author wenzelm Wed, 23 Apr 2008 12:13:08 +0200 changeset 26741 eb15fd4cd1ad parent 26740 6c8cd101f875 child 26742 5a86bc79431c
converted intro.tex to Thy/intro.thy;
 doc-src/IsarRef/IsaMakefile file | annotate | diff | comparison | revisions doc-src/IsarRef/Makefile file | annotate | diff | comparison | revisions doc-src/IsarRef/Thy/ROOT.ML file | annotate | diff | comparison | revisions doc-src/IsarRef/Thy/document/intro.tex file | annotate | diff | comparison | revisions doc-src/IsarRef/Thy/document/session.tex file | annotate | diff | comparison | revisions doc-src/IsarRef/Thy/intro.thy file | annotate | diff | comparison | revisions doc-src/IsarRef/intro.tex file | annotate | diff | comparison | revisions doc-src/IsarRef/isar-ref.tex file | annotate | diff | comparison | revisions
--- a/doc-src/IsarRef/IsaMakefile	Tue Apr 22 22:00:31 2008 +0200
+++ b/doc-src/IsarRef/IsaMakefile	Wed Apr 23 12:13:08 2008 +0200
@@ -21,7 +21,7 @@

Thy: $(LOG)/Pure-Thy.gz -$(LOG)/Pure-Thy.gz: Thy/ROOT.ML ../antiquote_setup.ML
+$(LOG)/Pure-Thy.gz: Thy/ROOT.ML ../antiquote_setup.ML Thy/intro.thy @$(USEDIR) Pure Thy


--- a/doc-src/IsarRef/Makefile	Tue Apr 22 22:00:31 2008 +0200
+++ b/doc-src/IsarRef/Makefile	Wed Apr 23 12:13:08 2008 +0200
@@ -13,7 +13,7 @@

NAME = isar-ref

-FILES = isar-ref.tex intro.tex basics.tex syntax.tex pure.tex \
+FILES = isar-ref.tex Thy/document/intro.tex basics.tex syntax.tex pure.tex \
generic.tex logics.tex refcard.tex conversion.tex \
../isar.sty ../rail.sty ../railsetup.sty ../proof.sty \
../iman.sty ../extra.sty ../ttbox.sty ../manual.bib
--- a/doc-src/IsarRef/Thy/ROOT.ML	Tue Apr 22 22:00:31 2008 +0200
+++ b/doc-src/IsarRef/Thy/ROOT.ML	Wed Apr 23 12:13:08 2008 +0200
@@ -1,2 +1,5 @@

(* $Id$ *)
+
+use "../../antiquote_setup.ML";
+use_thy "intro";
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/doc-src/IsarRef/Thy/document/intro.tex	Wed Apr 23 12:13:08 2008 +0200
@@ -0,0 +1,376 @@
+%
+\begin{isabellebody}%
+\def\isabellecontext{intro}%
+%
+\isanewline
+%
+%
+\isatagtheory
+\isacommand{theory}\isamarkupfalse%
+\ intro\isanewline
+\isakeyword{imports}\ CPure\isanewline
+\isakeyword{begin}%
+\endisatagtheory
+{\isafoldtheory}%
+%
+%
+%
+\isamarkupchapter{Introduction%
+}
+\isamarkuptrue%
+%
+\isamarkupsection{Overview%
+}
+\isamarkuptrue%
+%
+\begin{isamarkuptext}%
+The \emph{Isabelle} system essentially provides a generic
+  infrastructure for building deductive systems (programmed in
+  Standard ML), with a special focus on interactive theorem proving in
+  higher-order logics.  In the olden days even end-users would refer
+  to certain ML functions (goal commands, tactics, tacticals etc.) to
+  pursue their everyday theorem proving tasks
+  \cite{isabelle-intro,isabelle-ref}.
+
+  In contrast \emph{Isar} provides an interpreted language environment
+  of its own, which has been specifically tailored for the needs of
+  theory and proof development.  Compared to raw ML, the Isabelle/Isar
+  top-level provides a more robust and comfortable development
+  platform, with proper support for theory development graphs,
+  single-step transactions with unlimited undo, etc.  The
+  Isabelle/Isar version of the \emph{Proof~General} user interface
+  front-end for interactive theory and proof development in this
+
+  \medskip Apart from the technical advances over bare-bones ML
+  programming, the main purpose of the Isar language is to provide a
+  conceptually different view on machine-checked proofs
+  \cite{Wenzel:1999:TPHOL,Wenzel-PhD}.  Isar'' stands for
+  Intelligible semi-automated reasoning''.  Drawing from both the
+  traditions of informal mathematical proof texts and high-level
+  programming languages, Isar offers a versatile environment for
+  structured formal proof documents.  Thus properly written Isar
+  proofs become accessible to a broader audience than unstructured
+  tactic scripts (which typically only provide operational information
+  for the machine).  Writing human-readable proof texts certainly
+  requires some additional efforts by the writer to achieve a good
+  presentation, both of formal and informal parts of the text.  On the
+  other hand, human-readable formal texts gain some value in their own
+  right, independently of the mechanic proof-checking process.
+
+  Despite its grand design of structured proof texts, Isar is able to
+  assimilate the old tactical style as an improper'' sub-language.
+  This provides an easy upgrade path for existing tactic scripts, as
+  well as additional means for interactive experimentation and
+  debugging of structured proofs.  Isabelle/Isar supports a broad
+
+  \medskip The Isabelle/Isar framework is generic and should work
+  reasonably well for any Isabelle object-logic that conforms to the
+  natural deduction view of the Isabelle/Pure framework.  Major
+  Isabelle logics like HOL \cite{isabelle-HOL}, HOLCF
+  \cite{MuellerNvOS99}, FOL \cite{isabelle-logics}, and ZF
+  \cite{isabelle-ZF} have already been set up for end-users.%
+\end{isamarkuptext}%
+\isamarkuptrue%
+%
+\isamarkupsection{Quick start%
+}
+\isamarkuptrue%
+%
+\isamarkupsubsection{Terminal sessions%
+}
+\isamarkuptrue%
+%
+\begin{isamarkuptext}%
+Isar is already part of Isabelle.  The low-level \texttt{isabelle} binary
+  provides option \texttt{-I} to run the Isabelle/Isar interaction loop at
+  startup, rather than the raw ML top-level.  So the most basic way to do
+  anything with Isabelle/Isar is as follows:
+\begin{ttbox}
+isabelle -I HOL\medskip
+\out{> Welcome to Isabelle/HOL (Isabelle2005)}\medskip
+theory Foo imports Main begin;
+definition foo :: nat where "foo == 1";
+lemma "0 < foo" by (simp add: foo_def);
+end;
+\end{ttbox}
+
+  Note that any Isabelle/Isar command may be retracted by
+  \texttt{undo}.  See the Isabelle/Isar Quick Reference
+  (appendix~\ref{ap:refcard}) for a comprehensive overview of
+  available commands and other language elements.%
+\end{isamarkuptext}%
+\isamarkuptrue%
+%
+\isamarkupsubsection{Proof General%
+}
+\isamarkuptrue%
+%
+\begin{isamarkuptext}%
+Plain TTY-based interaction as above used to be quite feasible with
+  traditional tactic based theorem proving, but developing Isar
+  documents really demands some better user-interface support.  The
+  Proof~General environment by David Aspinall
+  \cite{proofgeneral,Aspinall:TACAS:2000} offers a generic Emacs
+  interface for interactive theorem provers that organizes all the
+  cut-and-paste and forward-backward walk through the text in a very
+  neat way.  In Isabelle/Isar, the current position within a partial
+  proof document is equally important than the actual proof state.
+  Thus Proof~General provides the canonical working environment for
+  Isabelle/Isar, both for getting acquainted (e.g.\ by replaying
+  existing Isar documents) and for production work.%
+\end{isamarkuptext}%
+\isamarkuptrue%
+%
+\isamarkupsubsubsection{Proof~General as default Isabelle interface%
+}
+\isamarkuptrue%
+%
+\begin{isamarkuptext}%
+The Isabelle interface wrapper script provides an easy way to invoke
+  Proof~General (including XEmacs or GNU Emacs).  The default
+  configuration of Isabelle is smart enough to detect the
+  Proof~General distribution in several canonical places (e.g.\
+  \texttt{\$ISABELLE_HOME/contrib/ProofGeneral}). Thus the capital + \texttt{Isabelle} executable would already refer to the + \texttt{ProofGeneral/isar} interface without further ado. The + Isabelle interface script provides several options; pass \verb,-?, + to see its usage. + + With the proper Isabelle interface setup, Isar documents may now be edited by + visiting appropriate theory files, e.g.\ +\begin{ttbox} +Isabelle $${\langle}isabellehome{\rangle}$$/src/HOL/Isar_examples/Summation.thy +\end{ttbox} + Beginners may note the tool bar for navigating forward and backward + through the text (this depends on the local Emacs installation). + Consult the Proof~General documentation \cite{proofgeneral} for + further basic command sequences, in particular \texttt{C-c + C-return}'' and \texttt{C-c u}''. + + \medskip Proof~General may be also configured manually by giving + Isabelle settings like this (see also \cite{isabelle-sys}): + +\begin{ttbox} +ISABELLE_INTERFACE=\$ISABELLE_HOME/contrib/ProofGeneral/isar/interface
+PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS=""
+\end{ttbox}
+  You may have to change \texttt{\$ISABELLE_HOME/contrib/ProofGeneral} + to the actual installation directory of Proof~General. + + \medskip Apart from the Isabelle command line, defaults for + interface options may be given by the \texttt{PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS} + setting. For example, the Emacs executable to be used may be + configured in Isabelle's settings like this: +\begin{ttbox} +PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS="-p xemacs-mule" +\end{ttbox} + + Occasionally, a user's \verb,~/.emacs, file contains code that is + incompatible with the (X)Emacs version used by Proof~General, + causing the interface startup to fail prematurely. Here the + \texttt{-u false} option helps to get the interface process up and + running. Note that additional Lisp customization code may reside in + \texttt{proofgeneral-settings.el} of \texttt{\$ISABELLE_HOME/etc} or
+  \texttt{\$ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc}.% +\end{isamarkuptext}% +\isamarkuptrue% +% +\isamarkupsubsubsection{The X-Symbol package% +} +\isamarkuptrue% +% +\begin{isamarkuptext}% +Proof~General incorporates a version of the Emacs X-Symbol package + \cite{x-symbol}, which handles proper mathematical symbols displayed + on screen. Pass option \texttt{-x true} to the Isabelle interface + script, or check the appropriate Proof~General menu setting by hand. + The main challenge of getting X-Symbol to work properly is the + underlying (semi-automated) X11 font setup. + + \medskip Using proper mathematical symbols in Isabelle theories can + be very convenient for readability of large formulas. On the other + hand, the plain ASCII sources easily become somewhat unintelligible. + For example,$\Longrightarrow$would appear as \verb,\<Longrightarrow>, according + the default set of Isabelle symbols. Nevertheless, the Isabelle + document preparation system (see \S\ref{sec:document-prep}) will be + happy to print non-ASCII symbols properly. It is even possible to + invent additional notation beyond the display capabilities of Emacs + and X-Symbol.% +\end{isamarkuptext}% +\isamarkuptrue% +% +\isamarkupsection{Isabelle/Isar theories% +} +\isamarkuptrue% +% +\begin{isamarkuptext}% +Isabelle/Isar offers the following main improvements over classic + Isabelle. + + \begin{enumerate} + + \item A \emph{theory format} that integrates specifications and + proofs, supporting interactive development and unlimited undo + operation. + + \item A \emph{formal proof document language} designed to support + intelligible semi-automated reasoning. Instead of putting together + unreadable tactic scripts, the author is enabled to express the + reasoning in way that is close to usual mathematical practice. The + old tactical style has been assimilated as improper'' language + elements. + + \item A simple document preparation system, for typesetting formal + developments together with informal text. The resulting + hyper-linked PDF documents are equally well suited for WWW + presentation and as printed copies. + + \end{enumerate} + + The Isar proof language is embedded into the new theory format as a + proper sub-language. Proof mode is entered by stating some +$\THEOREMNAME$or$\LEMMANAME$at the theory level, and left again + with the final conclusion (e.g.\ via$\QEDNAME$). A few theory + specification mechanisms also require some proof, such as HOL's +$\isarkeyword{typedef}$which demands non-emptiness of the + representing sets. + + New-style theory files may still be associated with separate ML + files consisting of plain old tactic scripts. There is no longer + any ML binding generated for the theory and theorems, though. ML + functions \texttt{theory}, \texttt{thm}, and \texttt{thms} retrieve + this information from the context \cite{isabelle-ref}. + Nevertheless, migration between classic Isabelle and Isabelle/Isar + is relatively easy. Thus users may start to benefit from + interactive theory development and document preparation, even before + they have any idea of the Isar proof language at all. + + Manual conversion of existing tactic scripts may be done by running + two separate Proof~General sessions, one for replaying the old + script and the other for the emerging Isabelle/Isar document. Also + note that Isar supports emulation commands and methods that support + traditional tactic scripts within new-style theories, see + appendix~\ref{ap:conv} for more information.% +\end{isamarkuptext}% +\isamarkuptrue% +% +\isamarkupsubsection{Document preparation \label{sec:document-prep}% +} +\isamarkuptrue% +% +\begin{isamarkuptext}% +Isabelle/Isar provides a simple document preparation system based on + existing {PDF-\LaTeX} technology, with full support of hyper-links + (both local references and URLs), bookmarks, and thumbnails. Thus + the results are equally well suited for WWW browsing and as printed + copies. + + \medskip + + Isabelle generates {\LaTeX} output as part of the run of a + \emph{logic session} (see also \cite{isabelle-sys}). Getting + started with a working configuration for common situations is quite + easy by using the Isabelle \texttt{mkdir} and \texttt{make} tools. + First invoke +\begin{ttbox} + isatool mkdir Foo +\end{ttbox} + to initialize a separate directory for session \texttt{Foo} --- it + is safe to experiment, since \texttt{isatool mkdir} never overwrites + existing files. Ensure that \texttt{Foo/ROOT.ML} holds ML commands + to load all theories required for this session; furthermore + \texttt{Foo/document/root.tex} should include any special {\LaTeX} + macro packages required for your document (the default is usually + sufficient as a start). + + The session is controlled by a separate \texttt{IsaMakefile} (with + crude source dependencies by default). This file is located one + level up from the \texttt{Foo} directory location. Now invoke +\begin{ttbox} + isatool make Foo +\end{ttbox} + to run the \texttt{Foo} session, with browser information and + document preparation enabled. Unless any errors are reported by + Isabelle or {\LaTeX}, the output will appear inside the directory + \texttt{ISABELLE_BROWSER_INFO}, as reported by the batch job in + verbose mode. + + \medskip You may also consider to tune the \texttt{usedir} options + in \texttt{IsaMakefile}, for example to change the output format + from \texttt{pdf} to \texttt{dvi}, or activate the \texttt{-D} + option to retain a second copy of the generated {\LaTeX} sources. + + \medskip See \emph{The Isabelle System Manual} \cite{isabelle-sys} + for further details on Isabelle logic sessions and theory + presentation. The Isabelle/HOL tutorial \cite{isabelle-hol-book} + also covers theory presentation issues.% +\end{isamarkuptext}% +\isamarkuptrue% +% +\isamarkupsubsection{How to write Isar proofs anyway? \label{sec:isar-howto}% +} +\isamarkuptrue% +% +\begin{isamarkuptext}% +This is one of the key questions, of course. First of all, the + tactic script emulation of Isabelle/Isar essentially provides a + clarified version of the very same unstructured proof style of + classic Isabelle. Old-time users should quickly become acquainted + with that (slightly degenerative) view of Isar. + + Writing \emph{proper} Isar proof texts targeted at human readers is + quite different, though. Experienced users of the unstructured + style may even have to unlearn some of their habits to master proof + composition in Isar. In contrast, new users with less experience in + old-style tactical proving, but a good understanding of mathematical + proof in general, often get started easier. + + \medskip The present text really is only a reference manual on + Isabelle/Isar, not a tutorial. Nevertheless, we will attempt to + give some clues of how the concepts introduced here may be put into + practice. Appendix~\ref{ap:refcard} provides a quick reference card + of the most common Isabelle/Isar language elements. + Appendix~\ref{ap:conv} offers some practical hints on converting + existing Isabelle theories and proof scripts to the new format + (without restructuring proofs). + + Further issues concerning the Isar concepts are covered in the + literature + \cite{Wenzel:1999:TPHOL,Wiedijk:2000:MV,Bauer-Wenzel:2000:HB,Bauer-Wenzel:2001}. + The author's PhD thesis \cite{Wenzel-PhD} presently provides the + most complete exposition of Isar foundations, techniques, and + applications. A number of example applications are distributed with + Isabelle, and available via the Isabelle WWW library (e.g.\ + \url{http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/}). The Archive of Formal + Proofs'' \url{http://afp.sourceforge.net/} also provides plenty of + examples, both in proper Isar proof style and unstructured tactic + scripts.% +\end{isamarkuptext}% +\isamarkuptrue% +% +\isadelimtheory +% +\endisadelimtheory +% +\isatagtheory +\isacommand{end}\isamarkupfalse% +% +\endisatagtheory +{\isafoldtheory}% +% +\isadelimtheory +% +\endisadelimtheory +\isanewline +\end{isabellebody}% +%%% Local Variables: +%%% mode: latex +%%% TeX-master: "root" +%%% End: --- a/doc-src/IsarRef/Thy/document/session.tex Tue Apr 22 22:00:31 2008 +0200 +++ b/doc-src/IsarRef/Thy/document/session.tex Wed Apr 23 12:13:08 2008 +0200 @@ -1,3 +1,5 @@ +\input{intro.tex} + %%% Local Variables: %%% mode: latex %%% TeX-master: "root" --- /dev/null Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000 +++ b/doc-src/IsarRef/Thy/intro.thy Wed Apr 23 12:13:08 2008 +0200 @@ -0,0 +1,321 @@ + +theory intro +imports CPure +begin + +chapter {* Introduction *} + +section {* Overview *} + +text {* + The \emph{Isabelle} system essentially provides a generic + infrastructure for building deductive systems (programmed in + Standard ML), with a special focus on interactive theorem proving in + higher-order logics. In the olden days even end-users would refer + to certain ML functions (goal commands, tactics, tacticals etc.) to + pursue their everyday theorem proving tasks + \cite{isabelle-intro,isabelle-ref}. + + In contrast \emph{Isar} provides an interpreted language environment + of its own, which has been specifically tailored for the needs of + theory and proof development. Compared to raw ML, the Isabelle/Isar + top-level provides a more robust and comfortable development + platform, with proper support for theory development graphs, + single-step transactions with unlimited undo, etc. The + Isabelle/Isar version of the \emph{Proof~General} user interface + \cite{proofgeneral,Aspinall:TACAS:2000} provides an adequate + front-end for interactive theory and proof development in this + advanced theorem proving environment. + + \medskip Apart from the technical advances over bare-bones ML + programming, the main purpose of the Isar language is to provide a + conceptually different view on machine-checked proofs + \cite{Wenzel:1999:TPHOL,Wenzel-PhD}. Isar'' stands for + Intelligible semi-automated reasoning''. Drawing from both the + traditions of informal mathematical proof texts and high-level + programming languages, Isar offers a versatile environment for + structured formal proof documents. Thus properly written Isar + proofs become accessible to a broader audience than unstructured + tactic scripts (which typically only provide operational information + for the machine). Writing human-readable proof texts certainly + requires some additional efforts by the writer to achieve a good + presentation, both of formal and informal parts of the text. On the + other hand, human-readable formal texts gain some value in their own + right, independently of the mechanic proof-checking process. + + Despite its grand design of structured proof texts, Isar is able to + assimilate the old tactical style as an improper'' sub-language. + This provides an easy upgrade path for existing tactic scripts, as + well as additional means for interactive experimentation and + debugging of structured proofs. Isabelle/Isar supports a broad + range of proof styles, both readable and unreadable ones. + + \medskip The Isabelle/Isar framework is generic and should work + reasonably well for any Isabelle object-logic that conforms to the + natural deduction view of the Isabelle/Pure framework. Major + Isabelle logics like HOL \cite{isabelle-HOL}, HOLCF + \cite{MuellerNvOS99}, FOL \cite{isabelle-logics}, and ZF + \cite{isabelle-ZF} have already been set up for end-users. +*} + + +section {* Quick start *} + +subsection {* Terminal sessions *} + +text {* + Isar is already part of Isabelle. The low-level \texttt{isabelle} binary + provides option \texttt{-I} to run the Isabelle/Isar interaction loop at + startup, rather than the raw ML top-level. So the most basic way to do + anything with Isabelle/Isar is as follows: +\begin{ttbox} +isabelle -I HOL\medskip +\out{> Welcome to Isabelle/HOL (Isabelle2005)}\medskip +theory Foo imports Main begin; +definition foo :: nat where "foo == 1"; +lemma "0 < foo" by (simp add: foo_def); +end; +\end{ttbox} + + Note that any Isabelle/Isar command may be retracted by + \texttt{undo}. See the Isabelle/Isar Quick Reference + (appendix~\ref{ap:refcard}) for a comprehensive overview of + available commands and other language elements. +*} + + +subsection {* Proof General *} + +text {* + Plain TTY-based interaction as above used to be quite feasible with + traditional tactic based theorem proving, but developing Isar + documents really demands some better user-interface support. The + Proof~General environment by David Aspinall + \cite{proofgeneral,Aspinall:TACAS:2000} offers a generic Emacs + interface for interactive theorem provers that organizes all the + cut-and-paste and forward-backward walk through the text in a very + neat way. In Isabelle/Isar, the current position within a partial + proof document is equally important than the actual proof state. + Thus Proof~General provides the canonical working environment for + Isabelle/Isar, both for getting acquainted (e.g.\ by replaying + existing Isar documents) and for production work. +*} + + +subsubsection{* Proof~General as default Isabelle interface *} + +text {* + The Isabelle interface wrapper script provides an easy way to invoke + Proof~General (including XEmacs or GNU Emacs). The default + configuration of Isabelle is smart enough to detect the + Proof~General distribution in several canonical places (e.g.\ + \texttt{\$ISABELLE_HOME/contrib/ProofGeneral}).  Thus the capital
+  \texttt{Isabelle} executable would already refer to the
+  \texttt{ProofGeneral/isar} interface without further ado.  The
+  Isabelle interface script provides several options; pass \verb,-?,
+  to see its usage.
+
+  With the proper Isabelle interface setup, Isar documents may now be edited by
+  visiting appropriate theory files, e.g.\
+\begin{ttbox}
+Isabelle $${\langle}isabellehome{\rangle}$$/src/HOL/Isar_examples/Summation.thy
+\end{ttbox}
+  Beginners may note the tool bar for navigating forward and backward
+  through the text (this depends on the local Emacs installation).
+  Consult the Proof~General documentation \cite{proofgeneral} for
+  further basic command sequences, in particular \texttt{C-c
+  C-return}'' and \texttt{C-c u}''.
+
+  \medskip Proof~General may be also configured manually by giving
+
+\begin{ttbox}
+ISABELLE_INTERFACE=\$ISABELLE_HOME/contrib/ProofGeneral/isar/interface +PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS="" +\end{ttbox} + You may have to change \texttt{\$ISABELLE_HOME/contrib/ProofGeneral}
+  to the actual installation directory of Proof~General.
+
+  \medskip Apart from the Isabelle command line, defaults for
+  interface options may be given by the \texttt{PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS}
+  setting.  For example, the Emacs executable to be used may be
+  configured in Isabelle's settings like this:
+\begin{ttbox}
+PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS="-p xemacs-mule"
+\end{ttbox}
+
+  Occasionally, a user's \verb,~/.emacs, file contains code that is
+  incompatible with the (X)Emacs version used by Proof~General,
+  causing the interface startup to fail prematurely.  Here the
+  \texttt{-u false} option helps to get the interface process up and
+  running.  Note that additional Lisp customization code may reside in
+  \texttt{proofgeneral-settings.el} of \texttt{\$ISABELLE_HOME/etc} or + \texttt{\$ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc}.
+*}
+
+
+subsubsection {* The X-Symbol package *}
+
+text {*
+  Proof~General incorporates a version of the Emacs X-Symbol package
+  \cite{x-symbol}, which handles proper mathematical symbols displayed
+  on screen.  Pass option \texttt{-x true} to the Isabelle interface
+  script, or check the appropriate Proof~General menu setting by hand.
+  The main challenge of getting X-Symbol to work properly is the
+  underlying (semi-automated) X11 font setup.
+
+  \medskip Using proper mathematical symbols in Isabelle theories can
+  be very convenient for readability of large formulas.  On the other
+  hand, the plain ASCII sources easily become somewhat unintelligible.
+  For example, $\Longrightarrow$ would appear as \verb,\<Longrightarrow>, according
+  the default set of Isabelle symbols.  Nevertheless, the Isabelle
+  document preparation system (see \S\ref{sec:document-prep}) will be
+  happy to print non-ASCII symbols properly.  It is even possible to
+  invent additional notation beyond the display capabilities of Emacs
+  and X-Symbol.
+*}
+
+
+section {* Isabelle/Isar theories *}
+
+text {*
+  Isabelle/Isar offers the following main improvements over classic
+  Isabelle.
+
+  \begin{enumerate}
+
+  \item A \emph{theory format} that integrates specifications and
+  proofs, supporting interactive development and unlimited undo
+  operation.
+
+  \item A \emph{formal proof document language} designed to support
+  intelligible semi-automated reasoning.  Instead of putting together
+  unreadable tactic scripts, the author is enabled to express the
+  reasoning in way that is close to usual mathematical practice.  The
+  old tactical style has been assimilated as improper'' language
+  elements.
+
+  \item A simple document preparation system, for typesetting formal
+  developments together with informal text.  The resulting
+  hyper-linked PDF documents are equally well suited for WWW
+  presentation and as printed copies.
+
+  \end{enumerate}
+
+  The Isar proof language is embedded into the new theory format as a
+  proper sub-language.  Proof mode is entered by stating some
+  $\THEOREMNAME$ or $\LEMMANAME$ at the theory level, and left again
+  with the final conclusion (e.g.\ via $\QEDNAME$).  A few theory
+  specification mechanisms also require some proof, such as HOL's
+  $\isarkeyword{typedef}$ which demands non-emptiness of the
+  representing sets.
+
+  New-style theory files may still be associated with separate ML
+  files consisting of plain old tactic scripts.  There is no longer
+  any ML binding generated for the theory and theorems, though.  ML
+  functions \texttt{theory}, \texttt{thm}, and \texttt{thms} retrieve
+  this information from the context \cite{isabelle-ref}.
+  Nevertheless, migration between classic Isabelle and Isabelle/Isar
+  is relatively easy.  Thus users may start to benefit from
+  interactive theory development and document preparation, even before
+  they have any idea of the Isar proof language at all.
+
+  Manual conversion of existing tactic scripts may be done by running
+  two separate Proof~General sessions, one for replaying the old
+  script and the other for the emerging Isabelle/Isar document.  Also
+  note that Isar supports emulation commands and methods that support
+  traditional tactic scripts within new-style theories, see
+*}
+
+
+subsection {* Document preparation \label{sec:document-prep} *}
+
+text {*
+  Isabelle/Isar provides a simple document preparation system based on
+  existing {PDF-\LaTeX} technology, with full support of hyper-links
+  (both local references and URLs), bookmarks, and thumbnails.  Thus
+  the results are equally well suited for WWW browsing and as printed
+  copies.
+
+  \medskip
+
+  Isabelle generates {\LaTeX} output as part of the run of a
+  started with a working configuration for common situations is quite
+  easy by using the Isabelle \texttt{mkdir} and \texttt{make} tools.
+  First invoke
+\begin{ttbox}
+  isatool mkdir Foo
+\end{ttbox}
+  to initialize a separate directory for session \texttt{Foo} --- it
+  is safe to experiment, since \texttt{isatool mkdir} never overwrites
+  existing files.  Ensure that \texttt{Foo/ROOT.ML} holds ML commands
+  to load all theories required for this session; furthermore
+  \texttt{Foo/document/root.tex} should include any special {\LaTeX}
+  macro packages required for your document (the default is usually
+  sufficient as a start).
+
+  The session is controlled by a separate \texttt{IsaMakefile} (with
+  crude source dependencies by default).  This file is located one
+  level up from the \texttt{Foo} directory location.  Now invoke
+\begin{ttbox}
+  isatool make Foo
+\end{ttbox}
+  to run the \texttt{Foo} session, with browser information and
+  document preparation enabled.  Unless any errors are reported by
+  Isabelle or {\LaTeX}, the output will appear inside the directory
+  \texttt{ISABELLE_BROWSER_INFO}, as reported by the batch job in
+  verbose mode.
+
+  \medskip You may also consider to tune the \texttt{usedir} options
+  in \texttt{IsaMakefile}, for example to change the output format
+  from \texttt{pdf} to \texttt{dvi}, or activate the \texttt{-D}
+  option to retain a second copy of the generated {\LaTeX} sources.
+
+  \medskip See \emph{The Isabelle System Manual} \cite{isabelle-sys}
+  for further details on Isabelle logic sessions and theory
+  presentation.  The Isabelle/HOL tutorial \cite{isabelle-hol-book}
+  also covers theory presentation issues.
+*}
+
+
+subsection {* How to write Isar proofs anyway? \label{sec:isar-howto} *}
+
+text {*
+  This is one of the key questions, of course.  First of all, the
+  tactic script emulation of Isabelle/Isar essentially provides a
+  clarified version of the very same unstructured proof style of
+  classic Isabelle.  Old-time users should quickly become acquainted
+  with that (slightly degenerative) view of Isar.
+
+  Writing \emph{proper} Isar proof texts targeted at human readers is
+  quite different, though.  Experienced users of the unstructured
+  style may even have to unlearn some of their habits to master proof
+  composition in Isar.  In contrast, new users with less experience in
+  old-style tactical proving, but a good understanding of mathematical
+  proof in general, often get started easier.
+
+  \medskip The present text really is only a reference manual on
+  Isabelle/Isar, not a tutorial.  Nevertheless, we will attempt to
+  give some clues of how the concepts introduced here may be put into
+  practice.  Appendix~\ref{ap:refcard} provides a quick reference card
+  of the most common Isabelle/Isar language elements.
+  Appendix~\ref{ap:conv} offers some practical hints on converting
+  existing Isabelle theories and proof scripts to the new format
+  (without restructuring proofs).
+
+  Further issues concerning the Isar concepts are covered in the
+  literature
+  \cite{Wenzel:1999:TPHOL,Wiedijk:2000:MV,Bauer-Wenzel:2000:HB,Bauer-Wenzel:2001}.
+  The author's PhD thesis \cite{Wenzel-PhD} presently provides the
+  most complete exposition of Isar foundations, techniques, and
+  applications.  A number of example applications are distributed with
+  Isabelle, and available via the Isabelle WWW library (e.g.\
+  \url{http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/}).  The Archive of Formal
+  Proofs'' \url{http://afp.sourceforge.net/} also provides plenty of
+  examples, both in proper Isar proof style and unstructured tactic
+  scripts.
+*}
+
+end
--- a/doc-src/IsarRef/intro.tex	Tue Apr 22 22:00:31 2008 +0200
+++ /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
@@ -1,334 +0,0 @@
-
-\chapter{Introduction}
-
-\section{Overview}
-
-The \emph{Isabelle} system essentially provides a generic infrastructure for
-building deductive systems (programmed in Standard ML), with a special focus
-on interactive theorem proving in higher-order logics.  In the olden days even
-end-users would refer to certain ML functions (goal commands, tactics,
-tacticals etc.) to pursue their everyday theorem proving tasks
-\cite{isabelle-intro,isabelle-ref}.
-
-In contrast \emph{Isar} provides an interpreted language environment of its
-own, which has been specifically tailored for the needs of theory and proof
-development.  Compared to raw ML, the Isabelle/Isar top-level provides a more
-robust and comfortable development platform, with proper support for theory
-development graphs, single-step transactions with unlimited undo, etc.  The
-Isabelle/Isar version of the \emph{Proof~General} user interface
-\cite{proofgeneral,Aspinall:TACAS:2000} provides an adequate front-end for
-interactive theory and proof development in this advanced theorem proving
-environment.
-
-\medskip Apart from the technical advances over bare-bones ML programming, the
-main purpose of the Isar language is to provide a conceptually different view
-on machine-checked proofs \cite{Wenzel:1999:TPHOL,Wenzel-PhD}.  Isar''
-stands for Intelligible semi-automated reasoning''.  Drawing from both the
-traditions of informal mathematical proof texts and high-level programming
-languages, Isar offers a versatile environment for structured formal proof
-documents.  Thus properly written Isar proofs become accessible to a broader
-audience than unstructured tactic scripts (which typically only provide
-operational information for the machine).  Writing human-readable proof texts
-certainly requires some additional efforts by the writer to achieve a good
-presentation, both of formal and informal parts of the text.  On the other
-hand, human-readable formal texts gain some value in their own right,
-independently of the mechanic proof-checking process.
-
-Despite its grand design of structured proof texts, Isar is able to assimilate
-the old tactical style as an improper'' sub-language.  This provides an easy
-upgrade path for existing tactic scripts, as well as additional means for
-interactive experimentation and debugging of structured proofs.  Isabelle/Isar
-
-\medskip The Isabelle/Isar framework is generic and should work reasonably
-well for any Isabelle object-logic that conforms to the natural deduction view
-of the Isabelle/Pure framework.  Major Isabelle logics like HOL
-\cite{isabelle-HOL}, HOLCF \cite{MuellerNvOS99}, FOL \cite{isabelle-logics},
-and ZF \cite{isabelle-ZF} have already been set up for end-users.
-Nonetheless, much of the existing body of theories still consist of old-style
-theory files with accompanied ML code for proof scripts; this legacy will be
-
-
-\section{Quick start}
-
-\subsection{Terminal sessions}
-
-Isar is already part of Isabelle.  The low-level \texttt{isabelle} binary
-provides option \texttt{-I} to run the Isabelle/Isar interaction loop at
-startup, rather than the raw ML top-level.  So the most basic way to do
-anything with Isabelle/Isar is as follows:
-\begin{ttbox}
-isabelle -I HOL\medskip
-\out{> Welcome to Isabelle/HOL (Isabelle2005)}\medskip
-theory Foo imports Main begin;
-constdefs foo :: nat  "foo == 1";
-lemma "0 < foo" by (simp add: foo_def);
-end;
-\end{ttbox}
-Note that any Isabelle/Isar command may be retracted by \texttt{undo}.  See
-the Isabelle/Isar Quick Reference (appendix~\ref{ap:refcard}) for a
-comprehensive overview of available commands and other language elements.
-
-
-\subsection{Proof~General}
-
-Plain TTY-based interaction as above used to be quite feasible with
-traditional tactic based theorem proving, but developing Isar documents really
-demands some better user-interface support.  The Proof~General environment by
-David Aspinall \cite{proofgeneral,Aspinall:TACAS:2000} offers a generic Emacs
-interface for interactive theorem provers that organizes all the cut-and-paste
-and forward-backward walk through the text in a very neat way.  In
-Isabelle/Isar, the current position within a partial proof document is equally
-important than the actual proof state.  Thus Proof~General provides the
-canonical working environment for Isabelle/Isar, both for getting acquainted
-(e.g.\ by replaying existing Isar documents) and for production work.
-
-
-\subsubsection{Proof~General as default Isabelle interface}
-
-The Isabelle interface wrapper script provides an easy way to invoke
-Proof~General (including XEmacs or GNU Emacs).  The default
-configuration of Isabelle is smart enough to detect the Proof~General
-distribution in several canonical places (e.g.\
-\texttt{\$ISABELLE_HOME/contrib/ProofGeneral}). Thus the capital -\texttt{Isabelle} executable would already refer to the -\texttt{ProofGeneral/isar} interface without further ado. The -Isabelle interface script provides several options; pass \verb,-?, to -see its usage. - -With the proper Isabelle interface setup, Isar documents may now be edited by -visiting appropriate theory files, e.g.\ -\begin{ttbox} -Isabelle $${\langle}isabellehome{\rangle}$$/src/HOL/Isar_examples/Summation.thy -\end{ttbox} -Beginners may note the tool bar for navigating forward and backward through -the text (this depends on the local Emacs installation). Consult the -Proof~General documentation \cite{proofgeneral} for further basic command -sequences, in particular \texttt{C-c C-return}'' and \texttt{C-c u}''. - -\medskip - -Proof~General may be also configured manually by giving Isabelle settings like -this (see also \cite{isabelle-sys}): -\begin{ttbox} -ISABELLE_INTERFACE=\$ISABELLE_HOME/contrib/ProofGeneral/isar/interface
-PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS=""
-\end{ttbox}
-You may have to change \texttt{\$ISABELLE_HOME/contrib/ProofGeneral} to the -actual installation directory of Proof~General. - -\medskip - -Apart from the Isabelle command line, defaults for interface options may be -given by the \texttt{PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS} setting. For example, the Emacs -executable to be used may be configured in Isabelle's settings like this: -\begin{ttbox} -PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS="-p xemacs-mule" -\end{ttbox} - -Occasionally, a user's \verb,~/.emacs, file contains code that is incompatible -with the (X)Emacs version used by Proof~General, causing the interface startup -to fail prematurely. Here the \texttt{-u false} option helps to get the -interface process up and running. Note that additional Lisp customization -code may reside in \texttt{proofgeneral-settings.el} of -\texttt{\$ISABELLE_HOME/etc} or \texttt{\$ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc}. - - -\subsubsection{The X-Symbol package} - -Proof~General provides native support for the Emacs X-Symbol package -\cite{x-symbol}, which handles proper mathematical symbols displayed on -screen. Pass option \texttt{-x true} to the Isabelle interface script, or -check the appropriate Proof~General menu setting by hand. In any case, the -X-Symbol package must have been properly installed already. - -Contrary to what you may expect from the documentation of X-Symbol, the -package is very easy to install and configures itself automatically. The -default configuration of Isabelle is smart enough to detect the X-Symbol -package in several canonical places (e.g.\ -\texttt{\$ISABELLE_HOME/contrib/x-symbol}).
-
-\medskip
-
-Using proper mathematical symbols in Isabelle theories can be very convenient
-for readability of large formulas.  On the other hand, the plain ASCII sources
-easily become somewhat unintelligible.  For example, $\Longrightarrow$ would
-appear as \verb,\<Longrightarrow>, according the default set of Isabelle
-symbols.  Nevertheless, the Isabelle document preparation system (see
-\S\ref{sec:document-prep}) will be happy to print non-ASCII symbols properly.
-It is even possible to invent additional notation beyond the display
-capabilities of Emacs and X-Symbol.
-
-
-\section{Isabelle/Isar theories}
-
-Isabelle/Isar offers the following main improvements over classic Isabelle.
-\begin{enumerate}
-
-\item A new \emph{theory format}, occasionally referred to as new-style
-  theories'', supporting interactive development and unlimited undo operation.
-
-\item A \emph{formal proof document language} designed to support intelligible
-  scripts, the author is enabled to express the reasoning in way that is close
-  to usual mathematical practice.  The old tactical style has been assimilated
-  as improper'' language elements.
-
-\item A simple document preparation system, for typesetting formal
-  developments together with informal text.  The resulting hyper-linked PDF
-  documents are equally well suited for WWW presentation and as printed
-  copies.
-
-\end{enumerate}
-
-The Isar proof language is embedded into the new theory format as a proper
-sub-language.  Proof mode is entered by stating some $\THEOREMNAME$ or
-$\LEMMANAME$ at the theory level, and left again with the final conclusion
-(e.g.\ via $\QEDNAME$).  A few theory specification mechanisms also require
-some proof, such as HOL's $\isarkeyword{typedef}$ which demands non-emptiness
-of the representing sets.
-
-New-style theory files may still be associated with separate ML files
-consisting of plain old tactic scripts.  There is no longer any ML binding
-generated for the theory and theorems, though.  ML functions \texttt{theory},
-\texttt{thm}, and \texttt{thms} retrieve this information from the context
-\cite{isabelle-ref}.  Nevertheless, migration between classic Isabelle and
-Isabelle/Isar is relatively easy.  Thus users may start to benefit from
-interactive theory development and document preparation, even before they have
-any idea of the Isar proof language at all.
-
-\begin{warn}
-  Proof~General does \emph{not} support mixed interactive development of
-  classic Isabelle theory files or tactic scripts, together with Isar
-  documents.  The \texttt{isa}'' and \texttt{isar}'' versions of
-  Proof~General are handled as two different theorem proving systems, only one
-  of these may be active at the same time.
-\end{warn}
-
-Manual conversion of existing tactic scripts may be done by running two
-separate Proof~General sessions, one for replaying the old script and the
-other for the emerging Isabelle/Isar document.  Also note that Isar supports
-emulation commands and methods that support traditional tactic scripts within
-
-
-\subsection{Document preparation}\label{sec:document-prep}
-
-Isabelle/Isar provides a simple document preparation system based on existing
-{PDF-\LaTeX} technology, with full support of hyper-links (both local
-references and URLs), bookmarks, and thumbnails.  Thus the results are equally
-well suited for WWW browsing and as printed copies.
-
-\medskip
-
-Isabelle generates {\LaTeX} output as part of the run of a \emph{logic
-configuration for common situations is quite easy by using the Isabelle
-\texttt{mkdir} and \texttt{make} tools.  First invoke
-\begin{ttbox}
-  isatool mkdir Foo
-\end{ttbox}
-to initialize a separate directory for session \texttt{Foo} --- it is safe to
-experiment, since \texttt{isatool mkdir} never overwrites existing files.
-Ensure that \texttt{Foo/ROOT.ML} holds ML commands to load all theories
-required for this session; furthermore \texttt{Foo/document/root.tex} should
-include any special {\LaTeX} macro packages required for your document (the
-default is usually sufficient as a start).
-
-The session is controlled by a separate \texttt{IsaMakefile} (with crude
-source dependencies by default).  This file is located one level up from the
-\texttt{Foo} directory location.  Now invoke
-\begin{ttbox}
-  isatool make Foo
-\end{ttbox}
-to run the \texttt{Foo} session, with browser information and document
-preparation enabled.  Unless any errors are reported by Isabelle or {\LaTeX},
-the output will appear inside the directory \texttt{ISABELLE_BROWSER_INFO}, as
-reported by the batch job in verbose mode.
-
-\medskip
-
-You may also consider to tune the \texttt{usedir} options in
-\texttt{IsaMakefile}, for example to change the output format from
-\texttt{pdf} to \texttt{dvi}, or activate the \texttt{-D} option to retain a
-second copy of the generated {\LaTeX} sources.
-
-\medskip
-
-See \emph{The Isabelle System Manual} \cite{isabelle-sys} for further details
-on Isabelle logic sessions and theory presentation.  The Isabelle/HOL tutorial
-\cite{isabelle-hol-book} also covers theory presentation issues.
-
-
-\subsection{How to write Isar proofs anyway?}\label{sec:isar-howto}
-
-This is one of the key questions, of course.  First of all, the tactic script
-emulation of Isabelle/Isar essentially provides a clarified version of the
-very same unstructured proof style of classic Isabelle.  Old-time users should
-quickly become acquainted with that (slightly degenerative) view of Isar.
-
-Writing \emph{proper} Isar proof texts targeted at human readers is quite
-different, though.  Experienced users of the unstructured style may even have
-to unlearn some of their habits to master proof composition in Isar.  In
-contrast, new users with less experience in old-style tactical proving, but a
-good understanding of mathematical proof in general, often get started easier.
-
-\medskip The present text really is only a reference manual on Isabelle/Isar,
-not a tutorial.  Nevertheless, we will attempt to give some clues of how the
-concepts introduced here may be put into practice.  Appendix~\ref{ap:refcard}
-provides a quick reference card of the most common Isabelle/Isar language
-elements.  Appendix~\ref{ap:conv} offers some practical hints on converting
-existing Isabelle theories and proof scripts to the new format (without
-restructuring proofs).
-
-Further issues concerning the Isar concepts are covered in the literature
-\cite{Wenzel:1999:TPHOL,Wiedijk:2000:MV,Bauer-Wenzel:2000:HB,Bauer-Wenzel:2001}.
-The author's PhD thesis \cite{Wenzel-PhD} presently provides the most complete
-exposition of Isar foundations, techniques, and applications.  A number of
-example applications are distributed with Isabelle, and available via the
-Isabelle WWW library (e.g.\ \url{http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/}).  As a
-general rule of thumb, more recent Isabelle applications that also include a
-separate document'' (in PDF) are more likely to consist of proper
-Isabelle/Isar theories and proofs.
-
-%FIXME
-% The following examples may be of particular interest.  Apart from the plain
-% sources represented in HTML, these Isabelle sessions also provide actual
-% documents (in PDF).
-% \begin{itemize}
-% \item \url{http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/Isar_examples/} is a
-%   collection of introductory examples.
-% \item \url{http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/Lattice/} is an example of
-%   typical mathematics-style reasoning in axiomatic'' structures.
-% \item \url{http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/HOL-Real/HahnBanach/} is a
-%   big mathematics application on infinitary vector spaces and functional
-%   analysis.
-% \item \url{http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/Lambda/} develops fundamental
-%   properties of $\lambda$-calculus (Church-Rosser and termination).
-
-%   This may serve as a realistic example of porting of legacy proof scripts
-%   into Isar tactic emulation scripts.
-% \item \url{http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/Unix/} gives a mathematical
-%   model of the main aspects of the Unix file-system including its security
-%   model, but ignoring processes.  A few odd effects caused by the general
-%   worse-is-better'' approach followed in Unix are discussed within the
-%   formal model.
-
-%   This example represents a non-trivial verification task, with all proofs
-%   carefully worked out using the proper part of the Isar proof language;
-%   unstructured scripts are only used for symbolic evaluation.
-% \item \url{http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/MicroJava/} is a
-%   formalization of a fragment of Java, together with a corresponding virtual
-%   machine and a specification of its bytecode verifier and a lightweight
-%   bytecode verifier, including proofs of type-safety.
-
-%   This represents a very realistic'' example of large formalizations
-%   performed in form of tactic emulation scripts and proper Isar proof texts.
-% \end{itemize}
-
-
-%%% Local Variables:
-%%% mode: latex
-%%% TeX-master: "isar-ref"
-%%% End: 
--- a/doc-src/IsarRef/isar-ref.tex	Tue Apr 22 22:00:31 2008 +0200
+++ b/doc-src/IsarRef/isar-ref.tex	Wed Apr 23 12:13:08 2008 +0200
@@ -9,6 +9,10 @@
\usepackage{style}
\usepackage{../pdfsetup}

+\hyphenation{Isabelle}
+\hyphenation{Isar}
+
\title{\includegraphics[scale=0.5]{isabelle_isar} \\[4ex] The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual}
\author{\emph{Markus Wenzel} \\ TU M\"unchen}

@@ -64,16 +68,16 @@

\pagenumbering{roman} \tableofcontents \clearfirst

-\include{intro}
-\include{basics}
-\include{syntax}
-\include{pure}
-\include{generic}
-\include{logics}
+\input{Thy/document/intro.tex}
+\input{basics.tex}
+\input{syntax.tex}
+\input{pure.tex}
+\input{generic.tex}
+\input{logics.tex}

\appendix
-\include{refcard}
-\include{conversion}
+\input{refcard.tex}
+\input{conversion.tex}

\begingroup
\bibliographystyle{plain} \small\raggedright\frenchspacing