumption+, safe)
+apply (rule_tac x = "f x" in exI)
+apply (rule_tac x = "f xa" in exI, simp, safe)
+apply (cut_tac x = x and y = xa in linorder_linear, safe)
+apply (cut_tac f = f and a = x and b = xa and y = y in IVT_objl)
+apply (cut_tac [2] f = f and a = xa and b = x and y = y in IVT2_objl, safe)
+apply (rule_tac [2] x = xb in exI)
+apply (rule_tac [4] x = xb in exI, simp_all)
+done
+
+
+text{*If @{term "0 < f'(x)"} then @{term x} is Locally Strictly Increasing At The Right*}
+
+lemma DERIV_left_inc:
+  fixes f :: "real => real"
+  assumes der: "DERIV f x :> l"
+      and l:   "0 < l"
+  shows "\<exists>d > 0. \<forall>h > 0. h < d --> f(x) < f(x + h)"
+proof -
+  from l der [THEN DERIV_D, THEN LIM_D [where r = "l"]]
+  have "\<exists>s > 0. (\<forall>z. z \<noteq> 0 \<and> \<bar>z\<bar> < s \<longrightarrow> \<bar>(f(x+z) - f x) / z - l\<bar> < l)"
+  then obtain s
+        where s:   "0 < s"
+          and all: "!!z. z \<noteq> 0 \<and> \<bar>z\<bar> < s \<longrightarrow> \<bar>(f(x+z) - f x) / z - l\<bar> < l"
+    by auto
+  thus ?thesis
+  proof (intro exI conjI strip)
+    show "0<s" .
+    fix h::real
+    assume "0 < h" "h < s"
+    with all [of h] show "f x < f (x+h)"
+    proof (simp add: abs_if pos_less_divide_eq diff_minus [symmetric]
+      assume "~ (f (x+h) - f x) / h < l" and h: "0 < h"
+      with l
+      have "0 < (f (x+h) - f x) / h" by arith
+      thus "f x < f (x+h)"
+  by (simp add: pos_less_divide_eq h)
+    qed
+  qed
+qed
+
+lemma DERIV_left_dec:
+  fixes f :: "real => real"
+  assumes der: "DERIV f x :> l"
+      and l:   "l < 0"
+  shows "\<exists>d > 0. \<forall>h > 0. h < d --> f(x) < f(x-h)"
+proof -
+  from l der [THEN DERIV_D, THEN LIM_D [where r = "-l"]]
+  have "\<exists>s > 0. (\<forall>z. z \<noteq> 0 \<and> \<bar>z\<bar> < s \<longrightarrow> \<bar>(f(x+z) - f x) / z - l\<bar> < -l)"
+  then obtain s
+        where s:   "0 < s"
+          and all: "!!z. z \<noteq> 0 \<and> \<bar>z\<bar> < s \<longrightarrow> \<bar>(f(x+z) - f x) / z - l\<bar> < -l"
+    by auto
+  thus ?thesis
+  proof (intro exI conjI strip)
+    show "0<s" .
+    fix h::real
+    assume "0 < h" "h < s"
+    with all [of "-h"] show "f x < f (x-h)"
+    proof (simp add: abs_if pos_less_divide_eq diff_minus [symmetric]
+      assume " - ((f (x-h) - f x) / h) < l" and h: "0 < h"
+      with l
+      have "0 < (f (x-h) - f x) / h" by arith
+      thus "f x < f (x-h)"
+  by (simp add: pos_less_divide_eq h)
+    qed
+  qed
+qed
+
+lemma DERIV_local_max:
+  fixes f :: "real => real"
+  assumes der: "DERIV f x :> l"
+      and d:   "0 < d"
+      and le:  "\<forall>y. \<bar>x-y\<bar> < d --> f(y) \<le> f(x)"
+  shows "l = 0"
+proof (cases rule: linorder_cases [of l 0])
+  case equal show ?thesis .
+next
+  case less
+  from DERIV_left_dec [OF der less]
+  obtain d' where d': "0 < d'"
+             and lt: "\<forall>h > 0. h < d' \<longrightarrow> f x < f (x-h)" by blast
+  from real_lbound_gt_zero [OF d d']
+  obtain e where "0 < e \<and> e < d \<and> e < d'" ..
+  with lt le [THEN spec [where x="x-e"]]
+  show ?thesis by (auto simp add: abs_if)
+next
+  case greater
+  from DERIV_left_inc [OF der greater]
+  obtain d' where d': "0 < d'"
+             and lt: "\<forall>h > 0. h < d' \<longrightarrow> f x < f (x + h)" by blast
+  from real_lbound_gt_zero [OF d d']
+  obtain e where "0 < e \<and> e < d \<and> e < d'" ..
+  with lt le [THEN spec [where x="x+e"]]
+  show ?thesis by (auto simp add: abs_if)
+qed
+
+
+text{*Similar theorem for a local minimum*}
+lemma DERIV_local_min:
+  fixes f :: "real => real"
+  shows "[| DERIV f x :> l; 0 < d; \<forall>y. \<bar>x-y\<bar> < d --> f(x) \<le> f(y) |] ==> l = 0"
+by (drule DERIV_minus [THEN DERIV_local_max], auto)
+
+
+text{*In particular, if a function is locally flat*}
+lemma DERIV_local_const:
+  fixes f :: "real => real"
+  shows "[| DERIV f x :> l; 0 < d; \<forall>y. \<bar>x-y\<bar> < d --> f(x) = f(y) |] ==> l = 0"
+by (auto dest!: DERIV_local_max)
+
+text{*Lemma about introducing open ball in open interval*}
+lemma lemma_interval_lt:
+     "[| a < x;  x < b |]
+      ==> \<exists>d::real. 0 < d & (\<forall>y. \<bar>x-y\<bar> < d --> a < y & y < b)"
+apply (insert linorder_linear [of "x-a" "b-x"], safe)
+apply (rule_tac x = "x-a" in exI)
+apply (rule_tac [2] x = "b-x" in exI, auto)
+done
+
+lemma lemma_interval: "[| a < x;  x < b |] ==>
+        \<exists>d::real. 0 < d &  (\<forall>y. \<bar>x-y\<bar> < d --> a \<le> y & y \<le> b)"
+apply (drule lemma_interval_lt, auto)
+apply (auto intro!: exI)
+done
+
+text{*Rolle's Theorem.
+   If @{term f} is defined and continuous on the closed interval
+   @{text "[a,b]"} and differentiable on the open interval @{text "(a,b)"},
+   and @{term "f(a) = f(b)"},
+   then there exists @{text "x0 \<in> (a,b)"} such that @{term "f'(x0) = 0"}*}
+theorem Rolle:
+  assumes lt: "a < b"
+      and eq: "f(a) = f(b)"
+      and con: "\<forall>x. a \<le> x & x \<le> b --> isCont f x"
+      and dif [rule_format]: "\<forall>x. a < x & x < b --> f differentiable x"
+  shows "\<exists>z. a < z & z < b & DERIV f z :> 0"
+proof -
+  have le: "a \<le> b" using lt by simp
+  from isCont_eq_Ub [OF le con]
+  obtain x where x_max: "\<forall>z. a \<le> z \<and> z \<le> b \<longrightarrow> f z \<le> f x"
+             and alex: "a \<le> x" and xleb: "x \<le> b"
+    by blast
+  from isCont_eq_Lb [OF le con]
+  obtain x' where x'_min: "\<forall>z. a \<le> z \<and> z \<le> b \<longrightarrow> f x' \<le> f z"
+              and alex': "a \<le> x'" and x'leb: "x' \<le> b"
+    by blast
+  show ?thesis
+  proof cases
+    assume axb: "a < x & x < b"
+        --{*@{term f} attains its maximum within the interval*}
+    hence ax: "a<x" and xb: "x<b" by auto
+    from lemma_interval [OF ax xb]
+    obtain d where d: "0<d" and bound: "\<forall>y. \<bar>x-y\<bar> < d \<longrightarrow> a \<le> y \<and> y \<le> b"
+      by blast
+    hence bound': "\<forall>y. \<bar>x-y\<bar> < d \<longrightarrow> f y \<le> f x" using x_max
+      by blast
+    from differentiableD [OF dif [OF axb]]
+    obtain l where der: "DERIV f x :> l" ..
+    have "l=0" by (rule DERIV_local_max [OF der d bound'])
+        --{*the derivative at a local maximum is zero*}
+    thus ?thesis using ax xb der by auto
+  next
+    assume notaxb: "~ (a < x & x < b)"
+    hence xeqab: "x=a | x=b" using alex xleb by arith
+    hence fb_eq_fx: "f b = f x" by (auto simp add: eq)
+    show ?thesis
+    proof cases
+      assume ax'b: "a < x' & x' < b"
+        --{*@{term f} attains its minimum within the interval*}
+      hence ax': "a<x'" and x'b: "x'<b" by auto
+      from lemma_interval [OF ax' x'b]
+      obtain d where d: "0<d" and bound: "\<forall>y. \<bar>x'-y\<bar> < d \<longrightarrow> a \<le> y \<and> y \<le> b"
+  by blast
+      hence bound': "\<forall>y. \<bar>x'-y\<bar> < d \<longrightarrow> f x' \<le> f y" using x'_min
+  by blast
+      from differentiableD [OF dif [OF ax'b]]
+      obtain l where der: "DERIV f x' :> l" ..
+      have "l=0" by (rule DERIV_local_min [OF der d bound'])
+        --{*the derivative at a local minimum is zero*}
+      thus ?thesis using ax' x'b der by auto
+    next
+      assume notax'b: "~ (a < x' & x' < b)"
+        --{*@{term f} is constant througout the interval*}
+      hence x'eqab: "x'=a | x'=b" using alex' x'leb by arith
+      hence fb_eq_fx': "f b = f x'" by (auto simp add: eq)
+      from dense [OF lt]
+      obtain r where ar: "a < r" and rb: "r < b" by blast
+      from lemma_interval [OF ar rb]
+      obtain d where d: "0<d" and bound: "\<forall>y. \<bar>r-y\<bar> < d \<longrightarrow> a \<le> y \<and> y \<le> b"
+  by blast
+      have eq_fb: "\<forall>z. a \<le> z --> z \<le> b --> f z = f b"
+      proof (clarify)
+        fix z::real
+        assume az: "a \<le> z" and zb: "z \<le> b"
+        show "f z = f b"
+        proof (rule order_antisym)
+          show "f z \<le> f b" by (simp add: fb_eq_fx x_max az zb)
+          show "f b \<le> f z" by (simp add: fb_eq_fx' x'_min az zb)
+        qed
+      qed
+      have bound': "\<forall>y. \<bar>r-y\<bar> < d \<longrightarrow> f r = f y"
+      proof (intro strip)
+        fix y::real
+        assume lt: "\<bar>r-y\<bar> < d"
+        hence "f y = f b" by (simp add: eq_fb bound)
+        thus "f r = f y" by (simp add: eq_fb ar rb order_less_imp_le)
+      qed
+      from differentiableD [OF dif [OF conjI [OF ar rb]]]
+      obtain l where der: "DERIV f r :> l" ..
+      have "l=0" by (rule DERIV_local_const [OF der d bound'])
+        --{*the derivative of a constant function is zero*}
+      thus ?thesis using ar rb der by auto
+    qed
+  qed
+qed
+
+
+subsection{*Mean Value Theorem*}
+
+lemma lemma_MVT:
+     "f a - (f b - f a)/(b-a) * a = f b - (f b - f a)/(b-a) * (b::real)"
+proof cases
+  assume "a=b" thus ?thesis by simp
+next
+  assume "a\<noteq>b"
+  hence ba: "b-a \<noteq> 0" by arith
+  show ?thesis
+    by (rule real_mult_left_cancel [OF ba, THEN iffD1],
+qed
+
+theorem MVT:
+  assumes lt:  "a < b"
+      and con: "\<forall>x. a \<le> x & x \<le> b --> isCont f x"
+      and dif [rule_format]: "\<forall>x. a < x & x < b --> f differentiable x"
+  shows "\<exists>l z. a < z & z < b & DERIV f z :> l &
+                   (f(b) - f(a) = (b-a) * l)"
+proof -
+  let ?F = "%x. f x - ((f b - f a) / (b-a)) * x"
+  have contF: "\<forall>x. a \<le> x \<and> x \<le> b \<longrightarrow> isCont ?F x" using con
+    by (fast intro: isCont_diff isCont_const isCont_mult isCont_Id)
+  have difF: "\<forall>x. a < x \<and> x < b \<longrightarrow> ?F differentiable x"
+  proof (clarify)
+    fix x::real
+    assume ax: "a < x" and xb: "x < b"
+    from differentiableD [OF dif [OF conjI [OF ax xb]]]
+    obtain l where der: "DERIV f x :> l" ..
+    show "?F differentiable x"
+      by (rule differentiableI [where D = "l - (f b - f a)/(b-a)"],
+          blast intro: DERIV_diff DERIV_cmult_Id der)
+  qed
+  from Rolle [where f = ?F, OF lt lemma_MVT contF difF]
+  obtain z where az: "a < z" and zb: "z < b" and der: "DERIV ?F z :> 0"
+    by blast
+  have "DERIV (%x. ((f b - f a)/(b-a)) * x) z :> (f b - f a)/(b-a)"
+    by (rule DERIV_cmult_Id)
+  hence derF: "DERIV (\<lambda>x. ?F x + (f b - f a) / (b - a) * x) z
+                   :> 0 + (f b - f a) / (b - a)"
+    by (rule DERIV_add [OF der])
+  show ?thesis
+  proof (intro exI conjI)
+    show "a < z" .
+    show "z < b" .
+    show "f b - f a = (b - a) * ((f b - f a)/(b-a))" by (simp)
+    show "DERIV f z :> ((f b - f a)/(b-a))"  using derF by simp
+  qed
+qed
+
+
+text{*A function is constant if its derivative is 0 over an interval.*}
+
+lemma DERIV_isconst_end:
+  fixes f :: "real => real"
+  shows "[| a < b;
+         \<forall>x. a \<le> x & x \<le> b --> isCont f x;
+         \<forall>x. a < x & x < b --> DERIV f x :> 0 |]
+        ==> f b = f a"
+apply (drule MVT, assumption)
+apply (blast intro: differentiableI)
+apply (auto dest!: DERIV_unique simp add: diff_eq_eq)
+done
+
+lemma DERIV_isconst1:
+  fixes f :: "real => real"
+  shows "[| a < b;
+         \<forall>x. a \<le> x & x \<le> b --> isCont f x;
+         \<forall>x. a < x & x < b --> DERIV f x :> 0 |]
+        ==> \<forall>x. a \<le> x & x \<le> b --> f x = f a"
+apply safe
+apply (drule_tac x = a in order_le_imp_less_or_eq, safe)
+apply (drule_tac b = x in DERIV_isconst_end, auto)
+done
+
+lemma DERIV_isconst2:
+  fixes f :: "real => real"
+  shows "[| a < b;
+         \<forall>x. a \<le> x & x \<le> b --> isCont f x;
+         \<forall>x. a < x & x < b --> DERIV f x :> 0;
+         a \<le> x; x \<le> b |]
+        ==> f x = f a"
+apply (blast dest: DERIV_isconst1)
+done
+
+lemma DERIV_isconst_all:
+  fixes f :: "real => real"
+  shows "\<forall>x. DERIV f x :> 0 ==> f(x) = f(y)"
+apply (rule linorder_cases [of x y])
+apply (blast intro: sym DERIV_isCont DERIV_isconst_end)+
+done
+
+lemma DERIV_const_ratio_const:
+     "[|a \<noteq> b; \<forall>x. DERIV f x :> k |] ==> (f(b) - f(a)) = (b-a) * k"
+apply (rule linorder_cases [of a b], auto)
+apply (drule_tac [!] f = f in MVT)
+apply (auto dest: DERIV_isCont DERIV_unique simp add: differentiable_def)
+apply (auto dest: DERIV_unique simp add: left_distrib diff_minus)
+done
+
+lemma DERIV_const_ratio_const2:
+     "[|a \<noteq> b; \<forall>x. DERIV f x :> k |] ==> (f(b) - f(a))/(b-a) = k"
+apply (rule_tac c1 = "b-a" in real_mult_right_cancel [THEN iffD1])
+apply (auto dest!: DERIV_const_ratio_const simp add: mult_assoc)
+done
+
+lemma real_average_minus_first [simp]: "((a + b) /2 - a) = (b-a)/(2::real)"
+by (simp)
+
+lemma real_average_minus_second [simp]: "((b + a)/2 - a) = (b-a)/(2::real)"
+by (simp)
+
+text{*Gallileo's "trick": average velocity = av. of end velocities*}
+
+lemma DERIV_const_average:
+  fixes v :: "real => real"
+  assumes neq: "a \<noteq> (b::real)"
+      and der: "\<forall>x. DERIV v x :> k"
+  shows "v ((a + b)/2) = (v a + v b)/2"
+proof (cases rule: linorder_cases [of a b])
+  case equal with neq show ?thesis by simp
+next
+  case less
+  have "(v b - v a) / (b - a) = k"
+    by (rule DERIV_const_ratio_const2 [OF neq der])
+  hence "(b-a) * ((v b - v a) / (b-a)) = (b-a) * k" by simp
+  moreover have "(v ((a + b) / 2) - v a) / ((a + b) / 2 - a) = k"
+    by (rule DERIV_const_ratio_const2 [OF _ der], simp add: neq)
+  ultimately show ?thesis using neq by force
+next
+  case greater
+  have "(v b - v a) / (b - a) = k"
+    by (rule DERIV_const_ratio_const2 [OF neq der])
+  hence "(b-a) * ((v b - v a) / (b-a)) = (b-a) * k" by simp
+  moreover have " (v ((b + a) / 2) - v a) / ((b + a) / 2 - a) = k"
+    by (rule DERIV_const_ratio_const2 [OF _ der], simp add: neq)
+qed
+
+
+text{*Dull lemma: an continuous injection on an interval must have a
+strict maximum at an end point, not in the middle.*}
+
+lemma lemma_isCont_inj:
+  fixes f :: "real \<Rightarrow> real"
+  assumes d: "0 < d"
+      and inj [rule_format]: "\<forall>z. \<bar>z-x\<bar> \<le> d --> g(f z) = z"
+      and cont: "\<forall>z. \<bar>z-x\<bar> \<le> d --> isCont f z"
+  shows "\<exists>z. \<bar>z-x\<bar> \<le> d & f x < f z"
+proof (rule ccontr)
+  assume  "~ (\<exists>z. \<bar>z-x\<bar> \<le> d & f x < f z)"
+  hence all [rule_format]: "\<forall>z. \<bar>z - x\<bar> \<le> d --> f z \<le> f x" by auto
+  show False
+  proof (cases rule: linorder_le_cases [of "f(x-d)" "f(x+d)"])
+    case le
+    from d cont all [of "x+d"]
+    have flef: "f(x+d) \<le> f x"
+     and xlex: "x - d \<le> x"
+     and cont': "\<forall>z. x - d \<le> z \<and> z \<le> x \<longrightarrow> isCont f z"
+       by (auto simp add: abs_if)
+    from IVT [OF le flef xlex cont']
+    obtain x' where "x-d \<le> x'" "x' \<le> x" "f x' = f(x+d)" by blast
+    moreover
+    hence "g(f x') = g (f(x+d))" by simp
+    ultimately show False using d inj [of x'] inj [of "x+d"]
+  next
+    case ge
+    from d cont all [of "x-d"]
+    have flef: "f(x-d) \<le> f x"
+     and xlex: "x \<le> x+d"
+     and cont': "\<forall>z. x \<le> z \<and> z \<le> x+d \<longrightarrow> isCont f z"
+       by (auto simp add: abs_if)
+    from IVT2 [OF ge flef xlex cont']
+    obtain x' where "x \<le> x'" "x' \<le> x+d" "f x' = f(x-d)" by blast
+    moreover
+    hence "g(f x') = g (f(x-d))" by simp
+    ultimately show False using d inj [of x'] inj [of "x-d"]
+  qed
+qed
+
+
+text{*Similar version for lower bound.*}
+
+lemma lemma_isCont_inj2:
+  fixes f g :: "real \<Rightarrow> real"
+  shows "[|0 < d; \<forall>z. \<bar>z-x\<bar> \<le> d --> g(f z) = z;
+        \<forall>z. \<bar>z-x\<bar> \<le> d --> isCont f z |]
+      ==> \<exists>z. \<bar>z-x\<bar> \<le> d & f z < f x"
+apply (insert lemma_isCont_inj
+          [where f = "%x. - f x" and g = "%y. g(-y)" and x = x and d = d])
+done
+
+text{*Show there's an interval surrounding @{term "f(x)"} in
+@{text "f[[x - d, x + d]]"} .*}
+
+lemma isCont_inj_range:
+  fixes f :: "real \<Rightarrow> real"
+  assumes d: "0 < d"
+      and inj: "\<forall>z. \<bar>z-x\<bar> \<le> d --> g(f z) = z"
+      and cont: "\<forall>z. \<bar>z-x\<bar> \<le> d --> isCont f z"
+  shows "\<exists>e>0. \<forall>y. \<bar>y - f x\<bar> \<le> e --> (\<exists>z. \<bar>z-x\<bar> \<le> d & f z = y)"
+proof -
+  have "x-d \<le> x+d" "\<forall>z. x-d \<le> z \<and> z \<le> x+d \<longrightarrow> isCont f z" using cont d
+    by (auto simp add: abs_le_interval_iff)
+  from isCont_Lb_Ub [OF this]
+  obtain L M
+  where all1 [rule_format]: "\<forall>z. x-d \<le> z \<and> z \<le> x+d \<longrightarrow> L \<le> f z \<and> f z \<le> M"
+    and all2 [rule_format]:
+           "\<forall>y. L \<le> y \<and> y \<le> M \<longrightarrow> (\<exists>z. x-d \<le> z \<and> z \<le> x+d \<and> f z = y)"
+    by auto
+  with d have "L \<le> f x & f x \<le> M" by simp
+  moreover have "L \<noteq> f x"
+  proof -
+    from lemma_isCont_inj2 [OF d inj cont]
+    obtain u where "\<bar>u - x\<bar> \<le> d" "f u < f x"  by auto
+    thus ?thesis using all1 [of u] by arith
+  qed
+  moreover have "f x \<noteq> M"
+  proof -
+    from lemma_isCont_inj [OF d inj cont]
+    obtain u where "\<bar>u - x\<bar> \<le> d" "f x < f u"  by auto
+    thus ?thesis using all1 [of u] by arith
+  qed
+  ultimately have "L < f x & f x < M" by arith
+  hence "0 < f x - L" "0 < M - f x" by arith+
+  from real_lbound_gt_zero [OF this]
+  obtain e where e: "0 < e" "e < f x - L" "e < M - f x" by auto
+  thus ?thesis
+  proof (intro exI conjI)
+    show "0<e" .
+    show "\<forall>y. \<bar>y - f x\<bar> \<le> e \<longrightarrow> (\<exists>z. \<bar>z - x\<bar> \<le> d \<and> f z = y)"
+    proof (intro strip)
+      fix y::real
+      assume "\<bar>y - f x\<bar> \<le> e"
+      with e have "L \<le> y \<and> y \<le> M" by arith
+      from all2 [OF this]
+      obtain z where "x - d \<le> z" "z \<le> x + d" "f z = y" by blast
+      thus "\<exists>z. \<bar>z - x\<bar> \<le> d \<and> f z = y"
+        by (force simp add: abs_le_interval_iff)
+    qed
+  qed
+qed
+
+
+text{*Continuity of inverse function*}
+
+lemma isCont_inverse_function:
+  fixes f g :: "real \<Rightarrow> real"
+  assumes d: "0 < d"
+      and inj: "\<forall>z. \<bar>z-x\<bar> \<le> d --> g(f z) = z"
+      and cont: "\<forall>z. \<bar>z-x\<bar> \<le> d --> isCont f z"
+  shows "isCont g (f x)"
+  show "\<forall>r. 0 < r \<longrightarrow>
+         (\<exists>s>0. \<forall>z. z\<noteq>0 \<and> \<bar>z\<bar> < s \<longrightarrow> \<bar>g(f x + z) - g(f x)\<bar> < r)"
+  proof (intro strip)
+    fix r::real
+    assume r: "0<r"
+    from real_lbound_gt_zero [OF r d]
+    obtain e where e: "0 < e" and e_lt: "e < r \<and> e < d" by blast
+    with inj cont
+    have e_simps: "\<forall>z. \<bar>z-x\<bar> \<le> e --> g (f z) = z"
+                  "\<forall>z. \<bar>z-x\<bar> \<le> e --> isCont f z"   by auto
+    from isCont_inj_range [OF e this]
+    obtain e' where e': "0 < e'"
+        and all: "\<forall>y. \<bar>y - f x\<bar> \<le> e' \<longrightarrow> (\<exists>z. \<bar>z - x\<bar> \<le> e \<and> f z = y)"
+          by blast
+    show "\<exists>s>0. \<forall>z. z\<noteq>0 \<and> \<bar>z\<bar> < s \<longrightarrow> \<bar>g(f x + z) - g(f x)\<bar> < r"
+    proof (intro exI conjI)
+      show "0<e'" .
+      show "\<forall>z. z \<noteq> 0 \<and> \<bar>z\<bar> < e' \<longrightarrow> \<bar>g (f x + z) - g (f x)\<bar> < r"
+      proof (intro strip)
+        fix z::real
+        assume z: "z \<noteq> 0 \<and> \<bar>z\<bar> < e'"
+        with e e_lt e_simps all [rule_format, of "f x + z"]
+        show "\<bar>g (f x + z) - g (f x)\<bar> < r" by force
+      qed
+    qed
+  qed
+qed
+
+theorem GMVT:
+  assumes alb: "a < b"
+  and fc: "\<forall>x. a \<le> x \<and> x \<le> b \<longrightarrow> isCont f x"
+  and fd: "\<forall>x. a < x \<and> x < b \<longrightarrow> f differentiable x"
+  and gc: "\<forall>x. a \<le> x \<and> x \<le> b \<longrightarrow> isCont g x"
+  and gd: "\<forall>x. a < x \<and> x < b \<longrightarrow> g differentiable x"
+  shows "\<exists>g'c f'c c. DERIV g c :> g'c \<and> DERIV f c :> f'c \<and> a < c \<and> c < b \<and> ((f b - f a) * g'c) = ((g b - g a) * f'c)"
+proof -
+  let ?h = "\<lambda>x. (f b - f a)*(g x) - (g b - g a)*(f x)"
+  from prems have "a < b" by simp
+  moreover have "\<forall>x. a \<le> x \<and> x \<le> b \<longrightarrow> isCont ?h x"
+  proof -
+    have "\<forall>x. a <= x \<and> x <= b \<longrightarrow> isCont (\<lambda>x. f b - f a) x" by simp
+    with gc have "\<forall>x. a <= x \<and> x <= b \<longrightarrow> isCont (\<lambda>x. (f b - f a) * g x) x"
+      by (auto intro: isCont_mult)
+    moreover
+    have "\<forall>x. a <= x \<and> x <= b \<longrightarrow> isCont (\<lambda>x. g b - g a) x" by simp
+    with fc have "\<forall>x. a <= x \<and> x <= b \<longrightarrow> isCont (\<lambda>x. (g b - g a) * f x) x"
+      by (auto intro: isCont_mult)
+    ultimately show ?thesis
+      by (fastsimp intro: isCont_diff)
+  qed
+  moreover
+  have "\<forall>x. a < x \<and> x < b \<longrightarrow> ?h differentiable x"
+  proof -
+    have "\<forall>x. a < x \<and> x < b \<longrightarrow> (\<lambda>x. f b - f a) differentiable x" by (simp add: differentiable_const)
+    with gd have "\<forall>x. a < x \<and> x < b \<longrightarrow> (\<lambda>x. (f b - f a) * g x) differentiable x" by (simp add: differentiable_mult)
+    moreover
+    have "\<forall>x. a < x \<and> x < b \<longrightarrow> (\<lambda>x. g b - g a) differentiable x" by (simp add: differentiable_const)
+    with fd have "\<forall>x. a < x \<and> x < b \<longrightarrow> (\<lambda>x. (g b - g a) * f x) differentiable x" by (simp add: differentiable_mult)
+    ultimately show ?thesis by (simp add: differentiable_diff)
+  qed
+  ultimately have "\<exists>l z. a < z \<and> z < b \<and> DERIV ?h z :> l \<and> ?h b - ?h a = (b - a) * l" by (rule MVT)
+  then obtain l where ldef: "\<exists>z. a < z \<and> z < b \<and> DERIV ?h z :> l \<and> ?h b - ?h a = (b - a) * l" ..
+  then obtain c where cdef: "a < c \<and> c < b \<and> DERIV ?h c :> l \<and> ?h b - ?h a = (b - a) * l" ..
+
+  from cdef have cint: "a < c \<and> c < b" by auto
+  with gd have "g differentiable c" by simp
+  hence "\<exists>D. DERIV g c :> D" by (rule differentiableD)
+  then obtain g'c where g'cdef: "DERIV g c :> g'c" ..
+
+  from cdef have "a < c \<and> c < b" by auto
+  with fd have "f differentiable c" by simp
+  hence "\<exists>D. DERIV f c :> D" by (rule differentiableD)
+  then obtain f'c where f'cdef: "DERIV f c :> f'c" ..
+
+  from cdef have "DERIV ?h c :> l" by auto
+  moreover
+  {
+    from g'cdef have "DERIV (\<lambda>x. (f b - f a) * g x) c :> g'c * (f b - f a)"
+      apply (insert DERIV_const [where k="f b - f a"])
+      apply (drule meta_spec [of _ c])
+      apply (drule DERIV_mult [where f="(\<lambda>x. f b - f a)" and g=g])
+      by simp_all
+    moreover from f'cdef have "DERIV (\<lambda>x. (g b - g a) * f x) c :> f'c * (g b - g a)"
+      apply (insert DERIV_const [where k="g b - g a"])
+      apply (drule meta_spec [of _ c])
+      apply (drule DERIV_mult [where f="(\<lambda>x. g b - g a)" and g=f])
+      by simp_all
+    ultimately have "DERIV ?h c :>  g'c * (f b - f a) - f'c * (g b - g a)"
+  }
+  ultimately have leq: "l =  g'c * (f b - f a) - f'c * (g b - g a)" by (rule DERIV_unique)
+
+  {
+    from cdef have "?h b - ?h a = (b - a) * l" by auto
+    also with leq have "\<dots> = (b - a) * (g'c * (f b - f a) - f'c * (g b - g a))" by simp
+    finally have "?h b - ?h a = (b - a) * (g'c * (f b - f a) - f'c * (g b - g a))" by simp
+  }
+  moreover
+  {
+    have "?h b - ?h a =
+         ((f b)*(g b) - (f a)*(g b) - (g b)*(f b) + (g a)*(f b)) -
+          ((f b)*(g a) - (f a)*(g a) - (g b)*(f a) + (g a)*(f a))"
+    hence "?h b - ?h a = 0" by auto
+  }
+  ultimately have "(b - a) * (g'c * (f b - f a) - f'c * (g b - g a)) = 0" by auto
+  with alb have "g'c * (f b - f a) - f'c * (g b - g a) = 0" by simp
+  hence "g'c * (f b - f a) = f'c * (g b - g a)" by simp
+  hence "(f b - f a) * g'c = (g b - g a) * f'c" by (simp add: mult_ac)
+
+  with g'cdef f'cdef cint show ?thesis by auto
+qed
+
+end```
```--- a/src/HOL/IsaMakefile	Fri Nov 03 15:28:13 2006 +0100
+++ b/src/HOL/IsaMakefile	Sat Nov 04 00:11:11 2006 +0100
@@ -177,7 +177,7 @@
Hyperreal/Ln.thy Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy Hyperreal/NatStar.thy		\
Hyperreal/NSA.thy Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy Hyperreal/Poly.thy			\
Hyperreal/SEQ.thy Hyperreal/Series.thy Hyperreal/Star.thy			\
-  Hyperreal/Taylor.thy								\
+  Hyperreal/Taylor.thy Hyperreal/Deriv.thy					\
Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy Hyperreal/fuf.ML Hyperreal/hypreal_arith.ML	\
Complex/Complex_Main.thy Complex/CLim.thy Complex/CSeries.thy			\
Complex/CStar.thy Complex/Complex.thy Complex/ComplexBin.thy			\```